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Sample records for abalone fed diets

  1. Digestive enzymes in juvenile green abalone, Haliotis fulgens, fed natural food.

    PubMed

    García-Carreño, F L; Navarrete del Toro, M A; Serviere-Zaragoza, E

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes responsible for the digestion of food protein by juvenile green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) were studied when fed algae or a sea grass (Phyllospadix torreyi) naturally occurring in the habitat. The effect of food on the composition and activity of the enzymes was also evaluated. Acid, serine proteinases and aminopeptidases, as confirmed by pH profile of activity, specific inhibition and synthetic substrate hydrolysis were found in the digestive organs of juvenile green abalone. Algae and sea grass differentially affected the digestive system in abalone. PMID:12524042

  2. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  3. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  4. Passive immune-protection of small abalone against Vibrio alginolyticus infection by anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated feed.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Jer; Wang, Hang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) is a high value-added shellfish. It however has been suffering Vibrio alginolyticus infections, which cause mass death of small abalone and thus great economic losses, particularly in artificial aquaculture. In this study, we attempted to treat small abalone with anti-Vibrio IgY to elicit a passive immunity directly against V. alginolyticus infections. Anti-Vibrio IgY was alginate encapsulated in egg powders as feed, which may avoid antibody inactivation in the gastrointestinal tract of small abalone. The feed was tested for the stability of anti-Vibrio IgY in a gastrointestinal mimic environment. The result showed anti-Vibrio IgY retained activity as high as 90% after 4 h exposure to pancreatic enzymes. Addition of 0, 5 or 10% anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated egg powders into a basal diet to form abalone diet formulae. Small abalones fed with the anti-Vibrio IgY formulae showed a relatively high respiratory burst activity than those without anti-Vibrio IgY treatments. The survival rates of small abalones fed with 5 or 10% anti-Vibrio IgY egg powders were in the range of 65-70% 14 days post-V. alginolyticus challenge (1 x 10⁶ c.f.u.), which was significantly higher than 0% of those fed without anti-Vibrio IgY. The anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated formulae were thus concluded to be an effective means to prevent small abalone from V. alginolyticus infection, and may be practical in use in abalone aquaculture. PMID:21300158

  5. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  6. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed. PMID:1445392

  7. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  8. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P < 0.01), but during the finishing phase, DMI was similar for both diets (8.3 kg/d). The DMI was decreased to 6.3 kg/d with no effect of diet or phase while the cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P < 0.05) for corn than for barley during the finishing phase (9.2 vs. 13.1 g/kg of DMI; 2.81 vs. 4.03% of GE). The results indicate the

  9. Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Robert J.; Coyne, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone. PMID:24466176

  10. Doxycycline plasma concentrations in macaws fed a medicate corn diet.

    PubMed

    Prus, S E; Clubb, S L; Flammer, K

    1992-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the doxycycline plasma concentrations attained by feeding a medicated corn diet to large psittacine birds. Doxycycline is the preferred drug for the treatment of chlamydiosis in psittacine birds. Healthy macaws were fed a 0.1% doxycycline-medicated corn diet for 45 days, and plasma doxycycline concentrations were determined by microbiological assay on treatment days 3, 15, 30, and 45. Plasma doxycycline concentrations exceeded 1 microgram/ml in 87% of the samples assayed. As blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, a doxycycline-medicated corn diet may be efficacious in the treatment of chlamydiosis in large psittacine birds. PMID:1627120

  11. Investigation of bacterial diversity in the feces of cattle fed different diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to investigate individual animal variation of bovine fecal microbiota including as affected by diets. Fecal samples were collected from 426 cattle fed 1 of 3 diets typically fed to feedlot cattle: 1) 143 steers fed finishing diet (83% dryrolled corn, 13% corn silage, a...

  12. Spermatogenesis in bald eagles experimentally fed a diet containing DDT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    When Bald Eagles were fed DDT in the diet at the level of 10 ppm (dry weight basis) for periods of 60 and 120 days, there was no interference with spermatogenic activity. Degenerative testicular changes were produced only by levels of DDT that produced abnormal neurological signs and usually resulted in death. Histological examination of these testes indicates that Bald Eagles have a seasonal testicular cycle similar to that reported for many other birds of the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:8781294

  14. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the crude protein and ether extract levels, with average values of 23.38% and 2.15% in the sheep meat, respectively. The physical-chemical characteristics of the loin were not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  15. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  16. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  17. Effects of diet switching on growth and immunity in Nile tilapia fed a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with ß-glucan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed either a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg ß -glucan for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, half the fish were continued on the same diet or switched to the other diet for 2 weeks. Tilapia were then challenged with Streptococcus iniae by intraperi...

  18. Age- and sex-related effects in German cockroaches fed an allopurinol diet (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Suiter, D R; Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S

    1993-09-01

    The effects of feeding several ages of adult and nymphal German cockroaches a laboratory rat chow diet containing 0.10% allopurinol were investigated. All cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet suffered increased mortality. The range of LT50 values (the time required to kill 50% of an experimental cohort) for four ages of nymphs (1-8, 16-23, 21-28, and 28-35 d old following hatch) continuously fed the allopurinol diet was 1.36 wk (4.72-6.08 wk). Regardless of sex, young adult (1-7 d old following eclosion) cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet died significantly sooner than older adults (28-35 d old following eclosion); males died significantly sooner than females. All females fed the allopurinol diet as nymphs aborted their oothecae. Although an initial ootheca were hatched from cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet as adults, all subsequent oothecae were aborted. Untreated females mated with allopurinol-fed males experienced successful reproduction, but allopurinol-fed females mated with either allopurinol- or control diet-fed males failed to reproduce. Evidence suggests that cockroaches suffer increased mortality and reproductive failure from increased levels of hypoxanthine and xanthine. PMID:8254639

  19. Growth performance and intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Patterson, J A; Adeola, O; Sutton, A L; Richards, G N

    1997-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine growth performance and changes in intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel (STOC). Ninety-six barrows and 96 gilts were group-fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d after weaning in both Exp. 1 and 2. For each experiment, pigs were divided into four groups of 48 pigs and were fed either control, antibiotic (Apramycin sulfate, 34 mg/kg), 1% STOC, or 2% STOC diets for 32 d after weaning. Each diet was replicated six times with eight pigs per replication. Pigs were either orally gavaged (Exp 1) with water of STOC (2 g per pig) or pigs were creep-fed (Exp 2) either a control diet or a 2% STOC diet for 5 d before weaning (33 d). At the end of Exp 1 and 2, cecal material was collected for enumeration of total aerobes, total anaerobes, coliforms, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria. Gilts (96 per experiment) used in Exp. 3 and 4 were weaned at 26 d and fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d. They were fed either a control or 1% STOC diet and were otherwise treated as previously described. There were no significant effects of STOC or antibiotic on ADG, ADFI, feed efficiency, or cecal microbial populations in pigs in this study. Feeding diets containing either antibiotic of STOC did not improve animal performance or change intestinal bacterial populations in the present study. PMID:9027562

  20. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  1. Fecal phosphorus excretion and characterization from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of cereal grain phosphorus (P) source on faecal P composition, twenty crossbred barrows, weighing 35.8 plus or minus 3.09 kg, were fed one of five diets with four pigs assigned to each of the diets. The diets contained corn, wheat, high fat-low lignin oat, normal barley or l...

  2. Condensed tannins and nutrient utilization by lambs and goats fed low-quality diets.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Hernandez, G; Wallace, J D; Holechek, J L; Galyean, M L; Cardenas, M

    1991-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, four wether lambs (BW = 26.8 kg) and four wether Angora goats (BW = 31.7 kg) were used in two simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares to study the influence of condensed tannins (CT) on nutrient usage and concentrations of serum urea N, somatotropin (GH), and insulin (INS) when the animals were fed low-quality diets containing mountain mahogany (MM; Cercocarpus montanus) leaves. Diets were 8% CP and contained 25% or 50% MM (with hay or straw, respectively), either untreated or treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight 3,350) to reduce total reactive CT. Diets treated with PEG and 25% MM diets had less (P less than .05) CT than diets without PEG or those with 50% MM. Diets containing 50% MM resulted in greater N balance and lower serum urea N (P less than .01) than 25% MM diets. Concentrations of GH and INS were similar in animals fed the 25% and 50% MM diets. Reducing CT by adding PEG did not affect N balance or improve nutrient digestion by lambs or goats fed low-quality diets. In Exp. 2, four wether lambs (BW = 28.4 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and fed the same diets as animals in Exp. 1 to study the influence of CT on ruminal fermentation and digesta kinetics. Dietary PEG treatment did not affect digesta kinetics except for a 30% increase in ruminal volume; 50% MM diets had faster particulate passage rates (P less than .05) than 25% MM diets. Ruminal ammonia N was greater (P less than .01) in lambs fed PEG-containing or 25% MM diets; however, rate of in situ NDF disappearance was not reduced by the lower ammonia N in the latter diets. PMID:1648064

  3. Hypolipidemic effect of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, O A; Achem, J; Akintayo, O O; Fafunso, M A

    2007-06-01

    Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) is one of the commonly consumed leafy vegetables in Nigeria. In order to justify its inclusion in herbal preparations in African traditional medicine, the possible hypolipidemic effect of this vegetable was investigated in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. The ability of Questran, a hypolipidemic drug, to attenuate hypercholesterolemia was also examined. Rats were fed with either a basal diet containing cholic acid (0.2%) or a supplemented diet with T. occidentalis at the 3% and 6% levels. Oral administration of cholesterol for 9 consecutive weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < .001) in the relative weight of the heart of cholesterol-fed rats. However, supplemented diets significantly (P < .001) ameliorated the cholesterol-induced enlargement of the heart. Rats fed on supplemented diets had a dose-dependent reduction in plasma and postmitochondrial supernatant fraction (PMF) cholesterol levels. In particular, supplemented diets containing 3% and 6% T. occidentalis decreased plasma and PMF cholesterol levels by 20% and 30% and by 30% and 45%, respectively. A similar decrease in plasma and PMF cholesterol levels was obtained in Questran-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Furthermore, 3% and 6% T. occidentalis-supplemented diets significantly (P < .05) decreased the cholesterol-induced increase in plasma and PMF low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by 24% and 48% and by 28% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, there was no significant difference (P > .05) in plasma and PMF triglyceride levels of rats fed on supplemented diets when compared with cholesterol-fed rats. There were significant decreases (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation levels in rats fed on the supplemented diets. Specifically, 3% and 6% T. occidentalis-supplemented diets decreased plasma and PMF lipid peroxidation by 24% and 20% and by 42% and 21%, respectively. This study demonstrates that T. occidentalis may be a useful therapy for

  4. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  5. Breast meat traits of Muscovy ducks fed on a microalga (Crypthecodinium cohnii) meal supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Chiarini, R; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Tassone, S; Romboli, I

    2007-10-01

    1. A trial was conducted in order to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in the meat of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domestica L.) fed on a diet supplemented with the microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii. 2. Two diets were provided to 48 male and 48 female ducks, belonging to an Italian rural strain during the last 3 weeks of life: a maize-soybean based diet as the control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g/kg microalga meal. 3. Dietary treatment did not induce differences in growth performances and slaughter traits. Similarly, chemical composition, colour, pH, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of breast muscle were not influenced by the diet. 4. A significant increase of DHA content in breast meat of ducks fed on the Crypthecodinium cohnii enriched diet was observed. PMID:17952729

  6. Carbon and Nitrogen Sources for Shrimp Postlarvae Fed Natural Diets from a Tropical Mangrove System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittel, A. I.; Epifanio, C. E.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1997-11-01

    Postlarvae ofPenaeus vannameiwere fed various diets in order to examine the importance of detritus and other possible prey items in supporting postlarval growth. Stable isotopes (C and N) were used to determine the carbon and nitrogen source of the prey in the various diets. The zooplankton diet contained mostly copepods. The subtidal detritus treatment consisted mostly of plant material whereas the diets from both intertidal sites contained a mixture of plant detritus and associated meiofauna. Postlarvae reared on zooplankton and detritus plus meiofauna diets more than tripled their weight during a 6-day period. In contrast, postlarvae fed the detritus diet barely doubled their weight. Based on isotopic composition, postlarvae appear to obtain their carbon and nitrogen from various food sources. Postlarvae were enriched by 0·4‰ in13C and 2·7‰ in15N relative to the zooplankton diet, which is consistent with isotopic fractionation between successive trophic levels. In turn, the isotopic signal of the zooplankton was consistent with phytoplankton being the initial source of organic matter. In contrast, mean δ13C values of the shrimp fed detritus plus meiofauna were significantly different from their respective diets. Isotopic ratios of the postlarvae fed the mixed diet from Chomes were two trophic levels above benthic algae suggesting that the shrimp preyed on organisms that derived their carbon and nitrogen from benthic algae and/or phytoplankton.

  7. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  8. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health. PMID:7440817

  9. Marginality and needs of dietary valine for broilers fed certain all-vegetable diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valine is likely the fourth limiting amino acid in most diets based of corn and soybean meal. However, its exact needs are not well known, and information regarding it is sparse. A series of studies were conducted to validate valine’s limitation in all-vegetable diets fed to broilers, and subseque...

  10. PROLONGED SURVIVAL OF FEMALE AKR MICE FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH METHIONINE AND CHOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mice of the AKR/J(AK) strain were fed a control diet (Purina chow) or a lipotrope-supplemented diet (Purina chow plus 2% D.L-methionine and 1% choline chloride) beginning at one week after weaning. ice of this inbred strain spontaneously develop thymic lymphoma, with close...

  11. Growth and Survival of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Fed Different Commercial and Laboratory Diets

    PubMed Central

    Garris, Heath W.; Jones, Warren T.; Moseley, Dorothy B.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The need to develop standardized diets to support zebrafish (Danio rerio) research is supported by the knowledge that specific dietary ingredients, nutrients, or antinutritional factors in diets have been shown to affect development and growth of adult D. rerio and their offspring. In this study, there were seven dietary treatments consisting of five commercially available diets and two laboratory-prepared diets, three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed ad libitum twice daily for 9 weeks. At 9 weeks, both weight and length were recorded to determine condition indices. D. rerio fed one of the laboratory-prepared diets had significantly higher weights than individuals fed any of the other diets and exhibited significantly higher lengths than those fed five of the six remaining diets. Although there were significant differences in general growth demographics (length/weight) after the 9-week feeding trial, no significant differences in overall health of D. rerio were observed for the different dietary treatments as determined by statistical analysis of condition factor indices (K=[weight×100]/length3). The success achieved with the laboratory-prepared diets represents the foundation for establishing an open-formulation nutritional standard to ensure that the D. rerio model for research does not generate confounding research results caused by nutritional vagaries. PMID:19566408

  12. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  13. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages. PMID:25040128

  14. Growth, Feed Utilization and Blood Metabolic Responses to Different Amylose-amylopectin Ratio Fed Diets in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Yao; Ye, Ji-Dan; Yang, Wei; Wang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in tilapia to determine the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes, and postprandial blood metabolites in response to different dietary amylose-amylopectin ratios. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing an equal starch level with different amylose-amylopectin ratios of 0.11 (diet 1), 0.24 (diet 2), 0.47 (diet 3), 0.76 (diet 4) and 0.98 (diet 5) were formulated using high-amylose corn starch (as the amylose source) and waxy rice (as the amylopectin source). Each diet was hand-fed to six tanks of 15 fish each, three times a day over a 6-wk period. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood metabolic test was carried out. Fish fed diet 2 exhibited the highest percent weight gain and feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, whereas fish fed with diet 5 showed the lowest growth and feed utilization among treatments. The digestibility for starch in fish fed diet 1 and 2 was higher than those in fish fed with other diets (p<0.05). The highest activities for protease, lipase and amylase were found in fish fed the diet 2, diet 1, and diet 1 respectively among dietary treatments, while the lowest values for these indexes were observed in fish fed the diet 3, diet 5 and diet 4, respectively. The liver glycogen concentrations in fish fed diets 4 and 5 were found higher than in fish fed other diets (p<0.05). The feeding rate, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and plasma parmeters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) did not differ across treatments. In terms of postprandial blood responses, peak blood glucose and triglycerides were lower after 3 or 6 h in the fish fed with diets 3–5 than in the fish fed diet 1, but delayed peak blood total amino acid time was observed in fish fed with the diets 1 or 2. The lowest peak values for each of the three blood metabolites were observed in fish fed diet 5. The results

  15. Nutritive value of methane fermentation residue in diets fed to feedlot steers

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Shirley, R.L.; Palmer, A.Z.

    1982-12-01

    Nutritive value of the methane fermentation residue (MFR) from the effluent of a large scale thermophilic methane generator was determined in diets fed to feedlot steers. The MFR contained 22.2% dry matter and 21.9% crude protein (dry basis). Two diets containing 10.6% (dry basis) MFR were formulated using the Urea Fermentation Potential (UFP) system such that in one diet N was in excess (-1.6 UFP) while in the other diet energy was in excess (+2.6 UFP). These two diets were compared in a California Net Energy trial with a feedlot diet (-.3 UFP) containing the same ingredients except the MFR. Six steers were fed in a replicated 3(2) Latin square metabolism trial and 70 steers were fed in a 118-d comparative-slaughter, feedlot trial. Digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, ash, total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy were depressed (all P less than .05) in the MFR-containing diets. Steers fed the MFR-containing diets had lower (P less than .05) rates of gain and increased (P less than .05) feed requirements per unit gain. Net energies for maintenance and gain were slightly lower for the MFR-containing diets than the control diet. Crude protein digestibility for the MFR calculated by difference, for the -UFP and the +UFP diets were 37.8 and 50.7%, while corresponding values for TDN were 28.8 and 12.8%, respectively. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in kidney, liver and muscle as well as flavor and tenderness of steaks were not affected by feeding MFR.

  16. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects. PMID:23982154

  17. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR6 in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Malik, Ravinder Kumar; Katkamwar, Snehal G; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri LR6, an isolate from breast-fed human infant feces, was tested positive for bile tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity. It was also evaluated as a potential probiotic with cholesterol-lowering effect in vivo. In this study, 32 male Albino rats were divided into four groups consisting of eight mice per group. For 60 d, group I was fed with normal synthetic diet, group II was fed with cholesterol-enriched diet only, group III was fed with cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with skimmed milk, and group IV was fed with cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with L. reuteri LR6-fermented skimmed milk (10(8) cfu/mL). Blood samples were taken to study lipid profile on 0th, 15th, 30th and 60th day. Compared with the control group, the values for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and LDL were reduced significantly in group fed with L. reuteri LR6 but for HDL this difference was not significant. The results indicated that L. reuteri LR6 might be effective as a probiotic with cholesterol-lowering activities. PMID:25265203

  18. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  19. /sup 54/Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets.

  20. Growth performance and behaviour in grouped pigs fed fibrous diet.

    PubMed

    Bakare, A G; Madzimure, J; Ndou, S P; Chimonyo, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg) were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter). Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively) and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively) (p<0.05). Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05) compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05). Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h) hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05). Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided. PMID:25083116

  1. Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.

    PubMed

    Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J

    2001-09-01

    Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats. PMID:12785680

  2. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

  3. SdiA Aids Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Carriage by Cattle Fed a Forage or Grain Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Nguyen, Y. N.

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening complications. The main reservoirs for EHEC are healthy ruminants. We reported that SdiA senses acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in the bovine rumen to activate expression of the glutamate acid resistance (gad) genes priming EHEC's acid resistance before they pass into the acidic abomasum. Conversely, SdiA represses expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes, whose expression is not required for bacterial survival in the rumen but is necessary for efficient colonization at the rectoanal junction (RAJ) mucosa. Our previous studies show that SdiA-dependent regulation was necessary for efficient EHEC colonization of cattle fed a grain diet. Here, we compared the SdiA role in EHEC colonization of cattle fed a forage hay diet. We detected AHLs in the rumen of cattle fed a hay diet, and these AHLs activated gad gene expression in an SdiA-dependent manner. The rumen fluid and fecal samples from hay-fed cattle were near neutrality, while the same digesta samples from grain-fed animals were acidic. Cattle fed either grain or hay and challenged with EHEC orally carried the bacteria similarly. EHEC was cleared from the rumen within days and from the RAJ mucosa after approximately one month. In competition trials, where animals were challenged with both wild-type and SdiA deletion mutant bacteria, diet did not affect the outcome that the wild-type strain was better able to persist and colonize. However, the wild-type strain had a greater advantage over the SdiA deletion mutant at the RAJ mucosa among cattle fed the grain diet. PMID:23836826

  4. Effects of boron supplements on bones from rats fed calcium and magnesium deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.; Irwin, A.; Kenney, M.A.; Williams, L. )

    1991-03-15

    Sixty female, weanling rats were fed, for 6 wks, diets providing: casein, 20; CHO, 40; fat, 40. Vitamins and minerals, except Ca and Mg, were fed according to AIN'76 recommendations. Gp A (control) was fed 100% AIN Ca, Mg and P with no boron (B) added. Gps CD and CD+B were fed 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN Mg and P; Gps MD and MD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg and 100% AIN Ca and P; Gps CMD and CMD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg, 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN P. The +B groups were supplemented with B at 12 mcg/g diet. Femurs (F) and 2 vertebrae (V) were scraped clean, weighed, sealed in saline-wet gauze, and refrigerated overnight. Bones were equilibrated at {sup {approximately}}25C. F lengths and diameters at the breakpoint were measured before a 3-point flexure test. V were subjected to a compression test. Maximum force (kg) at breakpoint was recorded. Data for right and left F and for 2 V were pooled. Although DIET' (CD, MD, CMD) affected numerous characteristics of F and V, B supplementation of diets affected only % moisture in F, Ca concentration in dry F and in F ash for CD and CMD diets. Interactions between B and diet affected F Mg concentrations in bone and in ash. Group CMD+B had higher Mg/g F than CMD. B increased Mg/g ash for CMD, decreased it for CD and did not affect it for MD.

  5. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  6. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  7. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  8. Melamine residues in tissues of broilers fed diets containing graded levels of melamine.

    PubMed

    Lü, M B; Yan, L; Guo, J Y; Li, Y; Li, G P; Ravindran, V

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine melamine residual levels in the tissues of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of melamine. Ten experimental diets were developed to contain 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Each diet was offered in 4 replicate cages (12 birds per cage) from d 1 to 42, followed by a 7-d feeding of a withdrawal diet that contained no melamine. On d 28, 42, and 49, one bird per replicate was killed and tissue samples from the breast meat, liver, and kidney were collected for the determination of residual melamine levels. Throughout the 42-d feeding period, feeding diets containing graded levels of melamine had no effect (P>0.05) on the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality of broiler chickens. Residue levels of melamine in broiler tissues at d 28 and 42 were below the detection limit when the diets containedfed diets containing higher than 100 mg/kg. At d 42, a similar trend was observed in the kidney, but melamine was detected in breast meat and liver only in birds fed diets containing 500 and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Melamine distribution varied (P<0.05) in different tissues, with the highest concentration in the kidney. A withdrawal period of 7 d was found to clear the tissues of melamine. PMID:19762871

  9. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance. PMID:27188906

  10. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  11. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD. PMID:27133432

  12. Performance of growing pigs fed diets based on by-products of maize and wheat processing.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred Landrace × Large white pigs with an average body weight of 8.5 ± 0.4 kg and aged 2 months were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed two diets in which bran from maize or wheat was used as the energy source. A third diet based on whole maize grain was used as a control. Animals in groups of four, balanced for litter, sex and weight were allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. Data were collected on feed intake and weight gain for a period of 4 months. A digestibility trial was carried at the end of the feeding trial using two male pigs per treatment while six pigs per treatment were randomly selected for slaughter to determine carcass characteristics. Daily gain averaged 0.23, 0.31 and 0.13 kg/day, for pigs fed maize bran, wheat bran and whole maize diets, respectively. Average feed intake and final body weight were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diets. Digestibility of dry matter, crude fibre and calcium were higher (P < 0.05) for pigs fed maize bran while crude protein digestibility was highest (P < 0.05) for the pigs fed wheat bran. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the diets in carcass yield, ham, head, trotters and heart weights and also for rib weight, rib eye muscle and other tissues. This study indicates that comparable performance of growing pigs fed cereal bran and full-grain diets are real. PMID:22836486

  13. Protein requirements of growing steers limit-fed corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Wessels, R H; Titgemeyer, E C

    1997-12-01

    In Exp. 1, six steers (254 kg) were used in a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square to determine the effects of solvent-extracted soybean meal alone or in combination with rumen-protected methionine and lysine on N balance in steers limit-fed a high-corn diet to gain 1.1 kg/d. The basal diet contained (DM basis) 80% rolled corn, 15% alfalfa, and .9% urea (13.9% CP), and 2 or 4% soybean meal replaced corn to give CP concentrations of 14.8 and 15.6%, respectively. Each diet was fed with and without 5 g/d of Smartamine-ML (.75 and 2.0 g of rumen-protected methionine and lysine, respectively). Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P = .09) with level of soybean meal. Rumen-protected methionine and lysine had no effect on N balance. In Exp. 2, seven steers (233 kg) were used in a 7 x 4 incomplete Latin square experiment to investigate optimal levels and sources of CP for steers limit-fed to gain 1 kg/d. Treatments included a negative-control diet (urea; 11.7% CP) and six diets containing either 13.5, 15.4, or 17.2% CP with either solvent-extracted or expeller-processed soybean meal. Diets provided 75, 87.5, 100, or 112.5% of estimated CP requirement for a gain of 1 kg/d. The basal diet contained 83% rolled corn, 15% alfalfa, and .2% urea. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P = .006) with soybean meal addition, and no differences were observed between CP sources. The CP system underpredicted the protein requirements of limit-fed steers under our conditions. PMID:9420002

  14. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  15. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only little is known about the microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in the 18 gastrointestinal tract, the dietary influence, and the magnitude of this production. To investigate intestinal VSC production in more detail, pigs were fed diets based on either wheat and barley (CONTRO...

  16. CORTISOL RESPONSES OF GOLDEN SHINER (NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS) FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the plasma cortisol response in golden shiners under crowding stress, and to determine whether dietary lipid composition affects the cortisol response. In experiment 1, triplicate groups of golden shiners were fed diets with 4 or 13% menhaden fish oil, ...

  17. Global study of microbial communites in tilipia gut fed sludge-infused diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project was to examine the impact of microbial diversity in feed on gut communities of fish. To do so, tilapia larvae were fed three experimental diets incorporated with sludge produced under either aerobic, methanogenic or denitrifying conditions. Microbial diversity between differ...

  18. Comparison of Channel and Blue Catfish Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative study was conducted on growth and protein requirements of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus. Four diets containing 24, 28, 32, or 36% protein were fed to both channel (initial weight 6.9 g/fish) and blue (6.6 g/fish) catfish for two growing seas...

  19. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Eidi, Maryam; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  20. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  1. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  2. A Morphologic and Biochemical Study of Nutritional Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Semipurified Diets

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Nephrocalcinosis occurred in weanling female rats fed a semipurified diet for 8 weeks. Mineralization of the inner cortex began after 3 weeks on the semipurified diet, and was most severe after 8 weeks. Intraluminal calcification was observed first in the pars recta of the proximal convoluted tubule; calcification of cytoplasmic organelles or basement membranes of the tubular epithelium was not observed. At the end of 8 weeks, some mineral deposits were seen within Henle's loops of the outer medulla. Histochemical studies demonstrated that the deposits contained calcium and phosphorus and had a glycoprotein matrix; electron diffraction studies indicated that the main mineral phase was hydroxyapatite. No differences in serum calcium or phosphorus or in the ultrastructural characteristics of the thyroid parafollicular cells and the parathyroid parenchymal cells were observed between animals fed the semipurified diet and those fed a commercial chow. The urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium was less and urinary citrate excretion was greater in animals fed the semipurified diet. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 8Fig 9Fig 6Fig 7 PMID:5096368

  3. Growth and development time of subtropical Cladocera Diaphanosoma birgei Korinek, 1981 fed with different microalgal diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Truzzi, B S; Berchielli-Morais, F A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the growth performance of Diaphanosoma birgei fed with two Chlorophyceae algae, Ankistrodesmus gracilis and Haematococcus pluvialis using monoalgal diets and simpler mixed diets. D. birgei was daily fed on four treatments: 1) 100% Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Ag); 2) 100% Haematoccocus pluvialis (Hp); 3) 25% A. gracilis + 75% H. pluvialis (Ag-25+Hp-75) and 4) 75% A. gracilis + 25% H. pluvialis (Ag-75+Hp-25). The fecundity curve of D. birgei showed that the mixed feed Ag-25+Hp-75 and temperature 24±2°C triggered fast fecundity at approximately two days. The fecundity was low when based only on H. pluvialis (Hp), albeit with greater longevity (19 days) and a higher number of broods (8). D. birgei fed on Ag and Ag-75+Hp-25 diets in this experiment sustained higher growth rate and higher lipid content in these treatments. The present study showed that A. gracilis diet and mixed microalgae diets tested were able to support the egg production and development of D. birgei. PMID:25166332

  4. Vitamins C, E and A and heme oxygenase in rats fed methyl/folate-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Henning, S M; Swendseid, M E; Ivandic, B T; Liao, F

    1997-01-01

    There is evidence that the development of hepatocarcinoma in rats fed a methyl-deficient diet is associated with oxidative stress. We investigated, therefore, whether the tissue concentrations of the antioxidant vitamins ascorbic acid (AA) and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (T) are altered in methyl/folate deficiency. We also measured retinol concentrations in tissues and hepatic mRNA expression of heme oxygenase (HO1). A 6% gelatin, 6% casein diet, devoid of choline and folate (CFD) was selected based on the high rate of tumor development in rats fed this diet. Spectrophotometric measurement of AA and HPLC determination of tissue T and retinol showed decreased concentrations of AA in blood; alpha- and gamma-T in lung, heart and plasma, alpha-T and retinol in liver; retinol in lung; and increased expression of hepatic HO1 mRNA. Similar alterations in tissue vitamin concentrations were found when the CFD diet devoid of niacin (CFND) was fed. Reducing alpha-T in the CFND diet (CFNED) further decreased hepatic alpha-T concentrations. These results show that chronic methyl/folate deficiency is associated with a compromised antioxidant defense system. PMID:9378373

  5. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs. PMID:27136158

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Anand, G R; Satter, L D; Pariza, M W

    1999-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid in milk was determined from cows fed different diets. In Experiment 1, cows were fed either normal or high oil corn and corn silage. Conjugated linoleic acid was 3.8 and 3.9 mg/g of milk fatty acids in normal and high oil treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2, cows consumed one-third, two-thirds, or their entire feed from a permanent pasture. Alfalfa hay and concentrates supplied the balance of feed for the one-third and two-third pasture treatments. Conjugated linoleic acid was 8.9, 14.3, and 22.1 mg/g of milk fatty acids in the one-third, two-third, and all pasture treatments, respectively. Cows grazing pasture and receiving no supplemental feed had 500% more conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat than cows fed typical dairy diets (Experiment 1). In Experiment 3, cows were fed either a control diet containing 55% alfalfa silage and 45% grain, or similar diets supplemented with 3% fish meal, or 250 g of monensin/cow/per day, or fish meal and monensin together. Conjugated linoleic acid was 5.3, 8.6, 6.8, and 8.9 mg/g of milk fatty acids in the control, fish meal, monensin, and fish meal plus monensin treatments, respectively. In Experiment 4, cows were fed either finely chopped alfalfa hay (Treatment 1), or coarsely chopped alfalfa hay (Treatment 2) in a 50% forage and 50% grain diet, or 66.6% grass hay and 33.4% grain (Treatment 3), or 98.2% grass hay (Treatment 4). Conjugated linoleic acid was 7.3, 8.3, 9.0, and 7.9 mg/g of milk fatty acids in treatments 1 through 4, respectively. PMID:10531600

  7. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results

  8. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products. PMID:20387744

  9. Coffee polyphenols exert hypocholesterolemic effects in zebrafish fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Some dietary polyphenols, such as coffee polyphenols (CPPs), reduce cholesterol levels. The mechanism of this cholesterol-lowering effect is not fully understood, although 5-CQA, a major component of CPPs, reportedly inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of CPPs on the basis of cholesterol metabolism–related gene expression in the liver. We also examined the effects of CPPs on vascular lipid accumulation in zebrafish with high cholesterol diet–induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Over 14 weeks, adult zebrafish were fed a control diet, a high-cholesterol diet, or the latter diet supplemented with CPPs. To measure the extent of vascular lipid accumulation, for 10 days larval zebrafish (which are optically transparent) were fed these same diets with the addition of a fluorescent cholesteryl ester. Results In adult zebrafish, addition of CPPs to a high-cholesterol diet significantly suppressed the increase in plasma and liver cholesterol levels seen when fish ingested the same diet lacking CPPs. Transcription levels of the liver genes hmgcra (encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase A, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis) and mtp (encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, a lipid transfer protein required for assembly and secretion of lipoproteins) were significantly lower in fish fed the CPP-containing diet than in fish fed the unsupplemented high-cholesterol diet. In contrast, the expression level of the liver gene cyp7a1a (encoding the cytochrome P450 polypeptide 1a of subfamily A of family 7, a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid biosynthesis) increased significantly upon consumption of the CPP-containing diet. In larval fish, accumulation of fluorescently labeled cholesterol in the caudal artery was greatly reduced on the CPP-containing diet

  10. Growth Performance of Rabbits Fed Palm-Press Fibres-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Houndonougbo, M. Frederic; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Attakpa, S. E.; Sezan, A.; Dehou, H. B.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to define the optimal rate of palm-press fibres in growing rabbits' diet. In total, 64 weaned rabbits (35 days old) of Beninese breed were divided in 16 groups of 4 rabbits (2 males and 2 females) each. During six weeks, rabbits were fed with 4 complete diets containing 0% (F0, control), 5% (F5), 10% (F10), and 15% (F15) of fibres from a palm oil industry. Results demonstrated that up to 15 of palm-press fibres can be included efficiently in growing rabbits' diet. The daily feed intake was not significantly affected by the diet (P > 0.05). At 13 weeks old, the average live weights of rabbits were 1788.5 g, 1805.0 g, 1718.5 g, and 1801.3 g in respectively, F0, F5, F10 and F15 groups. No mortality of rabbits was recorded. Compared to F0, the feed conversion ratio and feeding cost decreased in the group of rabbits fed F15 diet. The carcass yield was similar between diets. PMID:23738133

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Altuntaş, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  12. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  13. Lactational responses to ruminally undegradable protein by dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, M A; Combs, D K; Shaver, R D

    1994-06-01

    Lactational responses to protein supplementation of diets containing 60% of DM as alfalfa silage were evaluated. Sixty muliparous Holstein cows were fed a covariant diet for the first 3 wk postpartum, blocked by calving date, and randomly assigned for 14 wk to one of six isonitrogenous (19.4% CP) diets. Diets were formulated with soybean meal, a blend of animal by-products, or both, and contained 5.0, 5.6, 5.6, 6.2, 6.1, and 6.8% ruminally undegradable protein (DM basis). Percentage of ruminally undegradable protein or source of supplemental protein did not affect 3.5% FCM (39.4 kg/d), milk fat yield (1.38 kg/d), milk protein percentage (2.83%), milk urea (7.66 mM), or plasma urea (8.91 mM). However, cows fed diets supplemented with soybean meal had higher DMI (26.2 vs. 24.7 kg/d), milk yields (40.4 vs. 39.1 kg/d), and milk protein (1.15 vs. 1.09 kg/d) yields, but lower milk fat concentration (3.42 vs. 3.53%) and body condition score (2.85 vs. 2.93) than cows fed diets containing a blend of animal by-products. The lack of response to ruminally undegradable protein was partially caused by higher than predicted DMI (5 to 15% above NRC predictions); all diets provided at least 1.3 kg of ruminally undegradable protein, and there was no beneficial effect from ruminally undegradable protein intake increases to 1.6 kg/d. PMID:8083421

  14. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Ying; Liu, Hu; Ma, Li-Juan; Xu, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes, which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats, which were fed different diets. Methods: Seventy-six adult (6–8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular, high-fat, or low-fat diets) for 6 months. The rats were randomly divided into six groups. They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n = 14), smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n = 14). A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods. Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air. Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group, serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t = 6.932, 11.026; all P < 0.001). BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r = −0.751, P = 0.012). Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6, t = 4.196, 3

  15. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity. PMID:27239252

  16. Performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of Nellore and Angus young bulls fed a whole shelled corn diet.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Schoonmaker, J P; Teixeira, P D; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, C V R; Ladeira, M M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the interaction of breed (Nellore or Angus) and diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] or ground corn [GC] with silage) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of young bulls. Thirty-six bulls (18 Nellore and 18 Angus) with the range in age of 18 to 22 mo and BW of 381 ± 12 kg were used in a completely randomized design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (2 breeds and 2 diets). Experimental diets (DM basis) included 1) a GC diet containing 30% corn silage and 70% GC- and soybean meal-based concentrate and 2) a WSC diet containing 85% WSC and 15% of a soybean meal- and mineral-based pelleted supplement. An additional 8 bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period for determination of initial carcass weight. The treatments were Nellore fed the GC diet, Nellore fed the WSC diet, Angus fed the GC diet, and Angus fed the WSC diet. Greater DMI ( < 0.01), ADG ( < 0.01), and G:F ( < 0.01) were observed in Angus bulls compared with Nellore bulls, regardless of diet. Lower average ruminal pH ( = 0.04), maximum ruminal pH (P = 0.02), and DMI ( < 0.01) were observed in bulls fed the WSC diet than in those fed the GC diet. In addition, bulls fed the WSC diet had greater G:F ( < 0.01). The WSC diet led to greater variation in DMI compared with the GC diet ( < 0.01). Omasum and large intestine percentage was affected by diets only in the Angus breed ( < 0.02) and were greater when bulls were fed the GC diet. The WSC diet without forage may be useful for feedlots because this diet promoted greater G:F than the GC diet, regardless of breed. However, special care must be exercised in feed management during adaptation and throughout the feeding of Nellore animals to avoid digestive disorders and fluctuations in DMI. PMID:27285921

  17. Longevity and reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) fed different natural diets.

    PubMed

    Ellis, James D; Neumann, Peter; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti J

    2002-10-01

    The longevity and reproductive success of newly emerged, unfed adult Aethina tumida Murray assigned different diets (control = unfed; honey-pollen; honey; pollen; empty brood comb; bee brood; fresh Kei apples; and rotten Kei apples) were determined. Longevity in honey-fed small hive beetle adults (average maximum: 167 d) was significantly higher than on other diets. Small hive beetles fed empty brood comb lived significantly longer (average maximum: 49.8 d) than unfed beetles (average maximum: 9.6 d). Small hive beetle offspring were produced on honey-pollen, pollen, bee brood, fresh Kei apples, and rotten Kei apples but not on honey alone, empty brood comb, or in control treatments. The highest reproductive success occurred in pollen fed adults (1773.8 +/- 294.4 larvae per three mating pairs of adults). The data also show that A. tumida can reproduce on fruits alone, indicating that they are facultative parasites. The pupation success and sex ratio of small hive beetle offspring were also analyzed. Larvae fed pollen, honey-pollen, or brood had significantly higher pupation success rates of 0.64, 0.73, and 0.65 respectively than on the other diets. Sex ratios of emerging adults fed diets of pollen or brood as larvae were significantly skewed toward females. Because small hive beetle longevity and overall reproductive success was highest on foodstuffs located in honey bee colonies, A. tumida are efficient at causing large-scale damage to colonies of honey bees resulting in economic injury for the beekeeper. Practical considerations for the control of A. tumida are briefly discussed. PMID:12403414

  18. Glucocorticoids inhibited hypothalamic target of rapamycin in high fat diet-fed chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4 μg/2 μL) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, glucocorticoids (GC) downregulated hypothalamic gene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. PMID:26188033

  19. Histologic changes in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, fed diets containing graded levels of gossypol-acetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was performed to evaluate the histologic changes among fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed purified diets containing graded levels of gossypol from gossypol–acetic acid. The catfish were maintained on diets with 0, 300, 600, 900, 1200 or 1500 mg gossypol kg-1 diet for 12 we...

  20. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  1. Absorption and distribution of cadmium in mice fed diets containing either inorganic or oyster-incorporated cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Hardy, J.T.; Miller, B.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Siewicki, T.C.

    1984-02-01

    To determine the absorption, organ distribution, and retention of organically bound cadmium (Cd) and the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) on Cd metabolism, groups of mice were fed five different diets. The organic Cd used in the diets was in the form of lyophilized oyster (Crassostrea virginica) that had accumulated radiolabeled 109Cd through a plankton food chain. The mice were fed either a standard basal mouse diet (AIN-76) or diets containing five or eight times the Zn concentration of the basal diet. The source of Zn was either oyster tissue or ZnCO3. The concentration of organic and inorganic Cd provided a dose of approximately 0.4 mg/kg. Diets prepared from oyster tissue probably contained all of the Cd and 85% of the Zn in organic form. Diets prepared with inorganic metals contained about the same Cd and Zn concentrations as the diets prepared with oyster. There was very little difference between the retention of Cd by mice that ingested organic (oyster bound) Cd and those fed inorganic Cd (CdCl2). However, when the Cd retained in the intestine was excluded, retention of organic Cd was significantly greater than that of inorganic Cd. The organ distribution of Cd differed significantly according to the chemical form of Cd fed (organic or inorganic) and the Zn level in the diet. The kidneys of mice fed organically bound Cd retained a higher percentage of the metal than the kidneys of those fed inorganic Cd. On the other hand, the livers of animals fed a low-Zn diet retained a higher percentage of the Cd than the livers of those fed a high-Zn diet, regardless of the dietary source of Cd.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P < 0.05), whilst concentrations of TG, apoA, apoB, insulin and glucose remained unaltered compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet. PMID:24082850

  3. Bioavailability of zinc from inorganic and organic sources for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, K J; Lewis, A J; Giesemann, M A; Miller, P S

    1994-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted with pigs 1) to determine the effect of supplemental Zn on growth performance, bone Zn, and plasma Zn in pigs fed Zn-unsupplemented, corn-soybean meal diets and 2) to assess bioavailability of Zn from inorganic and organic Zn sources. In both experiments, weanling pigs were fed a diet with no supplemental Zn for 5 wk to deplete their Zn stores. In Exp. 1, 192 pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (growing diet, 32 mg/kg of Zn; finishing diet, 27 mg/kg of Zn) supplemented with feed-grade ZnSO4.H2O to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of supplemental Zn. Supplemental Zn did not affect weight gain, feed intake, or gain/feed during either the growing or the finishing period (P > .05). However, bone and plasma Zn concentrations increased linearly (P < .01) in response to supplemental Zn at dietary Zn levels between 27 mg/kg (basal) and 47 mg/kg (breakpoint). In Exp. 2, three levels of supplemental Zn from ZnSO4.H2O (0, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn) were used to construct a standard curve (metacarpal, coccygeal vertebrae, and plasma Zn concentrations regressed on supplemental Zn intake; R2 = .93, .89, and .82, respectively). From the standard curve, the bone and plasma Zn concentrations obtained from pigs fed 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from ZnO and 7.5 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from Zn-methionine (ZnMET) and Zn-lysine (ZnLYS) were used to calculate bioavailable Zn via multiple linear regression, slope-ratio analysis. The estimates of Zn bioavailability differed depending on which variable was used. Overall trends indicated the following rankings: ZnSO4.H2O > ZnMet > ZnO > ZnLys. PMID:7883627

  4. Lower pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows fed a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, D J; Kastelic, J P; Corbett, R; Pitney, P A; Petit, H V; Small, J A; Zalkovic, P

    2006-08-01

    The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) would influence ovarian function, early embryo survival, conception rates, and pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning 28 d before breeding, Holstein cows (55 +/- 22 d postpartum; mean +/- SD) were assigned to diets supplemented with either rolled flaxseed (FLAX; 56.7% ALA, n = 62) or rolled sunflower seed (SUNF; 0.1% ALA, n = 59) to provide approximately 750 g of oil/d. Diets continued for 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI, d 0) following a Presynch/Ovsynch protocol. Barley silage- and barley grain-based TMR were formulated to meet or exceed National Research Council requirements. Metabolizable protein and net energy for lactation concentrations were similar in the 2 diets. Based upon a mean dry matter intake of 22 kg/d, cows fed FLAX or SUNF consumed > 410 g or < 1 g of ALA, respectively. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound 32 d after TAI. Nonpregnant cows were placed on a second Ovsynch regimen and reinseminated 42 d after first TAI, and received oilseeds for 32 d after second TAI. Relative to prediet levels, FLAX increased the ALA content of milk by 187%. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed in 8 cows per diet; the mean diameter of ovulatory follicles was larger in cows fed FLAX compared with SUNF (16.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 14.1 +/- 0.9 mm), but follicle number, corpus luteum size, and plasma progesterone concentrations remained unaffected. Presumptive conception (progesterone < 1 ng/mL on d 0 and > 1 ng/mL on d 21) rates to first TAI were greater in FLAX than in SUNF (72.6 vs. 47.5%). Pregnancy losses were lower in cows fed FLAX (9.8%) compared with those fed SUNF (27.3%). Including flaxseed in the ration of dairy cows increased the size of the ovulatory follicle and reduced pregnancy losses. PMID:16840624

  5. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  6. Lactation performance and digestibility of forages and diets in dairy cows fed a hemicellulose extract.

    PubMed

    Herrick, K J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Anderson, J L; Ranathunga, S D; Patton, R S; Abdullah, M

    2012-06-01

    Inclusion of hemicellulose extract (HE) in cattle diets have shown potential for improving fiber digestibility and production efficiency. The objective of this research was to evaluate production and digestibility effects of a HE on midlactation cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (142 ± 44 d in milk, 685 ± 19 kg of body weight) including 4 with ruminal fistula were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed a control (CON) diet containing 55% forage [dry matter (DM) basis, 2/3 corn silage and 1/3 alfalfa hay] or a similar diet where 1.0% of the diet DM was replaced with HE (TRT). Dry matter intake averaged 27.1 and 26.9 kg/d, for CON and TRT respectively, and was not affected by addition of extract. The percentage of milk protein (3.40 vs. 3.29%) was greater, whereas the percentage of milk fat (3.91 vs. 3.80%) tended to be greater, for cows fed the CON compared with the TRT diet. Because of numerically greater milk production (38.8 vs. 39.2 kg/d) for cows fed the TRT diet, no differences were observed in component yields other than lactose (1.86 vs. 1.94 kg/d), which tended to be greater for cows fed the TRT ration. Treatment improved neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (38.6 vs. 48.1%) for the TRT diet compared with the CON diet but did not affect apparent total-tract DM (67.8 vs. 68.5%), crude protein (67.2 vs. 67.9%), acid detergent fiber (ADF; 37.1 vs. 43.3%), or starch (92.8 vs. 92.2%) digestibility. For in situ determinations, Dacron bags containing corn silage, alfalfa hay, and either the CON or TRT ration were incubated in triplicate in the rumens of the cannulated cows at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h on d 18 of each period. Each total mixed ration was incubated only in cows assigned to the corresponding diet. For corn silage, the rate of disappearance of NDF (1.70 vs. 4.27%) and ADF (1.79 vs. 4.66%) increased for cows fed the TRT diet. For alfalfa hay, the disappearance of fraction A of DM, NDF, and ADF decreased

  7. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  8. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  9. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    SciTech Connect

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Kimura, Kan ); Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru )

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone (Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  10. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2015-11-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight (P<0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased (P<0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups (P>0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  11. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  12. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-20

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors. PMID:26583652

  13. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  14. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals. PMID:25982443

  15. Effects of phytase supplementation in mature horses fed alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Lavin, T E; Nielsen, B D; Zingsheim, J N; O'Connor-Robison, C I; Link, J E; Hill, G M; Shelton, J

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study P digestibility in mature horses because of the growing environmental concerns regarding P runoff and previous equine research focused mostly on young and growing animals or used ponies as a model. Phytase supplementation of swine and poultry diets can result in greater phytate-P digestibility, leading to a decreased need for inorganic P supplementation and a decrease in P excreted to the environment; this, however, has not been demonstrated in the horse. Six mature Arabian geldings were fed 6 diets consisting of pelleted concentrate and alfalfa hay. The concentrates consisted mainly of soybean hulls, ground corn, wheat midds, broken rice, and beet pulp, and phytase was added to the concentrates accordingly before pelleting. There were 3 diet types: control (concentrate and hay), high P (greater P concentrate and hay), and forage only, and each diet type included 1 phytase-supplemented diet and 1 non-phytase-supplemented diet, resulting in 6 total diets. Phytase supplementation for the forage only diet was accomplished by feeding a nominal amount of concentrate formulated solely as a vehicle for the phytase. Horses had unrestricted access to water throughout the experiment. Using a Latin square design, all horses received all diets over a period of 12 wk. In each week, the new diet was fed for 11 d of diet acclimation, which was followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine for each horse. There was no effect (P < 0.05) of phytase supplementation on P output in the urine or feces, resulting in no differences in P apparent digestibility. Analysis of the feed and feces for phytate revealed a 93% average disappearance rate of phytate, indicating that horses are highly capable of degrading phytate and that phytase supplementation was not beneficial. Thus, the results indicate that mature horses are able to maintain a near 0 P balance, with adequate P provided in the diet even as phytate, and increased P intakes above

  16. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes. PMID:18551378

  17. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43). PMID:26435020

  18. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Prüller, Florian; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Pailer, Sabine; Kieslinger, Petra; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Cvirn, Gerhard; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30) and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition. PMID:26184174

  19. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Prüller, Florian; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Pailer, Sabine; Kieslinger, Petra; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Cvirn, Gerhard; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30) and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased-and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased-ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition. PMID:26184174

  20. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice. PMID:27230905

  1. Growth and anatomical characteristics of pullet chicks fed diets contaminated with crude petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Pollution of farmlands by overland pipelines carrying crude or refined petroleum are capable of exposing domestic livestock and poultry to varying levels of ingested petroleum products. Prolonged ingestion of low levels of oil-polluted plant materials, seeds and water by livestock and poultry may affect tissues and organs and consequently influence growth and performance. The results reported here are from a preliminary study on gross anatomy and performance characteristics of pullet chicks fed diets contaminated with varying levels of crude petroleum.

  2. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Mjoun, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet. PMID:26851859

  3. Bioavailability of folates in selected foods incorporated into amino acid-based diets fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Clifford, A J; Jones, A D; Bills, N D

    1990-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a folate depletion/repletion protocol with rats fed an amino acid-based diet to measure the bioavailability of food folate. Growth, liver folate and serum folate of depleted rats that were fed test foods incorporated into a folate-free, amino acid-based diet were standardized against similar responses of rats fed known amounts of folic acid incorporated into the same diet. Bioavailability of folate of cooked broccoli, refried beans and orange juice concentrate in experiment 1 was 80-89, 113 and 62%, respectively, based on growth response; in experiment 2, values for cooked and raw broccoli, cooked cabbage and cantaloupe were 95, 103, 74 and 81%, respectively. The results demonstrate that in addition to serum and liver folate concentrations, growth may be a useful response criterion to evaluate the bioavailability of folates in foods. Further research is needed to determine the relevance of these bioavailability estimates to human nutrition. PMID:2262810

  4. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  5. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain. PMID:27307576

  6. Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to sows and growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Jessica E; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in 11 diets fed to both growing pigs and gestating sows. Three diets were based on corn, wheat or sorghum and eight diets were based on a combination of corn and soybean meal, canola meal, conventional distillers' dried grains with solubles, low-fat distillers' dried grains with solubles, corn germ meal, corn bran, wheat middlings or soybean hulls. A total of 88 gestating sows (252 ± 24.2 kg BW; parity two to six) and 88 growing barrows (40 ± 4.7 kg BW) were used and randomly allotted to the 11 diets with eight replicate sows or pigs per diet. Faecal and urine samples were collected for 4 d following a 19 d adaptation period. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy (GE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) in the 11 diets were calculated. Gestating sows had greater (p < 0.05) ATTD of GE and CP and DE values for all diets compared with growing pigs. Gestating sows also had greater (p < 0.05) ME values than growing pigs for the three grain diets and the diets containing wheat middlings and soybean hulls. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between gestating sows and growing pigs for any of the diets, except that gestating sows had greater (p < 0.05) ATTD of NDF than growing pigs when they were fed the four protein diets. The ATTD of GE and CP and DE values in gestating sows may be predicted by using equations generated from the values of ATTD of GE and CP and DE values obtained in growing pigs. Results of this research indicate that ATTD values of CP and GE obtained in gestating sows are greater than the values obtained in growing pigs, but values for ATTD of ADF obtained in growing pigs are not different from values in gestating sows. PMID:25738743

  7. Cynanchum wilfordii ameliorates hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Deok Ho; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-02-01

    Hypercholesterolemia increases the incidence of atherosclerosis and its pathologic complications. This study was performed to test the effect of an ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on vascular dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets (HFCD). Male rats were fed a HFCD consisting of 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100, 200 mg/day/kg ECW. Rats fed with HFCD increased body weight associated with an increase in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level. Chronic ECW treatment in HFCD-fed rats lessened LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Chronic ECW treatment recovered the HFCD-induced increase in systolic blood pressure, maintained smooth and soft intima endothelial layers by the decrease of intima-media thickness. ECW significantly recovered the diet-induced decrease in vasorelaxation to acetylcholine, high-dose ECW apparently increased vasorelaxation response to sodium nitroprusside in rats fed with HFCD. ECW clearly restored the HFCD-induced reduction in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and Akt expression levels in aortic tissue, leading to improve endothelial function through an increase in endothelium-derived NO production. Furthermore, treatment of ECW significantly recovered the HFCD-induced decrease in aortic cGMP levels in rats. These findings suggest that ECW ameliorates hypertension and endothelial dysfunction via improvement of NO/cGMP signaling pathway in aortic tissue of rats fed with HFCD, suggesting a vascular protective role for this herb in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:22176675

  8. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  9. Relaxin Treatment Reverses Insulin Resistance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jeffrey S.; Lantier, Louise; Hocking, Kyle M.; Kang, Li; Owolabi, Mark; James, Freyja D.; Bracy, Deanna P.; Brophy, Colleen M.; Wasserman, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous hormone relaxin increases vascular reactivity and angiogenesis. We demonstrate that acute relaxin infusion in lean C57BL/6J mice enhances skeletal muscle perfusion and augments muscle glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. However, an acute effect was absent in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 13 weeks. In contrast, mice fed an HF diet for 13 weeks and continuously treated with relaxin for the final 3 weeks of the diet exhibited decreased fasting blood glucose. Insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disappearance and percent suppression of hepatic glucose production are corrected by chronic relaxin. The increase in peripheral glucose utilization is a result of augmented in vivo skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Relaxin intervention improves endothelial-dependent vascular reactivity and induces a two-fold proliferation in skeletal muscle capillarity. The metabolic effects of the treatment are not attributed to changes in myocellular insulin signaling. Relaxin intervention reverses the accumulation of collagen III in the liver and collagen III and collagen IV in the heart; this is induced by HF feeding. These studies show the potential of relaxin in the treatment of diet-induced insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction. Relaxin provides a novel therapeutic approach targeting the extramyocellular barriers to insulin action, which are critical to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. PMID:23801576

  10. Quercetin Increases Hepatic Homocysteine Remethylation and Transsulfuration in Rats Fed a Methionine-Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bin; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Guo, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of quercetin on mRNA expression and activity of critical enzymes in homocysteine metabolism in rats fed a methionine-enriched diet. Rats were fed for 6 weeks the following diets, that is, control, 0.5% quercetin, 1.0% methionine, and 1.0% methionine plus 0.5% quercetin diets. Serum homocysteine was significantly increased after methionine treatment and decreased after the addition of quercetin. The mRNA expression of methionine synthase was significantly increased after methionine or methionine plus quercetin supplementation, while its enzymatic activity was significantly increased after methionine plus quercetin supplementation. The mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase were upregulated after quercetin, methionine, or quercetin plus methionine treatment and a more significant increase was observed for hepatic cystathionine β-synthase in the methionine plus quercetin treated rats, suggesting an interaction between methionine and quercetin. Meanwhile, hepatic ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine was significantly decreased in response to methionine supplementation and normalized after the addition of quercetin. It is concluded that quercetin reduces serum homocysteine by increasing remethylation and transsulfuration of homocysteine in rats exposed to a methionine-enriched diet. PMID:26558284

  11. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  12. Cholesterol: an antidiarrheal agent in rats with short-bowel syndrome fed elemental diets.

    PubMed

    Huk, I; Schulz, F; Abrahamian, V; Kaminski, M V

    1986-01-01

    Studies show that bile acids and long-chain fatty acids are responsible for diarrhea in certain malabsorption syndromes. Recent reports indicate that substances such as dietary cholesterol, when moderately consumed, can reduce bile-induced excessive mucosal fluid and electrolyte output. This study explores the antidiarrheal effect and dosage of dietary cholesterol in rats following massive bowel resection, co-fed elemental diet. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 248-253 g underwent 75% resection of the small bowel and were fed ad libitum for 21 days with 1 of 5 diets (n = 7) of Vivonex HN, supplemented by 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 mM cholesterol/1,000 g of the powdered elemental diet. Parameters measured included daily food and water consumption, daily changes in weight, volume of excrement and stool consistency graded by the same individual (water, semiformed or formed). It was found that 5 mM dietary cholesterol in 1,000 g of the elemental diet produced the most formed stool and significantly improved weight gain in rats with short-bowel syndrome. PMID:3780788

  13. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C; Tun, Hein M; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and -resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3-5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  14. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C.; Tun, Hein M.; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C.

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and –resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3–5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  15. Impaired Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Hexabromocyclododecane-Exposed Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Citation: Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health

  16. Colonic cell growth and mucin degradation in rats fed diets containing various levels of beta-carotene with and without dietary agar.

    PubMed

    Hwa, S H; Shiau, S Y

    1993-06-01

    1. To either an agar-containing diet or an agar-free diet, 0, 0.3 and 2.0 mg/100 g of beta-carotene were incorporated and fed to groups of five rats for 28 days. 2. Weight gain and food consumption of rats fed different dietary groups did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05). 3. Colon weight, colonic mucosal DNA and RNA were generally higher in rats fed agar diets than rats fed agar-free diets at either beta-carotene supplementation level. 4. Mucinase activity was higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed the agar diet than in rats fed an agar-free diet without beta-carotene. However, the difference was not observed (P > 0.05) when beta-carotene was incorporated. 5. These data suggest that colonic mucin degradation in rats fed an agar diet decreased when the dietary beta-carotene inclusion level increased. PMID:7687211

  17. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    PubMed

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level. PMID:27183997

  18. Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Ling; Yeh, Teng-Kuang

    2008-02-28

    Shengmai San (SMS), which is comprised of the medicinal herbs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Schisandra chinensis Baill., and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl (2:1:2)., is a traditional Chinese medicine being used for treating coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SMS on the plasma and liver lipids, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in liver and heart of cholesterol-fed rats. Rats were fed on a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet containing 2% SMS (2% SMS group) and 4% SMS (4% SMS group) for four weeks. The oxidative stress marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and antioxidant defense systems including glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in rat liver and heart were evaluated. Results showed that rats fed with SMS-containing diet had reduced the H(2)O(2)-induced erythrocytes susceptibility to hemolysis, and 4% SMS feeding rats had higher plasma GSH concentration compared to the animals fed with the control diet. However, SMS had no effect on plasma lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and TBARS concentration. On the other hand, rats fed with the 4% SMS diet reduced the hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride contents. Fecal bile acid excretion was significantly increased in rats fed with the SMS-containing diet. Higher hepatic GSH and lower TBARS concentrations were observed in rats fed with the 4% SMS diet compared with the rats fed with the control diet. No significant difference in activities of GSH-Px, GST and SOD was found in liver and heart after the SMS treatment. Results from this study indicate that the SMS may reduce hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats. PMID:18162350

  19. A freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract improves cholesterol metabolism in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Tatsuguchi, Iwao; Abe, Kazuaki; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2008-10-01

    The effect of a freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract (FCE) on cholesterol metabolism in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet was investigated. When rats were fed various amounts of FCE in addition to the high-cholesterol diet for 2 wk, the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels were gradually reduced in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with the control group. The excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids into the feces was increased by feeding FCE. Several phytosterols were detected in the feces of rats fed on the FCE-containing diet. In addition, substantial amounts of phytosterols were found in FCE. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA in the liver of the rats fed on the FCE-containing diets was higher than that of rats fed on the high-cholesterol diets without FCE. These results may suggest that enhanced cholesterol degradation and the excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids contributed to the hypocholesterolemic effect of FCE observed in the hypercholesterolemic rats fed on the high-cholesterol diet. PMID:18838816

  20. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  1. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G) and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose). The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS) in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol). Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol), and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT) and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease. PMID:20946638

  2. ABCG1 and HDL protect against endothelial dysfunction in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Terasaka, Naoki; Yu, Shuiqing; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Wang, Nan; Mzhavia, Nino; Langlois, Read; Pagler, Tamara; Li, Rong; Welch, Carrie L.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Tall, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma HDL levels are inversely related to the incidence of atherosclerotic disease. Some of the atheroprotective effects of HDL are likely mediated via preservation of EC function. Whether the beneficial effects of HDL on ECs depend on its involvement in cholesterol efflux via the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, which promote efflux of cholesterol and oxysterols from macrophages, has not been investigated. To address this, we assessed endothelial function in Abca1–/–, Abcg1–/–, and Abca1–/–Abcg1–/– mice fed either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a Western diet (WTD). Non-atherosclerotic arteries from WTD-fed Abcg1–/– and Abca1–/–Abcg1–/– mice exhibited a marked decrease in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, while Abca1–/– mice had a milder defect. In addition, eNOS activity was reduced in aortic homogenates generated from Abcg1–/– mice fed either a HCD or a WTD, and this correlated with decreased levels of the active dimeric form of eNOS. More detailed analysis indicated that ABCG1 was expressed primarily in ECs, and that these cells accumulated the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) when Abcg1–/– mice were fed a WTD. Consistent with these data, ABCG1 had a major role in promoting efflux of cholesterol and 7-KC in cultured human aortic ECs (HAECs). Furthermore, HDL treatment of HAECs prevented 7-KC–induced ROS production and active eNOS dimer disruption in an ABCG1-dependent manner. Our data suggest that ABCG1 and HDL maintain EC function in HCD-fed mice by promoting efflux of cholesterol and 7-oxysterols and preserving active eNOS dimer levels. PMID:18924609

  3. Rice Protein isolate improves lipid and glucose homeostasis in rats fed high fat/high cholesterol diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of phytochemicals are bound to rice protein isolate (RPI) and many are bioactive. To determine the metabolic effects of feeding RPI in early development, weanling rats were fed AIN-93G diets made with casein or RPI for 14 d. Reduced growth rate and adiposity prior to puberty in RPI-fed ra...

  4. Mimosine degradation in calves fed a sole diet of Leucaena leucocephala in India.

    PubMed

    Ram, J J; Atreja, P P; Chopra, R C; Chhabra, A

    1994-11-01

    Five Karan Swiss crossbred (Sahiwal x Brown Swiss) calves were abruptly switched over from a diet of concentrate and maize fodder to ad libitum air dried Leucaena leucocephala leaves plus twigs. After 17 days on the L. leucocephala diet, 3 of the calves were supplemented with copper sulphate (10 mg/kg DM L. leucocephala) for 12 days. Thereafter all the calves were taken off the L. leucocephala diet and returned to the pre-experimental concentrate and maize fodder diet. While on the L. leucocephala diet, the average DM intake/d of L. leucocephala declined to 497 g within 3 weeks and all calves lost weight. This weight loss was reversed in the 3 calves that received copper sulphate, and all calves gained weight when they resumed the concentrate and maize fodder diet. The toxic effects of L. leucocephala feeding for 24 days were characterised by poor growth, emaciation, alopecia, loss of hair from the tail switch, ear and eye lesions, ulceration of the mouth region, drooling viscid saliva and vomiting of thick green saliva in one of the calves. Mean levels of 3,4 dihydroxypyridone (DHP) (mg/100 ml) were 30.35 +/- 13.52 and 55.57 +/- 13.77 on days 2 and 4 respectively in rumen liquor and up to 136.01 +/- 80.18 in urine. The mean ratios of mimosine: DHP of 3.14, 0.12 and 0.04 in feed, faeces and urine respectively revealed extensive degradation of mimosine to DHP in the calves fed the L. leucocephala diet and it was concluded the calves were unable to tolerate a diet consisting solely of L. leucocephala. PMID:7900214

  5. Renoprotective and antioxidant effects of Saururus chinensis Baill in rats fed a high-fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ha-Neul; Park, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kang, Min-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Mi; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the preventive effect of Saururus chinensis Baill against renal damage induced by a high-fructose diet in rats. The rats (n = 30) were fed either a cornstarch-based (65%), high-fructose (65%), or high-fructose (64.5%) diet with 0.5% S. chinensis Baill extract for 10 weeks. Twenty-four hour urine collections were obtained and the animals were sacrificed after an overnight fast. Serum urea and creatinine and urine albumin were measured using colorimetric methods, and creatinine clearance was determined. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the kidney were determined. Kidney samples were also examined histologically. The fructose-fed rats showed renal dysfunction, indicated by decreased creatinine clearance, increased albumin in the urine, and increased urea and creatinine in the serum. These renal function parameters were comparable to control levels in rats that consumed S. chinensis Baill. Fructose consumption increased renal TBARS and reduced GSH and SOD activity, whereas these levels were near-normal in the rats consuming S. chinensis Baill. The kidneys of fructose-fed rats showed glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial matrix expansion, and tubule dilation. These pathological changes were not seen in the rats that consumed S. chinensis Baill. Therefore, S. chinensis Baill effectively alleviated fructose-induced renal damage in these rats, at least partially due to antioxidant activity. PMID:21994532

  6. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Kuzmanov, K; Mihova, V; Krasnaliev, I; Borisova, P; Belcheva, A

    2007-03-01

    Aronia melanocrpa fruit juice (AMFJ) used in our experiment was very rich in phenolic substances (709.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 ml juice). Anthocyanins (106.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 ml juice) were the main flavonoid group. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AMFJ on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile, and histopathology of liver and aorta in rats with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia. AMFJ was administered by gavage for 30 days at doses of 5, 10 and 20 ml/kg body weight to rats fed a standard diet (SD) or a 4% cholesterol-containing diet (4% ChD). The 4% ChD caused a significant elevation of plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). AMFJ did not significantly influence plasma lipids in rats fed the SD and significantly hindered the elevation of plasma TC, LDL-C and TG in rats fed the 4% ChD. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not significantly influenced either by the 4% ChD or by AMFJ. Neither the cholesterol feeding, nor AMFJ treatment induced any histopathological changes in rat liver and aorta. In conclusion, AMFJ showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in rats with hyperlipidemia and could be valuable in reducing this factor of cardiovascular risk. PMID:17136466

  7. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  8. Heat production and efficiency of energy utilization in finishing steers fed diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate heat production (HP) and efficiency of energy utilization in feedlot cattle fed diets containing WDGS. Steers (n=24, BW = 452.5 ± 36.8 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to diets containing 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a DM basis providing calcu...

  9. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  10. Effect of wheat forage maturity and preservation method on forage chemical composition and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three 2.4-ha wheat (Triticum aestivum L) fields were used to test the effects of maturity at harvest (boot vs dough) and preservation method (hay vs silage) on forage yield, chemical composition, and animal performance when fed in mixed diets. Forages were incorporated into 4 diets in a 2 x 2 factor...

  11. Ketogenic diet-fed rats have increased fat mass and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Letícia C; Chittó, Ana L; Müller, Alexandre P; Rocha, Juliana K; Castro da Silva, Mariane; Quincozes-Santos, André; Nardin, Patrícia; Rotta, Liane N; Ziegler, Denize R; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Da Silva, Roselis S M; Perry, Marcos L S; Gottfried, Carmem

    2008-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), characterized by high fat and low carbohydrate and protein contents, has been proposed to be beneficial in children with epilepsy disorders not helped by conventional anti-epileptic drug treatment. Weight loss and inadequate growth is an important drawback of this diet and metabolic causes are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine body weight variation during KD feeding for 6 wk of Wistar rats; fat mass and adipocyte cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were also observed. PEPCK activity was determined based on the [H(14)CO(3) (-)]-oxaloacetate exchange reaction. KD-fed rats gained weight at a less rapid rate than normal-fed rats, but with a significant increment in fat mass. The fat mass/body weight ratio already differed between ketogenic and control rats after the first week of treatment, and was 2.4 x higher in ketogenic rats. The visceral lipogenesis was supported by an increment in adipocyte PEPCK, aiming to provide glycerol 3-phosphate to triacylglycerol synthesis and this fat accumulation was accompanied by glucose intolerance. These data contribute to our understanding of the metabolic effects of the KD in adipose tissue and liver and suggest some potential risks of this diet, particularly visceral fat accumulation. PMID:18655006

  12. [Dynamic changes of circulating monocyte subsets in high-NaCl diet fed mice].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaotong; Luo, Yanwei; Ma, Yongqiang; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Ji, Wenjie; Li, Yuming; Zhou, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes of the circulating monocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice fed with high-NaCl diet. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: 9, 40 and 80 g/L NaCl groups. Before the treatment and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment, the cardiac function was dynamically determined by echocardiography and the blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Flow cytometry analysis of circulating monocyte subsets was performed. HE staining was used to observe cardiac pathological changes at the time of sacrifice. Results Systolic blood pressure significantly increased with the progression of the high-salt diet. Compared with 9 g/L NaCl group, the ejection fraction of the other two groups slightly increased at week 4, followed by a significant decreasing trend up to week 12, in addition, the percentage of Ly6C(high) monocyte subset showed a progressive increase during high-salt feeding and reached a plateau at week 4, and then abruptly went down up to week 12. On the contrary, Ly6C(low) monocyte subset had an opposite trend, whereas Ly6C(int) monocyte subset remained constant. HE staining showed that cardiomyocyte size, as determined by the myocyte cross-sectional area, became enlarged obviously in the latter two groups. Conclusion Circulating monocyte subsets dynamically changed in the mice fed with high-salt diet. PMID:27371845

  13. Effects of dietary protein and ethanol intake on pregnant beagles fed purified diets.

    PubMed

    Switzer, B R; Anderson, J J; Pick, J R

    1986-04-01

    Maternal weight gain of beagles was approximately 50% lower when ethanol was given twice daily at a dose of 1.8 g/kg body weight with either control protein (17% energy from protein) or low protein (8.5%) diet as compared to isocalorically sucrose-treated animals. Similarly, pup birth weights were about 27% lower from beagles given ethanol with either diet when compared to those from sucrose-treated bitches. Two weeks after beginning ethanol treatment, pregnant bitches fed either diet had higher hematocrit values and lower plasma concentrations of albumin and calcium as compared to sucrose-treated animals. Low dietary protein treatment, rather than ethanol, lowered maternal concentrations of red blood cell folate during pregnancy. As compared to sucrose-treated bitches, ethanol prevented folate levels in red blood cells from returning to the normal range by the 9th wk of pregnancy in animals fed low dietary protein. These data show that ethanol consumption and low dietary protein intake, independently of each other, significantly depress maternal weight gain, pup birth weight and some nutritionally related parameters of the mother. PMID:3958813

  14. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  15. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  16. Effects of Rumen-Mate on lactational performance of Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Emery, R S; Schricker, B R

    1989-07-01

    Three Latin-square trials were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing Rumen-Mate, a commercial buffer containing KCl, NaCl, and Mg and Na carbonates, on lactation performance of Holsteins. Cows were fed a basal ration of 40% corn silage and 60% concentrate in Trials 1 and 2, and 40% corn silage, 55% concentrate, and 5% alfalfa hay in Trial 3 (DM basis). In Trial 1, treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either 1% NaHCO3, or 1, 3, or 4.4% Rumen-Mate. Increasing dietary Rumen-Mate resulted in a linear increase in milk fat production and concentration with no difference between 1% Rumen-Mate and 1% bicarbonate. There was a significant linear decrease in milk protein concentration, but not production, with increasing concentrations of Rumen-Mate. In Trial 2 treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either .8% NaHCO3, 2.6% Rumen-Mate, .5% MgO, .8% NaHCO3 plus .5% MgO, or 1.8% Rumen-Mate plus .8% NaHCO3. Organic matter and CP intakes and milk protein yield and concentration were decreased by Rumen-Mate with a nonsignificant increase in milk fat concentration. Data from Trials 1 and 2 were combined with data from Trial 3, which compared basal diet, 1% bicarbonate, and 3% Rumen-Mate. The combined data showed a larger increase over basal diet in milk fat yield and concentration for 2.6 to 3% Rumen-Mate vs. .8 to 1% bicarbonate. Rumen-Mate did not decrease DM intake or protein yield relative to basal diet but did decrease protein yield 34 g/d compared with that of bicarbonate. PMID:2778167

  17. Preference for polyethylene glycol by sheep fed a quebracho tannin diet.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D

    2001-08-01

    Tannins decrease food intake by reducing digestion and by causing illness, whereas polyethylene glycol (PEG) attenuates the aversive effects of tannins. Our objective was to determine whether sheep recognize the benefits of ingesting substances such as PEG when consuming tannins. If so, then ingestion of PEG should be 1) PEG-specific, 2) a function of previous experience with recovery from tannin-toxicosis, and 3) dependent on the presence/absence of tannins. During conditioning, lambs in Group 1 (n = 10) were offered a meal of high-tannin food, which presumably caused malaise, and then offered PEG (molecular weight, 3,350), which presumably led to recovery from malaise. Subsequently, lambs ingested a control food (wheat straw) that did not have the "medicinal" effects of PEG in the absence of the tannin diet. In contrast, lambs in Group 2 (n = 10) ingested PEG in the absence of the tannin diet, and they ingested the tannin diet only in association with wheat straw. Ingestion of PEG and straw by both groups of lambs increased as a function of the presence of tannins in the diet (P < 0.05). However, when offered a choice among the tannin diet, PEG and straw, or when given the tannin diet and then offered a choice between PEG and straw, lambs trained to associate PEG with tannins ate more PEG than lambs that ingested PEG without tannins (P < 0.05). The responses were apparently PEG-specific; straw intake did not differ between groups of lambs during testing (P > 0.05), and differences in PEG intake disappeared in the absence of tannins (P > 0.05). In summary, our results suggest that lambs fed high-tannin diets discriminated the effects of PEG from those provided by a "nonmedicinal" food (straw). Thus, it may be possible to formulate PEG supplements that allow herbivores to self-regulate intake of PEG under extensive management conditions. PMID:11518214

  18. Kinetics of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in mice fed diets of various fat contents.

    PubMed

    Olson, L M; Visek, W J

    1990-06-01

    We previously reported lower mitogen-induced blastogenic and cytotoxic activity of splenocytes from C3H/OUJ female mice fed 20% soybean oil (SBO) in their diet compared to those fed 5% SBO. The present study examined the kinetics of cell-mediated cytotoxicity using the same animal model and dietary treatments. Kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing the lytic efficiency of splenocytes cultured for various times with several concentrations of radiolabeled P815 mastocytoma cells. The apparent avidity constant (K1/2) of the reaction was not changed by dietary SBO intake (1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(5) cells for 20% SBO versus 1.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(5) cells for 5% SBO). However, the maximum velocity (Vmax) of the reaction for splenocytes from mice fed 20% SBO was significantly lower than that for splenocytes from mice fed 5% SBO (1.4 +/- 0.2 x 10(4) cells/h for 20% SBO versus 2.3 +/- 0.4 x 10(4) cells/h for 5% SBO, p less than 0.05). The evidence indicates that the rate of target cell lysis, but not the avidity of the lymphocytes for the target cell antigen, was altered by increasing dietary SBO concentration. PMID:2352036

  19. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  20. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid

  1. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    PubMed

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( < 0.10) and NDF ( < 0.05) increased compared with dry wheat middlings diets without xylanase (64.50 vs. 54.67% and 52.88 vs. 31.69%, respectively), but supplementation of xylanase did not impact AID of GE and NDF when liquid wheat middlings diets were fed. Xylanase in liquid DDGS diets increased ( < 0.05) the AID of NDF compared with liquid DDGS diets without xylanase, but xylanase did not affect AID of NDF in dry DDGS diets. Xylanase in wheat middlings diets improved ( < 0.05) ATTD of GE and N compared with wheat middlings diets without xylanase (80.37 vs. 78.07% and 80.23 vs. 77.94%, respectively). However, there was no effect of xylanase in DDGS diets. Pigs fed DDGS diets had greater concentrations of butyrate in the cecum ( = 0.001) than pigs fed wheat middlings diets (27.6 vs. 20.4 mmol/L). Pigs fed DDGS diets with xylanase had

  2. Atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in HR-1 hairless mice fed a diet low in magnesium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Makiura, M; Akamatsu, H; Akita, H; Yagami, A; Shimizu, Y; Eiro, H; Kuramoto, M; Suzuki, K; Matsunaga, K

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to develop an animal model for atopic dermatitis. HR-1 hairless mice fed a diet with reduced magnesium and zinc levels were compared with mice fed a standard diet. Skin dryness and wrinkle-like changes, scratching behaviour, decreased skin water content, increased transepidermal water loss and raised blood immunoglobulin E levels were seen in the group receiving the reduced magnesium and zinc diet compared with control mice. There were no significant differences in body weight or the weight of the major organs between the two groups. Haematological examination in both groups was normal apart from increased immunoglobulin E levels in mice fed a reduced magnesium and zinc diet. These mice may be useful models of atopic dermatitis; preparation of the animals is not particularly time consuming, the reproducibility is 100%, and atopic dermatitis symptoms occur even in a specific pathogen-free environment. PMID:15303770

  3. Effects of copper sulfate supplement on growth, tissue concentration, and ruminal solubilities of molybdenum and copper in sheep fed low and high molybdenum diets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, M.; Veira, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Each of four groups of six wethers were fed one of a low molybdenum, high molybdenum, high molybdenum plus copper sulfate, or high molybdenum plus copper sulfate corn silage-based diet for ad libitum intake for 221 days. Average daily gains and ratios of feed/gain were depressed for the high molybdenum diet as compared with the low molybdenum diet suggesting molybdenum toxicity in sheep fed the high molybdenum diet. This was alleviated partly by the copper sulfate supplement. The supplement also decreased solubility of both copper and molybdenum in the rumen but had no effect on copper concentration in blood plasma. Concentration of molybdenum was higher in both liver and kidney in sheep fed high-molybdenum diets as compared with low-molybdenum diets. Copper concentration was higher in kidneys of sheep fed high-molybdenum diets, but no difference was significant in liver copper between sheep fed diets high or low in molybdenum.

  4. Fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat from lambs fed carob-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Luciano, Giuseppe; Jongberg, Sisse; Bognanno, Matteo; Scerra, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N; Priolo, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Male Comisana lambs were individually stalled and, for 56 days, were fed concentrates with 60% barley (n = 8 lambs), or concentrates in which barley was partially replaced by 24% or 35% carob pulp (n = 9 lambs in each group). The intramuscular fatty acids were analyzed and the color stability, lipid and protein oxidation were measured in fresh meat overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film at 0, 3 or 6 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. Carob pulp increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, including the rumenic acid (P < 0.01), and reduced the saturated fatty acids (P < 0.01) and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (P = 0.01). The meat did not undergo extensive oxidative deterioration and the diet did not affect the oxidative stability parameters. Therefore, carob in lamb diet could increase PUFA in muscle without compromising meat oxidative stability. PMID:25842304

  5. The effects of transportation stress on Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) fed corn-based diet in comparison with wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase.

    PubMed

    Mehraei Hamzekolaei, M H; Zamani Moghaddam, A K; Tohidifar, S S; Dehghani Samani, A; Heydari, A

    2016-08-01

    Harvesting, handling and transporting quails to the slaughterhouses, other farms and laboratories might covertly reduce their welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two major sources of energy in poultry nutrition on reducing transportation stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica). Male quails (n = 60) were divided into two groups. The first group was fed corn-based diet, and the second was fed wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase. At the end of the experiment (day 35), quails were subjected to 80 km of transportation. Immediately on arrival and after 24 h, heterophil counts, lymphocyte counts and H:L ratios were measured. On arrival, H counts were lower, L counts were higher, and H:L ratios were lower for corn-fed group. After 24 h, wheat-fed group showed lower increment of H counts, greater increment of L counts and also decrement of H:L ratios rather than corn-fed group which showed increment of H:L ratios. However, these ratios were still lower in corn-fed group. Results indicate that corn-based diets can help Japanese quail to better resist transportation stress, although it seems that feeding wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase and phytase could have positive effects for coping better with stress after journeys. PMID:26459218

  6. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids in rats fed various high fat diets or a low fat/high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Haug, A; Eilertsen, E

    1989-03-01

    The effect of feeding various diets on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and on fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was studied in rats fed for 7 wk diets containing 42% of energy as either coconut oil (CO), sunflower seed oil (SO), fish body oil (FBO), cod liver oil (CLO), or a low fat/high sucrose diet (SU). Triacylglycerols (TG) in whole plasma and VLDL + LDL were lower in rats fed high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than in those fed the CO diet. Plasma HDL2 components in FBO and CLO groups were generally lower than in the other groups. Percentages of liver and heart linoleic and arachidonic acid were higher in the SO group, but lower in groups fed marine oils, than in the CO group. There was a high relative amount of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in liver and heart of rats fed marine oils. Fecal excretion of bile acids was lower in the PUFA groups than in the CO group, whereas the sum of neutral sterols was similar in all groups. Plasma HDL2 (and VLDL + LDL) correlated positively, but HDL3 negatively, with fecal bile acid excretion. Accordingly, increased bile acid excretion does not seem to account for hypolipemia following intake of PUFA diets. PMID:2921639

  7. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hollmann, Manfred; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Sabitzer, Sonja; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants. PMID:24349094

  8. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase knockout mice show resistance to obesity when fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Ito, Takahito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Nanchi, Isamu; Notoya, Mitsuru; Oka, Shogo; Yukioka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone secreted from stomach. Since the discovery that acylation of the serine-3 residue by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for exerting its functions, GOAT has been regarded as an therapeutic target for attenuating appetite, and thus for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, contrary to the expectations, GOAT-knockout (KO) mice have not shown meaningful body weight reduction, under high-fat diet. Here, in this study, we sought to determine whether GOAT has a role in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism with a focus on dietary sucrose, because macronutrient composition of diet is important for appetite regulation. We found that peripherally administered acylated-ghrelin, but not unacylated one, stimulated sucrose consumption in a two-bottle-drinking test. The role of acylated-ghrelin in sucrose preference was further supported by the finding that GOAT KO mice consumed less sucrose solution compared with WT littermates. Then, we investigated the effect of dietary composition of sucrose on food intake and body weight in GOAT KO and WT mice. As a result, when fed on high-fat diet, food intake and body weight were similar between GOAT KO and WT mice. However, when fed on high-fat, high-sucrose diet, GOAT KO mice showed significantly reduced food intake and marked resistance to obesity, leading to amelioration of glucose metabolism. These results suggest that blockade of acylated-ghrelin production offers therapeutic potential for obesity and metabolic disorders caused by overeating of palatable food. PMID:26645250

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of diet supplementation with bacterial levan in cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Belghith, Karima Srih; Dahech, Imen; Hamden, Khaled; Feki, Abdelfattah; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Belghith, Hafedh

    2012-05-01

    Levan polysaccharide, a type of fructan, has been shown to have industrial applications as a new industrial gum in the fields of cosmetics, foods like dietary fiber and pharmaceutical goods. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of levan in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Animals were allocated into four groups of six rats each: a normal diet group (Control), normal rats received levan (L), a high-cholesterol diet group (Chol) and a high-cholesterol diet with a daily dose of levan equivalent to 5%. Treated hypercholesterolemic rats were administrated with levan in drinking water through oral gavage for 60 days. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with levan polysaccharide positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) in cholesterol-rats, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Levan could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index. PMID:22433476

  10. Caecal environment of rats fed far East Asian-modelled diets.

    PubMed

    An, Choa; Kuda, Takashi; Yazaki, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon

    2014-05-01

    To clarify the effect of type of foods on the intestinal environment, Far East Asian- (FEA; rich in rice starch, soy protein and soy oil) and Far East Asian marine- (FEAM; rich in rice starch, fish meal, fish oil and brown alga) modelled diets and sucrose, casein and beef tallow-rich (SCB) diet were prepared. After the 2-week administration of diets in rats, caecal organic acids and putrefactive compounds (ammonia, indole, phenol and H2S, which are regarded as putative risk factors for tumours) were determined. The caecal microbiota was also analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing with bar-coded primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Levels of n-butyrate, acetate, indole and phenol were high in rats fed FEA. On the other hand, H2S was clearly suppressed by both FEA and FEAM comparing with SCB. These results suggest that FEAM is preferable to FEA for optimal intestinal environment and host health. Both microbial analyses showed that the diversity of microbiota in the FEAM group was lower than in the other diet groups. Ratio of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in the SCB group was about 5:4:1. Firmicutes, particularly Lachnospiraceae, was promoted by FEA and FEAM. PMID:24531270

  11. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  12. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, M. J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M. R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  13. Modeling Energy Dynamics in Mice with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Fed High Calorie Diets

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Nichole D.; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D.; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies show that lean mass or strength is positively associated with metabolic health. Mice deficient in myostatin, a growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, have increased muscle and body weights and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Their leanness is often attributed to higher energy expenditure in the face of normal food intake. However, even obese animals have an increase in energy expenditure compared to normal weight animals suggesting this is an incomplete explanation. We have previously developed a computational model to estimate energy output, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient from food intake and body composition measurements to more accurately account for changes in body composition in rodents over time. Here we use this approach to understand the dynamic changes in energy output, intake, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient in muscular mice carrying a dominant negative activin receptor IIB expressed specifically in muscle. We found that muscular mice had higher food intake and higher energy output when fed either chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks compared to WT mice. Transgenic mice also matched their rate of fat oxidation to the rate of fat consumed better than WT mice. Surprisingly, when given a choice between high-fat diet and Ensure® drink, transgenic mice consumed relatively more calories from Ensure® than from the high-fat diet despite similar caloric intake to WT mice. When switching back and forth between diets, transgenic mice adjusted their intake more rapidly than WT to restore normal caloric intake. Our results show that mice with myostatin inhibition in muscle are better at adjusting energy intake and output on diets of different macronutrient composition than WT mice to maintain energy balance and resist weight gain. PMID:27076790

  14. Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters and Phospholipids in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Wiesner, Philipp; Choi, Soo-Ho; Almazan, Felicidad; Pattison, Jennifer; Deer, Elena; Sayaphupha, Tiffany; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model has been developed to study early events of atherogenesis. This model utilizes optically transparent zebrafish larvae, fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD), to monitor processes of vascular inflammation in live animals. Because lipoprotein oxidation is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, in this study, we characterized the oxidized lipid milieu in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that feeding an HCD for only 2 weeks resulted in up to 70-fold increases in specific oxidized cholesteryl esters, identical to those present in human minimally oxidized LDL and in murine atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of oxidized phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and of various lysophosphatidylcholines were also significantly elevated. Moreover, lipoproteins isolated from homogenates of HCD-fed larvae induced cell spreading as well as ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK phosphorylation in murine macrophages. Removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins from the zebrafish homogenates with an anti-human LDL antibody, as well as reducing lipid hydroperoxides with ebselen, resulted in inhibition of macrophage activation. The TLR4 deficiency in murine macrophages prevented their activation with zebrafish lipoproteins. Using biotinylated homogenates of HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that their components bound to murine macrophages, and this binding was effectively competed by minimally oxidized LDL but not by native LDL. These data provide evidence that molecular lipid determinants of proatherogenic macrophage phenotypes are present in large quantities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish larvae and support the use of the HCD-fed zebrafish as a valuable model to study early events of atherogenesis. PMID:20710028

  15. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  16. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Glossogyne tenuifolia in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Lin, Wan-Teng; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2016-05-01

    Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) Cassini is a special herbal tea in the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, and has a long history of being used as an antipyretic, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory remedy in folk medicine among local residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from GT on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in animals. Five- to 6-week-old male Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 14) for different treatments, that is: control group (C), high-fat/cholesterol (HF) group, HF diet containing 0.5% (GT0.5) and 1.5% (GT1.5) GT extracts for 4 weeks. Hamsters fed with 0.5% GT powder as well as 1.5% GT powder exhibited reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), conjugated diene of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased serum antioxidant capacity, but 1.5% GT powder was more potent at lowering serum LDL cholesterol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations than 0.5% GT. GT extracts significantly lowered liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration by diminishing activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). In addition, fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids were increased in GT extract groups. In conclusion, GT extracts increase the antioxidative capacity, decrease serum TC, inhibit the activities of FAS and G-6-PDH, and further reduce liver TG accumulation in hamster fed on atherogenic diets. PMID:27152981

  17. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  18. Changes in mineral composition of eggshells from black ducks and mallards fed DDE in the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.; Kreitzer, J.F.; Spann, J.W.

    1971-01-01

    Diets containing 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to black ducks, and diets containing 1, 5, and 10 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to mallards. Among the results were the following changes in black duck eggshell composition: (a) significant increase in the percentage of Mg, (b) significant decreases in Ba and Sr, (c) increases (which approached significance) in average percentage of eggshell Na and Cu, (d) a decrease in shell Ca which approached significance, (e) patterns of mineral correlations which in some instances were distinct to dosage groups, and (f) inverse correlations in the control group between eggshell thickness Mg and Na. Changes in mallard eggshells were: (a) significant increase in percentage of magnesium at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (b) significant decrease in Al at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (c) a significant decrease in Ca from eggshells from the 10 ppm DDE group, and (d) an increase in average percentage of Na in eggshells from DDE dosed ducks which approached significance.

  19. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-11-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of UC-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( UC-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from UC-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of UC-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of UC-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides.

  20. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease. PMID:27040277

  1. Growth, nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of pigs fed high-fiber diets.

    PubMed

    Moore, R J; Kornegay, E T; Grayson, R L; Lindemann, M D

    1988-06-01

    Two trials (24 and 48 pigs; 9.7 kg initial body weight) were conducted to determine the effects of dietary fiber on growth, nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of young pigs. The four diets fed were: basal corn-soybean meal (B), 15% oat hulls (OH), 15% soybean hulls (SH), and 20% alfalfa meal (AM). Fiber source did not have major effects on performance in a 35-d feeding trial. Balance trials (7-d duration) were conducted 32 d (Trial 1) or 6 d (Trial 2) after completion of the feeding trials. Feed intakes were equalized at 8.7% (Trial 1) or 10.3% (Trial 2) of initial body weight (kg.75). All fiber sources decreased apparent digestibilities of N, energy and dry matter (P less than .05) with no effect on N retention. Apparent digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and hemicellulose were reduced by OH and AM (P less than .01), but not by SH. Fiber sources did not affect apparent Ca, P, Zn or Mn absorption or retention, or Mg absorption, but decrease Mg retention (P less than .05). Apparent Na absorption was decreased by OH and increased by AM (P less than .05) but was unaffected by SH. All fiber sources increased K intake, but only SH and AM increased apparent K absorption (P less than .05). Fiber sources did not affect Na or K retention. The OH increased Cu intake and balance (P less than .05). All fiber sources increased Fe intake, but only SH and AM increased (P less than .05) Fe balance. Villus shape and surface morphology in jejunum and ileum examined by scanning electron microscopy (Trial 1 only) appeared to be independent of diet. However, jejunum villus morphologies of two pigs fed AM were characterized by loss of epithelial cells and microvilli at the villus apex, and ileum villi were blunted and frequently folded in one pig fed SH. Fiber sources at the levels included in a corn-soybean meal diet fed in this study had only a minimal impact on performance and utilization of minerals and N and intestinal structure, although

  2. Obesogenic phenotype of offspring of dams fed a high multivitamin diet is prevented by a post-weaning high multivitamin or high folate diet

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Clara E.; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Reza-López, Sandra A.; Huot, Pedro S.P.; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Background High multivitamin (10-fold AIN-93G, HV) diets fed during pregnancy to Wistar rats increase characteristics of metabolic syndrome in offspring when weaned to the recommended vitamin (RV) diet. Objective To determine if the effects of HV gestational diets on obesogenic phenotypes in the offspring arise as a consequence of altered hypothalamic control of feeding behavior and if their increased food intake could be prevented by feeding them HV or high folate (10-fold folate, HFol) diets. Methods Male offspring of dams fed HV diet during pregnancy weaned to RV, HV or HFol diets were compared to those born to RV dams and weaned to RV diet for 29 weeks. Food intake over 72 hours and body weight were measured bi-weekly and weekly, respectively. Glucose response to a glucose load was measured at 18 weeks post-weaning. Hypothalamic gene expression of feeding-related neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), insulin receptor, leptin receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), receptors for dopamine (DopaR1/2/5) and serotonin (SeroR1A/2A/2C), as well as global DNA methylation and brain and plasma folate concentrations were measured at 29 weeks post-weaning. Results HV or HFol pup diets increased brain and plasma folate concentrations and prevented the increase in food intake (5%, P=0.03), body weight (8%, P=0.0006) and glucose response to a glucose load (36%, P=0.02) found in those fed the RV diet. Expression of anorexigenic POMC (P=0.004) and BDNF (P=0.02) was higher, and DopaR1 was lower (P=0.06) in pups fed the HV diet. The HFol pup diet partially brought BDNF to the control level (P=0.02) and lowered SeroR2A (P=0.008). Expression of other genes was unaffected. Global DNA methylation was similar among the diet groups. Conclusion The obesogenic phenotype in offspring from HV fed dams is prevented by feeding HV or HFol pup diets, possibly due to post-weaning modulation of food intake regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23295499

  3. Bardoxolone methyl prevents the development and progression of cardiac and renal pathophysiologies in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Camer, Danielle; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Wang, Hongqin; Dinh, Chi H L; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity caused by the consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet is a major risk factor for the development of associated complications, such as heart and kidney failure. A semi-synthetic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl (BM) was administrated to mice fed a HF diet for 21 weeks to determine if it would prevent the development of obesity-associated cardiac and renal pathophysiologies. Twelve week old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a lab chow (LC), HF (40% fat), or a HF diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day BM in drinking water. After 21 weeks, the left ventricles of hearts and cortex of kidneys of mice were collected for analysis. Histological analysis revealed that BM prevented HF diet-induced development of structural changes in the heart and kidneys. BM prevented HF diet-induced decreases in myocyte number in cardiac tissue, although this treatment also elevated cardiac endothelin signalling molecules. In the kidneys, BM administration prevented HF diet-induced renal corpuscle hypertrophy and attenuated endothelin signalling. Furthermore, in both the hearts and kidneys of mice fed a HF diet, BM administration prevented HF diet-induced increases in fat accumulation, macrophage infiltration and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) gene expression. These findings suggest that BM prevents HF diet-induced developments of cardiac and renal pathophysiologies in mice fed a chronic HF diet by preventing inflammation. Moreover, these results suggest that BM has the potential as a therapeutic for preventing obesity-induced cardiac and renal pathophysiologies. PMID:26612656

  4. Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (p<0.05) for animals fed corn relative to those fed SH or TH. Time expended in rumination and total chewing time were higher (p<0.05) for animals fed TH than those fed SH or corn. In vivo nutrient digestibilities were similar for all dietary treatments and averaged 69.6%, 74.8%, 69.9%, and 61.8% for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and NDF, respectively. Feeding SH relative to TH and corn decreased ruminal pH (p<0.05) and increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05). However, ruminal NH3-N concentration was higher (p<0.05) for animal fed TH than for those fed SH or corn. Abdominal distension and ruminal biofilm production were greater (p<0.05) in animals fed corn or SH than in those fed TH. It was concluded that replacing corn with SH or TH up to 15% of the diet DM in a cactus-based diet had no effect on nutrient intakes or total tract nutrient utilization. Changes in ruminal fermentation parameters reflected differences in ruminal degradability between the two fiber sources. Bermudagrass tifton hay was more effective than SH in reducing the risk of bloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants. PMID:19731062

  5. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. PMID:25104767

  6. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation. PMID:22866890

  7. Nrf2 Deficiency Improves Glucose Tolerance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. PMID:23017736

  8. Bardoxolone methyl prevents insulin resistance and the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Camer, Danielle; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Dinh, Chi H L; Wang, Hongqin; Cheng, Licai; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    High-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. We examined the hypothesis that bardoxolone methyl (BM) would prevent the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a HF diet. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a lab chow (LC), HF (40% fat), or HF diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day BM orally for 21 weeks. Glucose metabolism was assessed using a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Signalling molecules involved in insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid metabolism were examined in liver tissue via western blotting and RT-PCR. BM prevented HF diet-induced insulin resistance and alterations in the protein levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and BDNF, and expression of the insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes. Furthermore, BM prevented fat accumulation in the liver and decreases in the β-oxidation gene, peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX) in mice fed a HF diet. In the livers of HF fed mice, BM administration prevented HF diet-induced macrophage infiltration, inflammation as indicated by reduced IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein levels and TNFα mRNA expression, and increased nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression and nuclear protein levels. These findings suggest that BM prevents HF diet induced insulin resistance and the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a chronic HF diet through modulation of molecules involved in insulin signalling, lipid metabolism and inflammation in the liver. PMID:26001833

  9. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  10. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Samantha R; Bohrer, Justin C; Prichard, Allan S; Perez, Paola K; Streckenbach, Liana J; Olson, Jake M; Cook, Mark E; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women. PMID:27603698

  11. Exercise Increases and Browns Muscle Lipid in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Tiffany L.; Galior, Kornelia; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Uzer, Gunes; Uzer, Guniz Bas; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Tyson, David; Rubin, Janet; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete’s paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance. HFD mice weighed more than CTL after 18 weeks (p < 0.01). Quadriceps muscle TG was increased in running animals and in sedentary mice fed HFD for 18 weeks (p < 0.05). In exercised animals, markers of fat, Plin1, aP2, FSP27, and Fasn, were increased significantly in HFD groups. Ucp1 and Pgc1a, markers for brown fat, increased with exercise in the setting of high fat feeding. Fndc5, which encodes irisin, and CytC were sensitive to exercise regardless of diet. Plin5 was increased with HFD and unaffected by exercise; the respiratory exchange ratio was 15% lower in the 18-week HFD group compared with CTL (p < 0.001) and 10% lower in 18 weeks HFD-E compared with CTL-E (p < 0.001). Increased Ucp1 and Pgc1a in exercised muscle of running mice suggests that a beige/brown fat phenotype develops, which differs from the fat phenotype that induces insulin resistance in high fat feeding. This suggests that increased muscle lipid may develop a “brown” phenotype in the setting of endurance exercise training, a shift that is further promoted by HFD. PMID:27445983

  12. Neurobehavioural effects of professional abalone diving.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, A M; Clarke, B; Edmonds, C

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 33 commercial abalone divers from the Port Lincoln area of South Australia nervous system function was examined using a battery of neurobehavioural tests. Their performance was compared with that of non-diver controls matched for age, sex, education level, job type, language abilities, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. Abalone divers showed significantly poorer vision, learning, and short term memory performance and increased tremor relative to their controls. The reaction time of abalone divers, however, was as fast as or significantly faster than that of controls but their error rates were much higher, indicating that abalone divers were sacrificing speed for accuracy. Despite their apparent risk taking approach to these tests, the performance of abalone divers suggests some impairment of nervous system function. PMID:3620368

  13. Myocardial stereological adaptations in wistar rats fed with different high-fat diets during 18 months.

    PubMed

    Aguila, M B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2001-12-01

    This study has the purpose of investigating the influence of different high-fat experimental diets on myocardial structure in rats. Twenty-seven male rats were fed from 21 d old (postnatal age) until 18 mo old with one of the following supplemented diets: soybean oil (S) (n= 6), canola oil (CA) (n= 8), or lard and egg yolk (LE) (n= 6) or canola oil+ lard and egg yolk (CA+LE) (n=7). The blood pressure (BP) was measured, and after the sacrifice the cardiac biometry and the myocardial stereology were determined: cross-sectional area of cardiomyocyte (A), volume density (Vv), surface density (Sv), and length density (Lv) in relation to the cardiomyocytes (cm), connective tissue (ct), and blood vessels (v). The CA group rats had lower BP, A[cm], and Vv[ct]; they had greater Vv[cm], Sv[cm], Vv[v], Lv[v], and Sv[v] than the other groups. The S rats had intermediary values for the myocardium and blood vessel parameters between the CA and LE group rats. These results support the notion that the long-term use of canola oil in the diet is better to preserve the myocardium structure, including microvascularization, than soybean oil or lard and egg yolk. PMID:11922113

  14. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of

  15. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and fecal neutral sterol excretion are altered in hamsters fed straw mushroom diets.

    PubMed

    Cheung, P C

    1998-09-01

    The effect of the fruiting body and mycelium of Volvariella volvacea (straw mushroom) on the concentrations of plasma lipids, liver cholesterol, fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretions was investigated in male Golden Syrian hamsters. The hamsters were fed a purified hypercholesterolemic diet (0.1% cholesterol, 10% fat) for 4 wk to elevate plasma lipid concentrations. Twelve hamsters with elevated plasma total cholesterol were randomly assigned to each treatment group: control (5% cellulose), mushroom fruiting body (5%) and mushroom mycelium (5%). After 4 wk of mushroom diet consumption, the plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and combined VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (mmol/L) were significantly lower than control in the group fed the fruiting body-diet (40, 38 and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). The liver cholesterol levels were significantly lower in both the mushroom fruiting body- and the mycelium-fed groups (28 and 21% in terms of concentration; 39 and 30% in terms of total content, respectively) (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Fecal neutral sterol excretion in the mushroom fruiting body- and mycelium-fed groups was significantly higher (81 and 74%, respectively) (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Although no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the excretion of fecal bile acids were observed among groups fed the mushroom diets and the control diet, the mushroom fruiting body diet-fed hamsters apparently had less bacterial degradation of cholic acid as indicated by a significantly greater proportion (P < 0.05) of fecal cholic acid than in controls. They also had a significantly lower proportion of fecal deoxycholic acid (P < 0.05). This study suggests that the fruiting body of the straw mushroom lowers elevated plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, whereas the mycelium does not. PMID:9732312

  16. Role of a Bacillus subtilis Direct-Fed Microbial on Digesta Viscosity, Bacterial Translocation, and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults Fed with a Rye-Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Kogut, Michael H.; Vicente, Jose L.; Wolfenden, Ross; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hargis, Billy M.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs), leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of these polysaccharides. Previously, an in vitro study conducted in our laboratory showed that inclusion of certain Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous phytase, lipase, protease, cellulase, and xylanase in high-NSP diets significantly reduced both digesta viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacillus-DFM were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch turkey poults in two independent experiments. In both experiments, day-of-hatch turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON) or a DFM treated diet (n = 25 birds/group). At 10 days-of-age, all turkey poults from experiments 1 and 2 were weighted and 12 turkey poults/group were randomly selected and humanely killed. Liver samples were aseptically collected to evaluate bacterial translocation, and intestinal digesta samples were individually collected to evaluate viscosity. Additionally, in experiment 2 both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters. In both experiments, the treated group showed a reduction in the total number of coliforms in the liver and a reduced digesta viscosity when compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). Turkey poults fed the Bacillus-DFM candidate had increased tibia diameter, breaking strength, ash content, calcium content, and phosphorus content when compared with CON turkey poults. In summary, turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by a reduction in bone mineralization; however, these adverse effects can be prevented by the inclusion of selected a Bacillus

  17. Feeding frequency has diet-dependent effects on plasma hormone concentrations but does not affect oocyte quality in dairy heifers fed fibre- or starch-based diets.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Ainslie, A; Watt, R G; Alink, F M; McEvoy, T G; Sinclair, K D; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2008-09-01

    The post-fertilisation developmental capacity of bovine oocytes recovered by ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration (ovum pick-up, OPU) is influenced by diet-induced changes in hormone and metabolite concentrations. The objectives of this experiment were first to determine whether post-prandial changes in hormone concentrations, induced by changing the frequency of feeding, influenced oocyte quality and second whether changes in plasma glucagon concentration were associated with oocyte quality. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, Holstein heifers (six per treatment) were fed either fibre- or starch-based diets containing either 189 or 478 g starch/kg dry matter. The diets were offered in either two or four equal meals per day and supplied twice the maintenance energy requirement. Blood samples were obtained both at weekly intervals (three samples per heifer, collected before feeding) during the experiment and throughout an entire 24-h period (15 or 17 samples per heifer for twice or four times daily-fed heifers, respectively). Each heifer underwent six sessions of OPU (twice weekly) beginning 25 days after introduction of the diets. Oocyte quality was assessed by development to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal fluid following in vitro fertilisation. Mean weekly plasma insulin concentrations did not differ between diets, but plasma glucagon concentrations were greatest when heifers were fed the starch-based diet twice daily compared with the other diets. When heifers were offered four meals per day, there were no meal-related changes in hormone concentrations. However, when heifers were offered two meals per day, plasma insulin concentration increased after feeding the starch-based, but not the fibre-based diet. Plasma glucagon concentration increased after meals when heifers were fed twice daily and the increase was substantially greater when the starch-based diet was fed. Treatments did not influence (overall mean with mean ± s.e.) ovarian

  18. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  19. Altered Nitrogen Balance and Decreased Urea Excretion in Male Rats Fed Cafeteria Diet Are Related to Arginine Availability

    PubMed Central

    Sabater, David; Arriarán, Sofía; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Romero, María del Mar; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidic diets limit glucose oxidation and favor amino acid preservation, hampering the elimination of excess dietary nitrogen and the catabolic utilization of amino acids. We analyzed whether reduced urea excretion was a consequence of higher NOx; (nitrite, nitrate, and other derivatives) availability caused by increased nitric oxide production in metabolic syndrome. Rats fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days had a higher intake and accumulation of amino acid nitrogen and lower urea excretion. There were no differences in plasma nitrate or nitrite. NOx and creatinine excretion accounted for only a small part of total nitrogen excretion. Rats fed a cafeteria diet had higher plasma levels of glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, and ornithine when compared with controls, whereas arginine was lower. Liver carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I activity was higher in cafeteria diet-fed rats, but arginase I was lower. The high carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity and ornithine levels suggest activation of the urea cycle in cafeteria diet-fed rats, but low arginine levels point to a block in the urea cycle between ornithine and arginine, thereby preventing the elimination of excess nitrogen as urea. The ultimate consequence of this paradoxical block in the urea cycle seems to be the limitation of arginine production and/or availability. PMID:24707502

  20. Reproductive system impairment of mice fed diets containing beluga whale blubber from the St Lawrence estuary and arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Sylvia; Mendoza, Luz Tavera; Fournier, Michel; Brousseau, Pauline; Dégas, V

    2003-06-13

    The toxic potential of naturally relevant mixtures of PCBs and other organohalogens on the reproductive system of C57Bl/6 female mice was assessed. Mice were fed diets in which lipids were replaced by blubber of beluga whales from a highly contaminated population of the Saint Lawrence River, and a less contaminated population from the Arctic Ocean. Ratios of blubber from both sources were mixed in order to perform a dose-response study. Control mice were fed diets for 90 d in which fat was replaced by corn oil or beef tallow. There were no significant effects of diets on body, liver, spleen or thymus weights. Similarly ovulation occurred in all control and experimental groups. However, Graafian follicles from ovaries of mice fed contaminated diets showed abnormal development of oocytes. Cumulus granulosa cells bind normally to the oocyte prior to ovulation and are essential for sperm penetration and fertilization. These cells were absent in both Graafian follicles and ovulated oocytes in the oviduct of all groups fed contaminated diets. Oviducts of these mice revealed evidence of epithelial degeneration. These results suggest the female mouse reproductive system is sensitive to organohalogens and illustrate the toxic potential of contaminant mixtures as found in the less contaminated Arctic population. PMID:12775517

  1. Alterations in some lipid components and Ca2+ ATPase activity in brain of rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Oner, P; Bekpinar, S; Oz, B

    1991-06-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed an atherogenic diet for four months to investigate possible diet-induced lipid alterations and brain Ca2+ ATPase activity. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were found to be increased significantly in both serum and brain while the phospholipid level was decreased in both. The distribution of serum cholesterol between high-density and low-density lipoproteins was altered when compared to control rats with a decrement in HDL-cholesterol and a pronounced increment in LDL-cholesterol. The atherogenic diet resulted in about 50% depression in brain Ca2+ ATPase activity. It is concluded that alterations in ion transport and neurotransmitter release may be expected due to pronounced inhibition of brain Ca2+ ATPase activity in rats fed an atherogenic diet. PMID:1835114

  2. The rapid induction of liver cell death in rats fed a choline-deficient methionine-low diet.

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, A. K.; Ahluwalia, M.; Farber, E.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the basis for the cell proliferation seen in the livers of rats fed a choline-deficient methionine-low (CMD) diet is regeneration following hepatocyte cell death and necrosis. Exposure of rats to a CMD diet for 2 weeks was found to induce liver cell loss and necrosis as monitored by three different approaches: 1) histologic examination, 2) serum sorbitol dehydrogenase assay, and 3) measurement of the total radioactivity in liver DNA prelabeled during a prior period of regeneration. These observations suggest that the basis for liver cell proliferation in rats fed a CMD diet probably resides in the cell loss and necrosis induced in the liver by the deficient diet. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6650660

  3. Unexpected depletion of plasma arachidonate and total protein in cats fed a low arachidonic acid diet due to peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Amy; Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Bigley, Karen; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    An opportunity to investigate a low-arachidonic acid (AA) feline diet possibly related to elevated peroxide value (PV) during storage on plasma phospholipid (PL) and reproductive tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles presented itself in the present study. Cats (nine animals per group) had been fed one of three dry extruded, complete and balanced diets for 300 d before spaying. The diets contained adequate AA (0.3 g/kg), similar concentration of antioxidants and were stored at ambient temperature, but differed in FA composition. The diets were designated as follows: diet A (high linoleic acid), diet B (high γ-linolenic acid) and diet C (adequate linoleic acid). Diet samples that were obtained the week before spaying revealed an elevated PV of diet A v. diets B and C (135 v. 5.80 and 2.12 meq/kg fat, respectively). Records revealed decreased food consumption of diet A cats beginning at 240 d but without weight loss; thus an opportunity presented to investigate diet PV effects. Total plasma protein and PL-AA concentrations in group A were significantly decreased at 140 and 300 d. Uterine and ovarian tissues collected at surgery revealed modest decrements of AA. Diet A was below minimum standards at 0.015 % (minimum 0.02 %), probably due to oxidation. The time at which diet A became unacceptable may have occurred between 60 and 140 d because plasma PL-AA was within our normal colony range (approximately 4-7 % relative) after 56 d of feeding. High-linoleic acid-containing diets may be more likely to be oxidised requiring additional antioxidants. The findings suggest that reduced plasma protein in combination with plasma AA concentrations may serve as biomarkers of diet peroxidation in cats before feed refusal, weight loss or tissue depletion. PMID:22005409

  4. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P < 0.05) energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P < 0.05) by 192 and 145 kcal/kg, respectively, when diets were supplemented with 100 FXU/kg xylanase. The xylanase added to the CN diet led to quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in IDE (Y = - 0.014x(2) + 2.570x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.60) and in AMEn (Y = - 0.016x(2) + 3.982x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.68). Crude protein digestibility and AMEn were linearly increased (P < 0.05) when xylanase was added to the CN diet. In conclusion, energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg. PMID:26976897

  5. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were fed a control low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat)(C-LF) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat)(HF45) for a period of 72 days. Dietary treatments included: 1) C-LF; 2) C-LF + blueberry juice in place of drinking water; 3) C-LF + anthocyanins in the drinking water...

  6. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout. PMID:25119853

  7. Effects of dietary amylase and sucrose on productivity of cows fed low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Engstrom, M; Azem, E; Bradford, B J

    2014-07-01

    .12) or sucrose (1.60 ± 0.12) treatment, but the combination of the 2 resulted in feed efficiency similar to the control treatment (both 1.50 ± 0.12). The inclusion of amylase or sucrose did not affect DMI, productivity, or feed efficiency in mid-lactation cows fed low-starch, high-fiber diets. PMID:24792809

  8. Characteristics of Fluid Composition of Left Displaced Abomasum in Beef Cattle Fed High-Starch Diets

    PubMed Central

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; KIKUCHI, Tomoko; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid. PMID:24813464

  9. Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets.

    PubMed

    Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-02-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance. PMID:24315324

  10. Integrin α1-null Mice Exhibit Improved Fatty Liver When Fed a High Fat Diet Despite Severe Hepatic Insulin Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ashley S.; Kang, Li; Zheng, Jenny; Grueter, Carrie; Bracy, Deanna P.; James, Freyja D.; Pozzi, Ambra; Wasserman, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic insulin resistance is associated with increased collagen. Integrin α1β1 is a collagen-binding receptor expressed on hepatocytes. Here, we show that expression of the α1 subunit is increased in hepatocytes isolated from high fat (HF)-fed mice. To determine whether the integrin α1 subunit protects against impairments in hepatic glucose metabolism, we analyzed glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HF-fed integrin α1-null (itga1−/−) and wild-type (itga1+/+) littermates. Using the insulin clamp, we found that insulin-stimulated hepatic glucose production was suppressed by ∼50% in HF-fed itga1+/+ mice. In contrast, it was not suppressed in HF-fed itga1−/− mice, indicating severe hepatic insulin resistance. This was associated with decreased hepatic insulin signaling in HF-fed itga1−/− mice. Interestingly, hepatic triglyceride and diglyceride contents were normalized to chow-fed levels in HF-fed itga1−/− mice. This indicates that hepatic steatosis is dissociated from insulin resistance in HF-fed itga1−/− mice. The decrease in hepatic lipid accumulation in HF-fed itga1−/− mice was associated with altered free fatty acid metabolism. These studies establish a role for integrin signaling in facilitating hepatic insulin action while promoting lipid accumulation in mice challenged with a HF diet. PMID:25593319

  11. Allergic proctocolitis refractory to maternal hypoallergenic diet in exclusively breast-fed infants: a clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic proctocolitis (APC) in exclusively breast-fed infants is caused by food proteins, deriving from maternal diet, transferred through lactation. In most cases a maternal cow milk-free diet leads to a prompt resolution of rectal bleeding, while in some patients a multiple food allergy can occur. The aim of this study was to assess whether the atopy patch test (APT) could be helpful to identify this subgroup of patients requiring to discontinue breast-feeding due to polisensitization. Additionally, we assessed the efficacy of an amino acid-based formula (AAF) when multiple food allergy is suspected. amino acid-based formula Methods We have prospectively enrolled 14 exclusively breast-fed infants with APC refractory to maternal allergen avoidance. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy with biopsies. Skin prick tests and serum specific IgE for common foods, together with APTs for common foods plus breast milk, were performed. After a 1 month therapy of an AAF all patients underwent a follow-up rectosigmoidoscopy. Results Prick tests and serum specific IgE were negative. APTs were positive in 100% infants, with a multiple positivity in 50%. Sensitization was found for breast milk in 100%, cow's milk (50%), soy (28%), egg (21%), rice (14%), wheat (7%). Follow-up rectosigmoidoscopy confirmed the remission of APC in all infants. Conclusions These data suggest that APT might become a useful tool to identify subgroups of infants with multiple gastrointestinal food allergy involving a delayed immunogenic mechanism, with the aim to avoid unnecessary maternal dietary restrictions before discontinuing breast-feeding. PMID:21762530

  12. Characterization of protected designation of origin Italian meat products obtained from heavy pigs fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Gallo, A; Faeti, V; Della Casa, G

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of protected designation of origin (PDO) Parma ham and Piacentina neck obtained from heavy pigs (Italian Duroc × Italian Large White) fed barley-based diets. Four diets were tested: 1) a corn-based diet (control), 2) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulled barley variety (Cometa), 3) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulless barley variety (Astartis), and 4) the control diet with 80% of a low-amylose hulless barley variety (Alamo). All the meat products were analyzed for physicochemical and color parameters. The dry-cured hams and necks were also evaluated for sensory properties. The data of physicochemical, color, and sensory parameters were separately analyzed by multivariate factor analysis, and interpretation of each extracted factor was based on specific original variables loading on each one. The meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets differed from those obtained from the control pigs on the PUFA factors characterized by C18:2-6 and omega-3:omega-6 ratio. In particular, the meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets had a lower content of C18:2-6 and a higher omega-3:omega-6 ratio ( < 0.05) than the control. In fresh hams, iodine number and SFA (C16:0 and C18:0) in addition to PUFA and omega-3:omega-6 ratio loaded on the PUFA/SFA factor. The fresh hams produced from pigs fed the barley-based diets had subcutaneous fat (SC) with a lower iodine number and a higher SFA level compared with those produced from the control pigs ( < 0.05). A sex effect was measured for PUFA/SFA and oleic acid factors. In particular, the barrow SC had a lower SFA content, higher PUFA and C18:1-9 levels, and a higher iodine number ( < 0.05) than the gilt SC. There were no appreciable differences in the color and sensory properties of meat products obtained from pigs fed the different diets. The hams from barrows differed from those obtained from gilts on

  13. Dietary chitosan improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiali; Liu, Jingna; Li, Ling; Xia, Wenshui

    2008-06-01

    The hypolipidemic mechanism of chitosan was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 8): a normal fat control group, a high-fat control group (HF), a positive control group (CR), and 2 chitosan groups (CIS1 and CIS2). Chitosan was fed at the beginning (CIS1) and after 2 weeks (CIS2). A commercial diet with 5% (wt/wt) cellulose (HF), cholestyramine (CR), or chitosan (CIS1, CIS2) was fed for 6 weeks. Chitosan did not affect food intake but decreased body weight gain and significantly increased fecal fat and cholesterol excretion, reduced the lipid level in plasma and liver, increased liver hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities compared with HF (P < .05), and tended to relieve the degenerated fatty liver tissue. No significant differences in all measurements were found between the CIS1 and CIS2 groups although the CIS1 rats exhibited lower lipid levels compared to those in the CIS2 group. The results suggest that chitosan reduced the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol in vivo and could effectively improve hypercholesterolemia in rats. PMID:19083436

  14. (-)-Epicatechin improves insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cremonini, Eleonora; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Haj, Fawaz G; Fraga, Cesar G; Oteiza, Patricia I

    2016-06-01

    Obesity constitutes a major public health concern, being frequently associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Evidence from studies in humans and experimental animals suggest that consumption of the flavan-3-ol (-)-epicatechin (EC) and of EC-rich foods may improve insulin sensitivity. To further understand the potential benefits of dietary EC consumption on insulin resistance, this study investigated the capacity of EC supplementation to prevent high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice. To assess the underlying mechanisms, the effects of HFD and EC consumption on the activation of the insulin cascade and of its negative modulators were evaluated. HFD consumption for 15 w caused obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice as evidenced by high fasted and fed plasma glucose and insulin levels, and impaired ITT and GTT tests. This was associated with alterations in the activation of components of the insulin-triggered signaling cascade (insulin receptor, IRS1, ERK1/2, Akt) in adipose and liver tissues. EC supplementation prevented/ameliorated all these parameters. EC acted improving insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice in part through a downregulation of the inhibitory molecules JNK, IKK, PKC and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Thus, the above results suggest that consumption of EC-rich foods could constitute a dietary strategy to mitigate obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:26968772

  15. Hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of "triguero" asparagus from andalusia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    García, M D; De la Puerta, R; Sáenz, M T; Marquez-Martín, A; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2012-01-01

    The cultivated species of the wild autochthonous Asparagus officinalis in Andalusia in Spain is commonly called "triguero" asparagus. This vegetable has traditionally been very much appreciated for its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. This study has been designed to evaluate the potential effect of different concentrations of freeze-dried asparagus (500, 250, and 125 mg/Kg of body weight/day) on oxidative status and lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After five weeks of treatment, doses of 250 and 500 mg/Kg of asparagus were able to significantly reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Atherogenic index was also significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by administrating freeze-dried asparagus. A beneficial effect was observed in the HDL cholesterol levels in asparagus-fed groups although the increase was not significant. Consumption of asparagus also improved antioxidant status, assayed superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, and protected against lipid peroxidation. These results show that the intake of green asparagus from Andalusia (Spain) helps to regulate plasma lipid levels and prevents oxidative damage in hypercholesterolemic conditions. PMID:22203881

  16. Performance of feedlot lambs fed palm kernel cake-based diets.

    PubMed

    da Conceição dos Santos, Rozilda; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Leite, Gilmara Pinto; Araújo, Marcio Yuri de Souza

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-four castrated male lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 0.35 kg were randomly assigned to five treatments that consisted of different levels of palm kernel cake in the diet (0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 % on a DM basis) in order to evaluate the effects on intake, digestibility, empty body weight, and body gain composition. The intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) presented with a decreasing linear effect. However, the intakes of EE and NDF presented with increased linear results as the palm kernel cake was added to the concentrate. There was a quadratic effect for the digestibility coefficient of all nutrients, except for NFC. The palm kernel cake had a decreasing linear effect on final body weight, empty body weight, and the average daily gain of the animals that were fed increased levels of palm kernel cake. The inclusion of palm kernel cake as a partial substitute for concentrate decreases the intake of the majority of nutrients, except for EE and NDF, and consequently, causes deleterious effects on the nutrient digestibility and performance of lambs that are fed a 50:50 roughage/concentrate ratio. PMID:26630901

  17. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Claudia E.; Vargas, Mirian; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA), serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the diets and femur weight (FW) of the rats were evaluated. Results During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9), which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001). Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets. PMID:26626410

  18. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  19. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Kalra, Satya P; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 10(7) particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  20. The effect of fluoride on bone of rats fed diets deficient in calcium or phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, K; Simkin, A; Wolinsky, I

    1976-11-24

    Four groups of weanling rats were fed for 2 weeks on a diet sufficient or insufficient in calcium and/or phosphorus. Each group was divided into four subgroups which were offered distilled water supplemented with 0, 50, 75, or 150 ppm fluoride. High levels of fluoride in drinking water inhibited weight gain. This inhibition was less in rats deficient in phosphorus than when normal-phosphorus diets were offered. At a low level, fluoride was without any effect on bone ash, thickness of femoral cortical bone, and mechanical strength, as measured by maximal load, ultimate stress to breaking, and limit of elasticity. Modulus of elasticity was decreased. At higher levels fluoride tended to decrease most of these parameters, except in rats deprived of both calcium and phosphorus. The effect of fluoride was modified by lack of dietary calcium and/or phosphorus and appeared to be weaker in rats deficient in these nutrients. Lack of dietary calcium and/or phosphorus decreased bone strength more than did fluoride content of water and of bone mineral. Concentration of bone ash and thickness of femoral cortical bone were closely correlated with parameters of mechanical strength. PMID:1000346

  1. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng-Yew; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C.; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:23201770

  2. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal. PMID:26781510

  3. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Sundaram, Sneha

    2016-04-26

    Adipose-produced pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to obesity and cancer. This 2x2 experiment was designed to investigate effects of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) deficiency on pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in MCP-1 deficient and wild-type mice fed a modified AIN93G diet containing 16% and 45% of energy from corn oil, respectively. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of lung metastases compared to the AIN93G control diet. Deficiency in MCP-1 reduced lung metastases by 37% in high-fat diet-fed mice; it reduced metastatic cross-sectional area by 46% and volume by 69% compared to wild-type mice. Adipose and plasma concentrations of MCP-1 were significantly higher in high-fat diet-fed wild-type mice than in their AIN93G-fed counterparts; they were not detectable in MCP-1 deficient mice regardless of diet. Plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were significantly higher in MCP-1 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that adipose-produced MCP-1 contributes to high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis. While MCP-1 deficiency reduces metastasis, the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in the absence of MCP-1 may support the metastatic development and growth of LLC in MCP-1 deficient mice. PMID:27028862

  4. Growth performance and physiological parameters of conventional and specified pathogen-free rats fed autoclaved diets with different protein sources.

    PubMed

    Barszcz, M; Paradziej-Łukowicz, J; Taciak, M; Tuśnio, A; Staśkiewicz, Ł; Muszyńska-Furas, B; Lewandowska, A; Pastuszewska, B; Skomiał, J

    2015-12-01

    The effects of feeding autoclaved commercial SSNIFF (SN) diet and diets containing soya bean (S) and casein (C) to growing conventional (CON) and specified pathogen-free (SPF) rats were determined. Diets S, C and SN, autoclaved at 121 °C during 20 min (T1), at 134 °C during 10 min (T2) and non-autoclaved (T0), were fed during four weeks, each to 8 CON males and 8 females of mean initial body weight 56 g, kept individually. Diets S, C and SN, autoclaved at T1, were fed during two months, each to 20 SPF males and 20 females of mean initial body weight 58 g, kept in group of 5 animals per cage. In CON rats, autoclaving did not affect feed intake and weight gain, decreased thyroid and stomach weight, increased caecal tissue and digesta weight, and concentrations of isobutyric, isovaleric and valeric acid in caecal digesta. Among biochemical blood parameters, autoclaving decreased only total protein concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Feeding C diet resulted in lower feed intake and weight gain in CON and SPF males. Diet affected organ weights and the greatest differences were found in rats on SN diet for weights of stomach, caecum and female reproductive organs. Diet affected concentration of all short-chain fatty acids, pH and weight of caecal digesta, the most important being the greatest butyric acid concentration on SN diet and isoacids on C diet. It is concluded that autoclaving of both soya-containing and soya-free diets does not affect negatively animal performance and physiology. PMID:25475549

  5. Effect of flaxseed physical form on digestibility of lactation diets fed to Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J W; Bauer, M L; Bork, N R

    2014-09-01

    Four multicannulated (rumen, duodenum, and ileum) Holstein steers (459.7±46.4kg of initial body weight) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effect of flaxseed processing method on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. Treatments were based on inclusion of (1) 7.5% linseed meal (control), (2) 10% whole flaxseed, (3) 10% rolled flaxseed, or (4) 10% ground flaxseed on a dry matter (DM) basis, and were formulated to mimic typical high-producing dairy cow lactation diets. The control diet contained linseed meal in a proportion to provide crude protein (CP) equal to the amount of CP contributed by the flaxseed in the other treatments. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained 30% corn silage, 17% chopped alfalfa hay, 6% sugar beet pulp, and 47% concentrate (comprising ground corn, supplemental protein, trace minerals and vitamins, and either flaxseed or linseed meal (DM basis). Diets were formulated to contain 17% CP, 34% neutral detergent fiber, 21% acid detergent fiber, and 4% fatty acid (DM basis). Periods were 14 d long and consisted of 7 d of adaptation and 7 d of sample collection. Dry matter intake (as a % of body weight) was similar (2.41±0.17) for all treatments. The inclusion of flaxseed, regardless of processing method, tended to decrease total-tract organic matter digestibility relative to the linseed control, but no differences in CP intake, duodenal CP flow (bacterial, apparent feed, or total), ileal CP flow, fecal CP output, microbial efficiency, or CP digestibility (apparent ruminal, true ruminal, small intestine, large intestine, or total tract) were observed between treatments. Method of processing did not alter ruminal pH, ammonia, or volatile fatty acids production. The ground flaxseed treatment had the fastest rate of in situ DM degradation (11.25%/h), followed by the control (7.46%/h), rolled flaxseed (4.53%/h), and whole flaxseed (0.57%/h) treatments. Degradability of CP and fat followed the same pattern as DM

  6. Effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets. Sixteen wether lambs (avg initial BW = 28.6 ± 1.3 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square and randomly allotted to one of two treatments b...

  7. Growth and survival of juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas fed artificial diets containing varying levels of digestible protein and energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture methods for queen conch, Strombus gigas, have been established for several decades. However, there is a need to improve husbandry techniques for the growout of juveniles. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and survival of juvenile queen conch fed artificial diets with incr...

  8. Hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats fed with fructose-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Muniandy Narayanan, Jeyabarathy; Jesudoss, Victor A S

    2016-04-01

    Overconsumption of fructose increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is currently one of the most common etiologies of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against fructose-enriched diet-induced rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male albino Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into four groups: group 1, control rats fed with standard pellet; group 2, rats were fed normal pellet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day); group 3, rats were fed fructose enriched diet alone; group 4, rats were fed fructose enriched diet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day). Body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile and hepatic function indicators were increased and HDL reduced in group 3 rats. Liver pathology of group 3 showed marked changes which includes micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, marked inflammatory cell infiltration, sinusoidal fibrosis and with a significant increase in the area percentage of the collagen. Administration of zingerone reversed the fructose enriched diet induced changes especially body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic function indicators and restored pathological alteration of liver. Taken together these data provide new insights into the preventive approach of zingerone against the development of the NAFLD. PMID:26915720

  9. Odor and gas emissions and nutrient excretion from pigs fed diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutrient composition of corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) may contribute to the production of odorous compounds from manure of pigs fed diets containing DDGS. A 10-wk trial was conducted to determine odor and gas characteristics of swine manure, and nitrogen and phosphorus balanc...

  10. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  11. Effects of dietary consumption of cranberry powder on metabolic parameters in growing rats fed high fructose diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of dietary consumption of a cranberry powder (CP) containing increased amounts of procyanidins and other phytochemicals on metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome was investigated in growing rats fed a high fructose diet. Dietary treatments were control (starch based), hig...

  12. Dietary carbohydrate composition modifies the milk N efficiency in late lactation cows fed low crude protein diets.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Peyraud, J L; Lemosquet, S; Molina-Alcaide, E; Boudra, H; Nozière, P; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2014-02-01

    Nitrogen emissions from dairy cows can be readily decreased by lowering the dietary CP concentration. The main objective of this work was to test whether the milk protein yield reduction associated with low N intakes could be partially compensated for by modifying the dietary carbohydrate composition (CHO). The effects of CHO on digestion, milk N efficiency (milk N/N intake; MNE) and animal performance were studied in four Jersey cows fed 100% or 80% of the recommended protein requirements using a 4×4 Latin square design. Four iso-energetic diets were formulated to two different CHO sources (starch diets with starch content of 34.3% and NDF at 32.5%, and fiber diets with starch content of 5.5% and NDF at 49.1%) and two CP levels (Low=12.0% and Normal=16.5%). The apparent digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) and the protein supply (protein digestible in the small intestine; PDIE) were similar between starch and fiber diets. As planned, microbial N flow (MNF) to the duodenum, estimated from the urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, was similar between Low and Normal CP diets. However, the MNF and the efficiency of microbial synthesis (g of microbial N/kg apparently DOMI) were higher for starch v. fiber diets. Milk and milk N fractions (CP, true protein, non-protein N (NPN)) yield were higher for starch compared with fiber diets and for Normal v. Low CP diets. Fecal N excretion was similar across dietary treatments. Despite a higher milk N ouput with starch v. fiber diets, the CHO modified neither the urinary N excretion nor the milk urea-N (MUN) concentration. The milk protein yield relative to both N and PDIE intakes was improved with starch compared with fiber diets. Concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, urea and Glu increased and those of glucose and Ala decreased in plasma of cows fed starch v. fiber diets. On the other hand, plasma concentration of albumin, urea, insulin and His increased in cows fed Normal compared with Low CP diets. This study showed

  13. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet. PMID:26366856

  14. The association between cytokines and intestinal mucosal immunity among broilers fed on diets supplemented with fluorine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Liu, Juan; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yubing

    2013-05-01

    Fluorine (F) bioaccumulation has been reported in the organs and tissues of organisms, including intestine. The intestinal mucosa is very important to the immune development. Meanwhile, cytokines are present in the normal intestinal mucosal and play an important role in the immune function. Thus, changes of the cytokine contents are related to the state of intestinal mucosal immunity. In this study, we investigated the changes in contents of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced by dietary high F in the mucosa of different parts of intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 280 one-day-old healthy avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (F 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The experimental data showed that the contents of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the intestinal mucosa were significantly decreased in the high F groups II and III when compared with those of the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg significantly reduced the contents of aforementioned cytokines in the intestinal mucosa of broilers, which could impact the function of intestinal mucosal immunity through the pathways that decreased the lymphocyte population and/or lymphocyte activation. PMID:23354543

  15. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  16. Water content of faeces is higher in the afternoon than in the morning in morning-fed dogs fed diets containing texturised vegetable protein from soya.

    PubMed

    Hill, Richard C; Burrows, Colin F; Ellison, Gary W; Finke, Mark D; Huntington, Jennifer L; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Faecal moisture content can determine whether faeces appear soft or firm, and faecal character can influence whether owners are satisfied with a dog food. In a previous study, dogs appeared to produce softer faeces after noon. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether time of defecation affected canine faecal water content. A total of eight hound dogs were fed one of four canned diets as a single meal each morning for 1 week per diet in a Latin square design. All four diets contained approximately 77 % moisture and, on a DM basis, 24 MJ/kg gross energy, 23 % crude protein, 32 % crude fat, 31 % N-free extract and 1 % crude fibre. The proportion of dietary protein from soya-derived texturised vegetable protein (TVP):beef was 0:100, 14:86, 29:71 and 57:43, respectively. Soya carbohydrate partially replaced maize starch as TVP increased. Faeces were collected by direct catch during the sixth morning and afternoon of each diet period. Mean faecal moisture content was greater in the afternoon than in the morning (79 v. 71 %; P = 0.01) and increased with dietary TVP (P ≤ 0.0001), and there was an interaction between time of day and percentage TVP (P = 0.003). Faecal moisture content differed from morning to afternoon only with TVP in the diet. Faecal wet weight was similar from morning to afternoon. This suggests that time of day and presence of TVP from soya should be taken into account when evaluating the effect of a diet on faecal form and moisture content in dogs fed once daily. PMID:22005429

  17. Antihyperglycemic effects of fruits of privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Il; Oh, Sung-Hee; Park, Kun-Young; Park, Bum-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Soon-Dong

    2009-02-01

    The protective effects of freeze-dried privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium) fruits (PFs) were observed in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats on a high fat diet by measuring levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, fructosamine, and hepatic reactive oxygen species generating and scavenging enzyme activities. A PF-supplemented diet was prepared by mixing an AIN-76 diet with powdered PF (final concentration, 1% or 2%). It was fed to STZ-induced diabetic rats on a high fat diet for 6 weeks. Diabetic animals receiving the PF-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in body weight, feed efficiency ratio, liver, kidney, and heart weight, and serum glucose, insulin, and fructosamine levels compared with high fat diet-fed diabetic animals. The treatment with PF showed improved hepatic glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase activities as well as glutathione and lipid peroxide levels in the diabetic animals. Intracellular swelling and vacuole formation in diabetic pancreatic beta- and delta-cells were ameliorated by the PF-supplemented diet. Furthermore, necrosis of tubular epithelial cells and dilatation of luminal space in diabetic kidneys exhibited near-noninjured condition. This is the first time an antihyperglycemic effect of L. obtusifolium fruit in STZ-induced diabetic rats has been identified. PMID:19298203

  18. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. PMID:25557903

  20. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P < 0.004; 8.9 vs. 8.1% GEI; P < 0.008) was greater at early, rather than at later, growth. When fed as hay (Exp. 2), sainfoin, compared with alfalfa, had greater digestibility of OM (60.5 vs. 50.3%; P = 0.007), lower digestibility of CP (64.2 vs. 68.8%; P = 0.004), yet there was no difference between the legume hays for CH4 emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for

  1. Lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and enzyme activity in adipose tissue of short- and long-fed Angus and Wagyu steers fed corn- or hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Yano, H; Smith, S B

    2007-02-01

    Angus and Wagyu steers consuming high-roughage diets exhibit large differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition, but there are no differences in terminal measures of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity or gene expression. Also, adipose tissue lipids of cattle fed corn-based diets have greater MUFA:SFA ratios than cattle fed hay-based diets. We hypothesized that any changes in SCD gene expression and activity would precede similar changes in adipose tissue lipogenesis between short- and long-fed endpoints. Furthermore, changes in SCD activity and gene expression between production endpoints would differ between corn- and hay-fed steers and between Wagyu and Angus steers. Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers were fed a corn-based diet for 8 mo (short-fed; 16 mo of age) or 16 mo (long-fed; 24 mo of age), whereas another group of Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers was fed a hay-based diet for 12 mo (short-fed; 20 mo of age) or 20 mo (long-fed; 28 mo of age) to match the end point BW of the corn-fed steers. Acetate incorporation into lipids in vitro was greater (P < 0.01) in corn-fed steers than in hay-fed steers and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in Wagyu than in Angus s.c. adipose tissue because the rate in Wagyu was twice that of Angus adipose tissue in the corn-fed, short-fed steers. There were diet x end point interactions for lipogenesis in i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues (both P < 0.01) because lipogenesis was 60 to 90% lower in the long-fed cattle than in short-fed cattle fed the corn-based diet. The greatest SCD enzyme activity in Angus s.c. adipose tissue was observed at 24 mo of age (corn-based diet), but activity in Wagyu adipose tissue was greatest at 28 mo of age (hay-based diet; breed x diet x end point interaction, P = 0.08). For short- vs. long-fed endpoints in Angus, s.c. adipose tissue SCD activity was less (hay diet) or the same (corn diet). Conversely, SCD gene expression was greatest in long-fed Wagyu steers fed the hay- or corn

  2. Propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, attenuates the decrease in trabecular bone mass in high calorie diet fed growing mice.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Qadir, Abdul S; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of high calorie and low calorie diets on skeletal integrity, and whether β-adrenergic blockade (BB) attenuates bone loss induced by dietary calorie alteration. Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either an ad-lib fed control diet (CON), a high calorie diet (HIGH), or a low calorie diet (LOW) group. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist. Over 12-weeks, β-blockade mitigated body weight and fat mass increases induced by the high calorie diet. Femoral trabecular bone mineral density and the expression levels of osteogenic marker genes in bone marrow cells were reduced in HIGHVEH and LOWVEH mice, and BB significantly attenuated this decline only in HIGH mice. In summary, the magnitude of bone loss induced by low calorie diet was greater than that caused by high calorie diet in growing mice, and β-blockade mitigated high calorie diet-induced bone loss. PMID:24393528

  3. Propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, attenuates the decrease in trabecular bone mass in high calorie diet fed growing mice

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Qadir, Abdul S.; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of high calorie and low calorie diets on skeletal integrity, and whether β-adrenergic blockade (BB) attenuates bone loss induced by dietary calorie alteration. Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either an ad-lib fed control diet (CON), a high calorie diet (HIGH), or a low calorie diet (LOW) group. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist. Over 12-weeks, β-blockade mitigated body weight and fat mass increases induced by the high calorie diet. Femoral trabecular bone mineral density and the expression levels of osteogenic marker genes in bone marrow cells were reduced in HIGHVEH and LOWVEH mice, and BB significantly attenuated this decline only in HIGH mice. In summary, the magnitude of bone loss induced by low calorie diet was greater than that caused by high calorie diet in growing mice, and β-blockade mitigated high calorie diet-induced bone loss. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(9): 506-511] PMID:24393528

  4. Ileal flows and apparent ileal digestibility of fatty acids in growing gilts fed flaxseed containing diets.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Kramer, J K G; de Lange, C F M

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify the ileal flow and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of fatty acids (FA) in growing gilts fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal based diets without (CON) or with ground flaxseed (FS). A total of 20 healthy purebred Yorkshire female pigs, weighing approximately 25 kg BW, were allotted to 1 of 3 feeding regimens: R1 (n = 5 pigs), feeding a diet containing 10% FS between 25 and 50 kg BW and CON diet thereafter, R2 (n = 10 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 85 kg BW and a diet containing 6% FS thereafter, and R3 (n = 5 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 110 kg BW. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to assess AID and ileal flows of crude fat and FA. At 110 kg BW, pigs were slaughtered and representative digesta samples were obtained from the distal ileum. Ileal flows and AID of crude fat and individual FA did not differ (P > 0.10) between R1 and R3, and therefore, results from these 2 feeding regimens were combined to give 2 dietary treatments (CON and FS). There were no treatment effects on AID of crude fat and the sum of all FA, SFA, or MUFA. However, the AID of individual SFA decreased with chain length (linear; P < 0.05) for both FS and CON. The AID of myristic acid (14:0), individual trans-18:1 FA (6t-8t-18:1 to 12t-18:1), myristoleic acid (9c-14:1), and palmitoleic acid (9c-16:1) were greater for CON than FS (P < 0.05) whereas no diet effect was observed for the AID of linoleic acid (18:2n-6; 80.2 and 86.1% for FS and CON, respectively) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; 86.7 and 89.8% for FS and CON, respectively). Ileal flows of rumenic acid (9c11t-CLA), n-3 PUFA, and highly unsaturated FA (HUFA; arachidonic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) exceeded their intakes, indicating net appearance of these FA in the upper gut of the pig. It remains to be determined whether enteric microbiota can elongate and desaturate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 and isomerize 18:2n-6. The

  5. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture.

    PubMed

    Dansen, O; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Jacobs, M P T; Everts, H; van Doorn, D A

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NE/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NE/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P < 0.0001), but NE intake was equal for both diets (22.3 ± 0.07 MJ NEm/d). Organic matter digestibility was lower (P = 0.006) for the R diet (47.2%) than the RC diet (55.6%). Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P < 0.652) after feeding and was numerically lower for the RC diet for all time points throughout the day. For both diets, HP was higher after feeding than before feeding and decreased again within approximately 3 h after feeding. Isoenergetic replacement of roughage by a cereal mix reduces CH4 production in ponies. No clear diurnal pattern in CH4 emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance. PMID:26020214

  6. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  7. Effects of d-α-tocopherol supplements on lipid metabolism in a high-fat diet-fed animal model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Jinkyung; Ham, Hye Jin

    2013-01-01

    High-fat diet up-regulates either insulin resistance or triglycerides, which is assumed to be related to the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ. The beneficial effects of vitamin E on insulin resistance are well known; however, it is not clear if vitamin E with a high-fat diet alters the expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. We investigated the effects of d-α-tocopherol supplementation on insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation, and the expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in a high-fat (HF) diet-fed male C57BL/6J model of insulin resistance. The animals were given a regular diet (CON; 10% fat), a HF diet containing 45% fat, or a HF diet plus d-α-tocopherol (HF-E) for a period of 20 weeks. The results showed that the HF diet induced insulin resistance and altered the lipid profile, specifically the triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (P < 0.05). In this animal model, supplementation with d-α-tocopherol improved insulin resistance as well as the serum levels of TG and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the treatment decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum and liver while increasing hepatic PPAR-α expression and decreasing PPAR-γ expression. In conclusion, the oral administration of d-α-tocopherol with a high-fat diet had positive effects on insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress through the expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in a high-fat diet-fed male mice. PMID:24353834

  8. Growth, training response and health in Standardbred yearlings fed a forage-only diet.

    PubMed

    Ringmark, S; Roepstorff, L; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Revold, T; Lindholm, A; Hedenström, U; Rundgren, M; Ogren, G; Jansson, A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to, from a holistic perspective, describe the effects of a forage-only feeding system and a conventional training program on young Standardbred horses and compare data with similar observations from the literature. Sixteen Standardbred colts fed a forage-only diet for 4 months from breaking (August to December) and with the goal to vigorously trot 5 to 7 km at a speed of 5.6 m/s (3 min/km) were studied. The horses were fed grass haylage (56 to 61% dry matter (DM), 2.80 to 3.02 Mcal DE/kg DM and 130 to 152 g CP/kg DM) ad libitum, 1 kg of a lucerne product and minerals. The amount of training and number of training sessions were documented daily, and feed intake and body development were measured once every month. Heart rate (HR) was measured during and after a standardized exercise test in October and December. In December, a postexercise venous blood sample was collected and analyzed for plasma lactate concentration. Muscle biopsies (m. gluteus medius) were taken and analyzed for glycogen and fiber composition. Health was assessed in October and November by an independent veterinarian using a standardized health scoring protocol. BW and height at withers increased from 402 to 453 kg (root mean square error (RMSE) 6) and from 148.7 to 154.1 cm (RMSE 0.7), respectively, and the body condition score was 4.9 (RMSE 0.2) at the end of the study. Muscle glycogen content was 532 mmol/kg dry weight (s.d. 56). There was a significant decrease in postexercise HR (81 v. 73 bpm, RMSE 8), and the individual amount of training was negatively correlated with HR during and after exercise. Health scores were high and similar at both assessments (8.4 and 8.4 (RMSE 1.0) out of 10; P > 0.05), and the number of lost training days per month due to health problems was <0.9, with the exception of November (5.3 days). It is concluded that yearlings in training fed high-energy forage ad libitum can reach a conventional training goal and grow at least as well as

  9. Experimentally induced cartilaginous fractures (osteochondritis dissecans) in foals fed low-copper diets.

    PubMed

    Bridges, C H; Harris, E D

    1988-07-15

    Four Thoroughbred foals were weaned from their dams when they were 1 day old and were fed a liquid milk-replacer diet containing approximately 1.7 micrograms of copper/g from plastic buckets for 4 to 7 months. They were kept in stalls with fiberglass walls and asphalt floors covered with rubber pads. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were determined 3 times/week by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and liver copper and zinc concentrations were determined similarly after acid digestion of tissues taken at necropsy. The amount of soluble collagen in articular cartilage and aortic tissue was determined after necropsy. Clinical signs of illness, particularly evidence of lameness, were monitored daily. The foals were weighed weekly, and growth rate was monitored by measurement of height at the withers. Packed cell volumes and total and differential WBC counts were measured each time blood was drawn for copper and zinc concentration determinations. The foals were examined by necropsy at the end of the experiment, and the tissues were examined histologically. The foals developed intermittent, but nondebilitating, diarrhea with the onset of low serum copper concentrations. Considering the totally liquid diet, the foals grew well. Serum copper concentrations decreased to less than 0.1 micrograms/ml in 13 to 16 weeks. Lameness was evident 2 to 6 weeks after serum copper concentrations decreased to their lowest value (less than 0.1 micrograms/ml). All foals developed stilted gaits and ultimately walked on the front of their hooves. Major hematologic changes and alterations of hair color were not evident. Soluble collagen of articular cartilage and aortic tissue increased from 340 to 600% greater than that of control foals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3403350

  10. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs. PMID:27126221

  11. TNF-α upregulates sclerostin expression in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Qadir, Abdul S; Ko, Seong-Hee; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-05-01

    Sclerostin decreases bone mass by antagonizing the Wnt signaling pathway. We examined whether obesity-induced bone loss is associated with the expression of sclerostin. Five-week-old male mice were assigned to one of two groups (n = 10 each) and fed either a control diet (10% kcal from fat; CON) or a high-fat diet (60% kcal from fat; HF) for 12 weeks. Thex final body weight and whole body fat mass of the HF mice were higher than those of the CON mice. The distal femur cancellous bone mineral density and bone formation rate was lower in HF mice than in CON mice. The percent erosion surface was higher in the HF mice than the CON mice. The serum levels and femoral osteocytic protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in HF mice than in CON mice. Sclerostin mRNA levels and osteocytic sclerostin protein levels in femoral cortex were also higher in HF mice than in CON mice. Sclerostin expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes increased with TNF-α treatment, and TNF-α-induced sclerostin expression was blocked by the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and a luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that NF-κB directly binds to the NF-κB binding elements on the mouse sost promoter and stimulates sclerostin expression. These results support a model in which, in the context of obesity or other inflammatory diseases that increase the production of TNF-α, TNF-α upregulates the expression of sclerostin through NF-κB signaling pathway, thus contributing to bone loss. PMID:24446199

  12. Effects of sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate on lactating Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Grummer, R R; Dentine, M R

    1989-02-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Orthogonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation vs. sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation. There were no differences among treatments for milk yield (34.9 kg/d), milk fat yield (.99 kg/d), 3.5% FCM (31.1 kg/d), or milk protein concentration (3.15%). There were no treatment effects on total chewing time. Milk fat concentration tended to be greater for cows fed sodium bicarbonate (2.92%) and sodium sesquicarbonate (2.89%) relative to control (2.82%). Relative to control, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation increased DM intake (22.0 and 22.7 vs. 21.4 kg/d), digestible DM intake (16.7 and 16.2 vs. 14.8 kg/d), digestible organic matter intake (16.0 and 15.5 vs. 14.3 kg/d); and apparent digestibility of DM (77.3 and 74.8 vs. 73.3%) and NDF (62.6 and 56.5 vs. 54.7%). Relative to sesquicarbonate, bicarbonate supplementation increased apparent digestibilities of CP (82.3 vs. 78.8%) and NDF, and decreased milk protein yield (1.06 vs. 1.11 kg/d). Sesquicarbonate was as effective as bicarbonate in alleviating milk fat depression and increasing intake of digestible organic matter. PMID:2539402

  13. Mucin secretion in germfree rats fed fiber-free and psyllium diets and bacterial mass and carbohydrate fermentation after colonization.

    PubMed

    Cabotaje, L M; Shinnick, F L; Lopéz-Guisa, J M; Marlett, J A

    1994-04-01

    The effect of psyllium on mucin secretion was determined by comparing water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of excreta from germfree rats fed a fiber-free (FF) diet or a diet containing psyllium seed husk (PS). Excreta from the same rats after colonization with a rat mixed cecal culture were separated into water-soluble, plant, and bacterial fractions to compare the remaining carbohydrate and the mass of bacteria. The sugar composition and water solubility of carbohydrate in excreta from germfree rats fed FF diets indicated that a primary fermentable substrate was mucin. PS increased fecal excretion of mucin-derived sugars almost threefold in germfree rats. Fecal carbohydrate was reduced from 619 to 237 mumol/g of dry feces and mostly in the bacterial fraction when rats fed an FF diet were colonized. The total sugar content and the amount of muramic acid, but not bacterial counts and mass, indicated that PS increased fecal bacteria. Fractionation of excreta from PS-fed rats was complicated by a gel which, based on sugar composition, was PS. Sugar composition of the water-soluble fraction from excreta from PS-fed rats suggested that it contained some bacterial component, possibly exopolysaccharides and some of the PS, but not mucin. PS digestibility ranged from 60 to 80%, depending on what fecal fraction was used for output. Because of the presence of PS-derived sugars in the gel and soluble fraction, it was not possible to determine which, if any, of the PS digestibilities was correct. PMID:8017918

  14. Hypocholesterolemic effects of low calorie structured lipids on rats and rabbits fed on normal and atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Kanjilal, Sanjit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bhamidipati V S K; Sugasini, Dhavamani; Rao, Yalagala Poornachandra; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Lokesh, Belur R

    2013-01-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of two low calorie structured lipids (SL1 and SL2) containing essential fatty acids, prepared by lipase catalysed interesterification of ethyl behenate respectively with sunflower and soybean oils were studied in rats and rabbits. The feeding experiment conducted on rats as well as rabbits, fed on normal and atherogenic diet containing 10% of SL1 and SL2 (experimental) and sunflower oil (control) indicated no adverse effects on growth and food intake. However, the structured lipids beneficially lowered serum and liver lipids, particularly cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and also maintains the essential fatty acid status in serum and liver. The lipid deposition observed in the arteries of rabbits fed on atherogenic diets was significantly reduced when structured lipids were included in the diet. These observations coincided with reduced levels of serum cholesterol particularly LDL cholesterol observed in experimental groups. Therefore the structured lipids, designed to have low calorific value also beneficially lower serum lipids and lipid deposition in animals fed on atherogenic diets. PMID:23017421

  15. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  16. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. PMID:27107694

  17. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:25790040

  18. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  19. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed

  20. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  1. Decaffeinated green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in normolipidic diet--but not high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Santana, Aline; Santamarina, Aline; Souza, Gabriel; Mennitti, Laís; Okuda, Marcos; Venancio, Daniel; Seelaender, Marilia; do Nascimento, Claudia Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane; Lira, Fabio; Oyama, Lila

    2015-09-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which restores metabolic profiles, has been proposed as an option for preventing and treating obesity. We investigated whether decaffeinated green tea extract rich in EGCG, attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in Swiss mice. The mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 8 weeks and supplemented with either a placebo or EGCG (50mg/kg/day). Body weight, serum lipid profiles, cytokine protein expression, and content in epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues, and adipocyte area were measured. The body weights of HFD + placebo-fed mice were increased compared with those of HFD + EGCG-fed mice (28 and 21%, respectively), whereas the body weights of CD + EGCG-fed mice were decreased 16% compared with those of the CD + placebo group. Serum triglyceride levels were decreased 32% in the CD + EGCG group compared with the CD + placebo group. Compared with the CD + placebo group, increased phosphorylation of AMPK and hormone-sensitive lipase in EPI and RET, respectively, was found in the CD + EGCG group. Increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation was observed in both adipose tissues. In addition, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in EPI and adiponectin levels were higher in the CD + EGCG group than in the CD + placebo group. TNF-α levels were lower in the HFD + EGCG group than in the HFD + placebo group. Furthermore, the CD + EGCG group exhibited a lower adipocyte area than the CD + placebo group. These indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract on body mass may be related to the crosstalk between lipolytic and inflammatory pathways in normolipidic diet-fed mice but not in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26048201

  2. Hypolipidemic effect of dihydroisoquinoline oxaziridine in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aydi, Rihab; Gara, Amel Ben; Chaaben, Rim; Saad, Hajer Ben; Fki, Lotfi; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima; Kammoun, Majed

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increases the risk of many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the effects of oxaziridine 3 on lipoprotein lipase activity in the serum of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) on body weight, lipid profile and liver-kidney functions. The administration of oxaziridine 3 to HFD-rats lowered body weight and inhibited the lipase activity of obese rats leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-Ch levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-Ch concentration in serum. Moreover, the findings of this study revealed that oxaziridine 3 helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Additionally, oxaziridine 3 administration to HFD-rats induces antioxidant activity proven by the increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the decrease in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. It also induces the protection of liver-kidney functions confirmed by a decrease in the levels of toxicity parameters in blood. PMID:27470409

  3. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of spider brake (Pteris multifida) with rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lee, Hou-I; Yang, Clinton; Yang, Chi-Ching

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluates the possible potency of the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of spider brake [(Pteris multifida Poiret (Pteridaceae)]. We investigated this by feeding the hyperlipidemic Sprague-Dawley rats, caused by a high cholesterol diet, with lyophilized powder of spider brake (LSB) and compared the result with the rats fed with beta-sitosterol. The results indicated that the administration of lyophilized powder of spider brake (LSB) lowered the hyperlipidemic level on rats. The relative weights of the liver, adipose tissue, and relative adipose tissue of 10% substitutions of LSB group (LSB-10) showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) by 6%, 15.9%, and 14.3% in contrast to the untreated counterparts (control), respectively. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, liver CH, and TG contents were also observed in LSB-10 compared to the untreated counterparts (by 36.8%, 21%, 18.7%, 10.2% and 14.3% reduction, respectively). Simultaneously, the wet fecal weight, dry fecal weight, nitrogen compounds, excretion of neutral steroids, and bile acids significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 9.6%, 10.6%, 23.7%, 9.7%, and 3.4% respectively. The results showed that LSB could cause not only a reduction in CH and TG, but also could increase the excretion of lipids and metabolic by-products via the intestinal tract. PMID:20645845

  4. Hypolipidemic Effect and Mechanism of Palmatine from Coptis chinensis in Hamsters Fed High-Fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ning, Na; He, Kai; Wang, Yanzhi; Zou, Zongyao; Wu, Hao; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2015-05-01

    Palmatine (PAL) is one of the main alkaloids in Coptis chinensis. The present aim was to investigate the hypolipidemic effect and mechanism of palmatine in hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD). PAL treatment decreased serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, as well as increased fecal excretion of TC and total bile acids (TBA) in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Furthermore, PAL treatment up-regulated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA and protein expression and down-regulated apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein expression. These results demonstrated that PAL as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent works by up-regulating LDLR and CYP7A1 mRNA and protein expression, down-regulating ASBT mRNA and protein expression, as well as enhancing fecal excretion of TC and TBA. The findings in our study suggest that palmatine could be a potential natural agent for treating hyperlipidemia. PMID:25586479

  5. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP. PMID:24944632

  6. Intestinal bacterial community and growth performance of chickens fed diets containing antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, A A; Menten, J F M; Lambais, M R; Racanicci, A M C; Longo, F A; Sorbara, J O B

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to relate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing growth-promoting antibiotics to changes in the intestinal microbiota. The technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplicons of the region V3 of 16S rDNA was used to characterize the microbiota. Two experiments were conducted, one with broilers raised in battery cages and the other with broilers raised in floor pens. Antibiotics improved the performance of the chickens raised in floor pens only. Avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, and enramycin induced changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of the birds in both experiments. The number of bacterial genotypes found in the intestinal tract of chickens was not reduced by the antibiotics supplemented in either environment. However, the changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community induced by antibiotics may be related to improvement in growth performance. This was indicated by the suppression of 6 amplicons and the presence of 4 amplicons exclusive to the treatment that had the best performance in the floor pen experiment. PMID:16615359

  7. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (P<0.05) in the slaughter weight and hot carcass weight and a quadratic effect (P<0.05) on the beef texture. No alterations occurred in the physicochemical characteristics of the longissimus thoracis; however, changes were observed (P<0.05) in the longissimus thoracis fatty acid profile. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  8. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  9. Genetic parameters and genotype x environment interaction for feed efficiency traits in steers fed grower and finisher diets.

    PubMed

    Durunna, O N; Plastow, G; Mujibi, F D N; Grant, J; Mah, J; Basarab, J A; Okine, E K; Moore, S S; Wang, Z

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the genetic parameters and genetic correlations of feed efficiency traits in steers (n = 490) fed grower or finisher diets in 2 feeding periods. A bivariate model was used to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters using steers that received the grower and finisher diets in successive feeding periods, whereas a repeated animal model was used to estimate the permanent environmental effects. Genetic correlations between the grower-fed and finisher-fed regimens were 0.50 ± 0.48 and 0.78 ± 0.43 for residual feed intake (RFI) and G:F, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between the 2 feeding regimens may indicate the presence of a genotype × environment interaction for RFI. Permanent environmental effects (expressed in percentage of phenotypic variance) were detected in the grower-fed steers for ADG (38%), DMI (30%), RFI (18%), and G:F (40%) and also in the finisher-fed steers for ADG (28%), DMI (35%), metabolic mid-weight (23%), and RFI (10%). Heritability estimates were 0.08 ± 0.10 and 0.14 ± 0.15 for the grower-fed steers and 0.42 ± 0.16 and 0.40 ± 17 for the finisher-fed steers for RFI and G:F, respectively. The dependency of the RFI on the feeding regimen may have serious implications when selecting animals in the beef industry. Because of the higher cost of grains, feed efficiency in the feedlot might be overemphasized, whereas efficiency in the cow herd and the backgrounding segments may have less emphasis. These results may also favor the retention (for subsequent breeding) of cows whose steers were efficient in the feedlot sector. Therefore, comprehensive feeding trials may be necessary to provide more insight into the mechanisms surrounding genotype × environment interaction in steers. PMID:21622886

  10. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Baxa, Ulrich; Tam, Joseph; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We measured the effects of a diet in which d-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity to IBAT. The KE group exhibited 14% greater resting energy expenditure, but the total energy expenditure measured over a 24-h period or body weights was not different. The quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index was 73% higher in the KE group. These results identify KE as a potential antiobesity supplement.—Srivastava, S., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T. Baxa, U., Tam, J., Niu, G., Chen, X., Clarke, K., Veech, R. L. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. PMID:22362892

  11. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. Results NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. Conclusion From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue. PMID:24403834

  12. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  13. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets. PMID:26304783

  14. Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Pusztai, A

    1993-12-01

    Pancreatic weights and composition were studied with rats fed diets containing raw legume seeds for up to 800 d. Rapid pancreatic enlargement was induced by dietary soybeans (Glycine max) (high Kunitz and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor contents, moderate lectin content) during the initial 150 d. Over the next 200 d the rate of pancreatic growth was similar to that in controls. After 350 d a second period of rapid pancreatic growth occurred. Macroscopic pancreatic nodules were evident in a number of rats fed soybeans for 500 d or more. A similar pattern of pancreatic growth was observed in rats fed dietary cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (high Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content). Extensive pancreatic growth was also found in young rats fed moderate dietary levels of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, high lectin content). However, the trophic effects diminished with time, and from 100 d onwards, little enlargement was evident. Consumption of a lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius) diet (low trypsin inhibitor, low lectin content) did not cause pancreatic enlargement. The initial pancreatic growth induced by dietary soybeans seemed to be due to the lectins and trypsin inhibitors, whereas the second period of pancreatic growth was possibly due primarily to the trypsin inhibitors. PMID:7505319

  15. Effect of crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) hay harvest interval on forage quality and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Hutchison, S; Stewart, C B; Shockey, J D; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Twelve 0.81-ha crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) hay fields were harvested at 21, 35, and 49 d of regrowth (average phonological growth stage of 30, 51, and 56, respectively). Increased harvest interval exhibited a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in CP (14.1, 13.7, and 10.6% of DM, respectively) and increase (P < 0.01) in NDF (65.3, 70.6, and 70.2% of DM, respectively) and ADF (35.7, 38.9, and 42.7% of DM, respectively). Hays were incorporated into 3 diets that contained 20% (DM basis) crabgrass hay, ground corn (33%), and soybean hulls (32%). Diets contained 14.4, 14.4, and 13.6% CP; 1.83, 1.72, and 1.81 Mcal of NE(m)/kg; and 1.21, 1.10, and 1.17 Mcal of NE(g)/kg; respectively. Diets were fed to beef calves in 12 pens at a rate of 2.3% (DM basis) of BW in 1 experiment (n = 120, initial BW 210 +/- 4.4 kg) and ad libitum in another experiment (n = 60, initial BW 207 +/- 4.4 kg). To measure passage rate of the hay and concentrate portions of the diets, 12 heifer calves (BW = 145 +/- 4.5 kg) were individually fed at 2.3% of BW for 14 d and dosed with Dy-labeled soybean hulls and Yb-labeled hay. In situ DM digestibility of the hays and diets were determined using 3 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 584 +/- 10.4 kg). Harvest interval did not affect (P > or = 0.11) ADG of limit-fed calves during the diet acclimation or growing phases (average 0.32 and 0.80 kg, respectively) or ADG of calves fed ad libitum (average 1.21 kg). Dry matter intake of calves fed ad libitum averaged 7.9 kg/d (3.28% of BW) and was not affected (P > or = 0.22) by harvest interval. Gain:feed was not affected (P > or = 0.20) by harvest interval (0.13 and 0.15 for limit-fed and ad libitum-fed calves, respectively). Increased harvest interval linearly increased (P < 0.01) ruminal retention time of the hay and tended (P = 0.06) to linearly increase ruminal retention time of the concentrate portions of the diet. Harvest interval linearly decreased (P < or = 0.05) the extent of degradability and

  16. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Results from the present study suggest that Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  17. Methanogens and Methanogenesis in the Rumens and Ceca of Lambs Fed Two Different High-Grain-Content Diets

    PubMed Central

    Morgavi, D. P.; Martin, C.

    2013-01-01

    The amount and nature of dietary starch are known to influence the extent and site of feed digestion in ruminants. However, how starch degradability may affect methanogenesis and methanogens along the ruminant's digestive tract is poorly understood. This study examined the diversity and metabolic activity of methanogens in the rumen and cecum of lambs receiving wheat or corn high-grain-content diets. Methane production in vivo and ex situ was also monitored. In vivo daily methane emissions (CH4 g/day) were 36% (P < 0.05) lower in corn-fed lambs than in wheat-fed lambs. Ex situ methane production (μmol/h) was 4-fold higher for ruminal contents than for cecal contents (P < 0.01), while methanogens were 10-fold higher in the rumen than in the cecum (mcrA copy numbers; P < 0.01). Clone library analysis indicated that Methanobrevibacter was the dominant genus in both sites. Diet induced changes at the species level, as the Methanobrevibacter millerae-M. gottschalkii-M. smithii clade represented 78% of the sequences from the rumen of wheat-fed lambs and just about 52% of the sequences from the rumen of the corn-fed lambs. Diet did not affect mcrA expression in the rumen. In the cecum, however, expression was 4-fold and 2-fold lower than in the rumen for wheat- and corn-fed lambs, respectively. Though we had no direct evidence for compensation of reduced rumen methane production with higher cecum methanogenesis, the ecology of methanogens in the cecum should be better considered. PMID:23241983

  18. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p < 0.05), with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver lipid deposition were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Accordingly, both fecal cholesterol and bile acids levels were significantly increased after LAB administration (p < 0.05). Intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The

  19. Characterization of the genomic responses in early Senegalese sole larvae fed diets with different dietary triacylglycerol and total lipids levels.

    PubMed

    Hachero-Cruzado, I; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Román-Padilla, J; Ponce, M; Fernández-Díaz, C; Manchado, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the genomic responses of premetamorphic sole larvae (9 days post-hatching, dph) fed diets with different lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) content. For this purpose, two diets with high (rotifers enriched with a fish oil-based emulsion; referred to as HTAG) and low (rotifers enriched with a krill oil-based emulsion; LTAG) levels of total lipids and TAG were evaluated. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) profiles, histological characterization of intestine, liver and pancreas and expression patterns using RNA-seq were determined. Discriminant analysis results showed that larvae could be clearly differentiated on the basis of their FA profile as a function of the diet supplied until 9dph although no difference in growth was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that larvae fed HTAG activated coordinately the transcription of apolipoproteins (apob, apoa4, apoc2, apoe, and apobec2) and other related transcripts involved in chylomicron formation, likely to facilitate proper lipid absorption and delivery. In contrast, larvae fed LTAG showed higher mRNA levels of several pancreatic enzymes (try1a, try2, cela1, cela3, cela4, chym1, chym2, amy2a and pnlip) and appetite modulators (agrp1) and some intra- and extracellular lipases. Moreover, KEGG analysis also showed that several transcripts related to lipid metabolism and glycolysis were differentially expressed with a higher abundance in larvae fed LTAG diet. All these data suggest that early larvae were able to establish compensatory mechanisms for energy homeostasis regulating key molecules for FA and TAG biosynthesis, FA uptake and intracellular management of TAG and FA to warrant optimal growth rates. PMID:25463059

  20. Impact of combined β-glucanase and xylanase enzymes on growth performance, nutrients utilization and gut microbiota in broiler chickens fed corn or wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Munyaka, P M; Nandha, N K; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M; Khafipour, E

    2016-03-01

    The effects of a xylanase and β-glucanase (XB) blend (2,500 U of xylanase and 250 U of β-glucanase per kg of complete feed) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and digesta microbiota in broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 140 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 replicate cages and fed experimental diets. Diets were based on either corn or wheat without or with supplemental XB. Performance was monitored weekly and excreta were collected from d 17 to 20 for nutrients digestibility and AMEn measurements. On d 21, jejunal contents were collected for viscosity determination whereas ileal and cecal contents were obtained for microbial analysis by Illumina sequencing. Microbial data were analyzed using QIIME and PLS-DA whilst other data were analyzed using SAS. Birds fed wheat diets had higher (P < 0.001) BWG (3.4%) than birds fed corn-based diet whilst birds fed XB had better BWG (4%) and FCR (7%) than birds fed non-XB diets. Birds fed wheat diet had higher (P < 0.001) NDF (46.5%) and less (P = 0.01) CP (-5.4%) digestibility compared to birds fed corn-based diet. XB reduced (P < 0.001) jejunal digesta viscosity to a greater extent in wheat diet (-31%) than in corn-based diet (-10%). Birds fed wheat-based diet with XB had higher (3.5%) starch digestibility than birds fed this diet without XB. Janthinobacterium was associated with non-XB corn-based diet, whereas Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Acidovorax and Blautia were associated with XB corn-based diet in the ileum. A relatively similar microbiome clustering was observed in wheat-based treatments in the cecum. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations between selected ileal or cecal bacterial taxa and AMEn. Diet impacted growth performance but XB was efficacious across diet types, implying that degradation of dietary fibrous components by feed enzymes may stimulate performance in young birds. Data provided

  1. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS. PMID:26134356

  2. Dietary putrescine effects on performance parameters, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and tissue polyamine content of broilers fed low protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, S. M; Loh, T. C; Foo, H. L; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary putrescine (PUT) on broiler’s response fed low crude protein (CP) diets. A total of 192 male day old chicks were fed with four dietary treatments including two levels of PUT (0 and 0.03%) and two levels of CP (normal and low) with factorial combinations. Weekly growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology (at the age of 21 days) and liver and intestinal tissue polyamines content were measured. As a result of this study lower dietary CP had a significant (P<0.05) lower body weight gain (BWG) and improved protein efficiency ratio (PER). PUT improved energy efficiency ratio (EER) significantly (P<0.05). Dry matter (DM) digestibility was decreased by lower dietary CP whereas 0.03% PUT significantly (P<0.05) increased it. Low CP caused significant (P<0.05) greater calcium digestibility, while this effect was not found when PUT was added. PUT had no effect on intestine villous height and crypt depth. Polyamine content of intestine and liver was influenced by the age of the birds, while PUT had no effects on them. In conclusion, dietary PUT has beneficial effects on EER in chicks fed CP-deficient diet, indicating possible involvement of PUT in energy metabolism. PUT supplementation did not moderate the reduced BWG of the chicks fed low protein. Intestinal and liver polyamine concentration was mainly affected by dietary CP and age of the birds rather than dietary PUT. PMID:27175136

  3. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 inhibits adipose tissue inflammation and intestinal permeability in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Michio; Miyoshi, Masaya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Kadooka, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has anti-obesity effects. Obesity is closely correlated with inflammation in adipose tissue, and maintaining adipose tissue in a less-inflamed state requires intestinal integrity or a barrier function to protect the intestine from the disruption that can be caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we examined the anti-inflammatory and intestinal barrier-protecting effects of LG2055 in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat diet (NFD), HFD, or the HFD containing LG2055 (HFD-LG) for 21 weeks. HFD-LG intake significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body weight, visceral fat mass, and the ratio of inflammatory-type macrophages to anti-inflammatory ones in adipose tissue. Mice fed the HFD showed higher intestinal permeability to a fluorescent dextran administered by oral administration and an elevated concentration of antibodies specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the blood compared with those fed the NFD, suggesting an increased penetration of the gut contents into the systemic circulation. These elevations of intestinal permeability and anti-LPS antibody levels were significantly suppressed in mice fed the HFD-LG. Moreover, treatment with LG2055 cells suppressed an increase in the cytokine-induced permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results suggest that LG2055 improves the intestinal integrity, reducing the entry of inflammatory substances like LPS from the intestine, which may lead to decreased inflammation in adipose tissue. PMID:27293560

  4. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  5. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  6. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  7. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  8. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  9. A mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone modulates muscle lipid profile and improves mitochondrial respiration in obesogenic diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Charles; Fouret, Gilles; Lambert, Karen; Ferreri, Carla; Rieusset, Jennifer; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Lecomte, Jérôme; Ebabe Elle, Raymond; Badia, Eric; Murphy, Michael P; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2016-04-14

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome components including abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance is increasing in both developed and developing countries. It is generally accepted that the development of these features is preceded by, or accompanied with, impaired mitochondrial function. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of a mitochondrial-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) on muscle lipid profile modulation and mitochondrial function in obesogenic diet-fed rats. For this purpose, twenty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed one of the following diets: (1) control, (2) high fat (HF) and (3) HF+MitoQ. After 8 weeks, mitochondrial function markers and lipid metabolism/profile modifications in skeletal muscle were measured. The HF diet was effective at inducing the major features of the metabolic syndrome--namely, obesity, hepatic enlargement and glucose intolerance. MitoQ intake prevented the increase in rat body weight, attenuated the increase in adipose tissue and liver weights and partially reversed glucose intolerance. At the muscle level, the HF diet induced moderate TAG accumulation associated with important modifications in the muscle phospholipid classes and in the fatty acid composition of total muscle lipid. These lipid modifications were accompanied with decrease in mitochondrial respiration. MitoQ intake corrected the lipid alterations and restored mitochondrial respiration. These results indicate that MitoQ protected obesogenic diet-fed rats from some features of the metabolic syndrome through its effects on muscle lipid metabolism and mitochondrial activity. These findings suggest that MitoQ is a promising candidate for future human trials in the metabolic syndrome prevention. PMID:26856891

  10. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  11. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  12. Alterations in plasma total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemic rats fed diets with varied content of selenium and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Boylan, L M

    1994-07-01

    The effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on plasma total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was evaluated in 54 Sprague Dawley rats fed cholesterol/cholic acid enriched diets. Diets 1, 2, and 3 had no added selenium (low Se) and 0 (low), 60 (adequate), and 600 (high) mg/kg dL alpha tocopheryl acetate added respectively. Sodium selenite at 0.2 mg/kg (adequate Se) was added to diets 4, 5, and 6 and at 4.0 mg/kg (toxic Se) to diet 7, 8, and 9 with the same pattern of vitamin E added to the diet as described above. TC and HDLC were measured using the Kodak Ectachem system. Rats in the low and adequate Se groups fed high vitamin E had lower TC values than rats fed lower vitamin E levels but differences were not significant. In the toxic Se groups, rats fed high vitamin E had significantly (p < 0.05) higher plasma TC values than did lower Vitamin E groups. Rats on the high vitamin E diets with low or adequate Se had significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean plasma HDLC values when compared to rats fed low or adequate vitamin E diets. HDLC values for animals on Se toxic diets were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in rats fed a low vitamin E diet. In rats fed Se deficient and adequate diets, a high vitamin E intake resulted in a decrease in TC and an increase in HDLC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7986664

  13. Efficacy of dietary spray dried plasma protein to mitigate the negative effects on performance of pigs fed diets with corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A C; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J D; Polo, J; Kim, S W

    2014-09-01

    The ability of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) to reduce the negative effects of multiple mycotoxins from naturally contaminated corn on weaned pig performance and health was investigated (n = 180; 6.84 ± 0.11 kg). For 12 d after weaning, pigs were fed phase 1 nursery diets with either 0% SDPP (PP0) or 6% SDPP (PP6). After 12 d, pigs were fed phase 2 diets for 3 wk. Pigs fed PP0 in phase 1 continued to be fed a phase 2 diet with no SDPP (PP0/PP0) or were fed a diet including corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (M), labeled PP0/PP0M. Pigs fed SDPP in phase 1 were fed either a diet with no SDPP (PP6/PP0), a diet with M and no SDPP (PP6/PP0M), a diet with M and 3% SDPP (PP6/PP3M), or a diet with M and 6% SDPP (PP6/PP6M). During phase 1, pigs fed PP6 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, whereas immunological parameters were not altered. During phase 2, pigs consuming PP0/PP0M had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.05) in contrast to pigs fed PP0/PP0, whereas the performance of pigs fed PP6/PP0M was intermediate to pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0. The ADG and ADFI did not differ for pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0M during phase 2. Performance of pigs fed PP6/PP3M in contrast to pigs fed PP6/PP0M during phase 2 did not differ; however, these pigs had lower (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor α and tended (P = 0.094) to have lower DNA damage. During phase 2, ADG and ADFI of pigs fed PP6/PP6M did not differ from pigs fed PP6/PP0M, but G:F tended (P = 0.067) to be increased in pigs fed PP6/PP6M. Over the entire study period, pigs fed PP0/PP0M had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P = 0.067) to have reduced ADFI. During this time, pigs fed PP6/PP0M tended to have greater ADG and ADFI (P = 0.093 and P = 0.067, respectively) compared with pigs fed PP0/PP0M. Overall, feeding a diet with SDPP improved growth performance and feed intake of young pigs directly after weaning. Feeding multiple M had a negative impact on growth performance of pigs during

  14. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets.

    PubMed

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  15. PTEN Inhibition Improves Muscle Regeneration in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Wang, Huiling; Lee, In Hee; Modi, Swati; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mechanisms impairing wound healing in diabetes are poorly understood. To identify mechanisms, we induced insulin resistance by chronically feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD). We also examined the regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) during muscle regeneration because augmented IGF-1 signaling can improve muscle regeneration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Muscle regeneration was induced by cardiotoxin injury, and we evaluated satellite cell activation and muscle maturation in HFD-fed mice. We also measured PIP3 and the enzymes regulating its level, IRS-1–associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and PTEN. Using primary cultures of muscle, we examined how fatty acids affect PTEN expression and how PTEN knockout influences muscle growth. Mice with muscle-specific PTEN knockout were used to examine how the HFD changes muscle regeneration. RESULTS The HFD raised circulating fatty acids and impaired the growth of regenerating myofibers while delaying myofiber maturation and increasing collagen deposition. These changes were independent of impaired proliferation of muscle progenitor or satellite cells but were principally related to increased expression of PTEN, which reduced PIP3 in muscle. In cultured muscle cells, palmitate directly stimulated PTEN expression and reduced cell growth. Knocking out PTEN restored cell growth. In mice, muscle-specific PTEN knockout improved the defects in muscle repair induced by HFD. CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance impairs muscle regeneration by preventing myofiber maturation. The mechanism involves fatty acid–stimulated PTEN expression, which lowers muscle PIP3. If similar pathways occur in diabetic patients, therapeutic strategies directed at improving the repair of damaged muscle could include suppression of PTEN activity. PMID:20200318

  16. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  17. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  18. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid influence liver triacylglycerol and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim; Deminice, Rafael; Simões-Ambrosio, Livia Maria Cordeiro; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO) on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6) and Fructose (Fr, n = 32), the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased) and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased). The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet. PMID:25837985

  19. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  20. Effects of escin mixture from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum on obesity in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Avci, Gülcan; Küçükkurt, Ismail; Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2010-03-01

    Escins, a triterpene glycoside mixture obtained from the ethanol extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae) seed, was evaluated for its in vivo effects on the plasma levels of some hormones (leptin, insulin, FT(3), FT(4)) and biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C concentrations) in mice fed with a high fat diet for 5 weeks. A high fat diet induced a remarkable increment in the plasma leptin (p <0.01), total cholesterol (p <0.01) and LDL-C (p <0.001) concentrations compared to control group animals. Combined administration of a high-fat diet with escins decreased leptin (31.6%) (p<0.05) and FT(4) (36.0%) (p<0.05) levels, increased HDL-C concentration (17.0%), while remained ineffective on LDL-C concentration in mice. Results have shown that escins may have beneficial effects in the understanding of obesity. PMID:20645808

  1. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in Ldlr-/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, Mohsen; Kwan, Paul; Band, Michael; Knight, Ashley; Guo, Weimin; Goutis, Jason; Ordovas, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological and experimental evidence have indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials have reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from an early age may prevent or retard the development and progression of atherosclerosis and CHD mortality. Methods To test this hypothesis, 300 Ldlr-/- mice were divided into groups receiving Western style high fat/cholesterol (HFHC), moderate fat/cholesterol (MFMC), or low fat/cholesterol (LFLC) diets all containing 50 IU of vitamin E. These dietary groups were further subdivided into four sub-groups (N=25) receiving their respective diets with no vitamin E supplementation or additionally supplemented with vitamin E (500 IU/kg diet) starting at the early age of 5 wks, or 6 mo, or 12 mo. All mice remained on their assigned diets until age 18 mo. Body weight, health status and survival rate of mice were monitored and recorded. After 18 mo of dietary treatments, mice were sacrificed. Results Body weight was the highest in HFHC groups and the lowest in LFLC groups. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides was high in all dietary groups, and plasma vitamin E was high in vitamin E supplemented groups. Fifty percent of mice fed Western style HFHC diet and 53% of mice fed MFMC diet survived during the 18 mo, whereas 75% of mice fed LFLC diet survived during the 18 mo dietary treatments. At the age of 18 mo, all the Ldlr-/- mice, regardless of dietary treatments, had several advanced atherosclerotic lesions in both aortic root and aortic tree. Within the LFLC groups, those that received vitamin E supplements from age 5 wks up to 18 mo had a significantly higher survival rate of 88% (p=0.04) and lower mortality (12%) compared to mice that did not receive vitamin E supplements (64%). This lower mortality rate and higher survival rate coincided with significantly

  2. Mulberry ethanol extract attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Lai, Jia; Tang, Qiong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. Mulberry is an important source of phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we developed a hypothesis that mulberry exerted beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and evaluated the influence of the mulberry ethanol extract (MEE) on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into 3 groups and fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplementation with MEE. Our results showed that administration of MEE reduced diet-induced body weight gain, improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, alleviated insulin resistance, and improved glucose homeostasis. Analysis of hepatic gene expression indicated that MEE treatment changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MEE supplementation protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the protective effects of MEE were associated with the induction of fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27262537

  3. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  4. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-01-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  5. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  6. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less {sup 59}Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on {sup 59}Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on {sup 59}Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on {sup 59}Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on {sup 59}Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal.

  7. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  8. STUDIES ON ATTRACTIVENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ARTIFICIAL ENTOMOPHAGE DIET FED TO HYBRID IMPORTED FIRE ANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An artificial entomophage diet (Cohen, U. S. Patent # 5,834,177. November 10, 1998) was offered to Solenopsis invicta Buren x Solenopsis richteri Forel (hybrid imported fire ant) in a series of choice tests. Foraging workers collected approx. 27 times more reconstituted diet than freeze-dried diet...

  9. Polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract exerts hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic effects in mice fed a diet containing high fat and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Benn, Tyler; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Yang, Yue; Pham, Tho X; Ku, Chai Siah; Farruggia, Callie; Harness, Ellen; Smyth, Joan A; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-06-14

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. We investigated whether polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent high fat/high cholesterol (HF/HC) diet-induced metabolic disturbances in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M diet containing HF/HC (16% fat, 0·25% cholesterol, w/w) or the same diet supplemented with 0·1% BCE (w/w) for 12 weeks. There were no differences in total body weight and liver weight between groups. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels were significantly lower in BCE group than in controls, while plasma TAG levels were not significantly different. There was a decreasing trend in hepatic TAG levels, and histological evaluation of steatosis grade was markedly lower in the livers of mice fed BCE. Although the mRNA levels of major regulators of hepatic cholesterol metabolism, i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and LDL receptor (LDLR), were not significantly altered by BCE supplementation, protein expression of mature sterol-regulatory element-binding protein and LDLR was significantly increased with no change in HMGR protein. The expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 that facilitates LDLR protein degradation, as well as one of its transcriptional regulators, i.e. hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, was significantly decreased in the livers of mice fed BCE. Taken together, BCE supplementation decreased plasma TC and glucose, and inhibited liver steatosis, suggesting that this berry may be consumed to prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by diets high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:25899149

  10. Effects of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets fed to growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Bondurant, R G; Luebbe, M K; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-08-01

    Crude glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel production and has recently become more available as a livestock feed with the growth of the biofuel industry. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin (GLY) as a feed ingredient in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based growing diets fed to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 50; initial BW = 282 ± 2 kg) were used to determine the effects of GLY when included at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% of DM in a growing diet on cattle performance. In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (n = 54; initial BW = 283 ± 1 kg) were used to determine the effects of replacing SFC (REPSFC) or alfalfa hay (REPAH) with 7.5% GLY or a control diet without GLY (CON) on growing steer performance. In Exp. 1, final BW tended to respond in a quadratic manner (P = 0.09) in which it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Dry matter intake did not differ (P > 0.23), yet ADG responded quadratically (P = 0.04), where it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Feed efficiency (G:F) decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing GLY concentration. In Exp. 2, final BW was greater for steers fed REPAH than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). Steers fed REPAH had a greater ADG than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). When GLY replaced SFC, ADG increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY where it was maximized before decreasing from 7.5 to 10% GLY inclusion. Replacing 7.5% of alfalfa hay (AH) in a growing diet with GLY can be beneficial to animal performance, which is likely the result of GLY being greater in energy than AH. PMID:23658347

  11. Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E; Mtenga, Louis A; Kifaro, George C; Eik, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12-18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals per treatment. The dietary treatments were ad libitum untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), straw and ad libitum hay (UTSH), and TS and ad libitum hay (TSH). In addition, each experimental animal received 220 g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Treatment of straw increased (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (42.3 vs. 33.7 g/kg W (75)/day), energy intake (4.6 vs. 3.7 MJ ME/d) and the average daily gain (40.7 vs. 23.1 g). Animals on TS produced heavier (P < 0.05) carcasses (6.6 vs. 5.4 kg) with superior conformation than animals on UTS. Percentage cooking loss was higher in carcasses from animals fed TS compared to those from other diets. Except M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus, tenderness of muscles was not affected by diet but ageing of meat improved (P < 0.001) tenderness. Overall, straw treatment increased carcass yields with limited effects on meat quality attributes. PMID:20640886

  12. Assessment of caecal parameters in layer hens fed on diets containing wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Richards, P J; Wu, S; Mellits, K H; Wiseman, J

    2015-01-01

    There is much interest in quantifying the nutritional value of UK wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (W-DDGS) for livestock species. A study was designed to evaluate caecal parameters (pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial diversity) in layer hens fed on balanced diets containing graded concentrations of W-DDGS. A total of 32 layer hens (Bovans Brown strain at 27 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments containing W-DDGS at 0, 60, 120 or 180 g/kg. Each treatment was fed to 8 replicate individually housed layer hens over a 5-d acclimatisation period, followed by a 4-week trial. Individual feed intakes were monitored and all eggs were collected daily for weeks 2, 3 and 4 of the trial, weighed and an assessment of eggshell "dirtiness" made. All hens were culled on d 29 and caecal pH and SCFAs measured. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16 S rDNA gene was used to assess total bacterial diversity of luminal caecal content from hens fed the 0 and 180 g W-DDGS/kg diets. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms were generated from DGGE banding patterns. Increasing W-DDGS dietary concentrations resulted in a more acidic caecal environment. Caecal SCFAs were unaffected by diet aside from a quadratic effect for molar proportions of isobutyric acid. Diversity profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from luminal caecal contents were unaffected by W-DDGS inclusion. The results of the current study suggest that W-DDGS can be successfully formulated into nutritionally balanced layer diets (supplemented with xylanase and phytase) at up to 180 g/kg with no detrimental effects to the caecal environment. PMID:26098705

  13. Soya protein ameliorates the metabolic abnormalities of dysfunctional adipose tissue of dyslipidaemic rats fed a sucrose-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Oliva, María E; Selenscig, Dante; D'Alessandro, María E; Chicco, Adriana; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigates whether the replacement of dietary casein by soya protein isolate could be able to improve and/or even revert the morphological and metabolic abnormalities underlying the adipose tissue dysfunction of dyslipidaemic rats chronically fed (8 months) a sucrose-rich (62·5 %) diet (SRD). For this purpose, Wistar rats were fed a SRD for 4 months. From months 4 to 8, half the animals continued with the SRD and the other half were fed a SRD in which the source of protein, casein, was substituted by soya. The control group received a diet in which the source of carbohydrate was maize starch. Compared with the SRD-fed group, the results showed that: (1) soya protein decreased body-weight gain, limited the accretion of visceral adiposity and decreased adipose tissue cell volume without changes in total cell number; (2) soya protein increased the protein mass expression of PPARγ, which was significantly reduced in the fat pad of the SRD-fed rats; (3) the activity of the enzymes involved in the de novo lipogenesis of adipose tissue was significantly decreased/normalised; (4) soya protein corrected the inhibitory effect of SRD upon the anti-lipolytic action of insulin, reduced basal lipolysis and normalised the protein mass expression of GLUT-4. Dyslipidaemia, glucose homeostasis and plasma leptin levels returned to control values. The present study provides data showing the beneficial effects of soya protein to improve and/or revert the adipose tissue dysfunction of a dyslipidaemic insulin-resistant rat model and suggests that soya could maintain the functionality of the adipose tissue-liver axis improving/reverting lipotoxicity. PMID:21118606

  14. Green, oolong and black tea extracts modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, M -H.; Wang, C -H.; Chen, H -L.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare effects of ethanol-soluble fractions prepared from various types of teas on sucrose-induced hyperlipidemia in 5-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (n = 6-8 per group) weighed approximately 200 g were randomly divided into control diet, sucrose-rich diet, green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Control-diet group was provided with modified AIN-93 diet while the others consumed sucrose-rich diet. Tea extracts (1% w/v) were supplied in the drink for green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Results indicated sucrose-rich diet induced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Food intake was reduced by oolong tea extract. Consuming oolong and black tea extracts also significantly decreased body weight gains and food efficiency. Hypertriglyceridemia was normalized by green and black tea drink on day 18 and by oolong tea extract on day 25, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was normalized by green tea on day 18 and by oolong tea and black tea on day 25, respectively. Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were not affected by any tea extract. The triglyeride content in the liver as well as the cholesterol content in the heart of rats fed sucrose-rich diet were elevated and were normalized by all types of tea drink tested. Although green and oolong tea extracts contained similar composition of catechin, our findings suggest green tea exerted greater antihyperlipidemic effect than oolong tea. Apparent fat absorption may be one of the mechanisms by which green tea reduced hyperlipidemia as well as fat storage in the liver and heart of rats consumed sucrose-rich diet. PMID:11179857

  15. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei-Ping, Tan; Kang-Sen, Mai; Wei, Xu

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  16. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A.; Plouffe, Louise J.; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet. PMID:27136580

  17. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A; Plouffe, Louise J; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet. PMID:27136580

  18. NADPH oxidase is implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction as found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were distributed in four groups: WT/SCD: six wild-type (WT) mice fed a standard chow diet (SCD); WT/HFD, six WT mice fed a HFD; NOX2−/−/SCD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a SCD; (4) NOX2−/−/HFD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a HFD. After 32 weeks, we studied the liver for: histology; OXPHOS complex activity; fully assembled OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression of OXPHOS subunits; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and oxidative DNA damage. In the liver of WT/HFD mice, we found a significant decreased in the activity of all OXPHOS complexes, in fully assembled complexes, in the amount of OXPHOS subunits, and in gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine was only increased in mitochondrial DNA. The liver of NOX−/−/HFD mice showed mild steatosis but no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lesions were found. OXPHOS activity, OXPHOS subunits, and assembly of subunits into OXPHOS complexes were normal in these mice. We conclude that this study shows that NADPH deficiency protects mice from developing OXPHOS dysfunction and NASH caused by a HFD. PMID:27173483

  19. NADPH oxidase is implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction as found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were distributed in four groups: WT/SCD: six wild-type (WT) mice fed a standard chow diet (SCD); WT/HFD, six WT mice fed a HFD; NOX2(-/-)/SCD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a SCD; (4) NOX2(-/-)/HFD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a HFD. After 32 weeks, we studied the liver for: histology; OXPHOS complex activity; fully assembled OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression of OXPHOS subunits; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and oxidative DNA damage. In the liver of WT/HFD mice, we found a significant decreased in the activity of all OXPHOS complexes, in fully assembled complexes, in the amount of OXPHOS subunits, and in gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was only increased in mitochondrial DNA. The liver of NOX(-/-)/HFD mice showed mild steatosis but no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lesions were found. OXPHOS activity, OXPHOS subunits, and assembly of subunits into OXPHOS complexes were normal in these mice. We conclude that this study shows that NADPH deficiency protects mice from developing OXPHOS dysfunction and NASH caused by a HFD. PMID:27173483

  20. Resistant starch reduces colonic and urinary p-cresol in rats fed a tyrosine-supplemented diet, whereas konjac mannan does not.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixiao; Morioka, Sahya; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) and konjac mannan (KM) to maintain and improve the large intestinal environment was compared. Wistar SPF rats were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: negative control diet (C diet), tyrosine-supplemented positive control diet (T diet), and luminacoid supplemented diets containing either high-molecular konjac mannan A (KMAT diet), low-molecular konjac mannan B (KMBT diet), high-amylose cornstarch (HAST diet), or heat-moisture-treated starch (HMTST diet). The luminacoid-fed group had an increased content of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum. HAS caused a significant decrease in p-cresol content in the cecum, whereas KM did not. Urinary p-cresol was reduced in the HAST group compared with the T group, but not the KM fed groups. Deterioration in the large intestinal environment was only improved completely in the HAST and HMTST groups, suggesting that RS is considerably more effective than KM in maintaining the large intestinal environment. PMID:27296718

  1. Tooth length and incisal wear and growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M

    2015-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species. PMID:25041439

  2. Voluntary running improves in vivo insulin resistance in high-salt diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Li, Ping; Kubota, Masakazu; Nagasaki, Masaru; Sato, Yuzo

    2007-11-01

    It is well known that exercise training, including voluntary running (VR), improves insulin resistance. However, the effect of VR on insulin resistance induced by high salt intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether VR would improve the glucose utilization in normal male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-salt diet (HSD) on 2-week early prevention and 1-week midway intervention protocols. In vivo glucose utilization was measured by euglycemic clamp technique. Further analyses of the possible changes in insulin signaling occurring in skeletal muscle were performed by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The glucose infusion rates (GIRs) after 2 weeks of HSD feeding were decreased (HSD vs. control: 21.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 27 +/- 0.5 mg/kg body wt/min; P < 0.05), and improved by 2 weeks VR to 30.5 +/- 1.5 mg/kg body wt/min. Additionally, the GIRs after 3 weeks of HSD feeding were decreased (HSD vs. control: 20.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 26.5 +/- 0.6 mg/kg body wt/min; P < 0.05), and they also improved by the third week of VR (28.5 +/- 0.7 mg/ kg body wt/min vs. sedentary; P < 0.01). There were no differences in skeletal muscle for the total mass of insulin receptor-beta (IR-beta), IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), Akt, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in any of the groups of 2 weeks of HSD loading control and VR. VR did not regulate the enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-beta and IRS-1 by 2 weeks of HSD feeding. However, the enhanced serine phosphorylation of Akt and the tyrosine phosphorylation of GLUT4 were significantly inhibited by the early VR. HSD also impaired GLUT4 content in the plasma membrane and mRNA expression, but the decreases were improved by 2 weeks of VR. These results suggest that early voluntary exercise would prevent the development of insulin resistance induced by an HSD due in part by enhancing the impaired GLUT4 translocation and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. PMID:17959846

  3. Increased contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II in high fat diet fed rat thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ghatta, Srinivas; Ramarao, Poduri

    2004-01-01

    Background Feeding normal rats with high dietary levels of saturated fat leads to pathological conditions, which are quite similar to syndrome X in humans. These conditions such as hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia might induce hypertension through various mechanisms. Metabolic syndrome and the resulting NIDDM represent a major clinical challenge because implementation of treatment strategies is difficult. Vascular abnormalities probably contribute to the etiology of many diabetic complications including nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiomyopathy. It has been shown that in Streptozotocin induced diabetic animals there is an increase in maximal responses to 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II. The purpose of this study was to evaluate High fat diet fed rats for the development of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and to assess their vascular responses to 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study and were divided into two equal groups. One of the groups was fed with normal pellet diet and they served as the control group, whereas the other group was on a high fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight, plasma triglycerides, plasma cholesterol, and plasma glucose were measured every week. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 weeks of feeding. At the end of fourth week of high fat diet feeding, thoracic aortae were removed, and cut into helical strips for vascular reactivity studies. Dose-response curves of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II were obtained. Results There was no significant difference in pD2, with 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II in both groups but Emax was increased. Conclusions These results suggest that hypertension in high fat diet rats is associated with increased in vitro vascular reactivity to 5-HT and Ang II. PMID:15287987

  4. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production. PMID:25431274

  5. Growth evaluation of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based or marine-free diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or seawater (about 30 ppt). Fish were fed one of two diets, a control diet containing fishmeal and fi...

  6. HEIFERS FED SOYBEANS OR MILLING BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION OF SOYBEANS OR CORN MILLING BY-PRODUCTS IN BEEF HEIFER DEVELOPMENT DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate whole soybeans (SB) and either dried distillers grains (DDG) or wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) as protein and energy sources in beef heifer development diets. Crossbred heifers were fed diets containing 1.25 kg (DM) SB or 2.0 kg WCGF beginning at 10 mo of ag...

  7. Reduced growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a live invertebrate diet pre-exposed to metal-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Joshua; Welsh, Paul G; Cacela, David; MacConnell, Beth

    2004-08-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed live diets of Lumbriculus variegatus cultured in metal-contaminated sediments from the Clark Fork River Basin (MT, USA), an uncontaminated reference sediment, or an uncontaminated culture medium. Fish were tested in individual chambers; individual growth as well as the nutritional quality and caloric value of each trout's consumed diet were determined. Growth was measured following 14, 28, 42, 56, and 67 d of exposure. A subset of fish was sampled at 35 d for whole-body metals. Metals (whole body, digestive tract, and liver) and histology were measured at the end of the test. We observed significant growth inhibition in trout fed the contaminated diets; growth inhibition was associated with reductions in conversion of food energy to biomass rather than with reduced food intake. Growth inhibition was negatively correlated with As in trout tissue residues. Histological changes in contaminated treatments included hepatic necrosis and degenerative alterations in gallbladder. The present study provides evidence that metal-contaminated sediments can pose a hazard to trout health through a dietary exposure pathway. PMID:15352479

  8. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice. PMID:25299819

  9. Impaired translation initiation activation and reduced protein synthesis in weaned piglets fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dun; Yao, Kang; Chu, Wuying; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruiling; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-07-01

    Weanling mammals (including infants) often experience intestinal dysfunction when fed a high-protein diet. Recent work with the piglet (an animal model for studying human infant nutrition) shows that reducing protein intake can improve gut function during weaning but compromises the provision of essential amino acids (EAA) for muscle growth. The present study was conducted with weaned pigs to test the hypothesis that supplementing deficient EAA (Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Leu, Ile and Val) to a low-protein diet may maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and adequate protein synthesis in tissues. Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age and fed diets containing 20.7, 16.7 or 12.7% crude protein (CP), with the low-CP diets supplemented with EAA to achieve the levels in the high-CP diet. On Day 14 of the trial, tissue protein synthesis was determined using the phenylalanine flooding dose method. Reducing dietary CP levels decreased protein synthesis in pancreas, liver, kidney and longissimus muscle. A low-CP diet reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) in skeletal muscle and liver while increasing the formation of an inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex in muscle. Dietary protein deficiency also decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the formation of an active eIF4E.eIF4G complex in liver. These results demonstrate for the first time that chronic feeding of a low-CP diet suppresses protein synthesis in animals partly by inhibiting mTOR signaling. Additionally, our findings indicate that supplementing deficient EAA to low-protein diets is not highly effective in restoring protein synthesis or whole-body growth in piglets. We suggest that conditionally essential amino acids (e.g., glutamine and arginine) may be required to maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and optimal protein synthesis in neonates. PMID:18789668

  10. Hepatic β-oxidation and regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang-Le; Xu, Wei-Na; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets may promote growth, partly through their protein-sparing effects. However, high-fat diets often lead to excessive fat deposition, which may have a negative impact on fish such as poor growth and suppressive immune. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of a fat-rich diet on the mechanisms of fat deposition in the liver. Three-hundred blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) juveniles (initial mass 18.00 ± 0.05 g) were fed with one of two diets (5% or 15% fat) for 8 weeks. β-Oxidation capacity and regulation of rate-limiting enzymes were assessed. Large fat droplets were present in hepatocytes of fish fed the high-fat diet. This observation is thought to be largely owing to the reduced capacity for mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation in the livers of fish fed the high-fat diet, as well as the decreased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which are enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism. Study of CPT I kinetics showed that CPT I had a low affinity for its substrates and a low catalytic efficiency in fish fed the high-fat diet. Expression of both CPT I and ACO was significantly down-regulated in fish fed the high-fat diet. Moreover, the fatty-acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane varied between the two groups. In conclusion, the attenuated β-oxidation capacity observed in fish fed a high-fat diet is proposed to be owing to decreased activity and/or catalytic efficiency of the rate-limiting enzymes CPT I and ACO, via both genetic and non-genetic mechanisms. PMID:24676148

  11. Hepatic β-Oxidation and Regulation of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I in Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kang-Le; Xu, Wei-Na; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets may promote growth, partly through their protein-sparing effects. However, high-fat diets often lead to excessive fat deposition, which may have a negative impact on fish such as poor growth and suppressive immune. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of a fat-rich diet on the mechanisms of fat deposition in the liver. Three-hundred blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) juveniles (initial mass 18.00±0.05 g) were fed with one of two diets (5% or 15% fat) for 8 weeks. β-Oxidation capacity and regulation of rate-limiting enzymes were assessed. Large fat droplets were present in hepatocytes of fish fed the high-fat diet. This observation is thought to be largely owing to the reduced capacity for mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation in the livers of fish fed the high-fat diet, as well as the decreased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which are enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism. Study of CPT I kinetics showed that CPT I had a low affinity for its substrates and a low catalytic efficiency in fish fed the high-fat diet. Expression of both CPT I and ACO was significantly down-regulated in fish fed the high-fat diet. Moreover, the fatty-acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane varied between the two groups. In conclusion, the attenuated β-oxidation capacity observed in fish fed a high-fat diet is proposed to be owing to decreased activity and/or catalytic efficiency of the rate-limiting enzymes CPT I and ACO, via both genetic and non-genetic mechanisms. PMID:24676148

  12. Wholegrain barley β-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of oat and barley β-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley β-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% β-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% β-glucan) β-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley β-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. PMID:25622537

  13. The effect of taurine on the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with cholestyramine or high amounts of bile acid.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naomichi; Umeda, Chie; Oda, Hiroaki; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2003-02-01

    The effects of taurine on serum cholesterol levels and hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity (CYP7A1) were studied in rats fed cholestyramine or high amounts of sodium cholate in order to alter the intestinal pool of bile acids. Rats were fed a diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 0.25% sodium cholate (high cholesterol, control; C), and C supplemented with 4% cholestyramine (CH) or 0.75% sodium cholate (BA) for 14 d. Taurine groups were fed the diet supplemented with 3% taurine (CT, CHT and BAT). Compared to rats fed C and BA diets, serum cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in rats fed CT and BAT diets, but a significant reduction of serum cholesterol by taurine feeding was not observed in the CHT group as compared to the CH group. An increase in hepatic CYP7A1 activity due to taurine intake was observed in the CT and BAT groups. However, the simultaneous administration of cholestyramine and taurine (CHT group) did not increase hepatic CYP7A1 activity compared the intake of cholestyramine only (CH group). A significant increase in fecal bile acid excretion due to taurine intake was found only in rats fed the CT diet. In conclusion, it is suggested that taurine facilitates hepatic CYP7A1 activity regardless of the enlarged intestinal pool of bile acids due to increased intake of exogenous bile acid, and then reduces the serum cholesterol concentration. PMID:12882392

  14. Effect of ingestion of soy yogurt on intestinal parameters of rats fed on a beef-based animal diet

    PubMed Central

    Bedani, Raquel; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége Dourado; Cano, Veridiana Soares Pereira; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; de Rossi, Graciela Font; Valdez, Elizeu Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ingestion of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 would modify the intestinal count of enterococci, fecal pH and ammonia content in rats fed on a diet containing red meat. The rats were placed in 4 groups: for 60 days, group I was given a standard casein-based rodent feed and groups II-IV, the beef-based feed. From day 30, groups III-IV also received the following products: III) soy yogurt; IV) suspension of E. faecium CRL 183. At the start and on days 30 and 60, feces were collected for the determination of pH, ammonia content, count of enterococci and identification of their species. On day 60, rats were sacrificed and their colons also removed for count of enterococci and identification of their species. Rats that ingested soy yogurt showed no significant change (P<0.05) in fecal counts of Enterococcus spp., but, this rat group showed a higher count of E. faecium than rats that ingested suspension of E. faecium CRL 183. The ingestion of soy yogurt and E. faecium culture caused a significant rise (P < 0.05) in fecal pH and ammonia content. Our results suggest that consumption of soy yogurt fermented with E. faecium CRL 183 and L. helveticus subsp. jugurti could change the species of Enterococcus spp. present in the feces and colon of rats fed on a beef-based diet. However, the fermented soy product and the pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183 also induced undesirable effects such as the increase of fecal pH and ammonia content in the feces of rats fed on a beef-based diet. PMID:24031747

  15. Improved endothelial dysfunction by Cynanchum wilfordii in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice fed a high fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Deok Ho; Lee, Yun Jung; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Cui, Ying Lan; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-02-01

    Cynanchum wilfordii is used in traditional Chinese medicine with almost all parts of this plant considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of an ethanol extract of C. wilfordii (ECW) on vascular dysfunction in apolipoprotein E (apoE)(-/-) mice fed with high fat/cholesterol diets (HFCDs). The apoE(-/-) mice were fed HFCD consisting of 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100 or 200 mg/day/kg ECW. Chronic ECW treatment significantly lessened the level of low-density lipoprotein (P<.05) and elevated that of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P<.01). Chronic ECW treatment normalized the HFCD-induced increase in systolic blood pressure, maintained smooth and soft intimal endothelial layers, and decreased intima-media thickness in aortic sections of HFCD-fed apoE(-/-) mice. ECW significantly restored the diet-induced decrease in vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine; however, the response to sodium nitroprusside did not change. ECW clearly restored the HFCD-induced reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression levels in aortic tissue, leading to decreased vascular inflammation through an inhibition of cellular adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 as well as endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression. In conclusion, ECW ameliorates endothelial dysfunction via improvement of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling pathway in a diet/genetic model of hyperlipidemia. ECW also substantially inhibited the development of atherosclerosis, possibly by inhibiting ET-1, cell adhesion molecules, and lesion formation, suggesting a vascular protective role for this herb in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:22082065

  16. Improved Endothelial Dysfunction by Cynanchum wilfordii in Apolipoprotein E−/− Mice Fed a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Deok Ho; Lee, Yun Jung; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Cui, Ying Lan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cynanchum wilfordii is used in traditional Chinese medicine with almost all parts of this plant considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of an ethanol extract of C. wilfordii (ECW) on vascular dysfunction in apolipoprotein E (apoE)−/− mice fed with high fat/cholesterol diets (HFCDs). The apoE−/− mice were fed HFCD consisting of 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100 or 200 mg/day/kg ECW. Chronic ECW treatment significantly lessened the level of low-density lipoprotein (P<.05) and elevated that of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P<.01). Chronic ECW treatment normalized the HFCD-induced increase in systolic blood pressure, maintained smooth and soft intimal endothelial layers, and decreased intima-media thickness in aortic sections of HFCD-fed apoE−/− mice. ECW significantly restored the diet-induced decrease in vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine; however, the response to sodium nitroprusside did not change. ECW clearly restored the HFCD-induced reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression levels in aortic tissue, leading to decreased vascular inflammation through an inhibition of cellular adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 as well as endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression. In conclusion, ECW ameliorates endothelial dysfunction via improvement of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling pathway in a diet/genetic model of hyperlipidemia. ECW also substantially inhibited the development of atherosclerosis, possibly by inhibiting ET-1, cell adhesion molecules, and lesion formation, suggesting a vascular protective role for this herb in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:22082065

  17. Role of sphingolipid mediator ceramide in obesity and renal injury in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Boini, Krishna M; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L; Li, Pin-Lan

    2010-09-01

    The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Treatment of mice with the acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) inhibitor amitriptyline significantly attenuated the HFD-induced plasma ceramide levels. Corresponding to increase in plasma ceramide, the HFD significantly increased the body weight gain, plasma leptin concentration, urinary total protein and albumin excretion, glomerular damage index, and adipose tissue ASMase activity compared with the LFD-fed mice. These HFD-induced changes were also significantly attenuated by treatment of mice with amitriptyline. In addition, the decline of plasma glucose concentration after an intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.15 U/kg b.wt.) was more sustained in mice on the HFD with amitriptyline than on the HFD alone. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose (3 g/kg b.wt.) resulted in a slow increase followed by a rapid decrease in the plasma glucose concentration in LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice, but such blood glucose response was not observed in HFD-fed mice. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated a decrease in the podocin and an increase in the desmin in the glomeruli of HFD-fed mice compared with the LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice. In conclusion, our results reveal a pivotal role for ceramide biosynthesis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and associated kidney damage. PMID:20543095

  18. Selection of Fecal Enterococci Exhibiting tcrB-Mediated Copper Resistance in Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Copper † ▿

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, R. G.; Shelton, N. W.; Shi, X.; Vinasco, J.; Dritz, S. S.; Tokach, M. D.; Nelssen, J. L.; Scott, H. M.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Copper, as copper sulfate, is increasingly used as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics for growth promotion in weaned piglets. Acquired copper resistance, conferred by a plasmid-borne, transferable copper resistance (tcrB) gene, has been reported in Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis. A longitudinal field study was undertaken to determine the relationship between copper supplementation and the prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci in piglets. The study was done with weaned piglets, housed in 10 pens with 6 piglets per pen, fed diets supplemented with a normal (16.5 ppm; control) or an elevated (125 ppm) level of copper. Fecal samples were randomly collected from three piglets per pen on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and plated on M-Enterococcus agar, and three enterococcal isolates were obtained from each sample. The overall prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci was 21.1% (38/180) in piglets fed elevated copper and 2.8% (5/180) in the control. Among the 43 tcrB-positive isolates, 35 were E. faecium and 8 were E. faecalis. The mean MICs of copper for tcrB-negative and tcrB-positive enterococci were 6.2 and 22.2 mM, respectively. The restriction digestion of the genomic DNA of E. faecium or E. faecalis with S1 nuclease yielded a band of ∼194-kbp size to which both tcrB and the erm(B) gene probes hybridized. A conjugation assay demonstrated cotransfer of tcrB and erm(B) genes between E. faecium and E. faecalis strains. The higher prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci in piglets fed elevated copper compared to that in piglets fed normal copper suggests that supplementation of copper in swine diets selected for resistance. PMID:21705534

  19. Hepatocyte X-box binding protein 1 deficiency increases liver injury in mice fed a high-fat/sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Henkel, Anne S; LeCuyer, Brian E; Schipma, Matthew J; Anderson, Kristy A; Green, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Fatty liver is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the hepatic unfolded protein response (UPR). Reduced hepatic expression of the UPR regulator X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP1s) is associated with human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and feeding mice a high-fat diet with fructose/sucrose causes progressive, fibrosing steatohepatitis. This study examines the role of XBP1 in nonalcoholic fatty liver injury and fatty acid-induced cell injury. Hepatocyte-specific Xbp1-deficient (Xbp1(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat/sugar (HFS) diet for up to 16 wk. HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice exhibited higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) controls. RNA sequencing and Gene Ontogeny pathway analysis of hepatic mRNA revealed that apoptotic process, inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix structural constituent pathways had enhanced activation in HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Liver histology demonstrated enhanced injury and fibrosis but less steatosis in the HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Hepatic Col1a1 and Tgfβ1 gene expression, as well as Chop and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), were increased in Xbp1(-/-) compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) mice after HFS feeding. In vitro, stable XBP1-knockdown Huh7 cells (Huh7-KD) and scramble control cells (Huh7-SCR) were generated and treated with palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h. PA-treated Huh7-KD cells had increased cytotoxicity measured by lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptotic nuclei, and caspase3/7 activity assays compared with Huh7-SCR cells. CHOP and p-JNK expression was also increased in Huh7-KD cells following PA treatment. In conclusion, loss of XBP1 enhances injury in both in vivo and in vitro models of fatty liver injury. We speculate that hepatic XBP1 plays an important protective role in pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:26472223

  20. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    PubMed

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  1. Phosphorus utilization and characterization of excreta from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains balanced for total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Thacker, P A

    2010-05-01

    Intrinsic phytase in swine feeds may increase phytate utilization and alter the solubility of the excreted P. The objective of this experiment was to quantify changes in fecal P composition from swine fed a variety of cereal grains containing a range of phytate concentrations and endogenous phytase activities. Twenty-five crossbred barrows (89.3 +/- 6.8 kg) were fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments that were based on wheat, corn, barley, low-phytate barley, or high-fat-low-lignin oats. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 75% of the test grain and were fed for a 7-d acclimation period followed by a 3-d fecal collection period. Total-tract apparent digestibility coefficients were determined for DM, P, and phytate using an indicator method. Fecal P was characterized using solution-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Water-soluble P (WSP) and WSP-to-total P (TP) ratio were determined in the feces. Apparent total-tract digestibility coefficients for P and phytate ranged from 0.33 (barley) to 0.45 (low-phytate barley) and from 0.20 (corn) to 0.79 (oats), respectively. The majority of P excreted in the feces was in the form of phosphate (>47% of TP), and phytate degradation was not related to the endogenous phytase activity in the diet. There was a positive linear relationship between dietary NDF and apparent total-tract phytate digestibility (r(2) = 0.82; P = 0.03), indicating that greater dietary fiber content may enhance microbial breakdown of phytate in the hindgut. There was a negative relationship between the fecal WSP-to-TP ratio and the percentage of TP that was in the form of phytate in the feces. In summary, our results indicate that the majority of P in the feces of pigs fed diets based on cereal grains is present in the form of phosphate and relatively small amounts of phytate were contained in the excreta. The exception to this was the corn diet, for which 45% of the total fecal P was in the form of phytate. Hydrolysis of phytate in the

  2. Defatted avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Einat; Werman, Moshe J; Sabo, Edmond; Neeman, Ishak

    2002-07-01

    The potential use of avocado as a fiber source was evaluated. The total dietary fiber content of fresh avocado fruit of the Ettinger variety was 5.2 g/100 g. Approximately 75% was insoluble, and 25% soluble. The water-holding capacity of dry defatted avocado pulp was similar to that of cellulose, and trypsin inhibitors were not detected. The dietary and metabolic consequences of the avocado pulp were studied in male rats fed normal and hypercholesterolemic diets. Rats consumed semipurified diets containing either avocado pulp as the dietary fiber source or cellulose (control) with or without 10 g/kg cholesterol and 5 g/kg cholic acid. Food consumption and body weight gain were lower in rats fed avocado compared with those fed cellulose. Relative cecum weight was higher in avocado-fed rats. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels did not differ in rats fed diets without cholesterol, but plasma cholesterol was greater in avocado-fed than in cellulose-fed rats that consumed cholesterol. Regardless of dietary cholesterol, hepatic total fat levels, as evaluated histologically, but not directly, were lower in avocado-fed rats. These data suggest the presence of an appetite depressant in avocado and that avocado pulp interferes with hepatic fat metabolism. PMID:12097685

  3. Body composition and grip strength are improved in transgenic sickle mice fed a high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Capers, Patrice L; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Cue, Shayla; Chappa, Prasanthi; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Weitzmann, M Neale; Archer, David R; Newman, Gale W; Quarshie, Alexander; Stiles, Jonathan K; Hibbert, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Key pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia includes compensatory erythropoiesis, vascular injury and chronic inflammation, which divert amino acids from tissue deposition for growth/weight gain and muscle formation. We hypothesised that sickle mice maintained on an isoenergetic diet with a high percentage of energy derived from protein (35 %), as opposed to a standard diet with 20 % of energy derived from protein, would improve body composition, bone mass and grip strength. Male Berkeley transgenic sickle mice (S; n 8-12) were fed either 20 % (S20) or 35 % (S35) diets for 3 months. Grip strength (BIOSEB meter) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) were measured. After 3 months, control mice had the highest bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) (P < 0·005). S35 mice had the largest increase in grip strength. A two-way ANOVA of change in grip strength (P = 0·043) attributed this difference to genotype (P = 0·025) and a trend in type of diet (P = 0·067). l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation of the 20 % diet was explored, as a possible mechanism for improvement obtained with the 35 % diet. Townes transgenic sickle mice (TS; n 6-9) received 0·8, 1·6, 3·2 or 6·4 % l-Arg based on the same protocol and outcome measures used for the S mice. TS mice fed 1·6 % l-Arg for 3 months (TS1.6) had the highest weight gain, BMD, BMC and lean body mass compared with other groups. TS3.2 mice showed significantly more improvement in grip strength than TS0·8 and TS1.6 mice (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the high-protein diet improved body composition and grip strength. Outcomes observed with TS1.6 and TS3.2 mice, respectively, confirm the hypothesis and reveal l-Arg as part of the mechanism. PMID:26090102

  4. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  5. Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Handa, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Sono, Yoshikatsu; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2005-06-01

    It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:15973051

  6. Growth, Intake, Diet Digestibility, and Nitrogen Use in Three Hair Sheep Breeds Fed Alfalfa Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pen feeding and metabolism trials were conducted to determine intake, diet digestibility and nitrogen (N) use in three hair sheep breeds with differing growth potential offered an alfalfa hay diet. For pen feeding, 24 6-mo-old wether lambs, equally representing the Barbados Blackbelly, Katahdin, an...

  7. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals; our lab has demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against put...

  8. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  9. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  10. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  11. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  12. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status of young women fed vitamin B-6 deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    Turnlund, J.R.; Keyes, W.R.; Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Sauberlich, H.E. Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA )

    1991-03-11

    A study was conducted in young women to determine the effect of vitamin B-6 deficient diets on copper, iron and zinc metabolism. Young women were confined to a metabolic research unit for 84 and 98 days. They were fed a vitamin B-6 deficient formula diet initially, followed by food diet containing four increasing levels of vitamin B-6. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status were determined at intervals throughout the study. Absorption was determined using the stable isotopes {sup 65}Cu, {sup 54}Fe, and {sup 67}Zn. Status was based on serum copper and zinc, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. Copper absorption averaged 18 {plus minus} 1% during vitamin B-6 depletion, significantly lower than 24 {plus minus} 1% during repletion, but serum copper was not affected and balance was positive. Iron absorption was not impaired significantly by vitamin B-6 deficient diets, but status declined during the depletion period. Zinc absorption averaged 40 {plus minus} 2% during depletion and 27 {plus minus} 2% during repletion. Zinc absorption and retention were significantly greater during vitamin B-6 depletion, but serum zinc declined suggesting the absorbed zinc was not available for utilization. The results suggest that vitamin B-6 depletion of young women may inhibit copper absorption, affect iron status and alter zinc metabolism. The effects of vitamin B-6 depletion differ markedly among these elements.

  13. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM. PMID:11949868

  14. Cecal populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli populations after in vivo Escherichia coli challenge in birds fed diets with purified lignin or mannanoligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Baurhoo, B; Letellier, A; Zhao, X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate lignin and mannanoligosaccharides as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in broilers. Dietary treatments for the 2 studies were 1) negative control (CTL-, antibiotic free); 2) positive control (CTL+, diet 1 + 11 mg of virginiamycin/kg); 3) mannanoligosaccharide (MOS; diet 1 + BioMos: 0.2% to 21 d and 0.1% thereafter); 4) LL (diet 1 + 1.25% Alcell lignin); and 5) HL (diet 1 + 2.5% Alcell lignin). In experiment 1, each treatment was assigned to 4 pen replicates (52 birds each). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly for 38 d. At 28 and 38 d, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Body weight and feed intake did not differ among dietary treatments. At d 38, the lactobacilli population was greatest (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS, whereas LL-fed birds had greater (P < 0.05) lactobacilli load than those fed CTL+. Bifidobacteria load was greater (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS or LL compared with those fed CTL+ at both d 28 and 38. However, at d 28 and 38, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria loads were lowest (P < 0.05) in CTL+ or HL-fed birds. In experiment 2, 21-d-old birds from the initial flock were transferred to cages for oral Escherichia coli (O2 and O88 serotypes) challenge (12 birds/treatment). After 3, 6, and 9 d, cecal loads of E. coli were determined. Birds fed HL had a lower E. coli load (P < 0.05) than birds fed CTL- or CTL+ at d 3, and lower than birds fed CTL- at d 6. At d 9, the E. coli load was lower (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS or HL than in those fed the CTL- or CTL+ diets; LL-fed birds had lower E. coli load than those fed CTL-. Birds fed MOS or LL had a comparative advantage over CTL+ birds in increasing populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and lowering E. coli loads after challenge. PMID:18029796

  15. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  16. Caloric restriction improves diabetes-induced cognitive deficits by attenuating neurogranin-associated calcium signaling in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwajin; Kang, Heeyoung; Heo, Rok Won; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Yi, Chin-Ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Won-Ho; Kang, Sang Soo; Roh, Gu Seob

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes-induced cognitive decline has been recognized in human patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and mouse model of obesity, but the underlying mechanisms or therapeutic targets are not clearly identified. We investigated the effect of caloric restriction on diabetes-induced memory deficits and searched a molecular mechanism of caloric restriction-mediated neuroprotection. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 40 weeks and RNA-seq analysis was performed in the hippocampus of high-fat diet-fed mice. To investigate caloric restriction effect on differential expression of genes, mice were fed high-fat diet for 20 weeks and continued on high-fat diet or subjected to caloric restriction (2 g/day) for 12 weeks. High-fat diet-fed mice exhibited insulin resistance, glial activation, blood-brain barrier leakage, and memory deficits, in that we identified neurogranin, a down-regulated gene in high-fat diet-fed mice using RNA-seq analysis; neurogranin regulates Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent synaptic function. Caloric restriction increased insulin sensitivity, reduced high-fat diet-induced blood-brain barrier leakage and glial activation, and improved memory deficit. Furthermore, caloric restriction reversed high-fat diet-induced expression of neurogranin and the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calpain as well as the downstream effectors. Our results suggest that neurogranin is an important factor of high-fat diet-induced memory deficits on which caloric restriction has a therapeutic effect by regulating neurogranin-associated calcium signaling. PMID:26661177

  17. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Vashan, S J; Golian, A; Yaghobfar, A

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the

  18. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124

  19. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet. PMID:23291748

  20. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2014-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  1. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2013-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture. PMID:24367359

  2. Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kiani, A; Alstrup, L; Nielsen, M O

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets. PMID:26073222

  3. Effects of chitosan and water-soluble chitosan micro- and nanoparticles in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-liang; Zhong, Xiao-bin; Tao, Yi; Wu, Si-hui; Su, Zheng-quan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined the effects of chitosan (CTS) and water-soluble chitosan (WSC) microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Methods: The rats were randomly separated into eight groups: a normal diet group (the blank control), a high-fat emulsion group (the negative control), CTS and WSC control groups, CTS-MP and WSC-MP groups, and CTS-NP and WSC-NP groups. All groups (except the blank control group) were fed the high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish the obesity model. Different samples were administered orally once daily to the treatment groups for 4 weeks. Results: A significantly lower weight gain was observed in the WSC-MP and WSC-NP groups, as well as in the CTS-MP and CTS-NP groups, compared with rats given a normal diet and a high-fat diet (P < 0.05). The WSC-MP rats had the least weight gain among all the groups. The food intake in the eight groups had the same trend as weight gain. CTS and WSC MPs and NPs significantly reduced the final amounts of epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue. Liver weight was reduced in the CTS-MP group compared to rats fed a high-fat diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced in all treatment groups, with the WSC-MP and CTS-MP groups showing a more significant reduction than the other groups. Triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the WSC-NP group compared to the high-fat group. The mortality rates of CTS-MP, CTS-NP, WSC-MP, and WSC-NP groups were 30%, 30%, 55%, and 65%, respectively. The median lethal dose for the WSC-MP and WSC-NP groups were 4080 mg/kg and 2370 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that CTS and WSC MPs and NPs have greater effects than commercially available CTS and WSC, and can be used as potential antiobesity agents. PMID:22888243

  4. Effects of Lipid Regulation Using Raw and Processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Chen, Zhen; Mao, Xiaojian; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2012-01-01

    Raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori have been used in the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia, and related diseases in Asian counties for centuries. The lipid regulation ability of raw and processed Poligoni Multiflori Radix were compared in high-fat diet fed rats in this research. Total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood and liver tissue were all significantly higher in model rats. However, triglyceride (TG) contents increased only in liver tissue, not in the blood samples. The rats fed the high-fat diets were considered the model of type IIa hyperlipidemia and early-stage nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Both Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata (RPMP) revealed TC-lowing effects, and middling doses of RPMP displayed the most significant TC-lowing effects, as indicated by blood samples. Neither RPM nor RPMP was found to reduce LDL-C in rats' blood. Nevertheless, RPM showed dose-dependent TC- and TG-lowing effects in the liver tissue samples. In conclusion, RPM showed more pronounced effects on lipid regulation in liver samples in the treatment of early-stage NAFLD. RPMP, however, displayed better effects in regulating lipids in circulating blood for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:23304197

  5. Myeloid-specific SIRT1 Deletion Aggravates Hepatic Inflammation and Steatosis in High-fat Diet-fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Kim, Hwajin; Heo, Rok Won; Shin, Hyun Joo; Yi, Chin-ok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates cellular metabolism and inflammatory response. The organ-specific deletion of SIRT1 induces local inflammation and insulin resistance in dietary and genetic obesity. Macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, however, the macrophage-specific SIRT1 function in the context of obesity is largely unknown. C57/BL6 wild type (WT) or myeloid-specific SIRT1 knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks. Metabolic parameters and markers of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in liver were compared in WT and KO mice. SIRT1 deletion enhanced HFD-induced changes on body and liver weight gain, and increased glucose and insulin resistance. In liver, SIRT1 deletion increased the acetylation, and enhanced HFD-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), hepatic inflammation and macrophage infiltration. HFD-fed KO mice showed severe hepatic steatosis by activating lipogenic pathway through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), and hepatic fibrogenesis, as indicated by induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen secretion. Myeloid-specific deletion of SIRT1 stimulates obesity-induced inflammation and increases the risk of hepatic fibrosis. Targeted induction of macrophage SIRT1 may be a good therapy for alleviating inflammation-associated metabolic syndrome. PMID:26330758

  6. Direct-fed microbials containing lactate-producing bacteria influence ruminal fermentation but not lactate utilization in steers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kenney, N M; Vanzant, E S; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R

    2015-05-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) have been shown to improve gain and growth efficiency and also modulate ruminal fermentation. In Exp. 1,72 beef steers were used to compare a lactate-producing bacterial (LAB) DFM consisting primarily of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium,and a lactate-producing and lactate-utilizing (LAB/LU) DFM consisting primarily of L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium both fed at 10(9) cfu/d. Steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet for 153 d and then slaughtered for collection of carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed acorn-based finishing diet and treated with 10(9) cfu/d of LAB DFM. Rumen fluid was sampled on d 14 and 28 over a 12-h period. Steers were ruminally dosed with a 2-L solution of neutralized DL-lactate (0.56 M)and Cr-EDTA (13.22 M) 3 h postfeeding on d 15 and 29. Ruminal samples were collected at 10- and 20-minintervals for the first and second hour postdosing. No differences (P ≥ 0.14) between control (CON) and LAB for DMI, ADG, growth efficiency, or carcass characteristics were observed. Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for LAB/LU than LAB from d 0 to 28 but did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) thereafter. Average daily gain was greater (P = 0.04) and efficiency tended(P = 0.06) to be greater for LAB than LAB/LU over the entire 153 d. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate were unaffected(P ≥ 0.24). Molar proportions of acetate exhibited a DFM by hour interaction (P = 0.04); however, on average, molar proportion of acetate was 4.4% greater for DFM. Conversely, DFM did not affect the molar proportion of propionate (P = 0.39). On average,molar proportions of propionate tended to increase(P = 0.07), and acetate tended to decrease (P = 0.07)across days. Mean daily ruminal pH was similar for CON on d 14 and 28, whereas mean pH increased from d 14 to 28 for DFM (DFM × day; P = 0.08).Minimum pH remained unchanged for CON over time but increased from d

  7. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P < .05) 28- and 70-d ADG and DMI and increased (P < .05) 28-d efficiency (kg of gain/100 kg of feed). Replacing urea with CB did not improve (P > .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P < .05) 28-d efficiency. The growth rate of steers at 28 and 70 d was correlated to a greater degree with ME intake (r2 = .83 and .85, respectively) rather than MAA supply, suggesting that the MAA supply was not first-limiting for growth. The source of supplemental protein fed during d 0 through 70 had no effect (P > .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P < .05) 175-d ADG compared with feeding urea, SP, or CB. Increasing supplemental true protein tended to linearly increase ADG and DMI at 28 and 70 d, but overall, ADG, DMI, and efficiency were not affected (P

  8. Exercise training down-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes in meal-fed rats: fructose versus complex-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, R; Griffiths, M A; Gore, M T; Baker, D H; Oscai, L; Ney, D M; Ji, L L

    1998-05-01

    The maximal activity and mRNA abundance of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and other lipogenic enzymes were investigated in rats meal-fed either a high fructose (F) or a high cornstarch (C) diet. The diet contained 50% F or C (g/100 g), casein (20%), cornstarch (16.13%), corn oil (5%), minerals (5.37%), vitamins (1%) and Solka-floc (2%). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 44) were randomly divided into C or F groups that were meal-fed for 3 h/d; each group was subdivided into exercise-trained (T) and untrained (U) groups. Treadmill training was performed 4 h after the initiation of the meal at 25 m/min, 10% grade for 2 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 10 wk. Rats were killed 9 h after the meal and 27 h after the last training session. F-fed rats had significantly higher activities of all lipogenic enzymes assayed and mRNA abundance of FAS and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) than C rats (P < 0.05). Concentrations of plasma insulin and glucose and liver pyruvate were not altered by F feeding. Proportions of the fatty acids 18:2 and 20:4 were lower, whereas those of 16:0 and 16:1 were higher, in livers of F than of C rats (P < 0.05). Training decreased FAS activity by 50% (P < 0.05), without affecting FAS mRNA level in C rats; this down-regulation was absent in the F rats. ACC mRNA abundance tended to be lower in CT than in CU rats (P < 0.075). L-Type pyruvate kinase activity was lower in FT than in FU rats (P < 0.05), whereas other lipogenic enzyme activities did not differ between T and U rats of each diet group. We conclude that hepatic lipogenic enzyme induction by high carbohydrate meal feeding may be inhibited by exercise training and that a fructose-rich diet may attenuate this training-induced down-regulation. PMID:9566986

  9. Capsaicin-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus and alterations in gut microbial count in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Baboota, Ritesh K; Murtaza, Nida; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Karmase, Aniket; Kaur, Jaspreet; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is a global health problem and recently it has been seen as a growing concern for developing countries. Several bioactive dietary molecules have been associated with amelioration of obesity and associated complications and capsaicin is one among them. The present work is an attempt to understand and provide evidence for the novel mechanisms of anti-obesity activity of capsaicin in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Swiss albino mice divided in three groups (n=8-10) i.e. control, HFD fed and capsaicin (2mg/kg, po)+HFD fed were administered respective treatment for 3months. After measuring phenotypic and serum related biochemical changes, effect of capsaicin on HFD-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT) (visceral and subcutaneous), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and gut microbial alterations was studied and quantified. Our results suggest that, in addition to its well-known effects, oral administration of capsaicin (a) modulates hypothalamic satiety associated genotype, (b) alters gut microbial composition, (c) induces "browning" genotype (BAT associated genes) in subcutaneous WAT and (d) increases expression of thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in BAT. The present study provides evidence for novel and interesting mechanisms to explain the anti-obesity effect of capsaicin. PMID:24917046

  10. Defective adipose tissue development associated with hepatomegaly in cathepsin E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Kido, Mizuho A; Hatakeyama, Junko; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-03-28

    Cathepsin E is an intracellular aspartic proteinase, which is predominantly distributed in immune-related and epithelial cells. However, the role of the enzyme in adipose tissues remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cathepsin E-deficient (CatE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a mouse model of obesity. HFD-fed CatE(-/-) mice displayed reduced body weight gain and defective development of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Moreover, fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice showed abnormal lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues characterized by hepatomegaly, which is probably due to defective adipose tissue development. Detailed pathological and biochemical analyses showed that hepatomegaly was accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice. In fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice, the number of macrophages infiltrating into WAT was significantly lower than in fat-induced wild-type mice. Thus, the impaired adipose tissue development in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice was probably due to reduced infiltration of macrophages and may lead to hepatomegaly accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24583126

  11. Silymarin alleviates hepatic oxidative stress and protects against metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Meng, Ran; Huang, Bin; Shen, Shanmei; Bi, Yan; Zhu, Dalong

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin is a potent antioxidant medicine and has been widely used for the treatment of liver diseases over 30 years. Recent studies suggest that silymarin may benefit patients with glucose intolerance. However, the mechanism underlying the action of silymarin is not clarified. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of silymarin on glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and explore the potential therapeutic mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD for 12 weeks, randomized, and treated orally with vehicle saline or silymarin (30 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. We found that silymarin significantly improved HFD-induced body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in mice. Silymarin treatment reduced HFD-increased oxidative stress indicators (reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) and restored HFD-down-regulated activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in the plasma and/or liver of the HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, silymarin decreased HFD-up-regulated hepatic NADPH oxidase expression and NF-κB activation in mice. Additionally, silymarin treatment mitigated HFD-increased plasma IL-1β, TNF-α levels, and HFD-enhanced hepatic NO, TLR4, and iNOS expression in mice. These novel data indicate that silymarin has potent anti-diabetic actions through alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response, partially by inhibiting hepatic NADPH oxidase expression and the NF-κB signaling. PMID:26758315

  12. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  13. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  14. Characterization of ruminal temperature and its relationship with ruminal pH in beef heifers fed growing and finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; Hünerberg, M; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-10-01

    This study characterized the relationship between ruminal temperature (T rum) and pH in beef cattle fed growing and finishing diets. In Exp. 1, 16 ruminally cannulated beef heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg BW) were fed 4 growing diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with four 21-d periods. Diets were (DM basis) grower control (CTLg; 35% barley grain plus 5% canola meal), 40% corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (CDDGSg), 40% wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles (WDDGSg), and 37.6% WDDGSg plus 2.4% corn oil (WDDGSg+O). All diets contained 55% barley silage (DM basis). Ruminal pH and T rum were continuously monitored for 4 d each period starting on d 18. In Exp. 2, the 16 heifers were gradually transitioned (529.1 ± 41.1 kg BW) from the growing diets to 1 of 4 finishing diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods. Diets were (DM basis) finisher control (CTL f), 40% corn-based distillers grains plus solubles (CDDGS f), 40% wheat-based distillers grains plus solubles (WDDGS f), and 37.4% WDDGSf + 2.6% corn oil (WDDGS f+O). All finishing diets contained 8% barley silage (DM basis). Ruminal pH and T rum were measured from d 25 to 28. With growing diets (n = 64), maximum T rum was negatively related to minimum pH (P < 0.001, r = -0.53) and positively related to starch intake (P < 0.001, r = 0.55). Maximum T rum, T rum > 40°C (h/d), and area under the curve (AUC) T rum > 38°C (area × h/d) accounted for 28.3, 9.5, and 4.7%, respectively, of the variability in minimum pH (R(2) = 0.43, P < 0.001, n = 64). Mean T rum and maximum T rum were greater for CTL g than CDDGS g, WDDGS g, and WDDGS g+O. With finishing diets (n = 63), maximum T rum was negatively related to minimum ruminal pH (P < 0.001, r = -0.63) and positively related to DMI (P < 0.001, r = 0.62) and to starch intake (P < 0.001, r = 0.58). Maximum T rum, AUC T rum > 39°C, and duration T rum > 38°C accounted for 40, 17, and 3.6%, respectively, of the variability in minimum pH (R(2

  15. Effects of non-antibiotic feed additives on performance, tibial dyschondroplasia incidence and tibia characteristics of broilers fed low-calcium diets.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Meimandipour, A; Kamyab, A

    2011-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate and compare the efficacy of different feed additives on performance, tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence and tibia characteristics of male broilers fed low-calcium diets. A completely randomized design, with six treatments and five replicates of five chicks per each was used. Experimental treatments were: (i) Basal diet containing recommended level of calcium (0.9%) as control treatment (Ctrl), (ii) low-calcium (0.67%) diet without any additive (LC), (iii) low-calcium diet + probiotic (2 g/kg diet), (iv) low-calcium diet + prebiotic (2 g/kg diet), (v) low-calcium diet + synbiotic [mix of probiotic and prebiotic (each 2 g/kg diet)], (vi) low-calcium diet + organic acid (1.5 g/kg diet). Birds were reared in an open-sided house system under natural tropical condition until 21 days of age. Feeding with low-calcium diet negatively influenced broiler performance (body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) and tibia characteristics, whereas dietary inclusion of all feed additives had beneficial effects on above-mentioned parameters and helped the birds to overcome problems related to low-calcium diets. Different treatments had no effect on TD incidence. PMID:21156001

  16. The effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinho; Yeo, Ikhyun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin. PMID:22413035

  17. Effects of xanthohumol-rich extract from the hop on fatty acid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yui, Kazuki; Kiyofuji, Ayane; Osada, Kyoichi

    2014-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid of female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a hydrophobic flavonoid. We examined the effects of dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract in obese rats that was induced by feeding a high-fat diet. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract significantly lowered the body weight gain of these rats compared to rats fed a high-fat diet without the extract. The increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of the rats fed a high-fat diet was ameliorated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract tended to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis through the reduction of hepatic SREBP1c mRNA expression in the rats fed a high-fat diet. The excreted of triacylglycerol into feces also was promoted by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Plasma adiponectin levels in the rats fed a high-fat diet also tended to be elevated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Thus, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may inhibit the increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol in the plasma and liver induced by feeding high-fat diet through the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat absorption. Therefore, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may exert preventive function on the increase of body weight and tissue triacylglycerol levels by overnutrition. PMID:24420065

  18. Endurance training increases leptin expression in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Karina Barbosa; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Evangelista, Elísio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipocyte cell size, lipid and catecholamine content, Lep, OB-Rb and Ucp2 mRNA transcription levels, and circulating leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The HSD groups displayed a higher adiposity index and rWAT weight, Lep mRNA and protein upregulation, and a period-dependent effect on OB-Rb mRNA expression. Exercise decreased serum leptin and upregulated the OB-Rb mRNA levels. However, in rats fed with an HSD, the increase in OB-Rb mRNA and reduction in catecholamine levels resulted in a high level of adiposity and hyperleptinemia. The combination of training and an HSD decreases the NEFA levels and upregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 4-week period, while downregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 8-week period without changing the NEFA levels. Our results suggest that an HSD induces an increase in leptin expression in rWAT, while reducing adipocytes via leptin-mediated lipolysis after an 8-week period. In exercised rats fed an HSD, TAG synthesis and storage overlaps with lipolysis, promoting fat store development and Lep mRNA and plasma protein upregulation in adult rats. PMID:24243000

  19. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  20. Regulation of de novo hepatic lipogenesis by insulin infusion in rainbow trout fed a high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Polakof, S; Médale, F; Larroquet, L; Vachot, C; Corraze, G; Panserat, S

    2011-10-01

    Carbohydrate energy intake in excess of total energy expenditure is converted to fat. In fish, the liver is considered to be the main lipogenic tissue. Its regulation by insulin is not fully understood, and some of the available in vivo findings are contradictory. In this study, bovine insulin was infused for 5 d into rainbow trout fed a high-carbohydrate diet, and variables of de novo hepatic lipogenesis were measured. We found that hepatic lipogenesis in trout is stimulated by insulin, reflected in enhanced mRNA and protein abundance and enzyme activity of ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase. These results were further supported by parallel changes in enzymes acting as NAD phosphate donors, especially those participating in the pentose phosphate pathway. This is the first time that the main enzymes involved in de novo hepatic lipogenesis have been studied at the molecular, protein, and activity levels in fish. We hypothesize that some of the delayed changes found in the different levels of regulation were probably related to the insulin resistance achieved by the trout liver after 5 d of insulin infusion. We assessed enzyme activity and mRNA abundance of lipid oxidation-related enzymes in the livers of insulin-infused fish in which paradoxically increased β-oxidation potential was found. The insulin-stimulated de novo hepatic lipogenesis in carbohydrate-fed trout reinforces the hypothesis that this pathway may act as an important sink for excess glucose, which could ultimately contribute to improved glucose homeostasis in this carnivorous and glucose-intolerant species when fed high-carbohydrate diets. PMID:21571891

  1. Bacterial and Protozoal Communities and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Sheep Fed a Diet Containing Added Tannins ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C18:2 c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C18:2 c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C18:0 (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (−30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

  2. Bacterial and protozoal communities and fatty acid profile in the rumen of sheep fed a diet containing added tannins.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C(18:2) c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C(18:2) c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C(18:1) t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C(18:0) (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (-30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

  3. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid isomers on lipid metabolism in hamsters fed high-carbohydrate and high- fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Ryan, Kevin J.P.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Salter, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), have been reported to have a number of isomer-dependent effects on lipid metabolism including reduction in adipose tissue deposition, changes in plasma lipoprotein concentrations and hepatic lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of individual CLA isomers against lipogenic and high “Western” fat background diets. Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-carbohydrate rodent chow or chow supplemented with 17.25% fat formulated to represent the type and amount of fatty acids found in a typical “Western” diet (including 0.2% cholesterol). Diets were further supplemented with 0.25% (w/w) rapeseed oil, cis9, trans11 (c9,t11)-CLA or trans10, cis12 (t10,c12)-CLA. Neither isomer had a significant impact on plasma lipid or lipoprotein concentrations. The t10,c12-CLA isomer significantly reduced perirenal adipose tissue depot mass. While adipose tissue acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthase mRNA concentrations (as measured by quantitative PCR) were unaffected by CLA, lipoprotein lipase mRNA was specifically reduced by t10,c12-CLA, on both background diets (p<0.001). This was associated with a specific reduction of SREBP1c expression in perirenal adipose tissue (p=0.018). The isomers appear to have divergent effects on liver triacylglycerol content with c9,t11-CLA producing lower concentrations than t10,c12-CLA. We conclude that t10,c12-CLA modestly reduces adipose tissue deposition in the Golden Syrian hamster independently of background diet and this may possibly result from reduced uptake of lipoprotein fatty acids, as a consequence of reduced LPL gene expression. PMID:18983716

  4. Effects of Dietary Fibers on Weight Gain, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Gastric Ghrelin Gene Expression in High Fat Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Zuberi, Aamir; Zhang, Xian H.; Macgowan, Jacalyn; Qin, Jianhua; Ye, Xin; Son, Leslie; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun; Cefalu, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects for three types of dietary fibers, i.e. sugar cane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY) and cellulose (CEL) on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into four groups that consumed high fat-diets or high fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL respectively. After baseline measurements were assessed for body weight, plasma insulin, glucose, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), animals were treated for 12 weeks. Parameters were re-evaluated at end of study. Whereas there was no difference at the baseline, body weight gains in the PSY and SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL group at end of study, No difference in body weight was observed between the PSY and SCF animals. Body composition analysis demonstrated that fat mass in the SCF group was considerably lower than in the CEL and HFD groups. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and areas under curve of IPGTT were also significantly lower in the SCF and PSY groups than in the CEL and HFD groups. Moreover, fasting plasma concentrations of leptin were significantly lower and GLP-1 level was two-fold higher in the SCF and PSY mice than in the HFD and CEL mice. Ghrelin mRNA levels of stomach in SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL and HFD groups as well. These results suggest differences in response to dietary fiber intake in this animal model as high fat diets incorporating dietary fibers such as SCF and PSY appeared to attenuate weight gain, enhance insulin sensitivity, and modulate leptin and GLP-1 secretion and gastric ghrelin gene expression. PMID:17998014

  5. Lymphocyte gene expression in subjects fed a low-choline diet differs between those who develop organ dysfunction and those who do not2

    PubMed Central

    Niculescu, Mihai D; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Fischer, Leslie M; Zeisel, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Background Some humans fed a low-choline diet develop hepatosteatosis, liver and muscle damage, and lymphocyte apoptosis. The risk of developing such organ dysfunction is increased by the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in folate and choline metabolism. Objective We investigated whether these changes that occur in the expression of many genes when humans are fed a low-choline diet differ between subjects who develop organ dysfunction and those who do not. We also investigated whether expression changes were dependent on the presence of the SNPs of interest. Design Thirty-three subjects aged 20−67 y were fed for 10 d a baseline diet containing the recommended adequate intake of choline. They then were fed a low-choline diet for up to 42 d or until they developed organ dysfunction. Blood was collected at the end of each phase, and peripheral lymphocytes were isolated and used for genotyping and for gene expression profiling with the use of microarray hybridization. Results Feeding a low-choline diet changed the expression of 259 genes, and the profiles of subjects who developed and those who did not develop signs of organ dysfunction differed. Group clustering and gene ontology analyses found that the diet-induced changes in gene expression profiles were significantly influenced by the SNPs of interest and that the gene expression phenotype of the variant gene carriers differed significantly even with the baseline diet. Conclusion These findings support our hypothesis that a person's susceptibility to organ dysfunction when fed a low-choline diet is modulated by specific SNPs in genes involved in folate and choline metabolism. PMID:17616785

  6. Supplemental Escherichia coli phytase and strontium enhance bone strength of young pigs fed a phosphorus-adequate diet.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Angela R; Yasuda, Koji; Roneker, Karl R; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2007-07-01

    Young pigs represent an excellent model of youth to assess potentials of dietary factors for improving bone structure and function. We conducted 2 experiments to determine whether adding microbial phytase (2,000 U/kg, OptiPhos, JBS United) and Sr (50 mg/kg, SrCO3 Alfa Aesar) into a P-adequate diet further improved bone strength of young pigs. In Expt. 1, 24 gilts (8.6 +/- 0.1 kg body wt) were divided into 2 groups (n = 12), and fed a corn-soybean-meal basal diet (BD, 0.33% available P) or BD + phytase for 6 wk. In Expt. 2, 32 pigs (11.4 +/- 0.2 kg) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8), and fed BD, BD + phytase, BD + Sr, or BD + phytase and Sr for 5 wk. Both supplemental phytase and Sr enhanced (P < 0.05) breaking strengths (11-20%), mineral content (6-15%), and mineral density (6-11%) of metatarsals and femurs. Supplemental phytase also resulted in larger total bone areas (P < 0.05) and a larger cross-sectional area of femur (P = 0.06). Concentrations of Sr were elevated 4-fold (P < 0.001) in both bones by Sr, and moderately increased (P = 0.05-0.07) in metatarsal by phytase. In conclusion, supplemental phytase at 2000 U/kg of P-adequate diets enhanced bone mechanical function of weanling pigs by modulating both geometrical and chemical properties of bone. The similar benefit of supplemental Sr was mainly due to an effect on bone chemical properties. PMID:17585033

  7. [Volatile fatty acids in the rumen of sheep fed a synthetic diet].

    PubMed

    Baran, M; Bod'a, K; Jalc, D; Piatková, M; Kalacnjuk, G I; Várady, J

    1983-08-01

    A trial was conducted with wethers to study the effect of the administration of a synthetic diet (composition: 30.125% starch, 30.125% sucrose, 25% cellulose, 5.25% urea, 8.125% mineral supplement, 1.25% maize oil and 0.125% cholinechloride) upon rumen fermentation. The adaptation to the synthetic diet lasted three months, the proportion of the synthetic diet increasing every week (by 10%) to the detriment of a traditional diet (composition: 0.5 kg meadow hay, 0.3 kg barley, 0.2 kg wheat bran, salt and straw ad libitum). In the 10th week the animals consumed 0.5 kg granular synthetic diet, 0.2 kg cellulose flakes and 0.01 kg polystyrene. After three weeks of the administration of the fully synthetic diet, the rumen fluid was sampled after morning feeding in intervals of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours. In the dynamics of fermentation, statistically significant differences were found only in isobutyric and isovaleric acid between the 0th and 1st and between the 5th and 7th hours (P less than 0.05--P less than 0.001). The data for all the time intervals were recalculated to average values. These were as follows: total volatile fatty acids 63.03 mmol/l, acetic acid 51.00 mol%, propionic acid 26.75 mol%, butyric acid 19.43 mol%, isobutyric acid 0.91 mol%, isovaleric 1.27 mol%, valeric acid 0.62 mol%, energy efficiency of VFA production 78.23%. The obtained data are confronted with literary data on synthetic diets which contained urea and various energy sources. PMID:6414150

  8. Oxidative costs of reproduction: Oxidative stress in mice fed standard and low antioxidant diets.

    PubMed

    Vaanholt, L M; Milne, A; Zheng, Y; Hambly, C; Mitchell, S E; Valencak, T G; Allison, D B; Speakman, J R

    2016-02-01

    Lactation is one of the most energetically expensive behaviours, and trade-offs may exist between the energy devoted to it and somatic maintenance, including protection against oxidative damage. However, conflicting data exist for the effects of reproduction on oxidative stress. In the wild, a positive relationship is often observed, but in laboratory studies oxidative damage is often lower in lactating than in non-breeding animals. We hypothesised that this discrepancy may exist because during lactation food intake increases many-fold resulting in a large increase in the intake of dietary antioxidants which are typically high in laboratory rodent chow where they are added as a preservative. We supplied lactating and non-breeding control mice with either a standard or low antioxidant diet and studied how this affected the activity of endogenous antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase; SOD, and glutathione peroxidise; GPx) and oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls, PC) in liver and brain tissue. The low antioxidant diet did not significantly affect activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain or liver, and generally did not result in increased protein damage, except in livers of control mice on low antioxidant diet. Catalase activity, but not GPx or SOD, was decreased in both control and lactating mice on the low antioxidant diet. Lactating mice had significantly reduced oxidative damage to both liver and brain compared to control mice, independent of the diet they were given. In conclusion, antioxidant content of the diet did not affect oxidative stress in control or reproductive mice, and cannot explain the previously observed reduction in oxidative stress in lactating mammals studied in the laboratory. The reduced oxidative stress in the livers of lactating mice even under low antioxidant diet treatment was consistent with the 'shielding' hypothesis. PMID:26569452

  9. Olive Leaf Extract Improves the Atherogenic Lipid Profile in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Olmez, Ercument; Vural, Kamil; Gok, Sule; Ozturk, Zeynep; Kayalar, Husniye; Ayhan, Semin; Var, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Coronary heart disease because of atherosclerosis is still the most common cause of mortality. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the olive leaf extract on serum lipid profile, early changes of atherosclerosis and endothelium-dependent relaxations in cholesterol-fed rats. For this purpose, rats were fed by 2% cholesterol-enriched or standard chow for 8 weeks. Some rats in each group were also fed orally by olive leaf extract at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. Atorvastatin at dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight daily was also given as positive control. After 8 weeks, lipid profiles of rat serums were analyzed. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and degree of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) were also measured in the hearts isolated from rats. In addition, expression of adhesion molecules and endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated thoracic aortas of rats were evaluated. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be increased in cholesterol-fed rats, and both doses of olive leaf extract and atorvastatin significantly decreased those levels. In conclusion, because the olive leaf extract attenuates the increased cholesterol levels, it may have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. PMID:26328503

  10. Yellow perch nutrient utilization and performance fed grower diet formulations with fermented soybean concentrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeds formulated with fermented soybean concentrate (FSBC) were processed using a pilot-scale Wenger twin screw extruder, using a 1.9 cm diameter circular die, and then fed to juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (~26g) as a protein replacer for fish meal protein. Four fish-meal replacement lev...

  11. Insufficient glucose supply is linked to hypothermia upon cold exposure in high-fat diet-fed mice lacking PEMT[S

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xia; van der Veen, Jelske N.; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Vance, Jean E.; Vance, Dennis E.; Jacobs, René L.

    2015-01-01

    Mice that lack phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt−/− mice) are protected from high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. HF-fed Pemt−/− mice show higher oxygen consumption and heat production, indicating that more energy might be utilized for thermogenesis and might account for the resistance to diet-induced weight gain. To test this hypothesis, HF-fed Pemt−/− and Pemt+/+ mice were challenged with acute cold exposure at 4°C. Unexpectedly, HF-fed Pemt−/− mice developed hypothermia within 3 h of cold exposure. In contrast, chow-fed Pemt−/− mice, possessing similar body mass, maintained body temperature. Lack of PEMT did not impair the capacity for thermogenesis in skeletal muscle or brown adipose tissue. Plasma catecholamines were not altered by Pemt genotype, and stimulation of lipolysis was intact in brown and white adipose tissue of Pemt−/− mice. HF-fed Pemt−/− mice also developed higher systolic blood pressure, accompanied by reduced cardiac output. Choline supplementation reversed the cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt−/− mice with no effect on blood pressure. Plasma glucose levels were ∼50% lower in HF-fed Pemt−/− mice compared with Pemt+/+ mice. Choline supplementation normalized plasma hypoglycemia and the expression of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis. We propose that cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt−/− mice is linked to plasma hypoglycemia due to compromised hepatic glucose production. PMID:26113536

  12. High-viscosity dietary fibers reduce adiposity and decrease hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Brockman, David A; Chen, Xiaoli; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2014-09-01

    Viscous dietary fiber consumption lowers the postprandial glucose curve and may decrease obesity and associated comorbidities such as insulin resistance and fatty liver. We determined the effect of 2 viscous fibers, one fermentable and one not, on the development of adiposity, fatty liver, and metabolic flexibility in a model of diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed a normal-fat (NF) diet (26% energy from fat), a high-fat diet (60% energy from fat), each containing 5% fiber as cellulose (CL; nonviscous and nonfermentable), or 5% of 1 of 2 highly viscous fibers-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC; nonfermentable) or guar gum (GG; fermentable). After 10 wk, fat mass percentage in the NF (18.0%; P = 0.03) and GG groups (17.0%; P < 0.01) was lower than the CL group (20.7%). The epididymal fat pad weight of the NF (3.9 g; P = 0.04), HPMC (3.9 g; P = 0.03), and GG groups (3.6 g; P < 0.01) was also lower than the CL group (5.0 g). The HPMC (0.11 g/g liver) and GG (0.092 g/g liver) groups had lower liver lipid concentrations compared with the CL group (0.14 g/g liver). Fat mass percentage, epididymal fat pad weight, and liver lipid concentration were not different among the NF, HPMC, and GG groups. The respiratory quotient was higher during the transition from the diet-deprived to fed state in the GG group (P = 0.002) and tended to be higher in the HPMC group (P = 0.06) compared with the CL group, suggesting a quicker shift from fatty acid (FA) to carbohydrate oxidation. The HPMC group [15.1 nmol/(mg ⋅ h)] had higher ex vivo palmitate oxidation in muscle compared with the GG [11.7 nmol/(mg ⋅ h); P = 0.04] and CL groups [10.8 nmol/(mg ⋅ h); P < 0.01], implying a higher capacity to oxidize FAs. Viscous fibers can reduce the adiposity and hepatic steatosis that accompany a high-fat diet, and increase metabolic flexibility, regardless of fermentability. PMID:24991042

  13. Oral Metformin Treatment Prevents Enhanced Insulin Demand and Placental Dysfunction in the Pregnant Rat Fed a Fructose-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Del Zotto, Hector; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Romero, Jose; Giovambattista, Andres; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The intake of a fructose-rich diet (FRD) in the normal female rat induces features similar to those observed in the human metabolic syndrome phenotype. We studied the impact of FRD administration to mothers on pregnancy outcome. On gestational day (Gd) zero rats were assigned to either group: ad libitum drinking tap water alone (normal diet, ND) or containing fructose (10% w/vol; FRD) through pregnancy; all rats were fed a Purina chow diet ad libitum ND and FRD rats were daily cotreated or not with metformin (60 mg/Kg/day oral; ND + MF and FRD + MF) and submitted to a high glucose load test on Gd 14. Additionally, placentas from different groups were studied on Gd 20. Data indicated that: (1) although FRD rats well tolerated glucose overload, their circulating levels of insulin were significantly higher than in ND rats; (2) the mesometrial triangle blood vessel area was significantly lower in placentas from FRD than ND dams; (3) the detrimental effects of FRD administration to mothers were ameliorated by metformin cotreatment. Our study suggests that excessive intake of fructose during pregnancy enhanced the risk for developing gestational diabetes and subsequent preeclampsia, and that metformin prevented the poor pregnancy outcome induced by FRD. PMID:22957268

  14. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    PubMed

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0 ± 0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P < 0.05) in TST-supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in A. africana relative to the other fodders. Results indicate that the entire browse fodders are good supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value. PMID:25863959

  15. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans.

    PubMed

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W

    1990-11-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets containing 200 g Phaseolus vulgaris beans (raw or toasted)/kg in rats and piglets. Live-weight gain, nitrogen digestibility and N balance were much lower in piglets than in rats fed on diets containing raw beans. Live-weight gain and N balance were slightly negative in the piglets. When toasted beans were given, live-weight gain and N balance values were reduced in piglets but hardly at all in rats. Giving raw beans caused hypertrophy of the pancreas in the rats but in piglets the weight of the pancreas was reduced. Spleen weight was depressed in the piglets but not in the rats. Weight of liver was not affected in either animal species. When toasted beans were given no effects on the weights of pancreas, spleen or liver were found in piglets or rats. It was concluded that the piglet is much more sensitive to antinutritional factors in the Phaseolus vulgaris bean than the rat. PMID:2265182

  16. Supplementation of broccoli or Bifidobacterium longum-fermented broccoli suppresses serum lipid peroxidation and osteoclast differentiation on alveolar bone surface in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Endo, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Ishikado, Atsushi; Sato, Takehiko; Harada, Kayo; Suido, Hirohisa; Morita, Manabu

    2012-04-01

    High-cholesterol diet enhances osteoclastic activity on alveolar bone by increasing serum lipid peroxidation. We hypothesized that supplementation with dietary antioxidants, such as found in broccoli and its fermented products, might suppress increases in serum lipid peroxidation, contributing to the inhibition of osteoclastic activity after high-cholesterol diet intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of broccoli and fermented broccoli consumption on serum lipid peroxidation and osteoclast differentiation in alveolar bone of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. In this 12-week study, rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group): a control group (fed regular diet) and 3 experimental groups (fed a high-cholesterol [1% wt/wt] diet, or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with either broccoli powder [5% wt/wt] or Bifidobacterium longum-fermented broccoli powder [5% wt/wt]). Serum hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) levels were measured as a parameter of lipid peroxidation. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone was enumerated to evaluate osteoclast differentiation. When compared with regular diet, the high-cholesterol diet increased serum HEL levels and resulted in a higher number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at 12 weeks. The high-cholesterol diet supplemented with broccoli or B. longum-fermented broccoli showed lower levels of serum HEL and fewer TRAP-positive osteoclasts than the high-cholesterol diet at 12 weeks. In conclusion, consumption of broccoli, or its fermented product, inhibited the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on osteoclast differentiation in rat alveolar bone by suppressing serum lipid peroxidation. PMID:22575044

  17. Evaluation of calcium supplementation with algae (Lithothamnion muelleri) on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice fed a high refined carbohydrate-containing diet.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Garcia, Zélia; Santiago, Andrezza Fernanda; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Botion, Leida Maria; Souza, Danielle Glória; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of calcium supplementation from Lithothamnium muelleri algae on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice with increased adiposity. Male mice were fed and divided during 8 weeks in: control (C), a high refined carbohydrate-containing diet (HC), HC diet supplemented with 1% of Lithothamnion muelleri algae (HC + A) and HC diet supplemented with 0.9% calcium carbonate (HC + C). Animals fed HC diet had increased body weight gain and adiposity, serum glucose and cholesterol, glucose intolerance and decreased insulin sensitivity, compared to control diet. However, the HC + A and HC + C groups did not prevent these aspects and were not able to change the CD14 + cells population in adipose tissue of animals fed HC diet. Calcium supplementation with Lithothamnium muelleri algae and calcium carbonate had no protective effect against the development of adiposity, metabolic and inflammatory alterations induced by HC diet. PMID:24456206

  18. Performance of laying pullets fed on cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and reject cashew nut meal.

    PubMed

    Onifade, A A; Tewe, O O; Okunola, O; Fanimo, A O

    1999-03-01

    1. A 70-d experiment was conducted to determine the response of 26-week-old laying pullets to cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and full-fat cashew nut meal (CNM) in comparison with a standard 550 g maize/kg reference diet. The 4 test diets all contained 315 g CNM/kg 232.5, 155.0, 77.5 and 0.0 g/kg of maize offal in combination with 77.5, 155.0, 232.5 and 315.0 g/kg of cassava peel, respectively. 2. Pullets fed on the 4 CNM-based diets consumed (P<0.05) less food than those fed on the reference diet; they also had lower (P<0.05) rates of lay, produced less (P<0.05) egg mass, had lower (P<0.05) food conversion efficiencies and their eggs had a lighter (P<0.05) yolk colour. Pullets fed some of the CNM-based diets also gained more (P<0.05) weight, the heaviest (P<0.05) being birds reared on the diet containing 315 g/kg cassava peel. Egg weight, shell thickness and albumen height from all eggs were similar. Pullets fed on the CNM-based diets had inferior (P<0.05) retention of dry matter and protein. 4. It was concluded that feeding full-fat CNM allowed for high dietary inclusion rates of cassava peel and maize offal and the resultant diets, which contained no maize, supported satisfactory performance of laying hens. PMID:10405040

  19. Exercise improved lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rats fed a high-fat diet by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and musclin expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J.; Zheng, J.; Liu, X.F.; Feng, Z.L.; Zhang, X.P.; Cao, L.L.; Zhou, Z.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin. PMID:27143172

  20. Exercise improved lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rats fed a high-fat diet by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and musclin expression.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Zheng, J; Liu, X F; Feng, Z L; Zhang, X P; Cao, L L; Zhou, Z P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin. PMID:27143172

  1. Behaviour of captive canvasbacks Aythya valisineria fed different diets during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Williams, B.K.; Obrecht, H.H., III

    1989-01-01

    Time activity budget studies were conducted on captive Canvasbacks manintained on ad libitum diets with varying levels of protein and energy during the winter of 1978-79 and 1979-80. No differences could be detected in the behaviour of the ducks as a result of the diets they received. Differences due to season and sex were observed for some behaviours. Activity decreased (P<0.05) during the winter apparently as a mechanism to conserve energy. This decrease occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of the Canvasbacks' annual cycle. This behaviour pattern has been observed in the wild and seems to persist in captive Canvasbacks.

  2. Evaluation of protein supplementation for growing cattle fed grass silage-based diets: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Huhtanen, P; Joki-Tokola, E

    2014-10-01

    proportion or conformation score, but it increased (P<0.01) fat score. Owing to limited production responses, higher prices of protein supplements compared with cereal grains and possible increases the N and P emissions, there is generally no benefit from using protein supplementation for growing cattle fed grass silage-based diets, provided that the supply of rumen-degradable protein is not limiting digestion in the rumen. PMID:24917148

  3. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  4. Effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Kang, Bin; Tao, Linli; Rong, Hua; Zhang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded cholesterol levels (0 [control], 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5%) for nine weeks. The fish were then challenged by A. hydrophila and their survival rate recorded for the next week. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally increased the serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) activities, but decreased the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Further, the hepatic CAT and serum SOD, CAT, and TAC activities were significantly higher in fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol compared to those fed the control diet, whereas the serum and hepatic MDA contents were significantly lower. The respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, and hepatic lysozyme activity increased steadily when the supplemental cholesterol was increased by up to 1.2% and then declined with further addition. The serum lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity increased steadily with increasing dietary supplemental cholesterol level up to 0.9% and then declined with further addition. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally enhanced the protection against A. hydrophila infection, and fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol exhibited the highest post-challenge survival rate. The results indicated that cholesterol may be under-supplied in rainbow trout fed soybean meal-based diets, and dietary cholesterol supplementation (0.9-1.2%) contributed to improved immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout against A. hydrophila. PMID:23207478

  5. Effect of alfalfa forage preservation method and particle length on performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets and tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression. PMID:15202650

  6. Methane emissions from cattle differing in feed intake and feed efficiency fed a high concentrate diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred thirteen steers were fed a dry-rolled corn-based ration to determine feed intake and growth over a 64-d period. Thirty–seven steers were selected to determine 6 h methane emissions. Steers that were evaluated had a methane emission of 3.6 ± 0.2 L/h, a BW of 573 ± 12 kg, a DMI of 696 ± ...

  7. Effect of Weight-Reduction in Obese Mice Lacking Toll-Like Receptor 5 and C57BL/6 Mice Fed a Low-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shao-Chun; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Lu, Tsu-Hsiang; Tzeng, Siou-Ling; Wu, Yi-Chan; Wu, Chia-Jung; Lin, Chia-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aims to investigate the effect of feeding low-fat diet (LFD) to diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice lacking TLR5 (TLR5−/−), which have a tendency to develop glucose intolerance with increased adiposity, compared to that in C57BL/6 mice. Results. TLR5−/− and C57BL/6 male mice were divided into three subgroups: (1) control, mice were fed a standard AIN-76A (fat: 11.5 kcal%) diet for 12 weeks; (2) DIO, mice were fed a 58 kcal% high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; and (3) diet, mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then switched to a 10.5 kcal% LFD for 4 weeks. The glucose intolerance in DIO TLR5−/− mice was more significant than that in DIO C57BL/6 mice and was not attenuated by a switch to the LFD. Weight-reduction with LFD had significantly decreased the epididymal fat mass in C57BL/6 mice but not in TLR5−/− mice. In addition, the LFD-fed TLR5−/− mice showed significantly higher expression of ghrelin in the serum and resistin in the epididymal fat than that in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that TLR5 gene knockout impairs some effects of weight-reduction in DIO. PMID:26681840

  8. Growth of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar fed diets containing barley protein concentrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an important cultured carnivorous species that in the past has not tolerated high levels of most plant protein feed ingredients in the diet. In order to increase efficiency, sustainability and production to meet global demand, new sources of protein must be incorpo...

  9. LIVE PERFORMANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BROILERS FED DIETS VARYING IN AMINO ACIDS AND PHYTASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to examine potential interactive effects of dietary amino acid density (AAD) and phytase. In Exp 1, diets were formulated to high (H) or moderate (M) AAD during each growth phase from 1 to 35 d. Growth phases were from 1 to 7, 8 to 19, and 20 to 35 d of age, resp...

  10. Larval quality of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  11. Larval performance of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  12. Precursors for the synthesis of citrulline in mice fed arginine free diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary arginine (Arg) is the main dietary precursor for citrulline (Cit) synthesis. To test the hypothesis that the contribution of dietary proline (Pro) and glutamine (Gln) increases during the feeding of an Arg free diet, rates of appearance (Ra) and precursor-intermediate-product relationships w...

  13. Greater mortality and mordidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants <1,250 g birth weight recei...

  14. Investigation of microbial diversity in the feces of cattle fed different diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding of the bovine fecal microbiome could contribute to solving issues regarding animal production, cattle health and food safety. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of diet on the fecal microbiome in feedlot cattle. The next-generation pyrosequencing technology was us...

  15. Histomorphometric Study of Alveolar Bone Healing in Rats Fed a Boron-Deficient Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone healing after tooth extraction in rats is a suitable experimental model to study bone formation. Thus, we performed a study to determine the effects of boron (B) deficiency on bone healing by using this model. Weanling Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (+B; 3 mg B/kg diet), and ...

  16. Pterostilbene improves glycaemic control in rats fed an obesogenic diet: Involvement of skeletal muscle and liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to determine whether pterostilbene improved glycaemic control in rats showing insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Rats were divided into 3 groups: control group and two groups treated with either 15 mg/kg/d (PT15) or 30 mg/kg/d of pterostilbene (PT30). HOMA-IR was decr...

  17. Modulation of intestinal calcium and phosphate transport in young goats fed a nitrogen- and/or calcium-reduced diet.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Kristin; Wilkens, Mirja R; Breves, Gerhard; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S

    2015-12-28

    Feeding ruminants a reduced N diet is a common approach to reduce N output based on rumino-hepatic circulation. However, a reduction in N intake caused massive changes in Ca and inorganic phosphate (Pi) homoeostasis in goats. Although a single dietary Ca reduction stimulated intestinal Ca absorption in a calcitriol-dependent manner, a concomitant reduction of Ca and N supply led to a decrease in calcitriol, and therefore a modulation of intestinal Ca and Pi absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the potential effects of dietary N or Ca reduction separately on intestinal Ca and Pi transport in young goats. Animals were allocated to a control, N-reduced, Ca-reduced or combined N- and Ca-reduced diet for about 6-8 weeks, whereby N content was reduced by 25 % compared with recommendations. In Ussing chamber experiments, intestinal Ca flux rates significantly decreased in goats fed a reduced N diet, whereas Pi flux rates were unaffected. In contrast, a dietary Ca reduction stimulated Ca flux rates and decreased Pi flux rates. The combined dietary N and Ca reduction withdrew the stimulating effect of dietary Ca reduction on Ca flux rates. The expression of Ca-transporting proteins decreased with a reduced N diet too, whereas Pi-transporting proteins were unaffected. In conclusion, a dietary N reduction decreased intestinal Ca transport by diminishing Ca-transporting proteins, which became clear during simultaneous N and Ca reduction. Therefore, N supply in young ruminant nutrition is of special concern for intestinal Ca transport. PMID:26443238

  18. The impact of chronic blackberry intake on the neuroinflammatory status of rats fed a standard or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Manuela; Marques, Cláudia; Norberto, Sónia; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Rendeiro, Catarina; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição

    2015-11-01

    Neuroinflammation has been suggested as a central mediator of central nervous system dysfunction, including in dementia and neurodegenerative disease. Flavonoids have emerged as promising candidates for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and are thought to be capable of antiinflammatory effects in the brain. In the present study, the impact of a chronic intake of an anthocyanin extract from blackberry (BE) on brain inflammatory status in the presence or absence of a high-fat diet was investigated. Following intake of the dietary regimes for 17 weeks neuroinflammatory status in Wistar rat cortex, hippocampus and plasma were assessed using cytokine antibody arrays. In the cortex, intake of the high-fat diet resulted in an increase of at least 4-fold, in expression of the cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant CINC-3, the ciliary neurotrophic factor CNTF, the platelet-derived growth factor PDGF-AA, IL-10, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products RAGE. BE intake partially decreased the expression of these mediators in the high-fat challenged brain. In standard-fed animals, BE intake significantly increased cortical levels of fractalkine, PDGF-AA, activin, the vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF and agrin expression, suggesting effects as neuronal growth and synaptic connection modulators. In hippocampus, BE modulates fractalkine and the thymus chemokine TCK-1 expression independently of diet intake and, only in standard diet, increased PDGF-AA. Exploring effects of anthocyanins on fractalkine transcription using the neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y suggested that other cell types may be involved in this effect. This is the first evidence, in in vivo model, that blackberry extract intake may be capable of preventing the detrimental effects of neuroinflammation in a high-fat challenged brain. Also, fractalkine and TCK-1 expression may be specific targets of anthocyanins and their metabolites on

  19. Comprehensive biometric, biochemical and histopathological assessment of nutrient deficiencies in gilthead sea bream fed semi-purified diets.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Estensoro, Itziar; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2015-09-14

    Seven isoproteic and isolipidic semi-purified diets were formulated to assess specific nutrient deficiencies in sulphur amino acids (SAA), n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), phospholipids (PL), P, minerals (Min) and vitamins (Vit). The control diet (CTRL) contained these essential nutrients in adequate amounts. Each diet was allocated to triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream fed to satiety over an 11-week feeding trial period. Weight gain of n-3 LC-PUFA, P-Vit and PL-Min-SAA groups was 50, 60-75 and 80-85 % of the CTRL group, respectively. Fat retention was decreased by all nutrient deficiencies except by the Min diet. Strong effects on N retention were found in n-3 LC-PUFA and P fish. Combined anaemia and increased blood respiratory burst were observed in n-3 LC-PUFA fish. Hypoproteinaemia was found in SAA, n-3 LC-PUFA, PL and Vit fish. Derangements of lipid metabolism were also a common disorder, but the lipodystrophic phenotype of P fish was different from that of other groups. Changes in plasma levels of electrolytes (Ca, phosphate), metabolites (creatinine, choline) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase) were related to specific nutrient deficiencies in PL, P, Min or Vit fish, whereas changes in circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I primarily reflected the intensity of the nutritional stressor. Histopathological scoring of the liver and intestine segments showed specific nutrient-mediated changes in lipid cell vacuolisation, inflammation of intestinal submucosa, as well as the distribution and number of intestinal goblet and rodlet cells. These results contribute to define the normal range of variation for selected biometric, biochemical, haematological and histochemical markers. PMID:26220446

  20. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Kotowska, Dorota; Sand, Elin; Bjursell, Mikael; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Holm, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Berger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF)-induced metabolic alterations. Methods Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2) during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP) as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain. PMID:27125264

  1. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil

    PubMed Central

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg−1 silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. PMID:25223749

  2. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil.

    PubMed

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-03-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg(-1) silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. PMID:25223749

  3. Beneficial effect of dietary Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Moon-Koo; Um, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Byung-Cheol

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a major contributor to both glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Ephedra sinica on high-fat diet-fed mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups; the normal group, the obese and diabetic control group treated with a high-fat diet, the positive control group treated with a high-fat diet containing acarbose, and the experimental group treated with a high-fat diet containing Ephedra sinica. The effects of Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance were measured by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma biochemistry, body and epididymal fat weight; the expression of adiponectin, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and leptin was also determined. Ephedra sinica reduced weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation, improved glucose intolerance on the OGTT, decreased triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the controls. Moreover, it reduced weight gain and fasting glucose levels and improved HDL-cholesterol levels more than acarbose. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ephedra sinica upregulated the expression of adiponectin and PPAR-α, and downregulated the expression of TNF-α. From these results, we suggest that Ephedra sinica may reduce obesity and hyperglycemia by increasing PPAR-α and adiponectin and reducing TNF-α, and that it may have the potential to be used clinically as an ingredient in food or drugs effective in obesity-related glucose intolerance treatments. PMID:22969956

  4. Gut morphology and hepatic oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles fed plant feedstuffs or fishmeal-based diets supplemented with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides and xylo-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2015-12-28

    The effects of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on gut morphology and hepatic oxidative status were studied in European sea bass juveniles weighing 60 g. Fish were fed diets including fishmeal (FM diets) or plant feedstuffs (PF diets; 30 FM:70 PF) as main protein sources (control diets). Four other diets were formulated similar to the control diets but including 1 % scFOS or 1 % XOS. At the end of the trial, fish fed PF-based diets presented histomorphological alterations in the distal intestine, whereas only transient alterations were observed in the pyloric caeca. Comparatively to fish fed FM-based diets, fish fed PF diets had higher liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lower glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. In fish fed the PF diets, prebiotic supplementation decreased SOD activity and XOS supplementation further decreased CAT activity. In fish fed the FM diets, XOS supplementation promoted a reduction of all antioxidant enzyme activities. Overall, dietary XOS and scFOS supplementation had only minor effects on gut morphology or LPO levels. However, dietary XOS reduced antioxidant enzymatic activity in both PF and FM diets, which indicate a positive effect on reduction of hepatic reactive oxygen species production. PMID:26435350

  5. Mammary gland development of dairy heifers fed diets containing increasing levels of metabolisable protein: metabolisable energy.

    PubMed

    Albino, Ronan L; Marcondes, Marcos I; Akers, Robert M; Detmann, Edenio; Carvalho, Bruno C; Silva, Tadeu E

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the development of the mammary gland in Holstein heifers subjected to different dietary metabolisable protein (MP): metabolisable energy (ME) ratios. Twenty-five Holstein heifers (initial body weight (BW) 213±13·5 kg and initial average age 7·8±0·5 months) were divided into five treatments. The treatments were designed to provide MP:ME ratios equal to 33, 38, 43, 48, and 53 g of MP per Mcal of ME. All diets were formulated to have the same energy content (2·6 Mcal ME/kg dry matter). Actual MP:ME ratios were 36·2, 40·2, 46·2, 47·1, and 50·8 g MP/Mcal ME. The experiment was conducted in a randomised block design, while considering initial BW as a blocking factor to evaluate pre- and post-pubertal periods. Block effect was not observed for all variables evaluated; hence it was considered that the diets had the same influence both on pre- and post-pubertal phases. Dry matter and nutrient intake did not change between treatments, excepting protein intake and digestibility. Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 increased linearly across treatments. Changes in the pixel brightness of mammary gland ultrasound images, which are associated with lipid content, were significantly influenced by MP:ME ratios in the diet of heifers that were subjected to accelerated growth rates. It is not recommended to use diets of less than 38 g MP/Mcal ME in diets to heifers allowed to gain more than 1 kg/d. PMID:25592631

  6. The metabolic profile of growing lambs fed diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Steppa, R; Szkudelska, K; Wójtowski, J; Stanisz, M; Szumacher-Strabel, M; Czyżak-Runowska, G; Cieślak, A; Markiewicz-Kęszycka, M; Pietrzak, M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of two diets enriched with unsaturated fatty acids--one containing the addition of dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS) and the other the addition of false flax--Camelina sativa cake (CS)--on some metabolic parameters and hormone concentration in growing lambs was determined in this experiment. A total of 21 ram lambs of the Polish Whiteheaded mutton sheep were divided into three groups (the control, receiving DGS and CS). The diets were administered to animals for 6 weeks. During the experiment, peripheral blood was collected. Glucose (GL), total cholesterol (CH), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (IN), leptin (LE), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were assayed in serum. The age-dependent reduction in CH and TG limited by both experimental diets were observed. A significant increase in FFA concentration was observed in samples collected in the last, that is, third, time period. This was most probably caused by a 12-h pre-slaughter fasting period. A significantly lower dynamic of FFA increase in that experimental period was found in animals receiving the experimental feed. Insulin concentration in DGS-receiving lambs was increased, in contrast to the CS-receiving lambs, in which it was lower when compared to the control. LE concentration was decreased by both experimental diets, more markedly in the DGS-receiving animals. No differences between the experimental groups and the control were observed in T3 and T4 concentrations. The effect of 12-h pre-slaughter fasting was statistically highly significant for the levels of examined blood markers and hormones, except for TG and IN in the group of lambs receiving the experimental diet with CS. PMID:24387699

  7. Characterization of secretory sphingomyelinase activity, lipoprotein sphingolipid content and LDL aggregation in ldlr−/− mice fed on a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Deevska, Gergana M.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana N.

    2012-01-01

    The propensity of LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) for aggregation and/or oxidation has been linked to their sphingolipid content, specifically the levels of SM (sphingomyelin) and ceramide. To investigate this association in vivo, ldlr (LDL receptor)-null mice (ldlr−/−) were fed on a modified (atherogenic) diet containing saturated fats and cholesterol. The diet led to significantly elevated SM content in all serum lipoproteins. In contrast, ceramide increased only in the LDL particles. MS-based analyses of the lipid acyl chain composition revealed a marked elevation in C16:0 fatty acid in SM and ceramide, consistent with the prevalence of palmitic acid in the modified diet. The diet also led to increased activity of the S-SMase [secretory SMase (sphingomyelinase)], a protein that is generated by ASMase (acid SMase) and acts on serum LDL. An increased macrophage secretion seemed to be responsible for the elevated S-SMase activity. ASMase-deficient mice (asm−/−/ldlr−/−) lacked S-SMase activity and were protected from diet-induced elevation in LDL ceramide. LDL from asm−/−/ldlr−/− mice fed on the modified diet were less aggregated and oxidized than LDL from asm+/+/ldlr−/− mice. When tested in vitro, the propensity for aggregation was dependent on the SM level: only LDL from animals on modified diet that have high SM content aggregated when treated with recombinant S-SMase. In conclusion, LDL-SM content and S-SMase activity are up-regulated in mice fed on an atherogenic diet. S-SMase mediates diet-induced changes in LDL ceramide content and aggregation. S-SMase effectiveness in inducing aggregation is dependent on diet-induced enrichment of LDL with SM, possibly through increased hepatic synthesis. PMID:22712892

  8. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Laying hens fed the high energy diet had lower feed intake (P < 0.001), better feed conversion (P < 0.01), and greater BW gain (P < 0.05) than hens fed the low energy diet but egg production and egg weight were not affected. At 46 wk of age, none of the GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P < 0.01), tarsus length (r = 0.758; P < 0.001), and body mass index (r = 0.762; P < 0.001) but no effects of type of diet on these traits were detected. In summary, the inclusion of up to 4% of a fiber source in the rearing diets did not affect GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied. PMID:26976899

  9. Forms of leg abnormality observed in male broilers fed on a diet containing 12.5 percent rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Timms, L M

    1983-09-01

    The incidence of leg abnormalities was studied in 216 male Ross I broilers, fed for 10 weeks on a diet containing 12.5 per cent extracted rapeseed. Regular serological examination showed that the birds remained free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reovirus throughout the period of investigation. Post mortem examination and radiographs were performed when birds were culled due to leg deformities or at the end of the experiment. Leg abnormalities were seen in 19.4 per cent of the birds which represents a very significant increase above that currently seen in commercial flocks. They consisted of a large range of skeletal deformities including valgus and varus deformities, dyschondroplasia, slipped gastrocnemius tendons, dislocated condyles, rotation and penetration of the distal tibiotarsus and fractured fibulas. Multiple forms of leg abnormality were often observed in individual birds and their association is briefly discussed. PMID:6635344

  10. Wild rice ( Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) improves the serum lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats fed with a high fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cao, Pei; Agellon, Luis B; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2009-12-01

    The diet consumed by urban residents in modern China has become rich in saturated fats and cholesterol. In addition, the diet is high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch with wild rice (WR) as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates. Rats fed with the diet patterned after the diet consumed by city residents of modern China showed elevated serum lipid levels comparable with rats consuming a high fat/cholesterol diet known to induce hyperlipidaemia in this species. Meanwhile, rats consuming the city diet with WR as the carbohydrate source suppressed the increase in serum TAG and total cholesterol, and the decrease in HDL cholesterol level. In addition, the rats fed the WR diet suppressed the build-up of oxidative stress by improving antioxidant capacity, increasing superoxide dismutase activity and reducing malondialdehyde concentration, both in the serum and liver. These findings illustrate that WR is effective in suppressing hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress in rats even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:19631021

  11. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P < 0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet. PMID:20577806

  12. Oral Resveratrol Prevents Osteoarthritis Progression in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hailun; Li, Keyu; Li, Xingyao; Yu, Xiaolu; Wang, Wei; Ding, Lifeng; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The effects of resveratrol on osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models employing intra-articular injections. However, the potential for oral resveratrol supplements to mediate protective effects on OA have not been examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-OA effects of oral resveratrol on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD, and a subset of the latter also received varying doses of resveratrol. Twelve weeks later, all of the animals were sacrificed and knee joints were evaluated with histological, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL analyses. Mice that received a HFD had significantly greater body weights than the control mice and also exhibited features consistent with knee OA. The mice that received a HFD in combination with low, intermediate, or high doses of resveratrol were only slightly heavier than the control mice at the end of 12 weeks. Quantitative histological assessments indicated that resveratrol treatment partly recovered joint structure in the mice that received a HFD, while high doses of resveratrol prevented the degradation of type II collagen into C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and retained type II collagen expression in cartilage. Furthermore, TUNEL analyses revealed a reduction in chondrocyte apoptosis in the resveratrol-treated mice compared with the HFD mice. Thus, oral resveratrol appears to exert anti-OA effects in a mouse model of HFD-induced OA, thereby highlighting the potential preventive and therapeutic value of administering resveratrol for obesity-associated OA. PMID:27104565

  13. Effects of 17β-estradiol on cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in high fat diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, Milan; Zafirovic, Sonja; Jovanovic, Aleksandra; Milovanovic, Emina Sudar; Mousa, Shaker A; Labudovic-Borovic, Milica; Isenovic, Esma R

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo effects of estradiol on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity/expression in high fat (HF) diet fed rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed normally (Control, n = 7) or with a HF diet (Obese, n = 14) for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, half of the obese rats were treated with estradiol (Obese + Estradiol, n = 7, 40 μg/kg, i.p.) as a bolus injection and 24 h after treatment all the rats were sacrificed. Estradiol in vivo in obese rats in comparison with obese non-treated rats led to a statistically significant increase in concentration of serum Na(+) (p < 0.05), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity (p < 0.01), expression of α1 (p < 0.01) and α2 (p < 0.05) subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, both PI3K subunits p85 (p < 0.01), p110 (p < 0.05), and association of IRS-1 with p85 (p < 0.05), while significantly decrease expression of AT1 (p < 0.05) and Rho A (p < 0.01) proteins. Our results suggest that estradiol in vivo in pathophysiological conditions, such as obesity accompanied with insulin resistance stimulates activity and expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by a mechanism that involves the participation of IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling. In addition, the decreasing level of AT1 and Rho A proteins estradiol probably attenuates the detrimental effect of obesity to decreased IRS-1/PI3K association and consequently reduce Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity/expression. PMID:26284496

  14. Changes in Gut Microbiota in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet Correlate with Obesity-Associated Metabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Christopher A.; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D.; Mitchell, Hazel M.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001), this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD. PMID:25992554

  15. Oral Resveratrol Prevents Osteoarthritis Progression in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hailun; Li, Keyu; Li, Xingyao; Yu, Xiaolu; Wang, Wei; Ding, Lifeng; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The effects of resveratrol on osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models employing intra-articular injections. However, the potential for oral resveratrol supplements to mediate protective effects on OA have not been examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-OA effects of oral resveratrol on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD, and a subset of the latter also received varying doses of resveratrol. Twelve weeks later, all of the animals were sacrificed and knee joints were evaluated with histological, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL analyses. Mice that received a HFD had significantly greater body weights than the control mice and also exhibited features consistent with knee OA. The mice that received a HFD in combination with low, intermediate, or high doses of resveratrol were only slightly heavier than the control mice at the end of 12 weeks. Quantitative histological assessments indicated that resveratrol treatment partly recovered joint structure in the mice that received a HFD, while high doses of resveratrol prevented the degradation of type II collagen into C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and retained type II collagen expression in cartilage. Furthermore, TUNEL analyses revealed a reduction in chondrocyte apoptosis in the resveratrol-treated mice compared with the HFD mice. Thus, oral resveratrol appears to exert anti-OA effects in a mouse model of HFD-induced OA, thereby highlighting the potential preventive and therapeutic value of administering resveratrol for obesity-associated OA. PMID:27104565

  16. Voluntary physical activity abolishes the proliferative tumor growth microenvironment created by adipose tissue in animals fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Theriau, Christopher F; Shpilberg, Yaniv; Riddell, Michael C; Connor, Michael K

    2016-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the obesity-breast cancer association may be regulated via adipokine secretion by white adipose tissue. Specifically, adiponectin and leptin are altered with adiposity and exert antagonistic effects on cancer cell proliferation. We set out to determine whether altering adiposity in vivo via high fat diet (HFD) feeding changed the tumor growth supporting nature of adipose tissue and whether voluntary physical activity (PA) could ameliorate these HFD-dependent effects. We show that conditioned media (CM) created from the adipose tissue of HFD fed animals caused an increase in the proliferation of MCF7 cells compared with cells exposed to CM prepared from the adipose of lean chow diet fed counterparts. This increased proliferation was driven within the MCF7 cells by an HFD-dependent antagonism between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways, decreasing p27 protein levels via reduced phosphorylation at T198 and downregulation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). PA can ameliorate these proliferative effects of HFD-CM on MCF7 cells, increasing p27(T198) by AMPK, reducing pAkt(T308), and increasing AdipoR1, resulting in cell cycle withdrawal in a manner that depends on the PA intensity. High physical activity (>3 km/day) completely abolished the effects of HFD feeding. In addition, AdipoR1 overexpression mimics the effects of exercise, abolishing the proliferative effects of the HFD-CM on MCF7 cells and further enhancing the antiproliferative effects of PA on the HFD-CM. Thus voluntary PA represents a means to counteract the proliferative effects of adipose tissue on breast cancers in obese patients. PMID:27150834

  17. Hypocholesterolemic effect of ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid in hamsters fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Yoshii, M; Seki, A; Une, M; Hoshita, T

    1992-10-01

    We studied the effect of feeding ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid, the cysteic acid conjugated analog of ursodeoxycholyltaurine, on serum and liver cholesterol levels and on intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile salts in hamsters. Addition of ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid to the cholesterol-enriched diet reduced the elevation of serum and liver cholesterol levels caused by feeding cholesterol. However, supplementation with ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid to the standard diet did not show any significant change in serum and liver cholesterol levels. Administration of ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid caused a decrease in dietary cholesterol absorption but did not interfere with the ileal transport of endogenous bile salts. Hence the hypocholesterolemic activity of dietary ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid is thought to be the effect on intestinal absorption of cholesterol but not to be the interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. PMID:1494107

  18. Effect of lead on fetal development in rats fed with 8% casein diet

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, D.K.; Lal, B.; Chandra, S.V.

    1987-10-01

    Nutritional status is known to affect the susceptibility of humans and animals to chemical insult. Prevalence of protein malnutrition in developing countries and increasing reports of exposure to lead through environmental pollution have led us to investigate the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of lead in pregnant rats maintained on low protein diet so as to asses the developmental toxicity of lead in protein malnourished state.

  19. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  20. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523

  1. Feeding and lying behavior of heat-stressed early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing roughage and nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Junlapho, W; Karnjanasirm, K

    2015-02-01

    In addition to reduced nutrient intake, an environmental thermal load may directly affect milk yield in heat-stressed dairy cows. Feeding and lying behaviors of early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from roughage and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Immediately after calving, 30 multiparous cows (87.5% Holstein × 12.5% Sahiwal) were randomly allocated to dietary treatments for 63 d in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments contained 25% of dry matter (DM) as dietary NDF. The control diet consisted of 13.9% roughage NDF from rice straw (RS). Two additional treatments were created by replacing 3.9% of DM with NDF from either soy hulls (SH) or cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) residues (CR), so that the roughage NDF content was reduced to 10%. During the experimental period, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity indices (THI) were 86.4±2.5 and 91.5±2.7 during the day and 74.2±2.1 and 81.0±2.5 during the night, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for induction of extreme heat stress. The duration of feeding and lying bouts decreased linearly with increasing THI. The DM intake during the day was greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR than for those fed the diet containing NDF from RS. The number of meals during the day and night was lower, whereas meal size and meal length during the day and night were greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR. Cows fed diets containing SH and CR lay down less frequently and longer during the day. These results suggest that under the severe heat stress during the day, early lactation cows fed the diet containing NFFS increased DM intake by increasing meal length and meal size rather than by increasing meal frequency and they spent more time lying. Cows fed diets containing NDF from SH and CR produced more 4% fat-corrected milk, lost less body weight, and had lower rectal temperatures

  2. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain K21 on High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Weng, Wei-Lien; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Hui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Hsien; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of specific probiotics on alleviating obesity-related disorders. Here we aimed to identify probiotics with potential antiobesity activity among 88 lactic acid bacterial strains via in vitro screening assays, and a Lactobacillus plantarum strain K21 was found to harbor abilities required for hydrolyzing bile salt, reducing cholesterol, and inhibiting the accumulation of lipid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, effects of K21 on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were examined. Male C57Bl/6J mice received a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with K21 administration (109 CFU in 0.2 mL PBS/day) for eight weeks. Supplementation of K21, but not placebo, appeared to alleviate body weight gain and epididymal fat mass accumulation, reduce plasma leptin levels, decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and mitigate liver damage in DIO mice. Moreover, the hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) related to adipogenesis was significantly downregulated in DIO mice by K21 intervention. We also found that K21 supplementation strengthens intestinal permeability and modulates the amount of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Clostridium perfringens in the cecal contents of DIO mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that dietary intake of K21 protects against the onset of HFD-induced obesity through multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:25802537

  3. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit Parts in Rabbits Fed High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Yuon, Lau Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of C. odontophyllum (CO) fruit parts was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Forty-nine rabbits, which were randomly divided into seven groups of seven animals (n = 7), received a diet containing different parts of CO fruit parts for 8 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) normal diet: NC group and (2) hypercholesterolemic diet: PC, HS (10 mg/kg/day simvastatin), HPO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the pulp of CO), HKO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the kernel of CO), HF (50 g kg−1 fullfat pulp of CO), and HD (50 g kg−1 defatted pulp of CO). Among these groups, rabbits receiving defatted pulp of CO showed the greatest cholesterol lowering effect as it had reduced plasma LDL-C, TC, and thiobarbiturate reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of high dietary fiber and antioxidants activity are potential factors contributing to the cholesterol lowering effect. Consequently, these results indicate the potential use of CO defatted pulp as a cholesterol lowering and antioxidant agent. PMID:22811751

  4. Protein metabolism in growing pigs fed corn or cassava peel based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1985-05-01

    Sixty-four Large White cross Landrace weanling pigs were randomly allotted to eight treatments in a two by four factorial arrangement. The two dietary variables were cassava peel (0 and 40 per cent) and crude protein (20, 15, 10 and 5 per cent). Total serum protein concentration was significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced by protein deficiency and by its interaction with cassava peel. The multiple coefficient of determination (R2) showed that protein intake was the primary factor determining changes in serum protein. R2 values for cyanide intake (independent variable) on serum protein (dependent variable) increased from day 30 to 90 of the trial. Serum urea was increased on the 5 per cent protein diets on days 60 and 90 of the trial. The R2 values for cyanide and protein intake on serum urea concentration increased from day 30 to day 90 of the trial. Serum creatinine increased (P less than 0.05) on the 5 per cent protein diet on day 90 of the trial. The R2 value for the effects of protein intake on serum creatinine was higher than for cyanide intake on days 30 and 90. The results confirm the progressive and pronounced effects of long term cyanide intake on serum nitrogenous metabolites in pigs consuming between 110 and 120 ppm hydrocyanic acid, especially in diets containing 10 per cent or less protein. PMID:2989987

  5. Change in growth performance of crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) dairy heifers fed on forage grass diets supplemented with commercial concentrates.

    PubMed

    Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2016-04-01

    Rearing heifers for dairy cow replacement is a challenge in smallholder dairy farms in the tropics due to feed shortage. The objective of this study was to evaluate Brachiaria hybrid cultivar Mulato II as a forage resource for improving growth performance of dairy heifers under cut-and-carry feeding system in Rwanda. Sixteen crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) heifers (mean weight 203 ± 35 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments viz: Mulato II with 2 kg/day of commercial concentrates (MCC) and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with the same supplement (NCC), for a period of 12 weeks. Mineral lick and water were provided ad libitum. Daily feed intake and fortnightly live weight were measured. Average daily gains and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Results showed that absolute daily dry matter intake (g DMI/day) and relative intake (g/kg of metabolic body weight--BW(0.75)) were higher in heifers fed on MCC than in heifers fed on NCC (P < 0.001). FCR was lower (P < 0.001) in MCC than NCC diets. Final body weight (FBW) and body weight gain (BWG) did not differ between the two groups of heifers (P > 0.05). Average daily weight gain (ADWG) also not differed significantly (P > 0.05). Based on numerical body weight changes and nutritive values, Mulato II showed potential to be integrated into local cut-and-carry feeding systems for better heifer rearing to facilitate dairy cow replacement. PMID:26888207

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Hojung; Yoon, Ji-Young; Lee, In-Young; Seo, Youngwan; Moon, Hong-Seop; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1), the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism. PMID:26569269

  7. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Hojung; Yoon, Ji-Young; Lee, In-Young; Seo, Youngwan; Moon, Hong-Seop; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-11-01

    Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1), the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism. PMID:26569269

  8. Resveratrol supplementation confers neuroprotection in cortical brain tissue of nonhuman primates fed a high-fat/sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Michel; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Allard, Joanne; Faulkner, Shakeela; Wnorowski, Artur; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Moaddel, Ruin; Alfaras, Irene; Mattison, Julie A.; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Pearson, Kevin J.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of long-term resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in preventing pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, arterial stiffening and metabolic decline induced by high-fat/high-sugar (HFS) diet in nonhuman primates. Here, the analysis was extended to examine whether RSV may reduce dietary stress toxicity in the cerebral cortex of the same cohort of treated animals. Middle-aged male rhesus monkeys were fed for 2 years with HFS alone or combined with RSV, after which whole-genome microarray analysis of cerebral cortex tissue was carried out along with ELISA, immunofluorescence, and biochemical analyses to examine markers of vascular health and inflammation in the cerebral cortices. A number of genes and pathways that were differentially modulated in these dietary interventions indicated an exacerbation of neuroinflammation (e.g., oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, NF-κB activation) in HFS-fed animals and protection by RSV treatment. The decreased expression of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, dysregulation in endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and reduced capillary density induced by HFS stress were rescued by RSV supplementation. Our results suggest that long-term RSV treatment confers neuroprotection against cerebral vascular dysfunction during nutrient stress. PMID:27070252

  9. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Hayato; Ushijima, Kentaro; Arakawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Ken-Ichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-07-01

    Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats). To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg) and olmesartan (2 mg/kg), another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high fat diet (HFD). HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg) in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions. PMID:27430988

  10. Resveratrol supplementation confers neuroprotection in cortical brain tissue of nonhuman primates fed a high-fat/sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Michel; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Allard, Joanne; Faulkner, Shakeela; Wnorowski, Artur; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Moaddel, Ruin; Alfaras, Irene; Mattison, Julie A; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Pearson, Kevin J; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of long-term resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in preventing pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, arterial stiffening and metabolic decline induced by high-fat/high-sugar (HFS) diet in nonhuman primates. Here, the analysis was extended to examine whether RSV may reduce dietary stress toxicity in the cerebral cortex of the same cohort of treated animals. Middle-aged male rhesus monkeys were fed for 2 years with HFS alone or combined with RSV, after which whole-genome microarray analysis of cerebral cortex tissue was carried out along with ELISA, immunofluorescence, and biochemical analyses to examine markers of vascular health and inflammation in the cerebral cortices. A number of genes and pathways that were differentially modulated in these dietary interventions indicated an exacerbation of neuroinflammation (e.g., oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, NF-κB activation) in HFS-fed animals and protection by RSV treatment. The decreased expression of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, dysregulation in endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and reduced capillary density induced by HFS stress were rescued by RSV supplementation. Our results suggest that long-term RSV treatment confers neuroprotection against cerebral vascular dysfunction during nutrient stress. PMID:27070252

  11. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding. PMID:25245085

  12. Myeloid SIRT1 regulates macrophage infiltration and insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ka, Sun-O; Song, Mi-Young; Bae, Eun Ju; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Inflammation is an important factor in the development of insulin resistance. SIRT1, a class 3 histone/protein deacetylase, has anti-inflammatory functions. Myeloid-specific deletion of Sirt1 promotes macrophage infiltration into insulin-sensitive organs and aggravates tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigated how SIRT1 in macrophages alters tissue inflammation in the pancreas as well as liver and adipose tissue, and further explored the role of SIRT1 in locomotion of macrophages. Myeloid-specific Sirt1-deleted mice (mS1KO) and WT littermates were fed a 60% calorie high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Tissue inflammation and metabolic phenotypes were compared. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) from WT or mS1KO mice were used in in vitro chemotaxis assays and macrophage polarization studies. mS1KO mice fed a HFD exhibited glucose intolerance, reduced insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity with a slight decrease in body weight. Consistent with these results, pancreatic islets of mS1KO mice fed a HFD displayed decreased mass with profound apoptotic cell damage and increased macrophage infiltration and inflammation. Liver and adipose tissues from mS1KO HFD mice also showed greater accumulation of macrophages and tissue inflammation. Results from in vitro experiments indicated that deletion of myeloid Sirt1 stimulated proinflammatory M1-like polarization of BMMs and augmented the adipocyte-mediated macrophage chemotaxis. The latter effect was accompanied by increased expression and acetylation of focal adhesion kinase, as well as nuclear factor kappa B. Our results indicate that myeloid SIRT1 plays a crucial role in macrophage polarization and chemotaxis, and thus regulates the development of HFD-induced pancreatic inflammation and insulin secretion, and metabolic derangements in liver and adipose tissue. PMID:25349250

  13. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    PubMed

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P < 0.05) egg weights assigned to the hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P < 0.01) and Se level (P < 0.05) throughout the trial period. Regardless of dietary fat source, dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) egg mass during all trial periods. Moreover, the significant (P < 0.05) fat  source× Se interactions were observed for egg mass, so that dietary supplementation with 0.4 mg/kg Se was more effective in diets supplemented with YG. Although feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P < 0.01) and entire trial period (P < 0.05). The best (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk

  14. Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Vinyeta, E; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects of pelleting, extrusion, and extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing low, medium, or high concentrations of fiber. Three diets were formulated: 1) the low-fiber diet contained corn and soybean meal; 2) the medium-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, and 25% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); and 3) the high-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, 25% DDGS, and 20% soybean hulls. Each diet was divided into 4 batches after mixing. One batch was not further processed and was fed in a meal form, one batch was pelleted at 85°C, one batch was extruded at 115°C using a single-screw extruder, and one batch was extruded at 115°C and then pelleted at 85°C. Thus, 12 different diets were produced. Twenty-four growing pigs (26.5 ± 1.5 kg initial BW) had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum and were allotted to the 12 diets in a split-plot design with 8 pigs allotted to the low-fiber diets, the medium-fiber diets, and the high-fiber diets, respectively. Diets were fed to the pigs during four 14-d periods. Within each type of diet, the 8 pigs were fed the diets produced using the 4 processing technologies. Therefore, there were 8 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were adjusted to their diets for 14 d before the experiment was initiated. Each of the four 14-d periods consisted of 5 d for adaptation, 5 d of fecal collection according to the marker to marker approach, and ileal digesta were collected on d 13 and 14. Results indicated that pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting improved ( < 0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility of starch and most indispensable AA. In most cases, there were no differences between the pelleted, the extruded, and the extruded and pelleted diets. The apparent total tract digestibility of GE was also improved ( < 0.05) by pelleting and by the combination of extrusion and pelleting. The ME of pelleted diets was greater ( < 0.05) than

  15. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet. PMID:25636326

  16. Antioxidant status of blood and liver of turkeys fed diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids and fruit pomaces as a source of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Juśkiewicz, J; Zduńczyk, P; Kosmala, M; Zieliński, H; Antoszkiewicz, Z; Zduńczyk, Z

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that dietary polyphenol-rich fruit pomaces can improve the antioxidant status of both diets and the tissues of turkeys fed such diets. Turkeys were fed diets containing a cellulose preparation (C) or 5% dried apple pomace (AP), blackcurrant pomace (BCP), strawberry pomace (SP) and seedless strawberry pomace (SSP). Blood and liver biochemical parameters were determined in 7 birds from each experimental group slaughtered at 15 weeks of age, after 5 weeks of feeding diets containing soybean oil and linseed oil (approx. 1:1 ratio). Dietary linseed oil added to diets at 2.5% lowered the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio from approx. 7:1 to below 2:1, thus reducing the antioxidant properties of diets measured using DPPH, ABTS and photo-chemiluminescence assays, compared with diets containing only soybean oil and administered to birds in the first phase of feeding. Fruit pomaces, in particular SSP with the highest polyphenol content (32.81 g/kg) and the highest antioxidant activity (256.4 μM Trolox/g), increased the antioxidant capacity of turkey diets. In comparison with the control group, the dietary treatments with fruit pomaces improved blood antioxidant parameters, including catalase activity (groups AP and BCP), the total antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic (group AP) and lipophilic (groups AP, SP, and SSP) compounds, peroxide levels (groups AP and SSP) and antioxidant capacity measured by the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma) assay (groups AP, BCP and SSP). Significantly lower concentrations of both vitamin E and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were noted in the livers of turkeys fed all diets with dried fruit pomaces. PMID:27096792

  17. Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Xu, Dongdong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The purified pitaya peel betacyanins (PPBNs) were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and the male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD supplemented with PPBNs for 14 weeks. Our results showed that the white-fleshed pitaya peel contains 14 kinds of betacyanins and dietary PPBNs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatosteatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that PPBN supplementation increased the expression levels of lipid-metabolism-related genes (AdipoR2, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acox1, PPARγ, Insig1, and Insig2) and FGF21-related genes (β-Klotho and FGFR1/2) but decreased the expression level of Fads2, Fas, and FGF21, suggesting that the protective effect of PPBNs might be associated with the induced fatty acid oxidation, decreased fatty acid biosynthesis, and alleviated FGF21 resistance. PMID:26653843

  18. Fructus xanthii improves lipid homeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiumin; Yang, Mingxing; Li, Zhipeng; Xue, Mei; Shangguan, Zhaoshui; Ou, Zhimin; Liu, Ming; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity triggers common features of human metabolic syndrome in rats. Our previous study showed that Fructus xanthii (FX) attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of FX on lipid metabolism in epididymal fat (EF), and examine its underlying mechanisms. Aqueous extraction fractions of FX or vehicle were orally administered by gavage for 6 weeks to rats fed either a HFD or a normal chow diet (NCD). The levels of circulating free fatty acid (FFA) were determined in plasma, and the expression levels of lipid metabolism‑ and inflammation‑associated genes in the EF were measured using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The general morphology, size and number of adipocytes in the EF, and the levels of macrophage infiltration were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining or immunohistochemical staining. FX decreased circulating levels of FFA, increased the expression levels of sterol‑regulatory‑element‑binding protein‑1c, FAS, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase lipogenic genes in the EF. FX increased the numbers of adipocytes in the EF, and featured a shift towards smaller adipocyte size. Compared with the vehicle‑treated rats, positive staining of F4/80 was more dispersed in the FX‑treated rats, and the percentage of F4/80 positive cells was significantly decreased. FX attenuated HFD‑induced lipid dyshomeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue. PMID:26648271

  19. Antilithiasic and hypolipidaemic effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on mice fed with a lithogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  20. Fructus xanthii improves lipid homeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIUMIN; YANG, MINGXING; LI, ZHIPENG; XUE, MEI; SHANGGUAN, ZHAOSHUI; OU, ZHIMIN; LIU, MING; LIU, SUHUAN; YANG, SHUYU; LI, XUEJUN

    2016-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity triggers common features of human metabolic syndrome in rats. Our previous study showed that Fructus xanthii (FX) attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of FX on lipid metabolism in epididymal fat (EF), and examine its underlying mechanisms. Aqueous extraction fractions of FX or vehicle were orally administered by gavage for 6 weeks to rats fed either a HFD or a normal chow diet (NCD). The levels of circulating free fatty acid (FFA) were determined in plasma, and the expression levels of lipid metabolism- and inflammation-associated genes in the EF were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The general morphology, size and number of adipocytes in the EF, and the levels of macrophage infiltration were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining or immunohistochemical staining. FX decreased circulating levels of FFA, increased the expression levels of sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, FAS, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase lipogenic genes in the EF. FX increased the numbers of adipocytes in the EF, and featured a shift towards smaller adipocyte size. Compared with the vehicle-treated rats, positive staining of F4/80 was more dispersed in the FX-treated rats, and the percentage of F4/80 positive cells was significantly decreased. FX attenuated HFD-induced lipid dyshomeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue. PMID:26648271

  1. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) seeds in the rabbits fed on a cholesterol-containing diet

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Movahedian, Ahmad; Jannesary, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Lallemantia royleana (Benth. in Wall.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Iranian traditional and folklore medicine in the treatment of various nervous, hepatic, and renal diseases. In the present study, whole seeds of the herb were prepared and evaluated for hypolipidemic activities using an animal model. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed normal diets or diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.5%) for 12 weeks to evoke hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, hypercholesterolemic animals were treated with different doses of whole seeds of Balangu (0, 5, 10, and 20%) for 12 weeks. Results: Results showed that the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride decreased in all groups treated with Balangu seeds p<0.05. Changes in the distribution of cholesterol in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found. LDL-C and HDL-C decreased significantly in all of the groups treated with whole seeds of the herb with respect to hypercholesterolemic group p<0.05. Conclusion: Our results showed that L. royleana seeds decreased the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hypercholesterolemic anima