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Sample records for abalone fed diets

  1. Digestive enzymes in juvenile green abalone, Haliotis fulgens, fed natural food.

    PubMed

    García-Carreño, F L; Navarrete del Toro, M A; Serviere-Zaragoza, E

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes responsible for the digestion of food protein by juvenile green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) were studied when fed algae or a sea grass (Phyllospadix torreyi) naturally occurring in the habitat. The effect of food on the composition and activity of the enzymes was also evaluated. Acid, serine proteinases and aminopeptidases, as confirmed by pH profile of activity, specific inhibition and synthetic substrate hydrolysis were found in the digestive organs of juvenile green abalone. Algae and sea grass differentially affected the digestive system in abalone. PMID:12524042

  2. Diatom diet selectivity by early post-larval abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under hatchery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuyu; Gao, Yahui; Liang, Junrong; Chen, Changping; Zhao, Donghai; Li, Xuesong; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    Benthic diatoms constitute the primary diet of abalone during their early stages of development. To evaluate the dietary preferences of early post-larval abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, we analyzed the gut contents of post-larvae that settled on diatom films. We compared the abundance and species diversity of diatom assemblages in the gut to those of the epiphytic diatom assemblages on the attachment films, and identified 40 benthic diatom species in the gut contents of post-larvae 12 to 24 d after settlement. The most abundant taxa in the gut contents were Navicula spp., Amphora copulate, and Amphora coffeaeformis. Navicula spp. accounted for 64.0% of the cell density. In the attachment films, we identified 110 diatom species belonging to 38 genera. Pennate diatoms were the dominant members including the species Amphiprora alata, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cylindrotheca closterium, Navicula sp. 2, and A. coffeaeformis. Nano-diatoms (<20 μm in length) accounted for a considerable proportion of the total species number and cell density of the diatom assemblages in the gut contents and on the films. This suggests that nano-diatoms are important to the efficient production of abalone seed. The difference of the composition and abundance of diatoms between in the guts and on the biofilms suggests that early post-larval grazing was selective. An early post-larval abalone preferred nano-diatoms and the genera Navicula and Amphora during the month after settlement.

  3. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  4. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  5. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  6. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed.

  7. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed. PMID:1445392

  8. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  9. Effects of the dietary administration of sodium alginate on the immune responses and disease resistance of Taiwan abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winton; Yu, Jyun-Sian

    2013-03-01

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown algae was reported to enhance the immune response and resistance of fish and shrimp. In this study, survival rates of the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its non-specific immune parameters such as the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to V. parahaemolyticus by H. diversicolor supertexta were determined when abalone (4.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹. Abalone fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ for 14 days and at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ for 21 days had significantly higher survival rates than those fed the control diet after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. The relative survival percentages of abalone fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ sodium alginate-containing diets for 14 and 21 days were 16.1%, 40.0%, and 48.0%, and 63.6%, 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus of abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the control diet for 14 days. After 21 days, the PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus by abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the other diets. It was concluded that sodium alginate can be used as an immunostimulant for abalone through dietary administration to enhance immune responses of abalone and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus, which were related to the dose and timing of administration.

  10. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic Shewanella colwelliana WA64, Shewanella olleyana WA65 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Chang, Ya-Qing; Liu, Ming-Tai; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-07-01

    The effects of dietary administration of two probiotics, Shewanella colwelliana WA64 and Shewanella olleyana WA65, on the innate immunity of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), and survival of juvenile abalone challenged with Vibrio harveyi have been studied. Two groups of abalone were fed with three different diets: one control, and two diets supplemented with 10(9) cell g(-1) of probiotic WA64 (WA64 diet) and WA65 (WA65 diet) for up to four weeks. Results showed that abalone fed diets containing S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher haemocytes, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme activity and total protein levels were recorded after one week of probiotic administration. On the other hand, mortality after the challenges with V. harveyi in the group fed with control diet ranged from 77 to 80%, while mortality rates observed in the groups fed with diets supplemented with WA64 and WA65 ranged from 27 to 50% and 30-43%, respectively. The results demonstrated potential for S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 to improve innate immunity and disease resistance in H. discus hannai.

  12. Decreasing Diet Density: Direct Fed Microbials and L-threonine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alterations in nutritional strategies are becoming more prevalent as broiler integrators are faced with high feed costs compared to historical averages. If broiler diets are devoid of antimicrobials and contain lower than average nutrient content, could the addition of a direct fed microbial ingred...

  13. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol on atherogenic diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun; Liu, Jian-Li; Du, Ai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic or high fat diets were known to induce cardiovascular diseases, and several active compounds were tested to protect/prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the cardio protective effect of resveratrol against atherogenic diet fed rats. Male Wistar rats were administered atherogenic diet for 30 days and further continued for 15 days with or with resveratrol in the diet. The serum lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid metabolic proteins and cardiac tissue markers were examined. The histopathology of myocardium and aorta were also examined. The abnormal serum lipid profile found in atherogenic rats was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Similarly, the enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase), non-enzymatic (reduced-glutathione, Vitamin C, E) antioxidants were improved by the resveratrol fed against atherogenic diet. Interestingly, resveratrol activated the lipid metabolic proteins (SIRT1, eNOS and AMPKa), suggesting its protective effect on lipid metabolism. Further analysis on tissue damage revealed that resveratrol had significantly protected the tissue damage and maintains the morphology of cardiac tissue. Altogether, our results suggest that resveratrol played a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular system against the high fat diet. Emphasising the anti-atherogenic property of resveratrol, we propose resveratrol as a potential compound to be consumed for the healthy life-style.

  14. Spermatogenesis in bald eagles experimentally fed a diet containing DDT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    When Bald Eagles were fed DDT in the diet at the level of 10 ppm (dry weight basis) for periods of 60 and 120 days, there was no interference with spermatogenic activity. Degenerative testicular changes were produced only by levels of DDT that produced abnormal neurological signs and usually resulted in death. Histological examination of these testes indicates that Bald Eagles have a seasonal testicular cycle similar to that reported for many other birds of the Northern Hemisphere.

  15. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  16. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  17. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the crude protein and ether extract levels, with average values of 23.38% and 2.15% in the sheep meat, respectively. The physical-chemical characteristics of the loin were not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  18. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the crude protein and ether extract levels, with average values of 23.38% and 2.15% in the sheep meat, respectively. The physical-chemical characteristics of the loin were not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.

  19. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  20. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  1. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  2. Growth performance and intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Patterson, J A; Adeola, O; Sutton, A L; Richards, G N

    1997-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine growth performance and changes in intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel (STOC). Ninety-six barrows and 96 gilts were group-fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d after weaning in both Exp. 1 and 2. For each experiment, pigs were divided into four groups of 48 pigs and were fed either control, antibiotic (Apramycin sulfate, 34 mg/kg), 1% STOC, or 2% STOC diets for 32 d after weaning. Each diet was replicated six times with eight pigs per replication. Pigs were either orally gavaged (Exp 1) with water of STOC (2 g per pig) or pigs were creep-fed (Exp 2) either a control diet or a 2% STOC diet for 5 d before weaning (33 d). At the end of Exp 1 and 2, cecal material was collected for enumeration of total aerobes, total anaerobes, coliforms, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria. Gilts (96 per experiment) used in Exp. 3 and 4 were weaned at 26 d and fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d. They were fed either a control or 1% STOC diet and were otherwise treated as previously described. There were no significant effects of STOC or antibiotic on ADG, ADFI, feed efficiency, or cecal microbial populations in pigs in this study. Feeding diets containing either antibiotic of STOC did not improve animal performance or change intestinal bacterial populations in the present study. PMID:9027562

  3. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Gaetke, Lisa M; McClain, Craig J; Toleman, C Jean; Stuart, Mary A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adding yogurt to animal diets that were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 microg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, six groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of six AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. The diets were as follows: (a) AIN, (b) AIN with active yogurt, (c) AIN and inactive yogurt, (d) AIN with PA, (e) AIN with PA plus active yogurt and (f) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and food efficiency ratio was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (P<.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (P<.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats; however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still suboptimal.

  4. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  5. Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce, and pellets provide a healthy diet?

    PubMed

    Brightsmith, Donald J

    2012-09-01

    Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous. As a result, many bird owners feed a mixture of seed, produce, and formulated diet. However, the nutritional contents of such mixed diets have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we describe the nutrient contents of diets consumed by 7 adult (>6 years old), captive Amazon parrots offered produce (50% fresh weight), formulated diet (25%), and seed (25%). Diets consumed were deficient in calcium, sodium, and iron and contained more than the recommended amount of fat. In addition, the birds chose foods that exacerbated these imbalances. Birds offered low-seed diets (60% pellet, 22% produce, 18% seed, wet weight) consumed diets with more fat than recommended but acceptable levels of calcium and all other nutrients measured, as well as acceptable calcium:phosphorus ratios. This suggests that small quantities of seeds may not result in nutritionally imbalanced diets. Birds fed 75% formulated diet and 25% produce consumed diets within the recommendations for nearly all measured nutrients, demonstrating that owners of psittacine birds should be encouraged to supplement manufactured diets with low energy-density, fresh produce items to provide stimulation and foraging opportunities without fear of causing major nutritional imbalances.

  6. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  7. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  8. Marginality and needs of dietary valine for broilers fed certain all-vegetable diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valine is likely the fourth limiting amino acid in most diets based of corn and soybean meal. However, its exact needs are not well known, and information regarding it is sparse. A series of studies were conducted to validate valine’s limitation in all-vegetable diets fed to broilers, and subseque...

  9. Bone development in dairy heifers fed diets with and without supplemental phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NRC 2001 P requirements for heifers (0.20-0.35 %) and endogenous levels (0.20-35 %) of P in feeds are similar suggesting supplemental P in heifer diets may be minimally required. Because long term studies are unavailable 183 Holstein heifers and 182 crossbred heifers were fed diets with (0.38 %...

  10. Preferential fat intake of pups nursed by dams fed low fat diet during pregnancy and lactation is higher than that of pups nursed by dams fed control diet and high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko; Tsukita, Yoko; Yokoyama, Meiko

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the effect of dams' dietary fat type during pregnancy and lactation on fat choice of pups, three groups of dams were fed one of three diets: a low fat diet (LFD), a control diet (CTD) or a high fat diet (HFD). After weaning their pups were offered a self-selection regimen of both a fat protein diet (FPD) and a carbohydrate protein diet (CPD) for 3 wk. Although the ratio of FPD intake [FPD intake (g)/total intake (g)] by pups nursed by dams fed LFD during the self-selection period was higher than that by pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD, no significant difference in the ratio was observed between pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD. It was considered that pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD self-selected FPD and CPD in an adequate fat energy ratio (F ratio) compared to that of AIN-93G and AIN-93M. The ratio of FPD intake by pups of these three groups was 16-21% within the first week after weaning. Although pups nursed by dams fed CTD continued to consume the same ratio of FPD during the self-selection period, the ratio of pups nursed by dams fed LFD increased and that of pups nursed by dams fed HFD decreased. These findings indicate that: [1] pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD have the ability to consume FPD and CPD in an adequate F ratio, and [2] preferential fat intake of pups nursed by dams fed LFD is stronger than that of pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD.

  11. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets.

    PubMed

    Morais, M M; Turcatto, A P; Pereira, R A; Francoy, T M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, K R; Gonçalves, L S; de Almeida, J M V; Ellis, J D; De Jong, D

    2013-12-19

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in small cages and fed on one of four diets for seven days. The artificial diets included a high protein diet made of soy milk powder and albumin, and a lower protein level diet consisting of soy milk powder, brewer's yeast and rice bran. The initial protein levels in newly emerged bees were approximately 18-21 µg/µL hemolymph. After feeding on the diets for seven days, the protein levels in the hemolymph were similar among the protein diet groups (~37-49 µg/µL after seven days), although Africanized bees acquired higher protein levels, increasing 145 and 100% on diets D1 and D2, respectively, versus 83 and 60% in the European bees. All the protein diets resulted in significantly higher levels of protein than sucrose solution alone. In the field, the two pollen substitute diets were tested during periods of low pollen availability in the field in two regions of Brazil. Food consumption, population development, colony weight, and honey production were evaluated to determine the impact of the diets on colony strength parameters. The colonies fed artificial diets had a significant improvement in all parameters, while control colonies dwindled during the dearth period. We conclude that these two artificial protein diets have good potential as pollen substitutes during dearth periods and that Africanized bees more efficiently utilize artificial protein diets than do European honey bees.

  12. Glyphosate tolerant canola meal is equivalent to the parental line in diets fed to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul B; Wilson, Keith A; Jonker, Yolanda; Nickson, Thomas E

    2003-07-16

    Two separate studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of glyphosate tolerant canola (GTC) as a feed ingredient in diets fed to rainbow trout. In the first study, two forms of GTC were compared to a parental line, Westar. In the second study, one line of GTC was reevaluated to Westar. In each study, processed canola meals were incorporated at 5, 10, 15, or 20% of the dry diet and a diet containing no canola was fed for comparison. All diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish in each study. In the first study, weight gain, feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and protein retention (PR) were not significantly different in fish fed either Westar or GT200 at any level of substitution. Fish fed GT73 exhibited a gradual reduction in weight gain, FE, and PER as the level of GTC increased. However, the only significant reduction was in weight gain of fish fed 20% GT73 as compared to fish fed 5% GT73. Because of an error in preparing samples prior to the experiment, samples GT200 and GT73 were essentially equivalent in composition. The differences were explained by differences in processing temperatures that occurred after the sample mixing error occurred. In the second study, mean weight gain, PR, and survival were not significantly different among forms of canola. FE and PER values were significantly lower in fish fed 15% Westar as compared to fish fed 10% Westar; other FE and PER values were not significantly different. On the basis of these results, GTC processed into a toasted meal and incorporated into diets for rainbow trout is equivalent to a parental line of canola.

  13. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  14. Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  16. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  17. Nutritive value of methane fermentation residue in diets fed to feedlot steers

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Shirley, R.L.; Palmer, A.Z.

    1982-12-01

    Nutritive value of the methane fermentation residue (MFR) from the effluent of a large scale thermophilic methane generator was determined in diets fed to feedlot steers. The MFR contained 22.2% dry matter and 21.9% crude protein (dry basis). Two diets containing 10.6% (dry basis) MFR were formulated using the Urea Fermentation Potential (UFP) system such that in one diet N was in excess (-1.6 UFP) while in the other diet energy was in excess (+2.6 UFP). These two diets were compared in a California Net Energy trial with a feedlot diet (-.3 UFP) containing the same ingredients except the MFR. Six steers were fed in a replicated 3(2) Latin square metabolism trial and 70 steers were fed in a 118-d comparative-slaughter, feedlot trial. Digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, ash, total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy were depressed (all P less than .05) in the MFR-containing diets. Steers fed the MFR-containing diets had lower (P less than .05) rates of gain and increased (P less than .05) feed requirements per unit gain. Net energies for maintenance and gain were slightly lower for the MFR-containing diets than the control diet. Crude protein digestibility for the MFR calculated by difference, for the -UFP and the +UFP diets were 37.8 and 50.7%, while corresponding values for TDN were 28.8 and 12.8%, respectively. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in kidney, liver and muscle as well as flavor and tenderness of steaks were not affected by feeding MFR.

  18. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  19. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

  20. Differential responses to dietary cobalt in finishing steers fed corn-versus barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tiffany, M E; Spears, J W

    2005-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Co concentration on performance, carcass traits, and plasma, liver, and ruminal metabolites of steers fed corn- or barley-based diets. Sixty steers, initially averaging 316 kg, were stratified by BW and assigned randomly to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, with factors being a corn- or barley-based diet and supplemental Co added at 0, 0.05, or 0.15 mg/kg of DM. Control corn-and barley-based diets analyzed 0.04 and 0.02 mg of Co/kg of DM, respectively. Steers were fed individually using electronic Ca-lan gate feeders. Cobalt supplementation increased (P < 0.05) DMI and ADG over the total study. From d 85 to finish, Co supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ADG by steers fed corn- but not barley-based diets. The G:F was increased (P < 0.05) by Co supplementation during the first 84 d but not over the entire finishing period. Average daily gain and G:F were greater (P < 0.05) for corn- vs. barley-fed steers. Supplemental Co increased vitamin B12 in plasma and liver (P < 0.05), and plasma vitamin B12 was greater (P < 0.05) in steers fed corn-vs. barley-based diets. Cobalt supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ruminal fluid vitamin B12 on d 84 in steers fed corn- but not barley-based diets. Folate was greater in plasma (P < 0.01) and liver (P < 0.05) of steers fed Co-supplemented diets. Increasing supplemental Co from 0.05 to 0.15 mg of Co/kg of DM increased (P < 0.05) liver folate in steers fed barley- but not corn-based diets. Supplemental Co decreased (P < 0.01) plasma methylmalonic acid concentration in steers. Increasing supplemental Co from 0.05 to 0.15 mg/kg of DM decreased plasma and ruminal succinate concentrations, and steers fed barley-based diets had greater (P < 0.05) plasma and ruminal succinate relative to those fed corn-based diets. Addition of supplemental Co to the basal diets increased (P < 0.01) plasma glucose concentrations of steers, and steers fed corn-based diets had greater

  1. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Sisley, Stephanie; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimulate diet intake during late pregnancy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet from Day 1 of pregnancy. On Day 21, 0.5 μg ghrelin was given into the third ventricle (ICV). Diet and water intake at 30, 60, and 120 min after ICV injection was measured. Hypothalami were dissected and analyzed for expression of genes related to appetite regulation (Npy, Agrp, Pomc and Cart) and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC proteins (downstream proteins of ghrelin receptor activation). Results include: In response to ICV injection of ghrelin, (1) diet intake was significantly lower in LP compared to CT rats; (2) water intake was not affected in LP rats; (3) expression of Npy and Agrp, but not Pomc and Cart, were higher in the hypothalamus of LP compared to CT rats; (4) the abundance of phosphorylated AMPK and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK, but not the abundance of total AMPK, were lower in LP compared to CT rats; (5) the abundance of phosphorylated ACC, but not total ACC, was lower in LP rats. These findings suggest that blunted ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus of pregnant rats fed a LP diet leads to reduced diet intake and exacerbates gestational protein insufficiency.

  2. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  3. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  4. /sup 54/Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets.

  5. Reduced inflammatory response in rats fed fat-rich diets: role of leukotrienes.

    PubMed

    Lopes, L R; Jancar, S; Curi, R; Sannomiya, P

    2000-05-26

    The effect of fat-rich diets on the acute inflammatory response was examined. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were fed, for 6 weeks, with a control diet (4% fat content), or a control diet supplemented with coconut or soybean oils (15% fat content). Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and pleurisy were evaluated. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and leukotriene (LT) C4/D4 concentrations were determined in the pleural exudate (ELISA). Pleural samples were tested for their effect on cutaneous vascular permeability of control rats and the effect of a LTD4 receptor antagonist (L660-711; 10 mg/kg; i.v.) examined. Relative to controls, rats fed both fat-rich diets presented a significant reduction in protein leakage and oedema formation without affecting the number of migrating leukocytes. Production of LTC4/D4 in pleural exudate was significantly increased from 1.8 +/- 0.2 ng/ml in controls to 2.8 +/- 0.2 and 3.0 +/- 0.3 ng/ml in animals fed coconut and soybean oil enriched diets, respectively, without changes in PGE2 production. The activity of these samples on cutaneous vascular permeability was 50% reduced, returning to control values after treatment of testing animals with a LTD4 receptor antagonist. Rats fed fat-rich diets presented a reduced inflammatory response due, at least in part, to the LTC4/D4 mediated vasoconstrictor effect.

  6. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  7. Performance of weaner rabbits fed a concentrate diet supplemented with pawpaw leaves.

    PubMed

    Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Oladeji, Olayinka Timothy; Abaire, Michael Adebayo; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Osho, Saheed Oladipupo; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha

    2015-02-01

    This experiment investigated the performance of weaner rabbits fed concentrate diets supplemented with pawpaw leaves (PPL). Twenty-four male weaner rabbits aged 5 weeks, weighing between 350 and 450 g were used. Concentrate diet was supplemented with PPL in ratios 100:0, 70:30, 50:50 and 30:70. Rabbits were randomly allotted to the four diets in a completely randomised design for 8 weeks, with six rabbits per diet. Results showed that rabbits supplemented with 30 and 50 % PPL had higher (P < 0.05) dry matter intake to sole concentrate. At 70 % PPL, dry matter intake did not vary with other treatments. Weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in rabbits fed 30 and 50 % PPL than sole concentrate. Rabbits fed 70 % PPL had lower (P < 0.05) weight gain to animals fed 30 % PPL but gained similarly (P > 0.05) to those fed on 50 % PPL and sole concentrate. Feed conversion ratio improved (P < 0.05) in animals fed 30, 50 and 70 % PPL. Rabbits fed 30 % PPL had the highest (P < 0.05) protein efficiency ratio. Rabbits had higher dry matter digestibility (P < 0.05) with PPL supplementation than sole concentrate while crude protein and fibre digestibility was higher with 30 and 50 % PPL. Haematological and serum parameters in rabbits were unaltered with feeding PPL. It is concluded that weaner rabbits can utilise PPL as supplement to concentrate diet at 30 to 70 % dry matter with positive responses in performance and nutrient digestibility without deleterious effect on the physiological status of the rabbits. PMID:25425357

  8. Performance of weaner rabbits fed a concentrate diet supplemented with pawpaw leaves.

    PubMed

    Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Oladeji, Olayinka Timothy; Abaire, Michael Adebayo; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Osho, Saheed Oladipupo; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha

    2015-02-01

    This experiment investigated the performance of weaner rabbits fed concentrate diets supplemented with pawpaw leaves (PPL). Twenty-four male weaner rabbits aged 5 weeks, weighing between 350 and 450 g were used. Concentrate diet was supplemented with PPL in ratios 100:0, 70:30, 50:50 and 30:70. Rabbits were randomly allotted to the four diets in a completely randomised design for 8 weeks, with six rabbits per diet. Results showed that rabbits supplemented with 30 and 50 % PPL had higher (P < 0.05) dry matter intake to sole concentrate. At 70 % PPL, dry matter intake did not vary with other treatments. Weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in rabbits fed 30 and 50 % PPL than sole concentrate. Rabbits fed 70 % PPL had lower (P < 0.05) weight gain to animals fed 30 % PPL but gained similarly (P > 0.05) to those fed on 50 % PPL and sole concentrate. Feed conversion ratio improved (P < 0.05) in animals fed 30, 50 and 70 % PPL. Rabbits fed 30 % PPL had the highest (P < 0.05) protein efficiency ratio. Rabbits had higher dry matter digestibility (P < 0.05) with PPL supplementation than sole concentrate while crude protein and fibre digestibility was higher with 30 and 50 % PPL. Haematological and serum parameters in rabbits were unaltered with feeding PPL. It is concluded that weaner rabbits can utilise PPL as supplement to concentrate diet at 30 to 70 % dry matter with positive responses in performance and nutrient digestibility without deleterious effect on the physiological status of the rabbits.

  9. SdiA aids enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli carriage by cattle fed a forage or grain diet.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haiqing; Nguyen, Y N; Hovde, Carolyn J; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening complications. The main reservoirs for EHEC are healthy ruminants. We reported that SdiA senses acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in the bovine rumen to activate expression of the glutamate acid resistance (gad) genes priming EHEC's acid resistance before they pass into the acidic abomasum. Conversely, SdiA represses expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes, whose expression is not required for bacterial survival in the rumen but is necessary for efficient colonization at the rectoanal junction (RAJ) mucosa. Our previous studies show that SdiA-dependent regulation was necessary for efficient EHEC colonization of cattle fed a grain diet. Here, we compared the SdiA role in EHEC colonization of cattle fed a forage hay diet. We detected AHLs in the rumen of cattle fed a hay diet, and these AHLs activated gad gene expression in an SdiA-dependent manner. The rumen fluid and fecal samples from hay-fed cattle were near neutrality, while the same digesta samples from grain-fed animals were acidic. Cattle fed either grain or hay and challenged with EHEC orally carried the bacteria similarly. EHEC was cleared from the rumen within days and from the RAJ mucosa after approximately one month. In competition trials, where animals were challenged with both wild-type and SdiA deletion mutant bacteria, diet did not affect the outcome that the wild-type strain was better able to persist and colonize. However, the wild-type strain had a greater advantage over the SdiA deletion mutant at the RAJ mucosa among cattle fed the grain diet.

  10. Erythrocyte morphology and filterability in rats fed on diets containing different fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Maccoll, A J; James, K A; Booth, C L

    1996-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the type of dietary fat or oil affects erythrocyte morphology and/or filterability in normal healthy rats. A feeding trial was carried out, in which nine groups of nine rats were fed on diets containing one of the following treatments (test fats or oils): anhydrous milk fat, anhydrous milk fat after passage through a column of active carbon, palm oil, MaxEPA fish oil, hydrogenated coconut oil, anhydrous tallow shortening, margarine hardstock, olive oil and soyabean oil. The test fats or oils supplemented with 10 g safflower-seed oil/kg were incorporated into otherwise nutritionally adequate diets so that the test fat or oil plus safflower-seed oil contributed 35% of the gross energy of the diet. The rats were fed for 10 weeks. Diet had a significant effect on five of the six classes of erythrocytes identified, and the proportion of cells in each class was shown to be dependent on diet. However, the attribute causing the dependence was not clear. There was no significant effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability index. There was no statistical correlation between erythrocyte filterability index and morphology. Although it has been observed that diet, particularly fish oil, can improve the filterability of erythrocytes once filterability is impaired, the effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability in normal healthy animals including humans is unclear. The importance of the differences in erythrocyte morphology due to diet is also unclear. Both areas deserve further investigation. PMID:8774223

  11. Erythrocyte morphology and filterability in rats fed on diets containing different fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Maccoll, A J; James, K A; Booth, C L

    1996-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the type of dietary fat or oil affects erythrocyte morphology and/or filterability in normal healthy rats. A feeding trial was carried out, in which nine groups of nine rats were fed on diets containing one of the following treatments (test fats or oils): anhydrous milk fat, anhydrous milk fat after passage through a column of active carbon, palm oil, MaxEPA fish oil, hydrogenated coconut oil, anhydrous tallow shortening, margarine hardstock, olive oil and soyabean oil. The test fats or oils supplemented with 10 g safflower-seed oil/kg were incorporated into otherwise nutritionally adequate diets so that the test fat or oil plus safflower-seed oil contributed 35% of the gross energy of the diet. The rats were fed for 10 weeks. Diet had a significant effect on five of the six classes of erythrocytes identified, and the proportion of cells in each class was shown to be dependent on diet. However, the attribute causing the dependence was not clear. There was no significant effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability index. There was no statistical correlation between erythrocyte filterability index and morphology. Although it has been observed that diet, particularly fish oil, can improve the filterability of erythrocytes once filterability is impaired, the effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability in normal healthy animals including humans is unclear. The importance of the differences in erythrocyte morphology due to diet is also unclear. Both areas deserve further investigation.

  12. Effects of boron supplements on bones from rats fed calcium and magnesium deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.; Irwin, A.; Kenney, M.A.; Williams, L. )

    1991-03-15

    Sixty female, weanling rats were fed, for 6 wks, diets providing: casein, 20; CHO, 40; fat, 40. Vitamins and minerals, except Ca and Mg, were fed according to AIN'76 recommendations. Gp A (control) was fed 100% AIN Ca, Mg and P with no boron (B) added. Gps CD and CD+B were fed 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN Mg and P; Gps MD and MD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg and 100% AIN Ca and P; Gps CMD and CMD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg, 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN P. The +B groups were supplemented with B at 12 mcg/g diet. Femurs (F) and 2 vertebrae (V) were scraped clean, weighed, sealed in saline-wet gauze, and refrigerated overnight. Bones were equilibrated at {sup {approximately}}25C. F lengths and diameters at the breakpoint were measured before a 3-point flexure test. V were subjected to a compression test. Maximum force (kg) at breakpoint was recorded. Data for right and left F and for 2 V were pooled. Although DIET' (CD, MD, CMD) affected numerous characteristics of F and V, B supplementation of diets affected only % moisture in F, Ca concentration in dry F and in F ash for CD and CMD diets. Interactions between B and diet affected F Mg concentrations in bone and in ash. Group CMD+B had higher Mg/g F than CMD. B increased Mg/g ash for CMD, decreased it for CD and did not affect it for MD.

  13. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    PubMed

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P < 0.05), but did not affect the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake. The feeding and rumination efficiencies had a quadratic response (P < 0.05). The experimental diets did not affect (P > 0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.

  14. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  15. Plant products affect growth and digestive efficiency of cultured Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed compounded diets.

    PubMed

    Lech, Gregory P; Reigh, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25-30 percent SBM in combination with 43-39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient.

  16. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-03-10

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.

  17. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  18. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  19. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  20. Growth performance and endogenous losses of broilers fed wheat-based diets with and without essential oils and xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Mirza, M W; Rose, S P

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of a supplementary mixture of essential oils, with and without exogenous xylanase, on performance, carcass composition, dietary nitrogen (N)-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter retention (DMR), N retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and endogenous mucin losses (measured as sialic acid, SA) when fed to broiler chickens. Three hundred male Ross 308 broilers in total were reared in floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Birds were fed 1 of 3 wheat-based diets: basal diet (215 g/kg CP, 12.12 MJ/kg AME) with either no additive (control diet; C) or 100 g/tonne of a standardized combination of 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (diet XT); or a combination of XT and commercial xylanase enzyme at a rate of 100 g of XT and 2,000 units (U) of xylanase/kg (diet XYL), respectively. Each diet was randomly allocated to 10 pens with 10 birds. Feeding XT and XYL diets improved birds' growth performance (P<0.05). Birds fed XT and XYL diets had an improved caloric conversion ratio (P<0.05) and consumed 1.3 MJ less AMEn per kilogram of growth compared to birds fed the control diet only. Feeding XT improved only the dietary FD coefficient (P<0.05) compared to control-fed birds, but the dietary FD coefficient did not differ for XYL diet (P>0.05). Birds fed XYL diet excreted 35% less endogenous mucin compared to control-fed birds (P<0.05). Birds fed XT alone gained more carcass protein than the control-fed birds (P<0.05) but did not differ from the birds fed XYL diet (P>0.05). There was no indication of a negative interaction between dietary essential oils and xylanase.

  1. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD.

  2. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS.

  4. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  5. Global study of microbial communites in tilipia gut fed sludge-infused diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project was to examine the impact of microbial diversity in feed on gut communities of fish. To do so, tilapia larvae were fed three experimental diets incorporated with sludge produced under either aerobic, methanogenic or denitrifying conditions. Microbial diversity between differ...

  6. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Eidi, Maryam; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  7. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  8. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Methods Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 mg protein/kg of body weight) or tap water for four weeks [groups: normolipidic diet plus water (C); normolipidic diet and coacervate (CC); high-fat diet and water (H); and high-fat diet and coacervate (HC)]. Results The high-fat diet promoted inflammation, possibly by decreased adiponectin/sum of adipose tissues ratio and increased phosphorylation of NF-κB p50. In HC we observed a positive correlation between IL-10 and TNF-α in mesenteric adipose tissue, retroperitoneal adipose tissue and liver tissue. We also observed a positive correlation between lipopolisaccharide with IL-10 in the liver tissue. Conclusions High-fat diet treatment promoted metabolic alterations and inflammation, and chitosan coacervate whey protein modulated inflammatory milieu. PMID:24673809

  9. Oxygen consumption constrains food intake in fish fed diets varying in essential amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Nusantoro, Suluh; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W

    2013-01-01

    Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a balanced vs. an imbalanced amino acid diet. Both diets were tested at two water oxygen levels: hypoxia vs. normoxia. Trout consumed 29% less food under hypoxia compared to normoxia (p<0.001). Under both hypoxia and normoxia trout significantly reduced food intake by 11% and 16% respectively when fed the imbalanced compared to the balanced amino acid diet. Oxygen consumption of the trout per unit body mass remained identical for both diet groups not only under hypoxia but also under normoxia (p>0.05). This difference in food intake between diets under normoxia together with the identical oxygen consumption supports the hypothesis that food intake in fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption, as seen here on a six-week time scale.

  10. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results

  11. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products. PMID:20387744

  12. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products.

  13. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs.

  14. Parturient hypocalcemia in jersey cows fed alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation to anion ratios.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, P J; Mueller, F J; Miller, J K; Ramsey, N; Goff, J P; Horst, R L

    1989-10-01

    Jersey cows were fed three alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation-anion balances beginning 6 wk preceding third or later calving and ending 24 to 36 h postpartum. Sodium and Cl as percentages of dietary DM were .08 and 1.66 in diet 1 (anionic, 5 cows), .44 and .91 in diet 2 (intermediate, 6 cows), and 1.60 and .34 in diet 3 (cationic, 6 cows). Cation-anion balances were 22, 60, and 126 meq/100 g DM; Ca:P ratios averaged 4:1. Cows fed diet 1 in comparison with cows fed diets 2 or 3 over 6 wk had similar concentrations of Ca, P, and Na but higher concentrations of Mg and K in plasma and higher urinary excretions of Ca and Mg. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 d before parturition were higher in cows fed diet 1 than in cows fed diets 2 or 3. Within 36 h after calving, mean concentrations of Ca in plasma (mg/dl, range) of cows fed diets 1 to 3, respectively, were 7 (8.7 to 6.2), 6.5 (7.8 to 3.9), and 6.3 (7.8 to 3.8). Number of cases of clinical milk fever by diet were 0 of 5, 2 of 6, and 1 of 6 cows. Alteration of dietary cation-anion balance by addition of Cl may effectively reduce incidence and severity of parturient hypocalcemia.

  15. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs. PMID:27136158

  16. Growth, metabolic status and ovarian function in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers fed a low energy or high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Baruselli, P S; Vecchio, D; Prandi, A; Neglia, G; Carvalho, N A T; Sales, J N S; Gasparrini, B; D'Occhio, M J

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to establish the capacity of buffalo heifers to adapt their metabolic requirements to a low energy diet. Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers undergoing regular estrous cycles were randomly assigned by age, live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) to a high energy group (HE, 5.8 milk forage units (MFU)/day, n=6) or low energy group (LE, 3.6 MFU/day, n=6). Circulating concentrations of metabolic substrates, metabolic hormones and reproductive hormones were determined weekly for 19 weeks. Ovarian follicular characteristics and oocyte parameters were also ascertained weekly. Heifers fed the LE diet had a better dry matter conversion than heifers fed the HE diet and the calculated daily energy provision was negative for heifers fed the LE diet (-0.248 MFU) and positive for heifers fed the HE diet (5.4 MFU). Heifers fed the HE diet had an increase in 50 kg LW over the duration of the study whereas LW remained constant for heifers fed the LE diet. The BCS of heifers fed the HE diet (4.2) was greater (P<0.05) than the BCS for heifers fed the LE diet (3.4). Heifers fed the HE diet had greater (P<0.05) circulating concentrations of metabolic substrates (glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and metabolic hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin and T3) compared with heifers fed the LE diet. There were no significant differences in circulating reproductive hormones between the two groups of heifers. Ovarian follicular characteristics were similar for the two groups of heifers while heifers fed the LE diet tended to have oocytes of reduced quality compared with heifers fed the HE diet. The most notable finding was that heifers fed the LE diet had a negative calculated daily energy provision but were able to maintain LW and reproductive activity. It was concluded that buffalo heifers may potentially have the capacity to undergo metabolic adjustment and reduce their energy requirements when dietary energy is limiting. This adaptive capacity would

  17. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity. PMID:27239252

  18. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Altuntaş, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  19. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.).

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, A; Aydin, R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg(-1), or 20 g kg(-1) marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg(-1) marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg(-1) marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg(-1) or 20 g kg(-1) marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  20. Effect of short term oral cadmium exposure in rats fed low zinc and low copper diets

    SciTech Connect

    Panemangalore, M.; Lee, C.J.; Wilson, K.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of 0, 0.15 and 5.0 ppm Cd in drinking water was determined in 10 week old F-344 rats fed either control - C (30 ppm Zn + 5 ppm Cu), low Zn - LZn (5 ppm Zn), low copper - LCu (0.5 ppm Cu) and low Zn + low Cu - LZn + LCu (5 ppm Zn + 0.5 ppm Cu) diets for 8 weeks. All groups gained about 9 g/wk and neither the decrease in dietary Zn and Cu levels or Cd exposure altered wt gain or food intake (14 g/day). Liver Zn levels averaged about 19 mg/g in all groups and were unaffected by either diet or Cd exposure; but metallothionein (MT) concentration increased from 19..mu..g/g to 40 ..mu..g/g in groups exposed to 5.0 ppm Cd and was lower in rats given LZn and LZn + LCu diet (pless than or equal to0.05). In contrast, kidney Zn levels declined in groups fed LZn + LCu diets, but exposure to Cd maintained Zn levels. Kidney MT concentration fell in response to LZn, LCu and LZn + LCu diets, while exposure to 5.0 ppm Cd elevated MT concentration almost 3 fold, however, LZn and LCu diets decreased the extent of MT induction (pless than or equal to0.05). Kidney Zn levels appear to be more susceptible to modulation by dietary Zn and Cu levels, and oral Cd exposure.

  1. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  2. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Ying; Liu, Hu; Ma, Li-Juan; Xu, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes, which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats, which were fed different diets. Methods: Seventy-six adult (6–8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular, high-fat, or low-fat diets) for 6 months. The rats were randomly divided into six groups. They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n = 14), smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n = 14). A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods. Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air. Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group, serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t = 6.932, 11.026; all P < 0.001). BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r = −0.751, P = 0.012). Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6, t = 4.196, 3

  3. Longevity and reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) fed different natural diets.

    PubMed

    Ellis, James D; Neumann, Peter; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti J

    2002-10-01

    The longevity and reproductive success of newly emerged, unfed adult Aethina tumida Murray assigned different diets (control = unfed; honey-pollen; honey; pollen; empty brood comb; bee brood; fresh Kei apples; and rotten Kei apples) were determined. Longevity in honey-fed small hive beetle adults (average maximum: 167 d) was significantly higher than on other diets. Small hive beetles fed empty brood comb lived significantly longer (average maximum: 49.8 d) than unfed beetles (average maximum: 9.6 d). Small hive beetle offspring were produced on honey-pollen, pollen, bee brood, fresh Kei apples, and rotten Kei apples but not on honey alone, empty brood comb, or in control treatments. The highest reproductive success occurred in pollen fed adults (1773.8 +/- 294.4 larvae per three mating pairs of adults). The data also show that A. tumida can reproduce on fruits alone, indicating that they are facultative parasites. The pupation success and sex ratio of small hive beetle offspring were also analyzed. Larvae fed pollen, honey-pollen, or brood had significantly higher pupation success rates of 0.64, 0.73, and 0.65 respectively than on the other diets. Sex ratios of emerging adults fed diets of pollen or brood as larvae were significantly skewed toward females. Because small hive beetle longevity and overall reproductive success was highest on foodstuffs located in honey bee colonies, A. tumida are efficient at causing large-scale damage to colonies of honey bees resulting in economic injury for the beekeeper. Practical considerations for the control of A. tumida are briefly discussed.

  4. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  5. Performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of Nellore and Angus young bulls fed a whole shelled corn diet.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Schoonmaker, J P; Teixeira, P D; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, C V R; Ladeira, M M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the interaction of breed (Nellore or Angus) and diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] or ground corn [GC] with silage) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of young bulls. Thirty-six bulls (18 Nellore and 18 Angus) with the range in age of 18 to 22 mo and BW of 381 ± 12 kg were used in a completely randomized design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (2 breeds and 2 diets). Experimental diets (DM basis) included 1) a GC diet containing 30% corn silage and 70% GC- and soybean meal-based concentrate and 2) a WSC diet containing 85% WSC and 15% of a soybean meal- and mineral-based pelleted supplement. An additional 8 bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period for determination of initial carcass weight. The treatments were Nellore fed the GC diet, Nellore fed the WSC diet, Angus fed the GC diet, and Angus fed the WSC diet. Greater DMI ( < 0.01), ADG ( < 0.01), and G:F ( < 0.01) were observed in Angus bulls compared with Nellore bulls, regardless of diet. Lower average ruminal pH ( = 0.04), maximum ruminal pH (P = 0.02), and DMI ( < 0.01) were observed in bulls fed the WSC diet than in those fed the GC diet. In addition, bulls fed the WSC diet had greater G:F ( < 0.01). The WSC diet led to greater variation in DMI compared with the GC diet ( < 0.01). Omasum and large intestine percentage was affected by diets only in the Angus breed ( < 0.02) and were greater when bulls were fed the GC diet. The WSC diet without forage may be useful for feedlots because this diet promoted greater G:F than the GC diet, regardless of breed. However, special care must be exercised in feed management during adaptation and throughout the feeding of Nellore animals to avoid digestive disorders and fluctuations in DMI.

  6. Performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of Nellore and Angus young bulls fed a whole shelled corn diet.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Schoonmaker, J P; Teixeira, P D; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, C V R; Ladeira, M M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the interaction of breed (Nellore or Angus) and diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] or ground corn [GC] with silage) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of young bulls. Thirty-six bulls (18 Nellore and 18 Angus) with the range in age of 18 to 22 mo and BW of 381 ± 12 kg were used in a completely randomized design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (2 breeds and 2 diets). Experimental diets (DM basis) included 1) a GC diet containing 30% corn silage and 70% GC- and soybean meal-based concentrate and 2) a WSC diet containing 85% WSC and 15% of a soybean meal- and mineral-based pelleted supplement. An additional 8 bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period for determination of initial carcass weight. The treatments were Nellore fed the GC diet, Nellore fed the WSC diet, Angus fed the GC diet, and Angus fed the WSC diet. Greater DMI ( < 0.01), ADG ( < 0.01), and G:F ( < 0.01) were observed in Angus bulls compared with Nellore bulls, regardless of diet. Lower average ruminal pH ( = 0.04), maximum ruminal pH (P = 0.02), and DMI ( < 0.01) were observed in bulls fed the WSC diet than in those fed the GC diet. In addition, bulls fed the WSC diet had greater G:F ( < 0.01). The WSC diet led to greater variation in DMI compared with the GC diet ( < 0.01). Omasum and large intestine percentage was affected by diets only in the Angus breed ( < 0.02) and were greater when bulls were fed the GC diet. The WSC diet without forage may be useful for feedlots because this diet promoted greater G:F than the GC diet, regardless of breed. However, special care must be exercised in feed management during adaptation and throughout the feeding of Nellore animals to avoid digestive disorders and fluctuations in DMI. PMID:27285921

  7. Absorption and distribution of cadmium in mice fed diets containing either inorganic or oyster-incorporated cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Hardy, J.T.; Miller, B.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Siewicki, T.C.

    1984-02-01

    To determine the absorption, organ distribution, and retention of organically bound cadmium (Cd) and the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) on Cd metabolism, groups of mice were fed five different diets. The organic Cd used in the diets was in the form of lyophilized oyster (Crassostrea virginica) that had accumulated radiolabeled 109Cd through a plankton food chain. The mice were fed either a standard basal mouse diet (AIN-76) or diets containing five or eight times the Zn concentration of the basal diet. The source of Zn was either oyster tissue or ZnCO3. The concentration of organic and inorganic Cd provided a dose of approximately 0.4 mg/kg. Diets prepared from oyster tissue probably contained all of the Cd and 85% of the Zn in organic form. Diets prepared with inorganic metals contained about the same Cd and Zn concentrations as the diets prepared with oyster. There was very little difference between the retention of Cd by mice that ingested organic (oyster bound) Cd and those fed inorganic Cd (CdCl2). However, when the Cd retained in the intestine was excluded, retention of organic Cd was significantly greater than that of inorganic Cd. The organ distribution of Cd differed significantly according to the chemical form of Cd fed (organic or inorganic) and the Zn level in the diet. The kidneys of mice fed organically bound Cd retained a higher percentage of the metal than the kidneys of those fed inorganic Cd. On the other hand, the livers of animals fed a low-Zn diet retained a higher percentage of the Cd than the livers of those fed a high-Zn diet, regardless of the dietary source of Cd.

  8. Plasma glucose response and glycemic indices in pigs fed diets differing in in vitro hydrolysis indices.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, G; Gallo, A; Masoero, F

    2012-07-01

    Different dietary starch sources can have a great impact in determining starch digestion potential, thus influencing the postprandial blood glucose response. Our objectives were to define: (i) the incremental plasma glucose response in pigs fed diets containing various sources of starch differing in in vitro digestion patterns, (ii) the in vivo glycemic index (GI) values for the same diets, (iii) the possible relationship between in vitro and in vivo data. Diets, formulated with 70% of starch from five heterogeneous sources, were characterized in depth by using two distinct in vitro evaluations. The first one was based on the Englyst-assay for nutritional classification of starch fractions, whereas the second one was based on a time-course multi-enzymatic assay up to 180 min from which the hydrolysis indices (HIs) were calculated and used as a link between the physicochemical properties of starch from diets and the in vivo responses. For the in vivo study, five jugular-catheterized pigs (35.3 ± 1.1 kg body weight) were fed one of the five diets for 6-day periods in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. On day 5, blood was collected for 8 h postprandially for evaluating glucose appearance. On day 6, blood was collected for 3 h postprandially for the estimation of the GI. Starchy diets differed for rapidly digestible starch (from 8.6% to 79.8% of total starch (TS)) and resistant starch contents (from 72.5% to 4.5% of TS). Wide between-diets variations were recorded for all the kinetic parameters and for the HI calculated from the in vitro digestion curves (P < 0.05). On the basis of the obtained HI, diets contained starch with a very low to a very high in vitro digestion potential (ranging from 26.7% to 100.0%; P < 0.05). The glucose response differed among diets (P < 0.05), with marked differences between 15 and 120 min postprandial. Overall, the ranking of incremental glucose appearance among diets agreed with their in vitro HI classification: high HI diets increased

  9. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  10. Raloxifene improves vascular reactivity in pressurized septal coronary arteries of ovariectomized hamsters fed cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau-Chi; Leung, Fung Ping; Tian, Xiao Yu; Yung, Lai Ming; Lau, Chi Wai; Chen, Zhen Yu; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Laher, Ismail; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Although vascular effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been extensively examined in conduit arteries, whether SERMs could favorably modulate myogenic response in resistance arteries is unknown. The impact of raloxifene therapy and cholesterol diet on myogenic constriction during estrogen deficiency is unresolved. This study investigated changes in vascular reactivity and myogenic responses in female ovariectomized (Ovx) hamsters fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with and without chronic treatment of raloxifene. Functional studies were performed on hamster septal coronary arteries cannulated in a pressure myograph. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced dilatation was reduced in arteries from cholesterol-fed Ovx hamsters, but not in those from cholesterol-fed hamsters, while pressure-induced myogenic constriction was unaffected. Chronic treatment with raloxifene restored ACh-induced dilatation in cholesterol-fed Ovx hamsters. U46619-induced constriction was increased in arteries from cholesterol-fed Ovx hamsters but not from cholesterol-fed control hamsters, which was normalized by chronic raloxifene treatment. The pressure-diameter relationship is presented as normalized diameter versus intraluminal pressure, while the effect of ACh or U46619 is expressed as percentage of tone at 80 mm Hg. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post-tests were used for statistical evaluation among different treatment groups. P<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The present results show that chronic treatment with raloxifene could benefit myogenically active coronary arteries by (i) restoring ACh-induced dilatation and (ii) reducing U46619-induced constriction without affecting pressure-induced myogenic responses in cholesterol-fed hamsters during estrogen deficiency. If such benefit can be observed in humans, raloxifene and other SERMs may be useful to preserve endothelial function and curtail vascular hypersensitivity in resistance

  11. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  12. Effect of wheat forage maturity and preservation method on forage chemical composition and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Gray, H C; Smith, J L; Gunter, S A

    2009-12-01

    Three 2.4-ha wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields were used to test the effects of maturity at harvest (boot vs. dough) and preservation method (hay vs. silage) on forage yield, chemical composition, and animal performance when fed in mixed diets. Forages were incorporated into 4 diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with hominy feed, soybean hulls, and cottonseed meal as the primary concentrate ingredients. In Exp. 1 diets contained 20% wheat forage (DM basis) and were fed to 96 beef calves (n = 48 steers and 48 heifers; initial BW 229 +/- 6.0 kg) in 12 mixed-sex pens. In Exp. 2 diets contained 40% wheat forage (DM basis) and were fed to beef steers (n = 48; initial BW 198 +/- 6.8 kg) in 12 pens. These diets were also individually fed to 32 calves (Exp. 1, n = 16, BW = 187 +/- 9.4 kg; Exp. 2, n = 16 calves, BW = 160 +/- 8.2 kg) to determine DM and NDF digestibility and gastrointestinal tract passage kinetics. Advanced maturity increased (P < 0.01) DM yield, decreased (P < 0.01) CP concentrations, and tended (P = 0.10) to increase nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations, but did not affect (P >or= 0.22) NDF, ADF, or TDN concentrations. Maturity at harvest, preservation method, or their interaction did not affect (P >or= 0.15) ADG when wheat forage was fed as 20 or 40% of the diet. When calves were fed the 40% wheat forage diets, maturity at harvest did not affect (P >or= 0.27) DMI or G:F. Calves fed 40% hay diets consumed more (P = 0.04) feed DM as a percentage of BW than calves fed silage diets, but tended (P = 0.09) to be less efficient. With 20 or 40% wheat forage diets, there were no differences (P >or= 0.13) in passage rate, ruminal retention time, or fecal output due to maturity or preservation method. Digestibility of DM tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for silage than hay diets when fed in 20% wheat forage diets. Dry matter and NDF digestibility of 40% boot-stage wheat forage diets were greater (P < 0.01) than diets containing forage harvested in

  13. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  14. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  15. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.

  16. THE INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HEMOLYSIS BY INDOL IN DOGS FED DEFICIENT DIETS

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, C. P.; Barker, W. Halsey; Miller, D. K.

    1938-01-01

    1. Indol is more hemolytic in the presence of a deficiency complex than when a normal diet is fed. 2. The hemolytic effect can be abolished by supplementing the deficient diet with liver extract curative of pernicious anemia in man. 3. The hemolysis affects all hemoglobin-containing cells, including reticulocytes. 4. The repair of the anemia resulting from the administration of indol in the presence of a deficiency represents the cessation of a hemolytic process. 5. An abnormally low rate of production of erythrocytes may well be a factor in the production of the anemia. PMID:19870721

  17. Effect of nicotine on antioxidant defence mechanisms in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ashakumary, L; Vijayammal, P L

    1996-03-01

    Nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and lung cancer in smokers. Lipid peroxidation is a process associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the level of lipid peroxides is increased in smokers. In rats fed a high-fat diet, the tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was found to be increased. On nicotine administration along with a high-fat diet an additive effect was observed in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers. The activities of scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were found to be decreased, while the glutathione concentration and activity of glutathione peroxidase were enhanced. PMID:8849484

  18. Growth and development of catla (Catla catla) fed with different levels of diet containing Spirogyra sp.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Harish; Gajaria, S C; Radha, K S

    2004-10-01

    The effect of Spirogyra sp. incorporated into diet formulations on the growth and body composition of Indian major carp, catla (Catla catla) was investigated in a 45 days feeding trial. Spirogyra dry powder was mixed with different feed ingredients in different amounts (0%, 10%, 25%, 37% and 40% of the total feed). Carps fed with Spirogyra demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio. The study also revealed a direct relationship between the amount of Spirogyra in the diet, and muscle protein and fat contents in the fish. In general, this study demonstrated the benefits of incorporating Spirogyra into carp feeds.

  19. Effects of phytase supplementation in mature horses fed alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Lavin, T E; Nielsen, B D; Zingsheim, J N; O'Connor-Robison, C I; Link, J E; Hill, G M; Shelton, J

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study P digestibility in mature horses because of the growing environmental concerns regarding P runoff and previous equine research focused mostly on young and growing animals or used ponies as a model. Phytase supplementation of swine and poultry diets can result in greater phytate-P digestibility, leading to a decreased need for inorganic P supplementation and a decrease in P excreted to the environment; this, however, has not been demonstrated in the horse. Six mature Arabian geldings were fed 6 diets consisting of pelleted concentrate and alfalfa hay. The concentrates consisted mainly of soybean hulls, ground corn, wheat midds, broken rice, and beet pulp, and phytase was added to the concentrates accordingly before pelleting. There were 3 diet types: control (concentrate and hay), high P (greater P concentrate and hay), and forage only, and each diet type included 1 phytase-supplemented diet and 1 non-phytase-supplemented diet, resulting in 6 total diets. Phytase supplementation for the forage only diet was accomplished by feeding a nominal amount of concentrate formulated solely as a vehicle for the phytase. Horses had unrestricted access to water throughout the experiment. Using a Latin square design, all horses received all diets over a period of 12 wk. In each week, the new diet was fed for 11 d of diet acclimation, which was followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine for each horse. There was no effect (P < 0.05) of phytase supplementation on P output in the urine or feces, resulting in no differences in P apparent digestibility. Analysis of the feed and feces for phytate revealed a 93% average disappearance rate of phytate, indicating that horses are highly capable of degrading phytate and that phytase supplementation was not beneficial. Thus, the results indicate that mature horses are able to maintain a near 0 P balance, with adequate P provided in the diet even as phytate, and increased P intakes above

  20. Effects of phytase supplementation in mature horses fed alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Lavin, T E; Nielsen, B D; Zingsheim, J N; O'Connor-Robison, C I; Link, J E; Hill, G M; Shelton, J

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study P digestibility in mature horses because of the growing environmental concerns regarding P runoff and previous equine research focused mostly on young and growing animals or used ponies as a model. Phytase supplementation of swine and poultry diets can result in greater phytate-P digestibility, leading to a decreased need for inorganic P supplementation and a decrease in P excreted to the environment; this, however, has not been demonstrated in the horse. Six mature Arabian geldings were fed 6 diets consisting of pelleted concentrate and alfalfa hay. The concentrates consisted mainly of soybean hulls, ground corn, wheat midds, broken rice, and beet pulp, and phytase was added to the concentrates accordingly before pelleting. There were 3 diet types: control (concentrate and hay), high P (greater P concentrate and hay), and forage only, and each diet type included 1 phytase-supplemented diet and 1 non-phytase-supplemented diet, resulting in 6 total diets. Phytase supplementation for the forage only diet was accomplished by feeding a nominal amount of concentrate formulated solely as a vehicle for the phytase. Horses had unrestricted access to water throughout the experiment. Using a Latin square design, all horses received all diets over a period of 12 wk. In each week, the new diet was fed for 11 d of diet acclimation, which was followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine for each horse. There was no effect (P < 0.05) of phytase supplementation on P output in the urine or feces, resulting in no differences in P apparent digestibility. Analysis of the feed and feces for phytate revealed a 93% average disappearance rate of phytate, indicating that horses are highly capable of degrading phytate and that phytase supplementation was not beneficial. Thus, the results indicate that mature horses are able to maintain a near 0 P balance, with adequate P provided in the diet even as phytate, and increased P intakes above

  1. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43). PMID:26435020

  2. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  3. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes.

  4. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  5. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice. PMID:27230905

  6. Growth and anatomical characteristics of pullet chicks fed diets contaminated with crude petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Pollution of farmlands by overland pipelines carrying crude or refined petroleum are capable of exposing domestic livestock and poultry to varying levels of ingested petroleum products. Prolonged ingestion of low levels of oil-polluted plant materials, seeds and water by livestock and poultry may affect tissues and organs and consequently influence growth and performance. The results reported here are from a preliminary study on gross anatomy and performance characteristics of pullet chicks fed diets contaminated with varying levels of crude petroleum.

  7. Faecal microbiota of domestic cats fed raw whole chicks v. an extruded chicken-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Dowd, S E; Swanson, K S

    2014-01-01

    Extruded cat foods differ greatly in macronutrient distribution compared with wild-type diets (i.e. small mammals, reptiles, birds and insects). Based on the literature, this variability likely impacts faecal microbial populations. A completely randomised design was utilised to test the impacts of two dietary treatments on faecal microbial populations: (1) chicken-based extruded diet (EXT; n 3 cats) and (2) raw 1-3-d-old chicks (CHI; n 5 cats). Cats were adapted to diets for 10 d. Bacterial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and amplicons of the 16S rRNA V4-V6 region were generated and analysed by 454 pyrosequencing. Faeces of cats fed CHI had greater (P < 0·05) proportions of the following bacterial genera: unidentified Lachnospiraceae (15 v. 5 %), Peptococcus (9 v. 3 %) and Pseudobutyrivibrio (4 v. 1 %). Faeces of cats fed EXT had greater (P < 0·05) proportions of Faecalibacterium (1·0 v. 0·2 %) and Succinivibrio (1·2 v. < 0·1 %). Five genera, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were present in a majority of samples (two to three out of three) from cats fed EXT, but were not detected in the samples (zero of five) for cats fed CHI. These shifts in faecal bacterial populations compared with feeding a whole-prey diet may impact the functional capacities of the microbiota and its interaction with the host. Further research is warranted to determine the impacts of these shifts on long-term health of domestic cats. PMID:26101591

  8. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice.

  9. Plasma cholesterol-suppressing effect of papain-hydrolyzed pork meat in rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Morimatsu, F; Ito, M; Budijanto, S; Watanabe, I; Furukawa, Y; Kimura, S

    1996-04-01

    The effects of papain-hydrolyzed pork meat on plasma and liver cholesterol levels were studied in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. In rats fed the low-molecular-weight fraction of papain-hydrolyzed pork meat, the plasma cholesterol concentration, more particularly the VLDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations, were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than in the rats fed untreated pork meat or soybean protein. Feeding with this fraction rather than with untreated pork meat also led to a significantly lower liver cholesterol concentration (p < 0.01) and increased fecal excretion of neutral and acidic steroids. The low-molecular-weight fraction contained peptides with molecular weights of 3,000 or less and had an amino acid composition similar to that of pork meat itself. This study suggests that peptides produced by papain-hydrolysis of pork meat have a hypocholesterolemic activity through their interference with the steroid absorption process. PMID:8780972

  10. Proteomic analysis of mice fed methionine and choline deficient diet reveals marker proteins associated with steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Jeong Han; Iqbal, Waqas; Kwon, Oh-Shin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the progression of simple steatosis to steatohepatitis are yet to be elucidated. To identify the proteins involved in the development of liver tissue inflammation, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Mice fed a methionine and choline deficient diet (MCD) developed hepatic steatosis characterized by increased free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride levels as well as alpha-SMA. Two-dimensional proteomic analysis revealed that the change from the normal diet to the MCD diet affected the expressions of 50 proteins. The most-pronounced changes were observed in the expression of proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in NASH model animals. Peroxiredoxin (Prx) is the most interesting among the modulated proteins identified in this study. In particular, cross-regulated Prx1 and Prx6 are likely to participate in cellular defense against the development of hepatitis. Thus, these Prx isoforms may be a useful new marker for early stage steatohepatitis. Moreover, curcumin treatment results in alleviation of the severity of hepatic inflammation in steatohepatitis. Notably, curcumin administration in MCD-fed mice dramatically reduced CYP2E1 as well as Prx1 expression, while upregulating Prx6 expression. These findings suggest that curcumin may have a protective role against MCD fed-induced oxidative stress.

  11. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain.

  12. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Mjoun, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet.

  13. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  14. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  15. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  16. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  17. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  18. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  19. Quercetin Increases Hepatic Homocysteine Remethylation and Transsulfuration in Rats Fed a Methionine-Enriched Diet.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bin; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Guo, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of quercetin on mRNA expression and activity of critical enzymes in homocysteine metabolism in rats fed a methionine-enriched diet. Rats were fed for 6 weeks the following diets, that is, control, 0.5% quercetin, 1.0% methionine, and 1.0% methionine plus 0.5% quercetin diets. Serum homocysteine was significantly increased after methionine treatment and decreased after the addition of quercetin. The mRNA expression of methionine synthase was significantly increased after methionine or methionine plus quercetin supplementation, while its enzymatic activity was significantly increased after methionine plus quercetin supplementation. The mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase were upregulated after quercetin, methionine, or quercetin plus methionine treatment and a more significant increase was observed for hepatic cystathionine β-synthase in the methionine plus quercetin treated rats, suggesting an interaction between methionine and quercetin. Meanwhile, hepatic ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine was significantly decreased in response to methionine supplementation and normalized after the addition of quercetin. It is concluded that quercetin reduces serum homocysteine by increasing remethylation and transsulfuration of homocysteine in rats exposed to a methionine-enriched diet.

  20. Impaired Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Hexabromocyclododecane-Exposed Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Citation: Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health

  1. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-16

    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  2. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C.; Tun, Hein M.; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C.

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and –resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3–5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  3. Isoflavone and protein constituents of lactic acid-fermented soy milk combine to prevent dyslipidemia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-12-10

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  4. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  5. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of perilla oil in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yeseul; Jang, Ja Young; Ban, Young-Hwan; Guo, Haiyu; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Jieun; An, Eun-Suk; Seo, Da-Woom; Yon, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anti-atherosclerosis effects of perilla oil were investigated, in comparison with lovastatin, in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding the HCD containing 0.5% cholesterol and 1% corn oil, and perilla oil (0.1 or 0.3%) was added to the diet containing 0.5% cholesterol for 10 weeks. HCD greatly increased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, and caused thick atheromatous plaques, covering 74% of the aortic wall. Hyper-cholesterolemia also induced lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys, leading to lipid peroxidation. Perilla oil not only attenuated hypercholesterolemia and atheroma formation, but also reduced fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation in hepatic and renal tissues. The results indicate that perilla oil prevents atherosclerosis and fatty liver by controlling lipid metabolism, and that it could be the first choice oil to improve diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:27729934

  6. Ezetimibe and Simvastatin Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Sun; Fang, Longhou; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol-fed zebrafish is an emerging animal model to study metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory vascular processes relevant to pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis. Zebrafish fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) develop hypercholesterolemia and are characterized by profound lipoprotein oxidation and vascular lipid accumulation. Using optically translucent zebrafish larvae has the advantage of monitoring vascular pathology and assessing the efficacy of drug candidates in live animals. Thus, we investigated whether simvastatin and ezetimibe, the principal drugs used in management of hypercholesterolemia in humans, would also reduce cholesterol levels in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. We found that ezetimibe was well tolerated by zebrafish and effectively reduced cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. In contrast, simvastatin added to water was poorly tolerated by zebrafish larvae and, when added to food, had little effect on cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. Combination of low doses of ezetimibe and simvastatin had an additive effect in reducing cholesterol levels in zebrafish. These results suggest that ezetimibe exerts in zebrafish a therapeutic effect similar to that in humans and that the hypercholesterolemic zebrafish can be used as a low-cost and informative model for testing new drug candidates and for investigating mechanisms of action for existing drugs targeting dyslipidemia. PMID:22693663

  7. Studies on the structure of low density lipoproteins isolated from Macaca fascicularis fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Tall, A R; Small, D M; Atkinson, D; Rudel, L L

    1978-12-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys, Macaca fascicularis, fed cholesterol-containing saturated-fat diets develop increased levels of high molecular weight plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. To study the composition and structure of these abnormal particles, LDL from monkeys, fed atherogenic and control diets, were characterized chemically and examined by differential scanning calorimetry and low-angle X-ray scattering. LDL from animals on the experimental diet showed an increase in molecular weight (4.0 to 7.0 x 10(6), experimental diet compared with 3.0 to 3.7 x 10(6), control diet) associated with a large increase in cholesterol ester content and concomitant smaller increases in protein, phospholipid, and free cholesterol. There was a strong positive correlation between molecular weight and the number of saturated and monounsaturated cholesterol esters in the particle. In contrast, particle content of polyunsaturated cholesterol esters remained constant despite large changes in total particle cholesterol esters.When examined by calorimetry and X-ray scattering, LDL from monkeys on both diets diplayed a reversible transition of cholesterol esters from an ordered smeticlike (layered) structure to a more disordered state. For all animals on the experimental diet, the peak temperature of the cholesterol-ester transition (42-48 degrees C) was above body temperature (39 degrees C), but below body temperature on the control diet (34-38.5 degrees C). In the experimental group, the transition temperature was correlated with the LDL molecular weight. However, after thermal disruption of LDL, liquid-crystalline transitions of LDL cholesterol esters were observed in the same temperature range as in the intact lipoprotein, which shows that changes in particle size had little effect on the cholesterol-ester transition temperature. Rather, the transition temperature was determined by the degree of saturation of the LDL cholesterol ester fatty

  8. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    PubMed

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level.

  9. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    PubMed

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level. PMID:27183997

  10. Peripartum responses of dairy cows fed energy-dense diets for 3 or 6 weeks prepartum.

    PubMed

    Mashek, D G; Beede, D K

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant cows (n = 189) in two commercial dairy farms were assigned randomly to be fed energy-dense diets for either 3 or 6 wk before expected calving. Cows fed diets for less than or equal to 26 d were designated the short (S) treatment group, and those fed greater than 26 d were the long (L) treatment group. Cows in L tended to have improved energy status during the first 2 wk postpartum, as indicated by higher insulin concentrations and a tendency for lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Treatment did not affect plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Cows in L tended to gain more body condition during the late dry period. Total body condition loss from parturition through 6 wk postpartum was not different between treatments, but the rate of change varied over this period. Cows in S lost more body condition during the first 3 wk postpartum than cows in L. In farm 1 only, cows in L lost more body condition from 3 to 6 wk postpartum and had a higher incidence of metritis and a longer interval to first service than cows in S. Cows in L had higher milk protein content through 60 d in milk compared with cows in S. Additionally, cows in L in farm 1 produced 4.4 kg/d less milk, tended to have lower milk fat content and yields, and higher somatic cell counts through 150 d in milk than cows in S. Overall, increasing the length of time cows were fed the energy-dense diet prepartum elicited significant changes in farm 1, but had little effect in farm 2. Based on these results, L treatment may improve energy status immediately postpartum, but long-term effects varied between farms, perhaps due to other unmeasured management differences.

  11. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  12. Abnormal aortic fatty acid composition and small artery function in offspring of rats fed a high fat diet in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P; Bitsanis, D; Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A; Poston, L

    2001-01-01

    Disturbances of the in utero environment are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In this study we have determined whether abnormal vascular function in the adult offspring of rats fed a high saturated fat diet in pregnancy is associated with altered plasma lipids or vascular fatty acid content. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a breeding diet (4 % fat) or a diet high in saturated fat (20 % fat) for 10 days prior to and throughout pregnancy, and during weaning. Female offspring were then fed a maintenance diet (3 % fat) until 160 days of age. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was blunted in isolated branches of the femoral artery from 160-day-old female offspring of dams fed the saturated fat diet when compared with female offspring of dams fed the breeding diet. These offspring exhibited elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The fatty acid composition of the aortas was abnormal, with a marked reduction in the content of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. This study demonstrates that a high fat diet in pregnant rats produces abnormal vascular function, plasma lipid disturbances and altered vascular fatty acid content in their female offspring during adulthood. PMID:11410637

  13. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  14. Comparison of midgut bacterial diversity in tropical caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) fed on different diets.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Sittenfeld, Ana; Uribe-Lorío, Lorena; Chavarría, Felipe; Mora, Marielos; Janzen, Daniel H; Goodman, Robert M; Simon, Holly M

    2011-10-01

    As primary consumers of foliage, caterpillars play essential roles in shaping the trophic structure of tropical forests. The caterpillar midgut is specialized in plant tissue processing; its pH is exceptionally alkaline and contains high concentrations of toxic compounds derived from the ingested plant material (secondary compounds or allelochemicals) and from the insect itself. The midgut, therefore, represents an extreme environment for microbial life. Isolates from different bacterial taxa have been recovered from caterpillar midguts, but little is known about the impact of these microorganisms on caterpillar biology. Our long-term goals are to identify midgut symbionts and to investigate their functions. As a first step, different diet formulations were evaluated for rearing two species of tropical saturniid caterpillars. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers hybridizing broadly to sequences from the bacterial domain, 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed with midgut DNA extracted from caterpillars reared on different diets. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis indicated that bacterial sequences recovered from the midguts of caterpillars fed on foliage were more diverse than those from caterpillars fed on artificial diet. Sequences related to Methylobacterium sp., Bradyrhizobium sp., and Propionibacterium sp. were detected in all caterpillar libraries regardless of diet, but were not detected in a library constructed from the diet itself. Furthermore, libraries constructed with DNA recovered from surface-sterilized eggs indicated potential for vertical transmission of midgut symbionts. Taken together, these results suggest that microorganisms associated with the tropical caterpillar midgut may engage in symbiotic interactions with these ecologically important insects.

  15. [Dynamic changes of circulating monocyte subsets in high-NaCl diet fed mice].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaotong; Luo, Yanwei; Ma, Yongqiang; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Ji, Wenjie; Li, Yuming; Zhou, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes of the circulating monocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice fed with high-NaCl diet. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: 9, 40 and 80 g/L NaCl groups. Before the treatment and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment, the cardiac function was dynamically determined by echocardiography and the blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Flow cytometry analysis of circulating monocyte subsets was performed. HE staining was used to observe cardiac pathological changes at the time of sacrifice. Results Systolic blood pressure significantly increased with the progression of the high-salt diet. Compared with 9 g/L NaCl group, the ejection fraction of the other two groups slightly increased at week 4, followed by a significant decreasing trend up to week 12, in addition, the percentage of Ly6C(high) monocyte subset showed a progressive increase during high-salt feeding and reached a plateau at week 4, and then abruptly went down up to week 12. On the contrary, Ly6C(low) monocyte subset had an opposite trend, whereas Ly6C(int) monocyte subset remained constant. HE staining showed that cardiomyocyte size, as determined by the myocyte cross-sectional area, became enlarged obviously in the latter two groups. Conclusion Circulating monocyte subsets dynamically changed in the mice fed with high-salt diet. PMID:27371845

  16. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  17. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  18. Effects of Rumen-Mate on lactational performance of Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Emery, R S; Schricker, B R

    1989-07-01

    Three Latin-square trials were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing Rumen-Mate, a commercial buffer containing KCl, NaCl, and Mg and Na carbonates, on lactation performance of Holsteins. Cows were fed a basal ration of 40% corn silage and 60% concentrate in Trials 1 and 2, and 40% corn silage, 55% concentrate, and 5% alfalfa hay in Trial 3 (DM basis). In Trial 1, treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either 1% NaHCO3, or 1, 3, or 4.4% Rumen-Mate. Increasing dietary Rumen-Mate resulted in a linear increase in milk fat production and concentration with no difference between 1% Rumen-Mate and 1% bicarbonate. There was a significant linear decrease in milk protein concentration, but not production, with increasing concentrations of Rumen-Mate. In Trial 2 treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either .8% NaHCO3, 2.6% Rumen-Mate, .5% MgO, .8% NaHCO3 plus .5% MgO, or 1.8% Rumen-Mate plus .8% NaHCO3. Organic matter and CP intakes and milk protein yield and concentration were decreased by Rumen-Mate with a nonsignificant increase in milk fat concentration. Data from Trials 1 and 2 were combined with data from Trial 3, which compared basal diet, 1% bicarbonate, and 3% Rumen-Mate. The combined data showed a larger increase over basal diet in milk fat yield and concentration for 2.6 to 3% Rumen-Mate vs. .8 to 1% bicarbonate. Rumen-Mate did not decrease DM intake or protein yield relative to basal diet but did decrease protein yield 34 g/d compared with that of bicarbonate.

  19. Uric acid promotes left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in mice fed a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; Bostick, Brian P; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Aroor, Annayya R; Hayden, Melvin R; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R

    2015-03-01

    The rising obesity rates parallel increased consumption of a Western diet, high in fat and fructose, which is associated with increased uric acid. Population-based data support that elevated serum uric acids are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which excess uric acid promotes these maladaptive cardiac effects has not been explored. In assessing the role of Western diet-induced increases in uric acid, we hypothesized that reductions in uric acid would prevent Western diet-induced development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac stiffness, and impaired diastolic relaxation by reducing growth and profibrotic signaling pathways. Four-weeks-old C57BL6/J male mice were fed excess fat (46%) and fructose (17.5%) with or without allopurinol (125 mg/L), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, for 16 weeks. The Western diet-induced increases in serum uric acid along with increases in cardiac tissue xanthine oxidase activity temporally related to increases in body weight, fat mass, and insulin resistance without changes in blood pressure. The Western diet induced cardiomyocte hypertrophy, myocardial oxidative stress, interstitial fibrosis, and impaired diastolic relaxation. Further, the Western diet enhanced activation of the S6 kinase-1 growth pathway and the profibrotic transforming growth factor-β1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway and macrophage proinflammatory polarization. All results improved with allopurinol treatment, which lowered cardiac xanthine oxidase as well as serum uric acid levels. These findings support the notion that increased production of uric acid with intake of a Western diet promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and oxidative stress that lead to myocardial fibrosis and associated impaired diastolic relaxation.

  20. Hematological and lipid changes in newborn piglets fed milk-replacer diets containing erucic acid.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Sauer, F D; Farnworth, E R; Stevenson, D; Rock, G A

    1998-01-01

    Canola oil is not presently permitted in infant formulations in the United States because of lack of information concerning the effects of feeding canola oil to the newborn. We have previously reported a transient decrease in platelet counts and an increase in platelet size in newborn piglets fed canola oil for 4 wk, and have confirmed this in the present study. In canola oil-fed piglets, changes in platelet size and number were overcome by adding either long-chain saturated fatty acids from cocoa butter (16:0 and 18:0), or shorter-chain saturates from coconut oil (12:0 and 14:0). Feeding a high erucic acid rape-seed (HEAR) oil, with 20% 22:1n-9, led to an even greater platelet reduction and increased platelet size throughout the 4-wk trial. Bleeding times were longer in piglets fed canola oil or HEAR oil compared to sow-reared and soybean oil-fed piglets. There were no other diet-related changes. Diet-induced platelet changes were not related to platelet lipid class composition, but there were fatty acid changes. The incorporation of 22:1n-9 into platelet phospholipids of piglets fed canola oil was low (0.2-1.2%), and even for the HEAR oil group ranged from only 0.2% in phosphatidylinositol to 2.4% in phosphatidylserine. A much greater change was observed in the concentration of 24:1n-9 and in the 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio in platelet sphingomyelin (SM). The 24:1n-9 increased to 49% in the HEAR oil group compared to about 12% in animals fed the control diets (sow-reared piglets and soybean oil-fed group), while the 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio increased from about 1 to 12. Even feeding canola oil, prepared to contain 2% 22:1n-9, led to a marked increase in 24:1n-9 to 29% and had a 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio of 5. The canola oil/cocoa butter group, which also contained 2% 22:1n-9, showed a lower level of 24:1n-9 (20%) and the 24:1n-9/24:0 ratio (3) compared to the canola oil group. The results suggest that the diet-related platelet changes in newborn piglets may be related to an increase

  1. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  2. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid

  3. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  4. Effect of potato on acid-base and mineral homeostasis in rats fed a high-sodium chloride diet.

    PubMed

    Narcy, Agnès; Robert, Laetitia; Mazur, Andrzej; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2006-05-01

    Excessive dietary NaCl in association with a paucity of plant foods, major sources of K alkaline salts, is a common feature in Western eating habits which may lead to acid-base disorders and to Ca and Mg wasting. In this context, to evaluate the effects of potato, rich in potassium citrate, on acid-base homeostasis and mineral retention, Wistar rats were fed wheat starch (WS) or cooked potato (CP) diets with a low (0.5 %) or a high (2 %) NaCl content during 3 weeks. The replacement of WS by CP in the diets resulted in a significant urinary alkalinisation (pH from 5.5 to 7.3) parallel to a rise in citrate and K excretion. Urinary Ca and Mg elimination represented respectively 17 and 62 % of the daily absorbed mineral in rats fed the high-salt WS diet compared with 5 and 28 % in rats fed the high-salt CP diet. The total SCFA concentration in the caecum was 3-fold higher in rats fed the CP diets compared with rats fed the WS diets, and it led to a significant rise in Ca and Mg intestinal absorption (Ca from 39 to 56 %; Mg from 37 to 60 %). The present model of low-grade metabolic acidosis indicates that CP may be effective in alkalinising urine, enhancing citrate excretion and ameliorating Ca and Mg balance.

  5. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    PubMed

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( < 0.10) and NDF ( < 0.05) increased compared with dry wheat middlings diets without xylanase (64.50 vs. 54.67% and 52.88 vs. 31.69%, respectively), but supplementation of xylanase did not impact AID of GE and NDF when liquid wheat middlings diets were fed. Xylanase in liquid DDGS diets increased ( < 0.05) the AID of NDF compared with liquid DDGS diets without xylanase, but xylanase did not affect AID of NDF in dry DDGS diets. Xylanase in wheat middlings diets improved ( < 0.05) ATTD of GE and N compared with wheat middlings diets without xylanase (80.37 vs. 78.07% and 80.23 vs. 77.94%, respectively). However, there was no effect of xylanase in DDGS diets. Pigs fed DDGS diets had greater concentrations of butyrate in the cecum ( = 0.001) than pigs fed wheat middlings diets (27.6 vs. 20.4 mmol/L). Pigs fed DDGS diets with xylanase had

  6. Fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat from lambs fed carob-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Luciano, Giuseppe; Jongberg, Sisse; Bognanno, Matteo; Scerra, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N; Priolo, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Male Comisana lambs were individually stalled and, for 56 days, were fed concentrates with 60% barley (n = 8 lambs), or concentrates in which barley was partially replaced by 24% or 35% carob pulp (n = 9 lambs in each group). The intramuscular fatty acids were analyzed and the color stability, lipid and protein oxidation were measured in fresh meat overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film at 0, 3 or 6 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. Carob pulp increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, including the rumenic acid (P < 0.01), and reduced the saturated fatty acids (P < 0.01) and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (P = 0.01). The meat did not undergo extensive oxidative deterioration and the diet did not affect the oxidative stability parameters. Therefore, carob in lamb diet could increase PUFA in muscle without compromising meat oxidative stability.

  7. Fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat from lambs fed carob-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Luciano, Giuseppe; Jongberg, Sisse; Bognanno, Matteo; Scerra, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N; Priolo, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Male Comisana lambs were individually stalled and, for 56 days, were fed concentrates with 60% barley (n = 8 lambs), or concentrates in which barley was partially replaced by 24% or 35% carob pulp (n = 9 lambs in each group). The intramuscular fatty acids were analyzed and the color stability, lipid and protein oxidation were measured in fresh meat overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film at 0, 3 or 6 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. Carob pulp increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, including the rumenic acid (P < 0.01), and reduced the saturated fatty acids (P < 0.01) and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (P = 0.01). The meat did not undergo extensive oxidative deterioration and the diet did not affect the oxidative stability parameters. Therefore, carob in lamb diet could increase PUFA in muscle without compromising meat oxidative stability. PMID:25842304

  8. Dyslipidemia and vascular dysfunction in diabetic pigs fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Dixon, J L; Stoops, J D; Parker, J L; Laughlin, M H; Weisman, G A; Sturek, M

    1999-12-01

    Diabetic patients typically have not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemia. Study of the pathogenic components of the diabetic milieu and mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis is hindered by inadequate animal models. A potentially suitable animal model for human diabetic dyslipidemia is the pig, because it carries a large fraction of total cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), similar to humans. In this study, male Sinclair miniature pigs were made diabetic by destroying the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas with alloxan and then were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for comparison with pigs fed a nondiabetic high fat and high cholesterol diet and control pigs. Diabetic pigs exhibited hyperglycemia, but plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and transaminase levels were in the normal range, indicating no adverse effects on kidney and liver function. The lipoprotein profile in diabetic pigs was similar to that found in human diabetic patients and was characterized by hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold increase versus control and high fat-fed pigs) and a profound shift of cholesterol distribution into the LDL fraction (81%) versus the distribution in high fat-fed (64%) and control (57%) pigs. LDL particles were lipid-enriched and more heterogeneous in diabetic pigs. Apolipoprotein B was distributed among a much broader spectrum of LDL particles, and apolipoprotein E was partially redistributed from high-density lipoprotein to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in diabetic pigs. There was little change in apolipoprotein A-I distribution. Diabetic pigs showed several early signs of excess vascular disease. In diabetic pigs, 75% of the coronary artery segments showed contractile oscillations in response to prostaglandin F(2alpha) compared with 25% in high fat-fed pigs and 10% in control pigs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of brachial arteries was nearly abolished in diabetic pigs but unchanged in high fat-fed versus control pigs. Carotid

  9. Haemato-immunological and growth response of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed a tropical earthworm meal in experimental diets.

    PubMed

    Rawling, M D; Merrifield, D L; Snellgrove, D L; Kühlwein, H; Adams, A; Davies, S J

    2012-06-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding a tropical earthworm meal (Perionyx escavatus) on the haemato-immunological response and growth performance of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were fed diets for a total of 88 days, fishmeal served as the main protein source in the control diet. Two remaining diets consisted of fishmeal fixed at 33.65% provision of protein and the remaining 66.35% protein was provided by soybean meal (SBM diet) or P. excavatus meal (EW diet). Compared to control and SBM fed fish (7.69 ± 0.28 and 5.92 ± 0.31 g/dl, respectively), a significant increase in haemoglobin was measured in EW fed fish (9.57 ± 0.24 g/dl). Consequently significant elevations were also observed in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH; 79.13 ± 4.59 pg) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC; 22.69 ± 0.54 pg) in EW fed fish. On the contrary, compared to control and SBM fed carp total leukocyte levels (2.72 ± 0.17 and 3.10 ± 0.17 × 10(4)/mm(3), respectively) were significantly decreased in the EW group (2.15 ± 0.14 × 10(4)/mm(3)). Moreover at day 14 and 21 post immunisation with bacterin isolated from Aeromonas hydrophila fish fed the EW diet displayed a significant reduction in respiratory burst activity (RBA) compared to control and SBM fed fish. After 60 days of feeding, fish fed EW diet showed a significant elevation in final body weight compared to fish fed a fishmeal based diet (control treatment) and fish fed a soybean meal based diet. Similar improvements were observed in feed utilisation efficiency. The present study shows that feeding P. excavatus meal to mirror carp decreases some aspects of the innate immune response, but at the same time gives rise to significant enhancement of growth and feed utilisation efficiency. PMID:22554572

  10. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase knockout mice show resistance to obesity when fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Ito, Takahito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Nanchi, Isamu; Notoya, Mitsuru; Oka, Shogo; Yukioka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone secreted from stomach. Since the discovery that acylation of the serine-3 residue by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for exerting its functions, GOAT has been regarded as an therapeutic target for attenuating appetite, and thus for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, contrary to the expectations, GOAT-knockout (KO) mice have not shown meaningful body weight reduction, under high-fat diet. Here, in this study, we sought to determine whether GOAT has a role in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism with a focus on dietary sucrose, because macronutrient composition of diet is important for appetite regulation. We found that peripherally administered acylated-ghrelin, but not unacylated one, stimulated sucrose consumption in a two-bottle-drinking test. The role of acylated-ghrelin in sucrose preference was further supported by the finding that GOAT KO mice consumed less sucrose solution compared with WT littermates. Then, we investigated the effect of dietary composition of sucrose on food intake and body weight in GOAT KO and WT mice. As a result, when fed on high-fat diet, food intake and body weight were similar between GOAT KO and WT mice. However, when fed on high-fat, high-sucrose diet, GOAT KO mice showed significantly reduced food intake and marked resistance to obesity, leading to amelioration of glucose metabolism. These results suggest that blockade of acylated-ghrelin production offers therapeutic potential for obesity and metabolic disorders caused by overeating of palatable food.

  11. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hollmann, Manfred; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Sabitzer, Sonja; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants. PMID:24349094

  12. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Morton, John; Mangalindan, Ruby; Ladiges, Warren

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa), the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD) with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC) with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  13. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  14. The effects of transportation stress on Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) fed corn-based diet in comparison with wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase.

    PubMed

    Mehraei Hamzekolaei, M H; Zamani Moghaddam, A K; Tohidifar, S S; Dehghani Samani, A; Heydari, A

    2016-08-01

    Harvesting, handling and transporting quails to the slaughterhouses, other farms and laboratories might covertly reduce their welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two major sources of energy in poultry nutrition on reducing transportation stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica). Male quails (n = 60) were divided into two groups. The first group was fed corn-based diet, and the second was fed wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase. At the end of the experiment (day 35), quails were subjected to 80 km of transportation. Immediately on arrival and after 24 h, heterophil counts, lymphocyte counts and H:L ratios were measured. On arrival, H counts were lower, L counts were higher, and H:L ratios were lower for corn-fed group. After 24 h, wheat-fed group showed lower increment of H counts, greater increment of L counts and also decrement of H:L ratios rather than corn-fed group which showed increment of H:L ratios. However, these ratios were still lower in corn-fed group. Results indicate that corn-based diets can help Japanese quail to better resist transportation stress, although it seems that feeding wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase and phytase could have positive effects for coping better with stress after journeys.

  15. Relationship between odour-active compounds and flavour perception in meat from lambs fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Campo, M Mar; Montossi, Fabio; Ferreira, Vicente; Sañudo, Carlos; Escudero, Ana

    2010-08-01

    To identify the most important aroma compounds in 20d-aged meat from castrated heavy Corriedale lambs fed one of four diets, grilled loin samples were subjected to a dynamic headspace-solid phase extraction (DHS-SPE) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Most of the important odorants were aldehydes and ketones. To evaluate the effect of finishing diet on carbonyl compounds, a derivatization of the headspace carbonyls using o-[(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)methyl]hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and analysis by GC-MS was conducted. Diet did not affect aliphatic saturated aldehydes. The meat from lambs finished on pastures, without a concentrate supplement, had very low concentrations of lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes and ketones and Strecker aldehydes, possibly because of the protective effect of antioxidants that occur in the diet naturally. Lamb flavour was related to the concentration of heptan-2-one and oct-1-en-3-one, but rancid or undesirable flavours were not related to the abundance of carbonyl compounds. PMID:20416794

  16. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets. PMID:16772447

  17. Organ weights and water content of rats fed on protein-deficient diets*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Elvira S.; Boyd, Eldon M.

    1968-01-01

    To provide the basic information needed for studies of drug toxicity in rats suffering from protein deficiency, weanling male albino rats were fed for 28 days on either laboratory chow or a synthetic diet containing 27% or 8% of casein. The low-protein diet produced a kwashiorkoric cachexia characterized by stunting, alopecia, tail dermatitis, apathy, augmented calorie intake per kg body-weight and a 20% death rate. Autopsies at weekly intervals disclosed that the synthetic normal-protein diet produced a slight loss of total body-weight, due to loss of weight in the adrenal glands and gastrointestinal tissues, and a more-or-less generalized dehydration of body organs. The body-weight of the kwashiorkoric rats was half that of the control groups, due especially to loss of weight in caecum, kidneys, liver, muscle, skin, spleen, salivary glands and thymus gland; loss of weight was less marked in other organs, particularly the stomach, heart and testes and, especially, the brain. There was further dehydration of adrenals and brain but the liver and gastrointestinal tissues tended to be hydrated. The kwashiorkoric diet had not entirely suppressed growth-stimulated relative increase in weight of muscle, skin and testes. The histology of organs was essentially normal in the survivors. Absence of oedema in organs distinguished the kwashiorkoric rats from rats with total calorie depletion. PMID:5303670

  18. Effects of copper sulfate supplement on growth, tissue concentration, and ruminal solubilities of molybdenum and copper in sheep fed low and high molybdenum diets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, M.; Veira, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Each of four groups of six wethers were fed one of a low molybdenum, high molybdenum, high molybdenum plus copper sulfate, or high molybdenum plus copper sulfate corn silage-based diet for ad libitum intake for 221 days. Average daily gains and ratios of feed/gain were depressed for the high molybdenum diet as compared with the low molybdenum diet suggesting molybdenum toxicity in sheep fed the high molybdenum diet. This was alleviated partly by the copper sulfate supplement. The supplement also decreased solubility of both copper and molybdenum in the rumen but had no effect on copper concentration in blood plasma. Concentration of molybdenum was higher in both liver and kidney in sheep fed high-molybdenum diets as compared with low-molybdenum diets. Copper concentration was higher in kidneys of sheep fed high-molybdenum diets, but no difference was significant in liver copper between sheep fed diets high or low in molybdenum.

  19. Promotion of atherosclerosis in high cholesterol diet-fed rabbits by immunization with the P277 peptide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiyan; Feng, Jiao; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Yunxiao; Lu, Yong; Li, Taiming; Zhang, Xiaohong; Cao, Rongyue; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Previous evidence has proved the ability of immunization with heat shock protein (HSP) 60/65 to induce atherosclerosis. P277, a 24-residue peptide of human HSP60, is a promising peptide vaccine against autoimmune diabetes. But as a fragment of HSP60, its potential ability of promoting atherosclerosis has never been investigated yet. In the present study, the rabbits fed with normal standard diet or high cholesterol diet were immunized with P277 or PBS emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant 4 times at 4-week intervals. Atherosclerotic lesions of the rabbits receiving P277 treatment and fed with high cholesterol diet increased significantly compared with those of the rabbits receiving PBS treatment and the same diet. However, no obvious lesions were found in the two groups of rabbits fed with the normal standard diet. Significant expression of P277 was detected in the high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions and heat-stressed endothelial cells. Surface exposure of P277 was also observed in the stressed cells. In the subsequent assay of endothelial cells in vitro, the purified anti-P277 antibodies mediated a noticeable cytotoxicity to the stressed cells with the participation of complement. In conclusion, subcutaneous immunization with P277 emulsified in IFA can aggravate the atherosclerosis in high cholesterol diet-fed rabbits. Surface expression of P277 was observed on stressed endothelial cells, and were suggested to mediate the autoimmune attack and promote the disease. PMID:26730848

  20. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, M. J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M. R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  1. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  2. Modeling Energy Dynamics in Mice with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Fed High Calorie Diets

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Nichole D.; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D.; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies show that lean mass or strength is positively associated with metabolic health. Mice deficient in myostatin, a growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, have increased muscle and body weights and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Their leanness is often attributed to higher energy expenditure in the face of normal food intake. However, even obese animals have an increase in energy expenditure compared to normal weight animals suggesting this is an incomplete explanation. We have previously developed a computational model to estimate energy output, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient from food intake and body composition measurements to more accurately account for changes in body composition in rodents over time. Here we use this approach to understand the dynamic changes in energy output, intake, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient in muscular mice carrying a dominant negative activin receptor IIB expressed specifically in muscle. We found that muscular mice had higher food intake and higher energy output when fed either chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks compared to WT mice. Transgenic mice also matched their rate of fat oxidation to the rate of fat consumed better than WT mice. Surprisingly, when given a choice between high-fat diet and Ensure® drink, transgenic mice consumed relatively more calories from Ensure® than from the high-fat diet despite similar caloric intake to WT mice. When switching back and forth between diets, transgenic mice adjusted their intake more rapidly than WT to restore normal caloric intake. Our results show that mice with myostatin inhibition in muscle are better at adjusting energy intake and output on diets of different macronutrient composition than WT mice to maintain energy balance and resist weight gain. PMID:27076790

  3. Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters and Phospholipids in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Wiesner, Philipp; Choi, Soo-Ho; Almazan, Felicidad; Pattison, Jennifer; Deer, Elena; Sayaphupha, Tiffany; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model has been developed to study early events of atherogenesis. This model utilizes optically transparent zebrafish larvae, fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD), to monitor processes of vascular inflammation in live animals. Because lipoprotein oxidation is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, in this study, we characterized the oxidized lipid milieu in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that feeding an HCD for only 2 weeks resulted in up to 70-fold increases in specific oxidized cholesteryl esters, identical to those present in human minimally oxidized LDL and in murine atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of oxidized phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and of various lysophosphatidylcholines were also significantly elevated. Moreover, lipoproteins isolated from homogenates of HCD-fed larvae induced cell spreading as well as ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK phosphorylation in murine macrophages. Removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins from the zebrafish homogenates with an anti-human LDL antibody, as well as reducing lipid hydroperoxides with ebselen, resulted in inhibition of macrophage activation. The TLR4 deficiency in murine macrophages prevented their activation with zebrafish lipoproteins. Using biotinylated homogenates of HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that their components bound to murine macrophages, and this binding was effectively competed by minimally oxidized LDL but not by native LDL. These data provide evidence that molecular lipid determinants of proatherogenic macrophage phenotypes are present in large quantities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish larvae and support the use of the HCD-fed zebrafish as a valuable model to study early events of atherogenesis. PMID:20710028

  4. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  5. Hepcidin expression in the liver of rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Natsumi; Kotani, Megumi; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2011-10-01

    Mg deficiency accelerates Fe accumulation in the liver, which may induce various metabolic disturbances. In the present study, we examined the gene expression of Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver to regulate intestinal Fe absorption negatively, in Mg-deficient rats. Although liver Fe concentration was significantly higher in rats fed an Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in rats fed a control diet, Hepcidin expression in the liver was comparable between the dietary groups. Previous studies revealed that Fe overload up-regulated Hepcidin expression through transcriptional activation by Fe-induced bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 6, a growth/differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β family, in the liver. Mg deficiency up-regulated the expression of Bmp6 but did not affect the expression of inhibition of DNA binding 1, a sensitive Bmp-responsive gene. In addition, the expression of Bmp receptors such as activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), activin receptor type IIA (Actr2a), activin receptor type IIB (Actr2b) and Bmp type II receptor (Bmpr2) was lower in the liver of Mg-deficient rats than in that of control rats. The present study indicates that accumulation of hepatic Fe by Mg deficiency is a stimulant inducing Bmp6 expression but not Hepcidin expression by blunting Bmp signalling possibly resulting from down-regulation of the receptor expression. Unresponsive Hepcidin expression may have a role in Mg deficiency-induced changes related to increased liver Fe.

  6. Hypoandrogenism and abnormal regulation of gonadotropin secretion in rats fed a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Glass, A R; Mellitt, R; Vigersky, R A; Swerdloff, R S

    1979-02-01

    The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was evaluated in rats fed a low protein diet for 4 weeks beginning at 21 days of age. Compared to control, the low protein group had decreased seminal vesicle and prostate weights as well as decreased testicular testosterone output in vitro, although serum testosterone was not different. The low protein group showed no consistent alterations in serum LH (basal, post-LHRH, and postcastration) compared to control although serum FSH (basal and post-LHRH) was lower in the low protein group. Despite this lower basal FSH, the low protein group had supranormal serum FSH after castration. Seminiferous tubule diameter and testicular histology were normal in the low protein group although testicular androgen-binding protein was absent. Testicular androgen-binding protein was also undetectable in a modestly food-restricted control group which had normal testicular size, testicular histology, androgen output, and serum FSH. This finding suggests that loss of testicular androgen-binding protein may be a sensitive sign of undernutrition. We conclude that rats fed a low protein diet have hypoandrogenism, normal testicular histology, and supranormal FSH after castration despite subnormal basal FSH. The latter combination suggests overproduction of an FSH inhibitor of testicular origin.

  7. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  8. Changes in mineral composition of eggshells from black ducks and mallards fed DDE in the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.; Kreitzer, J.F.; Spann, J.W.

    1971-01-01

    Diets containing 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to black ducks, and diets containing 1, 5, and 10 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to mallards. Among the results were the following changes in black duck eggshell composition: (a) significant increase in the percentage of Mg, (b) significant decreases in Ba and Sr, (c) increases (which approached significance) in average percentage of eggshell Na and Cu, (d) a decrease in shell Ca which approached significance, (e) patterns of mineral correlations which in some instances were distinct to dosage groups, and (f) inverse correlations in the control group between eggshell thickness Mg and Na. Changes in mallard eggshells were: (a) significant increase in percentage of magnesium at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (b) significant decrease in Al at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (c) a significant decrease in Ca from eggshells from the 10 ppm DDE group, and (d) an increase in average percentage of Na in eggshells from DDE dosed ducks which approached significance.

  9. Lactase synthesis is pretranslationally regulated in protein-deficient pigs fed a protein-sufficient diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, M A; Schoknecht, P A; Dudley, A W; Jiang, L; Ferraris, R P; Rosenberger, J N; Henry, J F; Reeds, P J

    2001-04-01

    The in vivo effects of protein malnutrition and protein rehabilitation on lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) synthesis were examined. Five-day-old pigs were fed isocaloric diets containing 10% (deficient, n = 12) or 24% (sufficient, n = 12) protein. After 4 wk, one-half of the animals in each dietary group were infused intravenously with [(13)C(1)]leucine for 6 h, and the jejunum was analyzed for enzyme activity, mRNA abundance, and LPH polypeptide isotopic enrichment. The remaining animals were fed the protein-sufficient diet for 1 wk, and the jejunum was analyzed. Jejunal mass and lactase enzyme activity per jejunum were significantly lower in protein-deficient vs. control animals but returned to normal with rehabilitation. Protein malnutrition did not affect LPH mRNA abundance relative to elongation factor-1alpha, but rehabilitation resulted in a significant increase in LPH mRNA relative abundance. Protein malnutrition significantly lowered the LPH fractional synthesis rate (FSR; %/day), whereas the FSR of LPH in rehabilitated and control animals was similar. These results suggest that protein malnutrition decreases LPH synthesis by altering posttranslational events, whereas the jejunum responds to rehabilitation by increasing LPH mRNA relative abundance, suggesting pretranslational regulation.

  10. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Glossogyne tenuifolia in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Lin, Wan-Teng; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2016-05-01

    Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) Cassini is a special herbal tea in the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, and has a long history of being used as an antipyretic, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory remedy in folk medicine among local residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from GT on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in animals. Five- to 6-week-old male Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 14) for different treatments, that is: control group (C), high-fat/cholesterol (HF) group, HF diet containing 0.5% (GT0.5) and 1.5% (GT1.5) GT extracts for 4 weeks. Hamsters fed with 0.5% GT powder as well as 1.5% GT powder exhibited reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), conjugated diene of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased serum antioxidant capacity, but 1.5% GT powder was more potent at lowering serum LDL cholesterol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations than 0.5% GT. GT extracts significantly lowered liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration by diminishing activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). In addition, fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids were increased in GT extract groups. In conclusion, GT extracts increase the antioxidative capacity, decrease serum TC, inhibit the activities of FAS and G-6-PDH, and further reduce liver TG accumulation in hamster fed on atherogenic diets. PMID:27152981

  11. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  12. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-11-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of UC-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( UC-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from UC-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of UC-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of UC-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides.

  13. A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  14. Evaluation of supplemental niacin for turkeys fed corn-soy diets from four to twelve weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B; Harms, R H; Ruiz, N

    1986-12-01

    A corn-soy basal diet, which was calculated to contain 21 mg of niacin/kg diet, was used to investigate the niacin needs of turkey poults from 4 to 12 weeks of age. Poults had been fed a diet that contained 80.6 mg niacin/kg of feed until 4 weeks of age. Supplemental niacin was added at 0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in mortality, leg disorders, or 12-week weight gains due to amount of niacin of the diet. These data indicate that 21 mg/kg niacin is adequate for optimum growth of turkeys from 4 to 12 weeks of age when they are fed a corn-soy diet.

  15. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. PMID:25104767

  16. Visceral adipose tissue mass in nonlactating dairy cows fed diets differing in energy density(1).

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Wallace, R L; Graugnard, D; Vasquez, J; Richards, B F; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine dietary energy effects on feed intake, internal fat deposition, body condition score (BCS), visceral organ mass, and blood analytes in Holstein cows. Eighteen nonpregnant, nonlactating cows (BCS = 3.04 ± 0.25) were blocked based on initial BCS and were randomly assigned within each block to 2 treatments. Treatments were either high energy [HE; net energy for lactation (NEL)=1.62 Mcal/kg] or low energy (LE; NEL = 1.35 Mcal/kg) diets fed as total mixed rations for 8 wk. The LE diet consisted of 81.7% forage, including 40.5% wheat straw and 28.3% corn silage, whereas the HE diet contained 73.8% forage with no straw and 49.9% corn silage (dry matter basis). Cows were fed for ad libitum intake once daily at 0800 h. Feed intake was recorded daily, blood was sampled at wk 1, 4, and 7, and BCS was assigned at wk 1, 4, and 7. Cows were killed following the 8-wk period, and visceral organs, mammary gland, and internal adipose tissues were weighed and sampled. The HE group had greater dry matter intake (15.9 vs. 11.2 ± 0.5 kg/d) and energy intakes than cows fed LE, but neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ (5.8 vs. 5.6 ± 0.25 kg/d for HE and LE). Final body weight was greater for cows fed HE (807 vs. 750 kg), but BCS did not differ between groups (3.52 vs. 3.47 for HE and LE). Omental (26.8 vs. 15.2 ± 1.6 kg/d), mesenteric (21.5 vs. 11.2 ± 1.9 kg), and perirenal (8.9 vs. 5.4 ± 0.9 kg) adipose tissue masses were larger in HE cows than in LE cows. Although subcutaneous adipose mass was not measured, carcass weight (including hide and subcutaneous fat) did not differ between HE (511 kg) and LE (496 kg). Liver weight tended to be greater for cows fed HE, but weights of gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidney did not differ. Serum insulin tended to be greater and the glucose to insulin ratio was lower for cows fed HE. Serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol were greater for HE cows than for LE cows but

  17. Nrf2 Deficiency Improves Glucose Tolerance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. PMID:23017736

  18. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, Allan S.; Perez, Paola K.; Streckenbach, Liana J.; Olson, Jake M.; Cook, Mark E.; Hernandez, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women. PMID:27603698

  19. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Samantha R; Bohrer, Justin C; Prichard, Allan S; Perez, Paola K; Streckenbach, Liana J; Olson, Jake M; Cook, Mark E; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women. PMID:27603698

  20. Exercise Increases and Browns Muscle Lipid in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Morton, Tiffany L; Galior, Kornelia; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Uzer, Gunes; Uzer, Guniz Bas; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Tyson, David; Rubin, Janet; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete's paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance. HFD mice weighed more than CTL after 18 weeks (p < 0.01). Quadriceps muscle TG was increased in running animals and in sedentary mice fed HFD for 18 weeks (p < 0.05). In exercised animals, markers of fat, Plin1, aP2, FSP27, and Fasn, were increased significantly in HFD groups. Ucp1 and Pgc1a, markers for brown fat, increased with exercise in the setting of high fat feeding. Fndc5, which encodes irisin, and CytC were sensitive to exercise regardless of diet. Plin5 was increased with HFD and unaffected by exercise; the respiratory exchange ratio was 15% lower in the 18-week HFD group compared with CTL (p < 0.001) and 10% lower in 18 weeks HFD-E compared with CTL-E (p < 0.001). Increased Ucp1 and Pgc1a in exercised muscle of running mice suggests that a beige/brown fat phenotype develops, which differs from the fat phenotype that induces insulin resistance in high fat feeding. This suggests that increased muscle lipid may develop a "brown" phenotype in the setting of endurance exercise training, a shift that is further promoted by HFD. PMID:27445983

  1. Exercise Increases and Browns Muscle Lipid in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Tiffany L.; Galior, Kornelia; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Uzer, Gunes; Uzer, Guniz Bas; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Tyson, David; Rubin, Janet; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete’s paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance. HFD mice weighed more than CTL after 18 weeks (p < 0.01). Quadriceps muscle TG was increased in running animals and in sedentary mice fed HFD for 18 weeks (p < 0.05). In exercised animals, markers of fat, Plin1, aP2, FSP27, and Fasn, were increased significantly in HFD groups. Ucp1 and Pgc1a, markers for brown fat, increased with exercise in the setting of high fat feeding. Fndc5, which encodes irisin, and CytC were sensitive to exercise regardless of diet. Plin5 was increased with HFD and unaffected by exercise; the respiratory exchange ratio was 15% lower in the 18-week HFD group compared with CTL (p < 0.001) and 10% lower in 18 weeks HFD-E compared with CTL-E (p < 0.001). Increased Ucp1 and Pgc1a in exercised muscle of running mice suggests that a beige/brown fat phenotype develops, which differs from the fat phenotype that induces insulin resistance in high fat feeding. This suggests that increased muscle lipid may develop a “brown” phenotype in the setting of endurance exercise training, a shift that is further promoted by HFD. PMID:27445983

  2. Immunosuppression in mice fed on diets containing beluga whale blubber from the St Lawrence estuary and the Arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Fournier, M; Dégas, V; Colborn, T; Omara, F O; Denizeau, F; Potworowski, E F; Brousseau, P

    2000-03-15

    In order to assess the immunotoxic potential of naturally relevant mixtures of PCBs and other organohalogens, C57Bl/6 mice were fed on diets in which lipids were replaced by blubber of beluga whales from the highly contaminated population of the Saint-Lawrence River, and the less contaminated population from the Arctic. Different ratios of blubber from both sources were mixed in order to allow a dose-response study. Mice were fed for a period of 90 days at the end of which their immunological status was monitored. For general parameters such as body weight, weight of the spleen and the thymus no significant effect of diets were observed. The immunological endpoints such as the blastic transformation of splenocytes and the spleen NK cell activity were not significantly affected by any of the diets compared to control diets. While the different cell subpopulations of peripheral blood and thymus were not affected by the diets, a significant decrease was noted in the CD8+ T cell population in the spleen of mice fed with most of the diets containing beluga blubber. Moreover, the ability of splenic cells to elicit humoral response against sheep red blood cells as well as the potential of peritoneal macrophages to perform phagocytosis were suppressed by all diets containing beluga blubbers. In summary, there was no differences between the groups fed with a blubber diet with low and high organochlorine contamination. However, a clear immunosuppression was demonstrated when these groups were compared to the group fed with beef oil. Despite the fact that we cannot exclude a possible contribution of the fatty acid composition of the beluga blubber to the immunosupression, these results suggest the sensitivity of mouse immune system towards organohalogens, and point out the toxic potential of contaminant mixtures as found in the less contaminated Arctic population. PMID:10720746

  3. Insufficient glucose supply is linked to hypothermia upon cold exposure in high-fat diet-fed mice lacking PEMT.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia; van der Veen, Jelske N; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Vance, Jean E; Vance, Dennis E; Jacobs, René L

    2015-09-01

    Mice that lack phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt(-/-) mice) are protected from high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice show higher oxygen consumption and heat production, indicating that more energy might be utilized for thermogenesis and might account for the resistance to diet-induced weight gain. To test this hypothesis, HF-fed Pemt(-/-) and Pemt(+/+) mice were challenged with acute cold exposure at 4°C. Unexpectedly, HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice developed hypothermia within 3 h of cold exposure. In contrast, chow-fed Pemt(-/-) mice, possessing similar body mass, maintained body temperature. Lack of PEMT did not impair the capacity for thermogenesis in skeletal muscle or brown adipose tissue. Plasma catecholamines were not altered by Pemt genotype, and stimulation of lipolysis was intact in brown and white adipose tissue of Pemt(-/-) mice. HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice also developed higher systolic blood pressure, accompanied by reduced cardiac output. Choline supplementation reversed the cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice with no effect on blood pressure. Plasma glucose levels were ∼50% lower in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice compared with Pemt(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized plasma hypoglycemia and the expression of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis. We propose that cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice is linked to plasma hypoglycemia due to compromised hepatic glucose production.

  4. Performance of turkey poults fed different doses of aflatoxins in the diet.

    PubMed

    Rauber, R H; Dilkin, P; Giacomini, L Z; Araújo de Almeida, C A; Mallmann, C A

    2007-08-01

    This work was conduced to determine the performance parameters of initial-phase turkey poults fed 7 different doses of aflatoxins in the diet. Three hundred thirty-six 1-d-old male turkey poults were used in this research. Turkeys were divided into 7 treatments according to aflatoxin doses (T1 = control; T2 = 20 ppb aflatoxins; T3 = 50 ppb; T4 = 100 ppb; T5 = 200 ppb; T6 = 500 ppb; T7 = 1,000 ppb). Birds were killed in 2 periods: half of them after 21 d of experiment and the remaining birds after 42 d of experiment. In both periods, the evaluated parameters were as follows: feed consumption, BW, relative weights of organs (liver, gizzard, heart, and bursa of Fabricius) and meat (breast and thighs), and clinical biochemistry parameters (total plasmatic proteins, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase). At 21 d of experiment, both feed consumption and BW were significantly affected by the aflatoxins present in the diet. Nevertheless, gizzard relative weight, total plasmatic proteins, and cholesterol levels were also affected. At the 42-d evaluation, besides feed consumption and BW, gizzard and liver relative weights and cholesterol levels were also affected by the presence of aflatoxins in the diet. Turkey poults are very sensitive to aflatoxin poisoning, because they are at least 3 to 6 times more sensitive to these contaminants than broilers.

  5. Changes in tissue free amino acid pools in growing chickens fed thermally treated vetch diets.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Lachica, M

    2014-04-01

    A three-day assay was developed to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on protein quality of vetch as an alternative to classical growth methods. Male chickens (n = 10/diet) were given approximately isonitrogenous diets based on raw or autoclaved vetch for 3 days. Samples of plasma, muscle and liver were obtained for free amino acid analysis. Heating vetch depressed growth (11.9 vs. 23.2 g/d; p < 0.05). Plasma methionine and histidine increased (0.05 < p < 0.06), while gluconeogenic amino acids tended to decrease (p < 0.10) after heating. Muscle free amino acids did not change except for a trend to increased methionine (p = 0.06) in birds fed autoclaved vetch. In liver, most essential amino acids, glycine, proline and tyrosine increased markedly with heated vetch diet. Correlations between plasma and muscle free amino acids were poor compared with those between plasma and liver free amino acids. Liver free amino acid pool was more sensitive than muscle or plasma pool to amino acid inflow modifications after vetch heating.

  6. Manipulation of soluble and rumen-undegradable protein in diets fed to postpubertal dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Gabler, M T; Heinrichs, A J

    2007-02-01

    Eight postpubertal Holstein heifers (455 +/- 4.0), fit with rumen cannulas, were used in 2 experiments to investigate the effects of altering dietary protein type on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization. Heifers were fed diets containing low or high levels of soluble (SP) and low or high levels of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatment rations in experiment 1 were formulated with corn silage composing the majority of the forage fraction, whereas in experiment 2, grass hay composed the highest proportion of ration DM. Blood and rumen samples were collected over 2 d and total fecal and urine collections were conducted for 4 d. Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were not different in either experiment 1 or 2. Increasing the proportion of dietary crude protein that was SP increased mean daily rumen ammonia concentrations in each experiment, although no other rumen parameter differed. Excretion of urinary nitrogen in experiment 1 was highest for diets with low SP and low RUP and with high SP and high RUP, which resulted in these rations being the least efficient in retention of apparently digested nitrogen. The proportion of consumed or absorbed nitrogen retained in experiment 2 was not significantly different between treatments. Responses to alterations in crude protein degradability are observable in postpubertal heifers; however, the level of response may depend on the diet in which protein degradability is altered. PMID:17235175

  7. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  8. Steroid balance and tissue cholesterol accumulation in germfree and conventional rats fed diets containing saturated and polyunsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, T F

    1974-11-01

    Steroid balance studies were conducted on 24 conventional and 12 germfree male rats, 90-120 days old, fed diets containing either 20% safflower or 20% coconut oil. Both germfree and conventional rats fed the safflower oil diets had significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and significantly higher liver cholesterol levels than did the rats fed coconut oil. No significant differences in total fecal neutral sterols, coprostanol, Delta(7)-cholestenol, or total fecal bile acid excretion were seen between dietary groups of rats of either status. There was no evidence of qualitative differences in fecal bile acid excretion as a function of diet. The increased liver cholesterol was in the ester form, with cholesteryl linoleate the largest single component. There was no significant difference in the cholesterol content of the skin, muscle, adipose tissue, or gastrointestinal tract. The significance of a large increase in liver cholesteryl ester, lowered serum cholesterol, and no change in steroid excretion is discussed.

  9. The longevity of the antimicrobial response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Elisa; Bird, Steve; Wadsworth, Simon; González Vecino, Jose L; Secombes, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This study builds upon previous work studying antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diet. The aims here were 1) to evaluate how long AMP expression is elevated in skin with continuous feeding of fish with the PG enriched diet for 21 or 28 days, and 2) to assess the impact of stopping PG feeding at day 14 when sampled at day 21 or 28. The rainbow trout were divided into 6 groups, with two fed a control commercial diet for the duration of the experiment and the other four given the same diet enriched with 10 mg PG/Kg for 14 days (PG 1-14) or continuously (PG continuous), the former reverting back to the commercial diet at day 14. No mortalities occurred during the study and there were no significant differences in growth among the fish in the different diet groups. The expression of six AMP genes was studied by real-time PCR in the skin, since these genes were shown to be induced in response to the PG enriched diets in a previous experiment. We show that continuous PG treatment for 21 or 28 days maintained high levels of AMP expression, although in general the levels decreased with time on the diets. Withdrawal of the PG diets at day 14 resulted in a fall in expression level especially apparent with omCATH-1, omCATH-2 and omLEAP-2a, but with omDB-3 and omDB-4 remaining at elevated levels (x10) in comparison to fish given a control diet. These results confirm that orally administered PG clearly enhances the trout innate immune system and could be used as a means to boost fish defences. Future studies should be conducted to verify the impact on survival after pathogen challenge in trout fed PG enriched diets under these regimes.

  10. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  11. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  12. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  13. Effects of dietary amylase and sucrose on productivity of cows fed low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Engstrom, M; Azem, E; Bradford, B J

    2014-07-01

    .12) or sucrose (1.60 ± 0.12) treatment, but the combination of the 2 resulted in feed efficiency similar to the control treatment (both 1.50 ± 0.12). The inclusion of amylase or sucrose did not affect DMI, productivity, or feed efficiency in mid-lactation cows fed low-starch, high-fiber diets.

  14. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  15. Antidyslipidemic activity of polyprenol from Coccinia grandis in high-fat diet-fed hamster model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Geetu; Gupta, Prasoon; Rawat, Preeti; Puri, Anju; Bhatia, Gitika; Maurya, Rakesh

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt showed significant triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol-lowering effects in dyslipidemic hamster model. Ethanolic extract was fractionated into chloroform, n-butanol and water-soluble fractions and were evaluated. Activity was proved to be concentrated in chloroform-soluble fraction. Chloroform-soluble fraction containing active component was subjected to repeated column chromatography, furnished a polyprenol characterized as C(60)-polyprenol (1) isolated for the first time from this plant. It significantly decreased serum TG by 42%, total cholesterol (TC) 25% and glycerol (Gly) 12%, accompanied HDL-C/TC ratio 26% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed dyslipidemic hamsters at the dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Results are comparable to standard drug fenofibrate at the dose of 108 mg/kg. Based on these investigations, it was concluded that the compound polyprenol (1) isolated from leaves of C. grandis possess marked antidyslipidemic activity.

  16. Intake, performance, and efficiency of nutrient utilization in Saanen goat kids fed diets containing calcium salts of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Ana Paula Silva; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; de Souza, Rodrigo; Gomes, Ludmila Couto; de Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca; Martins, Elias Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Saanen goat kids with calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) in diet, on intake, performance, digestibility of nutrients, and blood parameters. Twenty-eight uncastrated male goat kids, with round average age to 112.86 ± 4.81 days and an average body weight (BW) of 19.54 ± 2.76 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design distributed into four groups with seven animals per group: one control group fed a diet containing 2.5 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg dry matter (DM) and three groups fed a diet containing 2.6, 2.7, or 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM, with CSFA added to increase the energy levels. The animals were fed the diets until they reached an average BW of 28 kg. There was hardly any apparent effect of dietary CSFA on intake of DM and organic matter (OM). The digestibility of DM and OM showed an improvement with 2.64 and 2.65 Mcal ME/kg DM in the diet. The diets containing CSFA improved average daily gain and reduced the time on the feedlot to 30 days fed diet with 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM. However, lipid supplementation increased serum cholesterol levels. Thus, CSFA can be used to increase the energy density of the diet in finisher Saanen goat kids and improve performance by reducing days on feedlot.

  17. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P < 0.05) energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P < 0.05) by 192 and 145 kcal/kg, respectively, when diets were supplemented with 100 FXU/kg xylanase. The xylanase added to the CN diet led to quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in IDE (Y = - 0.014x(2) + 2.570x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.60) and in AMEn (Y = - 0.016x(2) + 3.982x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.68). Crude protein digestibility and AMEn were linearly increased (P < 0.05) when xylanase was added to the CN diet. In conclusion, energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg.

  18. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  19. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kasbi Chadli, Fatima; Nazih, Hassane; Krempf, Michel; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA) supplemented high fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group) were studied for 20 weeks: 1) control diet: Control, 2) HFD group: HF and 3) HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA): HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3)H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01) and cholesterol (p<0.001) with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001). Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001) and cholesterol (p<0.001) related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05) compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05) compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05) compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05) and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05). A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3)H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT. PMID:23613796

  20. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout.

  1. Isoleucine requirement of 80- to 120-kilogram barrows fed corn-soybean meal or corn-blood cell diets.

    PubMed

    Dean, D W; Southern, L L; Kerr, B J; Bidner, T D

    2005-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to validate an Ile-deficient diet and determine the Ile requirement of 80- to 120-kg barrows. Experiment 1 had five replications, and Exp. 2 through 6 had four replications per treatment; all pen replicates had four crossbred barrows each (initial BW were 93, 83, 85, 81, 81, and 88 kg, respectively). All dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (C-SBM) or a corn-5% blood cell (BC) diet with or without 0.26% supplemental Ile (C-BC or C-BC+Ile) in a 28-d growth assay. On d 14, pigs receiving the C-BC diet were taken off experiment as a result of a severe decrease in ADFI. Growth performance did not differ for pigs fed C-SBM or C-BC + Ile (P = 0.36) over the 28-d experiment. In Exp. 2, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.24, 0.26, 0.28, 0.30, or 0.32% true ileal digestible (TD) Ile for 7 d in an attempt to estimate the Ile requirement using plasma urea N (PUN) as the response variable. Because of incremental increases in ADFI as TD Ile increased, PUN could not be used to estimate the Ile requirement. In Exp. 3, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.28, 0.30, 0.32, 0.34, or 0.36% TD Ile. Daily gain, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) as Ile increased in the diet. Even though there were no effects of TD Ile concentration on 10th rib fat depth or LM area, kilograms of lean increased linearly (P < 0.01) as TD Ile level increased. In Exp. 4, pigs were fed a C-SBM diet containing 0.26, 0.31, or 0.36% TD Ile. There were no differences in ADFI or ADG; however, G:F increased linearly (P = 0.02), with the response primarily attributable to the 0.31% Ile diet. In Exp. 5, pigs were fed 0.24, 0.27, 0.30, 0.33, or 0.36% TD Ile in a C-SBM diet. There were no differences in growth performance; however, average backfat, total fat, and percentage of fat increased quadratically (P < 0.10) with the addition of Ile. In Exp. 6, pigs were fed a 0.26% TD Ile C-SBM diet with or without

  2. Spirulina prevents atherosclerosis by reducing hypercholesterolemia in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mi Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic effects of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) were investigated in the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model. The animal had hypercholesterolemia induced by being fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 0.5% cholesterol for 4 wk, and then fed a HCD supplemented with 1 or 5% spirulina (SP1 or SP5) for an additional 8 wk. Spirulina supplementation lowered intimal surface of the aorta by 32.2 to 48.3%, compared to HCD. Serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) significantly were reduced in SP groups. After 8 wk, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remarkably decreased by 26.4% in SP1 and 41.2% in SP5, compared to HCD. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was markedly increased in SP1 and SP5 compared with that in the HCD group from 2 to 8 wk. These results suggest that spirulina intake can cause the reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, associated with a decrease in levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C, and an elevation of HDL-C level. Spirulina may, therefore, be beneficial in preventing atherosclerosis and reducing risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20354344

  3. Performance of feedlot lambs fed palm kernel cake-based diets.

    PubMed

    da Conceição dos Santos, Rozilda; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Leite, Gilmara Pinto; Araújo, Marcio Yuri de Souza

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-four castrated male lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 0.35 kg were randomly assigned to five treatments that consisted of different levels of palm kernel cake in the diet (0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 % on a DM basis) in order to evaluate the effects on intake, digestibility, empty body weight, and body gain composition. The intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) presented with a decreasing linear effect. However, the intakes of EE and NDF presented with increased linear results as the palm kernel cake was added to the concentrate. There was a quadratic effect for the digestibility coefficient of all nutrients, except for NFC. The palm kernel cake had a decreasing linear effect on final body weight, empty body weight, and the average daily gain of the animals that were fed increased levels of palm kernel cake. The inclusion of palm kernel cake as a partial substitute for concentrate decreases the intake of the majority of nutrients, except for EE and NDF, and consequently, causes deleterious effects on the nutrient digestibility and performance of lambs that are fed a 50:50 roughage/concentrate ratio.

  4. Dietary chitosan improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiali; Liu, Jingna; Li, Ling; Xia, Wenshui

    2008-06-01

    The hypolipidemic mechanism of chitosan was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 8): a normal fat control group, a high-fat control group (HF), a positive control group (CR), and 2 chitosan groups (CIS1 and CIS2). Chitosan was fed at the beginning (CIS1) and after 2 weeks (CIS2). A commercial diet with 5% (wt/wt) cellulose (HF), cholestyramine (CR), or chitosan (CIS1, CIS2) was fed for 6 weeks. Chitosan did not affect food intake but decreased body weight gain and significantly increased fecal fat and cholesterol excretion, reduced the lipid level in plasma and liver, increased liver hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities compared with HF (P < .05), and tended to relieve the degenerated fatty liver tissue. No significant differences in all measurements were found between the CIS1 and CIS2 groups although the CIS1 rats exhibited lower lipid levels compared to those in the CIS2 group. The results suggest that chitosan reduced the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol in vivo and could effectively improve hypercholesterolemia in rats.

  5. Hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of "triguero" asparagus from andalusia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    García, M D; De la Puerta, R; Sáenz, M T; Marquez-Martín, A; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2012-01-01

    The cultivated species of the wild autochthonous Asparagus officinalis in Andalusia in Spain is commonly called "triguero" asparagus. This vegetable has traditionally been very much appreciated for its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. This study has been designed to evaluate the potential effect of different concentrations of freeze-dried asparagus (500, 250, and 125 mg/Kg of body weight/day) on oxidative status and lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After five weeks of treatment, doses of 250 and 500 mg/Kg of asparagus were able to significantly reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Atherogenic index was also significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by administrating freeze-dried asparagus. A beneficial effect was observed in the HDL cholesterol levels in asparagus-fed groups although the increase was not significant. Consumption of asparagus also improved antioxidant status, assayed superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, and protected against lipid peroxidation. These results show that the intake of green asparagus from Andalusia (Spain) helps to regulate plasma lipid levels and prevents oxidative damage in hypercholesterolemic conditions. PMID:22203881

  6. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P < 0.001). Among the restricted-fed sows, feeding twice daily resulted in decreased feeding motivation at 1900 h (P < 0.001) and at 0700h (P < 0.05) compared with feeding once daily, but not at 0900 and 1200 h, indicating that feeding twice daily reduced feeding motivation during the night compared with feeding once daily. Among restricted-fed sows, plasma concentrations of short

  7. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Claudia E.; Vargas, Mirian; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA), serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the diets and femur weight (FW) of the rats were evaluated. Results During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9), which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001). Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets. PMID:26626410

  8. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal. PMID:26781510

  9. Impairment of cytokine production in mice fed a vitamin D3-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Kankova, M; Luini, W; Pedrazzoni, M; Riganti, F; Sironi, M; Bottazzi, B; Mantovani, A; Vecchi, A

    1991-01-01

    C57Bl/6 female mice fed a Vitamin D (VIT-D)-deficient diet had serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D decreasing with the time of diet exposure (3 and 8 weeks). Cytokine production (IL-6, TNF and IL-1) by peritoneal macrophages cultured in vitro with a standard stimulus, LPS, evaluated in the supernatants as biological activity, was significantly reduced in VIT-D-deficient animals. The defect in monokine production was partial and was evident at suboptimal LPS concentrations and incubation times. I-A antigen expression, induced in macrophages by in vitro exposure to IFN-gamma, was not modified in VIT-D-deficient mice, but IFN-gamma-inducible macrophage cytotoxicity to tumour target cells was significantly decreased in VIT-D-deficient animals. Moreover, basal and Poly I:C-induced NK activity was not modified by VIT-D deficiency. Thus, macrophage functions, such as cytokine production and tumour cytotoxicity induction, are down-modulated in vitro by VIT-D deprivation. To give more support to the relevance of VIT-D availability for cytokine production, TNF and IL-6 have been evaluated in the sera of control and VIT-D-deficient mice given LPS as a model stimulus. Serum peak levels of both cytokines were at least halved in VIT-D-deprived mice. Thus, VIT-D deficiency may represent a model of partial defect of monokine production. PMID:1655638

  10. Ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of goats fed diets containing peanut cake from biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Nascimento Júnior, Nilton Guedes; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Trajano, Jaqueline da Silva; Rocha, Tiago Cunha; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Borja, Máikal Souza

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of confined goats fed peanut cake instead of soybean meal in their feed. We used 40 goats that were ¾ Boer, uncastrated, and 5 months of age on average, with an average initial weight of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of peanut cake replacing soybean meal in the concentrate (0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and ten repetitions. For the evaluation of feeding behavior, single animals were observed every 5 min for 24 h on 3 days. The physiological responses (respiratory rate; heart rate; rectal temperature, obtained with a rectal thermometer; and surface temperature) of the animals were evaluated at 09:00 and 15:00 h. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake did not change (P > 0.05) feeding behavior. The physiological parameters of the animals (P < 0.05) were altered; however, the changes appeared to be unrelated to the diet and to be due to the weather conditions. Peanut cake can replace soybean meal at 100% without causing negative effects on the feeding behavior or physiological parameters of confined ¾ Boer goats.

  11. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng-Yew; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C.; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:23201770

  12. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Kalra, Satya P; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 10(7) particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  13. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Kalra, Satya P; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 10(7) particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  14. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  15. Effect of flaxseed physical form on digestibility of lactation diets fed to Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J W; Bauer, M L; Bork, N R

    2014-09-01

    Four multicannulated (rumen, duodenum, and ileum) Holstein steers (459.7±46.4kg of initial body weight) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effect of flaxseed processing method on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. Treatments were based on inclusion of (1) 7.5% linseed meal (control), (2) 10% whole flaxseed, (3) 10% rolled flaxseed, or (4) 10% ground flaxseed on a dry matter (DM) basis, and were formulated to mimic typical high-producing dairy cow lactation diets. The control diet contained linseed meal in a proportion to provide crude protein (CP) equal to the amount of CP contributed by the flaxseed in the other treatments. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained 30% corn silage, 17% chopped alfalfa hay, 6% sugar beet pulp, and 47% concentrate (comprising ground corn, supplemental protein, trace minerals and vitamins, and either flaxseed or linseed meal (DM basis). Diets were formulated to contain 17% CP, 34% neutral detergent fiber, 21% acid detergent fiber, and 4% fatty acid (DM basis). Periods were 14 d long and consisted of 7 d of adaptation and 7 d of sample collection. Dry matter intake (as a % of body weight) was similar (2.41±0.17) for all treatments. The inclusion of flaxseed, regardless of processing method, tended to decrease total-tract organic matter digestibility relative to the linseed control, but no differences in CP intake, duodenal CP flow (bacterial, apparent feed, or total), ileal CP flow, fecal CP output, microbial efficiency, or CP digestibility (apparent ruminal, true ruminal, small intestine, large intestine, or total tract) were observed between treatments. Method of processing did not alter ruminal pH, ammonia, or volatile fatty acids production. The ground flaxseed treatment had the fastest rate of in situ DM degradation (11.25%/h), followed by the control (7.46%/h), rolled flaxseed (4.53%/h), and whole flaxseed (0.57%/h) treatments. Degradability of CP and fat followed the same pattern as DM

  16. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lin; Sundaram, Sneha

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-produced pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to obesity and cancer. This 2×2 experiment was designed to investigate effects of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) deficiency on pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in MCP-1 deficient and wild-type mice fed a modified AIN93G diet containing 16% and 45% of energy from corn oil, respectively. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of lung metastases compared to the AIN93G control diet. Deficiency in MCP-1 reduced lung metastases by 37% in high-fat diet-fed mice; it reduced metastatic cross-sectional area by 46% and volume by 69% compared to wild-type mice. Adipose and plasma concentrations of MCP-1 were significantly higher in high-fat diet-fed wild-type mice than in their AIN93G-fed counterparts; they were not detectable in MCP-1 deficient mice regardless of diet. Plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were significantly higher in MCP-1 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that adipose-produced MCP-1 contributes to high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis. While MCP-1 deficiency reduces metastasis, the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in the absence of MCP-1 may support the metastatic development and growth of LLC in MCP-1 deficient mice. PMID:27028862

  17. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  18. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet. PMID:26366856

  19. Growth performance and physiological parameters of conventional and specified pathogen-free rats fed autoclaved diets with different protein sources.

    PubMed

    Barszcz, M; Paradziej-Łukowicz, J; Taciak, M; Tuśnio, A; Staśkiewicz, Ł; Muszyńska-Furas, B; Lewandowska, A; Pastuszewska, B; Skomiał, J

    2015-12-01

    The effects of feeding autoclaved commercial SSNIFF (SN) diet and diets containing soya bean (S) and casein (C) to growing conventional (CON) and specified pathogen-free (SPF) rats were determined. Diets S, C and SN, autoclaved at 121 °C during 20 min (T1), at 134 °C during 10 min (T2) and non-autoclaved (T0), were fed during four weeks, each to 8 CON males and 8 females of mean initial body weight 56 g, kept individually. Diets S, C and SN, autoclaved at T1, were fed during two months, each to 20 SPF males and 20 females of mean initial body weight 58 g, kept in group of 5 animals per cage. In CON rats, autoclaving did not affect feed intake and weight gain, decreased thyroid and stomach weight, increased caecal tissue and digesta weight, and concentrations of isobutyric, isovaleric and valeric acid in caecal digesta. Among biochemical blood parameters, autoclaving decreased only total protein concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Feeding C diet resulted in lower feed intake and weight gain in CON and SPF males. Diet affected organ weights and the greatest differences were found in rats on SN diet for weights of stomach, caecum and female reproductive organs. Diet affected concentration of all short-chain fatty acids, pH and weight of caecal digesta, the most important being the greatest butyric acid concentration on SN diet and isoacids on C diet. It is concluded that autoclaving of both soya-containing and soya-free diets does not affect negatively animal performance and physiology.

  20. Effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets. Sixteen wether lambs (avg initial BW = 28.6 ± 1.3 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square and randomly allotted to one of two treatments b...

  1. Hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats fed with fructose-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Muniandy Narayanan, Jeyabarathy; Jesudoss, Victor A S

    2016-04-01

    Overconsumption of fructose increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is currently one of the most common etiologies of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against fructose-enriched diet-induced rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male albino Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into four groups: group 1, control rats fed with standard pellet; group 2, rats were fed normal pellet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day); group 3, rats were fed fructose enriched diet alone; group 4, rats were fed fructose enriched diet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day). Body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile and hepatic function indicators were increased and HDL reduced in group 3 rats. Liver pathology of group 3 showed marked changes which includes micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, marked inflammatory cell infiltration, sinusoidal fibrosis and with a significant increase in the area percentage of the collagen. Administration of zingerone reversed the fructose enriched diet induced changes especially body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic function indicators and restored pathological alteration of liver. Taken together these data provide new insights into the preventive approach of zingerone against the development of the NAFLD.

  2. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  3. Hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats fed with fructose-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Muniandy Narayanan, Jeyabarathy; Jesudoss, Victor A S

    2016-04-01

    Overconsumption of fructose increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is currently one of the most common etiologies of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against fructose-enriched diet-induced rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male albino Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into four groups: group 1, control rats fed with standard pellet; group 2, rats were fed normal pellet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day); group 3, rats were fed fructose enriched diet alone; group 4, rats were fed fructose enriched diet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day). Body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile and hepatic function indicators were increased and HDL reduced in group 3 rats. Liver pathology of group 3 showed marked changes which includes micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, marked inflammatory cell infiltration, sinusoidal fibrosis and with a significant increase in the area percentage of the collagen. Administration of zingerone reversed the fructose enriched diet induced changes especially body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic function indicators and restored pathological alteration of liver. Taken together these data provide new insights into the preventive approach of zingerone against the development of the NAFLD. PMID:26915720

  4. Growth and survival of juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas fed artificial diets containing varying levels of digestible protein and energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture methods for queen conch, Strombus gigas, have been established for several decades. However, there is a need to improve husbandry techniques for the growout of juveniles. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and survival of juvenile queen conch fed artificial diets with incr...

  5. Growth, livability, and feed conversion of 1957 vs 1991 broilers when fed "typical" 1957 and 1991 broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Havenstein, G B; Ferket, P R; Scheideler, S E; Larson, B T

    1994-12-01

    The relative contributions of genetic selection and dietary regimen on the performance of broilers was assessed. Body weight, feed consumption, mortality (M), and the degree of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) were measured in the 1957 Athens-Canadian Randombred Control (ACRBC) strain of broilers and in the 1991 Arbor Acres (AA) feather-sexable strain when fed "typical" 1957 and 1991 diets. Energy and protein levels, vitamin and mineral packs, and the coccidiostats used in the two dietary regimens were chosen to be representative of those in use by the industry for the two time periods. Eight treatment groups, i.e., two strains, two sexes, and two dietary regimens, were assigned into four blocks of eight litter floor pens for grow out. The 1957 diets were fed as mash, and the 1991 starter and grower diets were fed as crumbles and pellets, respectively. Feed consumption and BW were recorded at 21, 42, 56, 70, and 84 d of age, a period covering the normal marketing ages for the two broilers. Mortality and the cause of death was recorded daily. The incidence and severity of TD was assessed using a Lixiscope at 42 d of age. Average BW were 190, 508, 790, 1,087, and 1,400 g for the ACRBC on the 1957 diets vs 700, 2,132, 3,108, 3,812, and 4,498 g for the AA on the 1991 diets at 21, 42, 56, 70, and 84 d of age, respectively. The 1991 diets increased the BW of the AA by an average of 14% (20% at 42 d, but only 8% at 84 d) and of the ACRBC by 22%. The BW advantage for the 1991 diet over the 1957 diet for the AA was less for males than for females after 42 d of age, and the advantage decreased with age, probably due to the increasing incidence of leg problems. The M for AA was 9.1% vs 3.3% for the ACRBC at 42 d. Most of the ACRBC M occurred before 21 d, whereas M occurred throughout for the AA, with most after 21 d due to flip-overs and ascites. The feed conversion at 42 d for the ACRBC on the 1957 diet was 3.00 vs 2.04 for the AA on the 1991 diet. The AA on the 1991 diet had a

  6. Health status of birds fed diets containing three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ekunseitan, D A; Balogun, O O; Sogunle, O M; Yusuf, A O; Ayoola, A A; Egbeyale, L T; Adeyemi, O A; Allison, I B; Iyanda, A I

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3 x 3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p < 0.05) of serum glucose, total protein, globulin, uric acid and creatinine at starter phase. Birds fed diets containing 3 and 6% level of inclusion recorded the highest (p < 0.05) Packed cell volume, Haemoglobin, White blood cell and Red blood cell values. However, those fed at 0% level of inclusion recorded the highest albumin value. At finisher phase, birds fed P2 and P3 had the highest glucose, uric acid and creatinine values. 6% level of inclusion significantly (p < 0.05) increased the total protein and albumin values. Therefore, for enhanced performance and without comprising the health condition of birds; broiler chickens could be fed diets containing discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

  7. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  8. Growth performance of 20- to 50-kilogram pigs fed low-crude-protein diets supplemented with histidine, cystine, glycine, glutamic acid, or arginine.

    PubMed

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the growth performance of grower pigs fed low-CP, corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) AA-supplemented diets with that of pigs fed a positive control (PC) C-SBM diet with no supplemental Lys. Five experiments were conducted with Yorkshire crossbred pigs, blocked by BW (average initial and final BW were 21 and 41 kg, respectively) and assigned within block to treatment. Each treatment was replicated 4 to 6 times with 4 or 5 pigs per replicate pen. Each experiment lasted 28 d and plasma urea N was determined at the start and end of each experiment. All diets were formulated to contain 0.83% standardized ileal digestible Lys. All the experiments contained PC and negative control (NC) diets. The PC diet contained 18% CP and was supplemented with only DL-Met. The NC diet contained 13% CP and was supplemented with L-Lys, DL-Met, L-Thr, and L-Trp. The NC + Ile + Val diet was supplemented with 0.10% Val + 0.06% Ile. The NC + Ile + Val diet was supplemented with either His (Exp. 1), Cys (Exp. 2), Gly (Exp. 2, 3, and 4), Glu (Exp. 3), Arg (Exp. 4), or combinations of Gly + Arg (Exp. 4 and 5) or Gly + Glu (Exp. 5). Treatment differences were considered significant at P < 0.10. In 3 of the 4 experiments that had PC and NC diets, pigs fed the NC diet had decreased ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed the PC diet. The supplementation of Ile + Val to the NC diet restored ADG in 4 out of 5 experiments. However, G:F was less than in pigs fed the PC diet in 1 experiment and was intermediate between the NC and PC diets in 3 experiments. Pigs fed supplemental Ile + Val + His had decreased G:F compared with pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed supplemental Cys to achieve 50:50 Met:Cys had decreased G:F compared with pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed Ile + Val + 0.224% supplemental Gly had similar ADG, greater ADFI, and decreased G:F compared with pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed Ile + Val + 0.52% supplemental Gly had ADG and G:F similar to that of pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed

  9. A combination of flaxseed oil and astaxanthin alleviates atherosclerosis risk factors in high fat diet fed rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the most common pathologic process underlying cardiovascular disease. Both flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) are believed to benefit cardiovascular system. The combined effect of FO and ASX on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet was investigated. Methods Astaxanthin was dissolved in flaxseed oil to a final concentration of 1g/kg (FO + ASX). Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was lard (HFD) or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX (50 mg ASX/kg diet) or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX (100 mg ASX/kg diet) or FO + ASX (200 mg ASX/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Results The combination of FO and ASX significantly increased the antioxidant defense capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma. Evident decreases in the levels TG, TC and LDL-C contents, as well as IL-6 and CRP were also observed in plasma of FO and ASX fed rats. Conclusion The combination of FO and ASX can improve oxidative stress, lipid abnormalities and inflammation, providing evidence that the combination of FO and ASX could be a promising functional food in cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:24708887

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties.

  11. Responses to graded replacement of urea by maize steep liquor in diets for intensively fed lambs for meat production.

    PubMed

    Mahr-un-Nisa; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Phillips, Clive J C; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Urea is a common ingredient of the diets of intensively fed lambs, but is increasingly required for industrial processes. Maize steep liquor (MSL) is a by-product of maize grain degradation to produce starch that may be a suitable replacement. Fifty growing lambs were fed on equinitrogenous diets in which between 0% and 80% of the urea was replaced by MSL; their growth and metabolism were recorded over 70 days. Increasing replacement of urea by MSL increased feed intake and nutrient digestibilities, leading to increased growth rates, more efficient feed conversion, and increased nitrogen retention. Concentrations of triiodothyroxin, thyroxin, glucose, and methionine were increased by replacement of urea by liquor, and plasma urea was reduced. This study suggests that MSL is a suitable replacement for up to 80% of urea in the diet of rapidly growing lambs. PMID:22101979

  12. Changes in collagens and chondrocytes in the temporomandibular joint cartilage in growing rats fed a liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Uekita, Hiroki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Domon, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Taihiko

    2015-11-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of growing rats fed a soft diet is reported to be smaller in size and to have thinner condyle and glenoid fossa cartilage than rats fed a solid diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a soft diet on the collagens and chondrocytes in the growing TMJ cartilage. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control group fed a solid diet and an experimental group fed a liquid diet for 1-8 weeks. After the experimental period, the TMJs were harvested and examined histologically, immunohistochemically for collagen types I, II, and X, and with transmission electron microscopy. The condylar cartilage in the experimental rats showed weak immunoreactions for three types of collagens compared with the controls. The ultrastructure had fewer fine collagen fibrils in the experimental rats compared with that of the controls. The glenoid fossa cartilage in the experimental rats showed narrower Alcian blue-positive areas than the control staining. The immunoreactions for three types of collagen in the experimental rats were also weaker than those of the controls. The chondrocytes in the experimental rats appeared dark, had extended thin cytoplasmic processes, and had formed gap junctions, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fine collagen fibrils, but thick bands of collagen fibrils were observed in the glenoid fossa of the experimental cartilage. The results of the present study showed that a liquid diet had deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of collagens and chondrocytes in the TMJ cartilage in growing rats.

  13. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  14. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    SciTech Connect

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Kimura, Kan ); Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru )

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone (Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  15. Propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, attenuates the decrease in trabecular bone mass in high calorie diet fed growing mice.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Qadir, Abdul S; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of high calorie and low calorie diets on skeletal integrity, and whether β-adrenergic blockade (BB) attenuates bone loss induced by dietary calorie alteration. Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either an ad-lib fed control diet (CON), a high calorie diet (HIGH), or a low calorie diet (LOW) group. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist. Over 12-weeks, β-blockade mitigated body weight and fat mass increases induced by the high calorie diet. Femoral trabecular bone mineral density and the expression levels of osteogenic marker genes in bone marrow cells were reduced in HIGHVEH and LOWVEH mice, and BB significantly attenuated this decline only in HIGH mice. In summary, the magnitude of bone loss induced by low calorie diet was greater than that caused by high calorie diet in growing mice, and β-blockade mitigated high calorie diet-induced bone loss.

  16. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  17. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture.

    PubMed

    Dansen, O; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Jacobs, M P T; Everts, H; van Doorn, D A

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NE/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NE/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P < 0.0001), but NE intake was equal for both diets (22.3 ± 0.07 MJ NEm/d). Organic matter digestibility was lower (P = 0.006) for the R diet (47.2%) than the RC diet (55.6%). Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P < 0.652) after feeding and was numerically lower for the RC diet for all time points throughout the day. For both diets, HP was higher after feeding than before feeding and decreased again within approximately 3 h after feeding. Isoenergetic replacement of roughage by a cereal mix reduces CH4 production in ponies. No clear diurnal pattern in CH4 emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance.

  18. Cereal byproducts have prebiotic potential in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Berger, Karin; Falck, Peter; Linninge, Caroline; Nilsson, Ulf; Axling, Ulrika; Grey, Carl; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva; Nyman, Margareta; Holm, Cecilia; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2014-08-13

    Barley husks, rye bran, and a fiber residue from oat milk production were processed by heat pretreatment, various separation steps, and treatment with an endoxylanase in order to improve the prebiotic potential of these cereal byproducts. Metabolic functions were intended to improve along with improved microbial activity. The products obtained were included in a high-fat mouse diet so that all diets contained 5% dietary fiber. In addition, high-fat and low-fat controls as well as partially hydrolyzed guar gum were included in the study. The soluble fiber product obtained from rye bran caused a significant increase in the bifidobacteria (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.38 (6.04-6.66) and 7.47 (7.30-7.74), respectively; p < 0.001) in parallel with a tendency of increased production of propionic acid and indications of improved metabolic function compared with high-fat fed control mice. The oat-derived product caused an increase in the pool of cecal propionic (from 0.62 ± 0.12 to 0.94 ± 0.08) and butyric acid (from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.60 ± 0.04) compared with the high-fat control, and it caused a significant increase in lactobacilli (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.83 (6.65-7.53) and 8.04 (7.86-8.33), respectively; p < 0.01) in the cecal mucosa. However, no changes in measured metabolic parameters were observed by either oat or barley products.

  19. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs. PMID:27126221

  20. Effects of sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate on lactating Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Grummer, R R; Dentine, M R

    1989-02-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Orthogonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation vs. sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation. There were no differences among treatments for milk yield (34.9 kg/d), milk fat yield (.99 kg/d), 3.5% FCM (31.1 kg/d), or milk protein concentration (3.15%). There were no treatment effects on total chewing time. Milk fat concentration tended to be greater for cows fed sodium bicarbonate (2.92%) and sodium sesquicarbonate (2.89%) relative to control (2.82%). Relative to control, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation increased DM intake (22.0 and 22.7 vs. 21.4 kg/d), digestible DM intake (16.7 and 16.2 vs. 14.8 kg/d), digestible organic matter intake (16.0 and 15.5 vs. 14.3 kg/d); and apparent digestibility of DM (77.3 and 74.8 vs. 73.3%) and NDF (62.6 and 56.5 vs. 54.7%). Relative to sesquicarbonate, bicarbonate supplementation increased apparent digestibilities of CP (82.3 vs. 78.8%) and NDF, and decreased milk protein yield (1.06 vs. 1.11 kg/d). Sesquicarbonate was as effective as bicarbonate in alleviating milk fat depression and increasing intake of digestible organic matter. PMID:2539402

  1. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs.

  2. Curcumin prevents liver fat accumulation and serum fetuin-A increase in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Koçak, Hikmet; Seyidhanoğlu, Muhammed; Gürdöl, Figen; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Yildirim, Funda; Çevik, Aydin; Uysal, Müjdat

    2013-12-01

    Fetuin-A is synthesized in the liver and is secreted into the bloodstream. Clinical studies suggest involvement of fetuin-A in metabolic disorders such as visceral obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and fatty liver. Curcumin is extracted from the rhizome Curcuma longa and has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on serum fetuin-A levels as well as hepatic lipids and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 was fed control diet (10 % of total calories from fat). Groups 2 and 3 were given curcumin (100 and 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively ) by gavage for 8 weeks and were fed control diet. Group 4 was fed with HFD (60 % of total calories from fat). Groups 5 and 6 received HFD together with the two doses of curcumin, respectively. Curcumin treatment appeared to be effective in reducing liver triglycerides and serum fetuin-A levels. These findings suggest that the reduction of fetuin-A may contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  3. Oxidative susceptibility of low density lipoprotein from rabbits fed atherogenic diets containing coconut, palm, or soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Yap, S C; Choo, Y M; Hew, N F; Yap, S F; Khor, H T; Ong, A S; Goh, S H

    1995-12-01

    The oxidative susceptibilities of low density lipoproteins (LDL) isolated from rabbits fed high-fat atherogenic diets containing coconut, palm, or soybean oil were investigated. New Zealand white rabbits were fed atherogenic semisynthetic diets containing 0.5% cholesterol and either (i) 13% coconut oil and 2% corn oil (CNO), (ii) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO), (iii) 15% crude palm olein (CPO), (iv) 15% soybean oil (SO), or (v) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein without cholesterol supplementation [RBDPO(wc)], for a period of twelve weeks. Total fatty acid compositions of the plasma and LDL were found to be modulated (but not too drastically) by the nature of the dietary fats. Cholesterol supplementation significantly increased the plasma level of vitamin E and effectively altered the plasma composition of long-chain fatty acids in favor of increasing oleic acid. Oxidative susceptibilities of LDL samples were determined by Cu2(+)-catalyzed oxidation which provide the lag times and lag-phase slopes. The plasma LDL from all palm oil diets [RBDPO, CPO, and RBDPO(wc)] were shown to be equally resistant to the oxidation, and the LDL from SO-fed rabbits were most susceptible, followed by the LDL from the CNO-fed rabbits. These results reflect a relationship between the oxidative susceptibility of LDL due to a combination of the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E.

  4. Physical properties and composition of femurs of rat fed with diets based on corn tortillas made from different processes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flores, H E; Figueroa, J D C; Martínez-Bustos, F; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J; Rodriquez García, M E; Baños López, A M L; Garnica-Romo, M G

    2002-03-01

    In this study the effect of calcium absorption on some physical properties and composition of rat femurs was evaluated, comparing rats fed with raw whole corn (RC), tortillas made from extruded masa with 0.25% lime content (TEWL) and without lime (TE), and nixtamal tortillas (NT). The diets were formulated to contain the same amount of protein, oil, fiber, vitamins and minerals other than calcium. In all diets 0.20% calcium was added. At the end of the trials, the femurs were extracted, weighed and measured for ash, calcium and phosphorus content, some physical dimensions, and the crystallinity percentage. The femurs of rats fed with TEWL and NT were heavier, thicker, longer and had higher calcium content. On the other hand, the force required to break the femur of rats fed on ETWL and NT was 1.25 kg greater than that required to break the femurs of rats fed with RC. Higher crystallinity percentage values were observed in the femurs of the rats fed with NT (37.66%) and TEWL (36.98%) as compared to a 30.31% value obtained with the RC.

  5. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation.

  6. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  7. Effect of curcumin on hepatic heme oxygenase 1 expression in high fat diet fed rats: is there a triangular relationship?

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Koçak, Hikmet; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Aydin, A Fatih; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Yapişlar, Hande; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2014-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is associated with oxidative stress induced fatty liver. Curcumin, an extract of Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression along with pro-oxidant-antioxidant status and lipid accumulation in rats fed an HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed among 4 groups: Group 1, which was fed the control diet (10% of total calories from fat); Group 2, which was fed the HFD (60% of total calories from fat); and groups 3 and 4, which received the HFD supplemented with curcumin and the control diet supplemented with curcumin (1 g/kg diet; w/w), respectively, for 16 weeks. HFD caused increases in hepatic lipid levels, production of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Further, HO-1 expression was significantly decreased. Histopathological examination showed hepatic fat accumulation and slight fibrotic changes. Curcumin treatment reduced hepatic lipids and oxidative stress parameters, and HO-1 expression was significantly increased. These findings suggest that increased HO-1 expression, along with suppressed oxidative stress as well as reduced hepatic fat accumulation and fibrotic changes, contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in attenuating the pathogenesis of fatty liver induced metabolic diseases.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effects of low calorie structured lipids on rats and rabbits fed on normal and atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Kanjilal, Sanjit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bhamidipati V S K; Sugasini, Dhavamani; Rao, Yalagala Poornachandra; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Lokesh, Belur R

    2013-01-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of two low calorie structured lipids (SL1 and SL2) containing essential fatty acids, prepared by lipase catalysed interesterification of ethyl behenate respectively with sunflower and soybean oils were studied in rats and rabbits. The feeding experiment conducted on rats as well as rabbits, fed on normal and atherogenic diet containing 10% of SL1 and SL2 (experimental) and sunflower oil (control) indicated no adverse effects on growth and food intake. However, the structured lipids beneficially lowered serum and liver lipids, particularly cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and also maintains the essential fatty acid status in serum and liver. The lipid deposition observed in the arteries of rabbits fed on atherogenic diets was significantly reduced when structured lipids were included in the diet. These observations coincided with reduced levels of serum cholesterol particularly LDL cholesterol observed in experimental groups. Therefore the structured lipids, designed to have low calorific value also beneficially lower serum lipids and lipid deposition in animals fed on atherogenic diets. PMID:23017421

  9. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-03-17

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  10. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:25790040

  11. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of spider brake (Pteris multifida) with rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lee, Hou-I; Yang, Clinton; Yang, Chi-Ching

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluates the possible potency of the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of spider brake [(Pteris multifida Poiret (Pteridaceae)]. We investigated this by feeding the hyperlipidemic Sprague-Dawley rats, caused by a high cholesterol diet, with lyophilized powder of spider brake (LSB) and compared the result with the rats fed with beta-sitosterol. The results indicated that the administration of lyophilized powder of spider brake (LSB) lowered the hyperlipidemic level on rats. The relative weights of the liver, adipose tissue, and relative adipose tissue of 10% substitutions of LSB group (LSB-10) showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) by 6%, 15.9%, and 14.3% in contrast to the untreated counterparts (control), respectively. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, liver CH, and TG contents were also observed in LSB-10 compared to the untreated counterparts (by 36.8%, 21%, 18.7%, 10.2% and 14.3% reduction, respectively). Simultaneously, the wet fecal weight, dry fecal weight, nitrogen compounds, excretion of neutral steroids, and bile acids significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 9.6%, 10.6%, 23.7%, 9.7%, and 3.4% respectively. The results showed that LSB could cause not only a reduction in CH and TG, but also could increase the excretion of lipids and metabolic by-products via the intestinal tract.

  12. Hypolipidemic effect of dihydroisoquinoline oxaziridine in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aydi, Rihab; Gara, Amel Ben; Chaaben, Rim; Saad, Hajer Ben; Fki, Lotfi; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima; Kammoun, Majed

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increases the risk of many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the effects of oxaziridine 3 on lipoprotein lipase activity in the serum of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) on body weight, lipid profile and liver-kidney functions. The administration of oxaziridine 3 to HFD-rats lowered body weight and inhibited the lipase activity of obese rats leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-Ch levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-Ch concentration in serum. Moreover, the findings of this study revealed that oxaziridine 3 helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Additionally, oxaziridine 3 administration to HFD-rats induces antioxidant activity proven by the increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the decrease in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. It also induces the protection of liver-kidney functions confirmed by a decrease in the levels of toxicity parameters in blood. PMID:27470409

  13. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.

  14. Characteristics of selected peripheral blood parameters in polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) fed diets with inulin.

    PubMed

    Szymeczko, Roman; Głowińska, Beata; Burlikowska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Bogusławska-Tryk, Monika; Kozłowska, Izabela; Brudnicki, Adam; Pietruszyńska, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating changes in selected peripheral blood parameters in male polar foxes fed diets with different supplementation of inulin: 0.25% (group El), 0.5% (E2) and 1% (E3). The blood for analysis was sampled from the brachial vein. The study showed that adding 0.25 and 0.5% of inulin to fox feed resulted in a lower content of haemoglobin (Hb) as well as mean mass of Hb in red blood cells in the 0.5% inulin group. The total count of thrombocytes decreased significantly with a higher level of prebiotic, while the total number of white blood cells and the percentage of different leukocytes tested remained invariable. The lowest supplementation of inulin affected the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, however, the remaining acid-base parameters did not change. The present study provides the first preliminary information about the effect of dietary inulin on some haematological indices and acid-base parameters in adult polar foxes. The results may be helpful in practice to improve the health condition of farmed polar foxes.

  15. Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in high-fat diet fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue-Wei; Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported the favorable effect of leucine supplementation on insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity. However, whether or not leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity remains unclear. Design Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum leptin level was measured by ELISA, and leptin receptor (ObR) in the hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of ObR and leptin-signaling pathway in adipose tissues were detected by western blot. Results No significant differences in body weight and food/energy intake existed among the four groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower, and ObR expression in the hypothalamus and adipose tissues was significantly higher in the three leucine groups than in the control group. These phenomena suggested that leptin sensitivity was improved in the leucine groups. Furthermore, the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 (activated by ObR) were significantly higher, and that of SOCS3 (inhibits leptin signaling) was significantly lower in the three leucine groups than in the control group. Conclusions Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in rats on HFD likely by promoting leptin signaling. PMID:26115673

  16. Ruminal fermentation and microbial ecology of buffaloes and cattle fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Khin-Ohnmar; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Del-Barrio, Arnel N; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Matsui, Hiroki

    2012-12-01

    Although buffaloes and cattle are ruminants, their digestive capabilities and rumen microbial compositions are considered to be different. The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen microbial ecology of crossbred water buffaloes and cattle that were fed the same diet. Cattle exhibited a higher fermentation rate than buffaloes. Methane production and methanogen density were lower in buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis of Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library showed that the diversity of groups within a species was significantly different (P < 0.05) between buffalo and cattle and most of the clones were affiliated with group 2 of the species. Population densities of F.succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens were higher until 6 h post-feeding in cattle; however, buffaloes exhibited different traits. The population of anaerobic fungi decreased at 3 h in cattle compared to buffaloes and was similar at 0 h and 6 h. The diversity profiles of bacteria and fungi were similar in the two species. The present study showed that the profiles of the fermentation process, microbial population and diversity were similar in crossbred water buffaloes and crossbred cattle.

  17. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP. PMID:24944632

  18. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (P<0.05) in the slaughter weight and hot carcass weight and a quadratic effect (P<0.05) on the beef texture. No alterations occurred in the physicochemical characteristics of the longissimus thoracis; however, changes were observed (P<0.05) in the longissimus thoracis fatty acid profile. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids.

  19. Early changes in the liver-soluble proteome from mice fed a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis inducing diet.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anja; Stevens, Axel P; Klein, Matthias S; Hellerbrand, Claus; Dettmer, Katja; Gronwald, Wolfram; Oefner, Peter J; Reinders, Jörg

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with the rise in lifestyle-related diseases such as the metabolic syndrome, little is known about the changes in the liver proteome that precede the onset of inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we investigated early changes in the liver-soluble proteome of female C57BL/6N mice fed an NASH-inducing diet by 2D-DIGE and nano-HPLC-MS/MS. In parallel, histology and measurements of hepatic content of triglycerides, cholesterol and intermediates of the methionine cycle were performed. Hepatic steatosis manifested itself after 2 days of feeding, albeit significant changes in the liver-soluble proteome were not evident before day 10 in the absence of inflammatory or fibrotic signs. Proteomic alterations affected mainly energy and amino acid metabolism, detoxification processes, urea cycle, and the one-carbon/S-adenosylmethionine pathways. Additionally, intermediates of relevant affected pathways were quantified from liver tissue, confirming the findings from the proteomic analysis.

  20. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed

  1. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  2. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  3. Genetic parameters and genotype x environment interaction for feed efficiency traits in steers fed grower and finisher diets.

    PubMed

    Durunna, O N; Plastow, G; Mujibi, F D N; Grant, J; Mah, J; Basarab, J A; Okine, E K; Moore, S S; Wang, Z

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the genetic parameters and genetic correlations of feed efficiency traits in steers (n = 490) fed grower or finisher diets in 2 feeding periods. A bivariate model was used to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters using steers that received the grower and finisher diets in successive feeding periods, whereas a repeated animal model was used to estimate the permanent environmental effects. Genetic correlations between the grower-fed and finisher-fed regimens were 0.50 ± 0.48 and 0.78 ± 0.43 for residual feed intake (RFI) and G:F, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between the 2 feeding regimens may indicate the presence of a genotype × environment interaction for RFI. Permanent environmental effects (expressed in percentage of phenotypic variance) were detected in the grower-fed steers for ADG (38%), DMI (30%), RFI (18%), and G:F (40%) and also in the finisher-fed steers for ADG (28%), DMI (35%), metabolic mid-weight (23%), and RFI (10%). Heritability estimates were 0.08 ± 0.10 and 0.14 ± 0.15 for the grower-fed steers and 0.42 ± 0.16 and 0.40 ± 17 for the finisher-fed steers for RFI and G:F, respectively. The dependency of the RFI on the feeding regimen may have serious implications when selecting animals in the beef industry. Because of the higher cost of grains, feed efficiency in the feedlot might be overemphasized, whereas efficiency in the cow herd and the backgrounding segments may have less emphasis. These results may also favor the retention (for subsequent breeding) of cows whose steers were efficient in the feedlot sector. Therefore, comprehensive feeding trials may be necessary to provide more insight into the mechanisms surrounding genotype × environment interaction in steers. PMID:21622886

  4. Decaffeinated green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in normolipidic diet--but not high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Santana, Aline; Santamarina, Aline; Souza, Gabriel; Mennitti, Laís; Okuda, Marcos; Venancio, Daniel; Seelaender, Marilia; do Nascimento, Claudia Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane; Lira, Fabio; Oyama, Lila

    2015-09-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which restores metabolic profiles, has been proposed as an option for preventing and treating obesity. We investigated whether decaffeinated green tea extract rich in EGCG, attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in Swiss mice. The mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 8 weeks and supplemented with either a placebo or EGCG (50mg/kg/day). Body weight, serum lipid profiles, cytokine protein expression, and content in epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues, and adipocyte area were measured. The body weights of HFD + placebo-fed mice were increased compared with those of HFD + EGCG-fed mice (28 and 21%, respectively), whereas the body weights of CD + EGCG-fed mice were decreased 16% compared with those of the CD + placebo group. Serum triglyceride levels were decreased 32% in the CD + EGCG group compared with the CD + placebo group. Compared with the CD + placebo group, increased phosphorylation of AMPK and hormone-sensitive lipase in EPI and RET, respectively, was found in the CD + EGCG group. Increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation was observed in both adipose tissues. In addition, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in EPI and adiponectin levels were higher in the CD + EGCG group than in the CD + placebo group. TNF-α levels were lower in the HFD + EGCG group than in the HFD + placebo group. Furthermore, the CD + EGCG group exhibited a lower adipocyte area than the CD + placebo group. These indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract on body mass may be related to the crosstalk between lipolytic and inflammatory pathways in normolipidic diet-fed mice but not in HFD-fed mice.

  5. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet.

  6. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  7. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  8. Maternal green tea extract supplementation to rats fed a high-fat diet ameliorates insulin resistance in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiying; Tse, Iris M Y; Li, Edmund T S

    2012-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition is associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders in the offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal green tea (GT) supplementation can alleviate metabolic derangements in high-fat-diet-fed rats born of obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low-fat (LF, 7%), high-fat (HF, 30%) or HF diet containing 0.75% or 1.0% GT extract (GT1, GT2) prior to conception and throughout gestation and lactation. Both doses of GT significantly improved metabolic parameters of HF-fed lactating dams (P<.05). Birth weight and litter size of offspring from HF dams were similar, but GT supplementation led to lighter pups on day 21 (P<.05). The weaned male pups received HF, GT1 or GT2 diet (dam/pup diet groups: LF/HF, HF/HF, HF/GT1, HF/GT2, GT1/HF and GT2/HF). At week 13, they had similar weight but insulin resistance index (IRI), serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and liver triglyceride of rats born to GT dams were 57%, 23% and 26% lower, accompanied by improved gene/protein expressions related to lipid and glucose metabolism, compared with the HF/HF rats (P<.05). Although HF/GT1 and HF/GT2 rats had lower serum NEFA, their insulin and IRI were comparable to HF/HF rats. This study shows that metabolic derangements induced by an overnourished mother could be offset by supplementing GT to the maternal diet and that this approach is more effective than giving GT to offspring since weaning. Hence, adverse effects of developmental programming are reversible, at least in part, by supplementing bioactive food component(s) to the mother's diet.

  9. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Baxa, Ulrich; Tam, Joseph; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We measured the effects of a diet in which d-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity to IBAT. The KE group exhibited 14% greater resting energy expenditure, but the total energy expenditure measured over a 24-h period or body weights was not different. The quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index was 73% higher in the KE group. These results identify KE as a potential antiobesity supplement.—Srivastava, S., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T. Baxa, U., Tam, J., Niu, G., Chen, X., Clarke, K., Veech, R. L. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. PMID:22362892

  10. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. Results NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. Conclusion From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue. PMID:24403834

  11. The effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats receiving a diet containing coconut oil or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M

    1994-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats that received either a diet with coconut oil and safflower oil (86:14, w/w) or a diet with fish oil and safflower oil (91:9, w/w) was investigated. Zinc deficiency caused in the rats fed both types of dietary fat an increase in the amounts of total phospholipids and individual phospholipid classes in erythrocyte membranes. In the rats fed the coconut oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and in total erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. In contrast, in the rats fed the fish oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid only in PC, but not in the other phospholipids. However, in these rats, changes in the ratio between eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and the n-3 fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms were observed in PC, diacyl PE and plasmalogen PE. The most pronounced changes in fatty acid composition due to zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of fat occurred in PC. There was a relationship between the changes in the composition of plasma total fatty acids and the changes in fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane PC caused by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. The amount of cholesterol was similar in all treatment groups. However, zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet-but not those fed the fish oil diet-had an increased ratio between total phospholipids and cholesterol. Thus, the study shows that the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids is to some degree similar for rats fed a coconut oil diet and rats fed a fish oil diet, and to some degree different.

  12. EDTA disodium zinc has superior bioavailability compared to common inorganic or chelated zinc compounds in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Sherrard, Lindsey; Plouffe, Louise J

    2012-10-01

    Different zinc (Zn) compounds have unique properties that may influence the amount of Zn absorbed particularly in the presence of phytic acid (PA), a common food component that binds Zn and decreases its bioavailability. In this study, 30-day-old male rats (n=12/diet group) were fed diets supplemented with PA (0.8%) and low levels (8mg Zn/kg diet) of inorganic (Zn oxide, Zn sulphate) or chelated (Zn gluconate, Zn acetate, Zn citrate, EDTA disodium Zn, Zn orotate) Zn compounds for 5 weeks. Two control groups were fed diets supplemented with low or normal (30mg Zn/kg diet) Zn (as Zn oxide) without added PA. Control rats fed the low Zn oxide diet showed depressed Zn status. Addition of PA to this diet exacerbated the Zn deficiency in rats. Growth (body weight gain and femur length) and Zn concentrations in plasma and tissues were similar in rats fed Zn oxide, Zn sulphate, Zn gluconate, Zn acetate, Zn citrate or Zn orotate. Rats fed EDTA disodium Zn showed enhanced growth compared to rats fed Zn oxide or Zn gluconate and had higher Zn concentrations in plasma and femur compared to rats fed all other Zn compounds. Only the haematological profile of rats fed EDTA disodium Zn did not differ from control rats fed normal Zn. These data indicate that in rats fed a high PA diet, bioavailability of commonly used inorganic or chelated Zn compounds does not differ appreciably, but Zn supplied as an EDTA disodium salt has superior bioavailability.

  13. The role of vitamin E or clay in growing Japanese quail fed diets polluted by cadmium at various levels.

    PubMed

    Abou-Kassem, D E; Mahrose, Kh M; Alagawany, M

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether vitamin (Vit) E or natural clay as feed additives has the potential to modulate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to cadmium (Cd) in growing Japanese quail. 648 Japanese quail chicks (1 week old) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet) and two levels of Vit E (0, 250 mg/kg diet) or two levels of natural clay (0 and 100 mg/kg diet) to study the influences of Cd, Vit E, clay or their different combinations on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood biochemical components and Cd residues in muscles and liver. Live BW and weight gain of quails were linearly decreased with increasing dietary Cd levels. Moreover, feed conversion was significantly worsened with increasing Cd level. Mortality percentage was linearly increased as dietary Cd level increased up to 120 mg/kg diet. Carcass percentage was linearly decreased as dietary Cd level increased. While, giblets percentage were linearly and quadratically differed as dietary Cd level increased. Cd caused significant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea-N and uric acid concentrations as well as ALT, AST and ALP activities. Increasing dietary Cd level was associated with its increase in the muscles and liver. Dietary supplementation with 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet or 100 mg clay/kg improved live BW, BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the un-supplemented diet. Quails fed diet contained 250 mg Vit E/kg and those fed 100 mg clay/kg had the highest percentages of carcass and dressing than those fed the un-supplemented diet. Blood plasma biochemical components studied were better when birds received 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet and those received 100 mg clay/kg. Cd residues in the muscles and liver were significantly less in the birds had 250 mg of Vit E/kg or those received 100 mg clay/kg diet than those un-supplemented with Vit E. Growth performance traits and blood plasma

  14. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  15. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  16. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: I. Effects on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Estienne, M J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) and vitamin E on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status in pigs fed diets high in oxidants. Crossbred barrows (n=100, 10.91±0.65 kg BW, 36±2 d of age, Landrace×Duroc) were allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included 1) HO, high-oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soybean oil and 10% PUFA source (providing 2.05% docosahexaenoic acid in the diet), 2) VE, the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E, 3) AOX, the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg), 4) VE+AOX, the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend, and 5) SC, a standard corn-soy control diet. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet because the animals were displaying very poor health. Compared with SC pigs, HO pigs had decreased ADG (0.92 vs. 0.51 kg for d 26 to 55, 1.29 vs. 0.34 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05) and ADFI (1.84 vs. 0.96 kg for d 26 to 55, 3.41 vs. 1.14 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05). However, switching the HO pigs to the SC diet resulted in HO pigs having a greater ADG than VE-fed pigs from d 83 to 118 (0.90 vs. 0.60 kg; P<0.05). The antioxidant blend restored pig performance to a level similar that of pigs fed the SC diet (P>0.05) with greater G:F for the entire period (0.44 vs. 0.38; P<0.05). A greater liver to BW ratio was found in HO compared with other treatments on d 55 and in VE on d 118. Total bilirubin concentration in plasma of HO pigs on d 55 was greater than that in VE+AOX pigs (P<0.05), whereas on d 118, bilirubin concentration in VE was higher than those in VE+AOX and SC (P<0.05). A similar trend was observed in aspartate transaminase. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl were elevated (P<0.05) in the HO pigs compared with the SC pigs on d 55 but not on d 118. Liver TBARS and

  17. Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Pusztai, A

    1993-12-01

    Pancreatic weights and composition were studied with rats fed diets containing raw legume seeds for up to 800 d. Rapid pancreatic enlargement was induced by dietary soybeans (Glycine max) (high Kunitz and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor contents, moderate lectin content) during the initial 150 d. Over the next 200 d the rate of pancreatic growth was similar to that in controls. After 350 d a second period of rapid pancreatic growth occurred. Macroscopic pancreatic nodules were evident in a number of rats fed soybeans for 500 d or more. A similar pattern of pancreatic growth was observed in rats fed dietary cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (high Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content). Extensive pancreatic growth was also found in young rats fed moderate dietary levels of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, high lectin content). However, the trophic effects diminished with time, and from 100 d onwards, little enlargement was evident. Consumption of a lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius) diet (low trypsin inhibitor, low lectin content) did not cause pancreatic enlargement. The initial pancreatic growth induced by dietary soybeans seemed to be due to the lectins and trypsin inhibitors, whereas the second period of pancreatic growth was possibly due primarily to the trypsin inhibitors.

  18. Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Pusztai, A

    1993-12-01

    Pancreatic weights and composition were studied with rats fed diets containing raw legume seeds for up to 800 d. Rapid pancreatic enlargement was induced by dietary soybeans (Glycine max) (high Kunitz and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor contents, moderate lectin content) during the initial 150 d. Over the next 200 d the rate of pancreatic growth was similar to that in controls. After 350 d a second period of rapid pancreatic growth occurred. Macroscopic pancreatic nodules were evident in a number of rats fed soybeans for 500 d or more. A similar pattern of pancreatic growth was observed in rats fed dietary cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (high Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content). Extensive pancreatic growth was also found in young rats fed moderate dietary levels of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, high lectin content). However, the trophic effects diminished with time, and from 100 d onwards, little enlargement was evident. Consumption of a lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius) diet (low trypsin inhibitor, low lectin content) did not cause pancreatic enlargement. The initial pancreatic growth induced by dietary soybeans seemed to be due to the lectins and trypsin inhibitors, whereas the second period of pancreatic growth was possibly due primarily to the trypsin inhibitors. PMID:7505319

  19. Effect of crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) hay harvest interval on forage quality and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Hutchison, S; Stewart, C B; Shockey, J D; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Twelve 0.81-ha crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) hay fields were harvested at 21, 35, and 49 d of regrowth (average phonological growth stage of 30, 51, and 56, respectively). Increased harvest interval exhibited a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in CP (14.1, 13.7, and 10.6% of DM, respectively) and increase (P < 0.01) in NDF (65.3, 70.6, and 70.2% of DM, respectively) and ADF (35.7, 38.9, and 42.7% of DM, respectively). Hays were incorporated into 3 diets that contained 20% (DM basis) crabgrass hay, ground corn (33%), and soybean hulls (32%). Diets contained 14.4, 14.4, and 13.6% CP; 1.83, 1.72, and 1.81 Mcal of NE(m)/kg; and 1.21, 1.10, and 1.17 Mcal of NE(g)/kg; respectively. Diets were fed to beef calves in 12 pens at a rate of 2.3% (DM basis) of BW in 1 experiment (n = 120, initial BW 210 +/- 4.4 kg) and ad libitum in another experiment (n = 60, initial BW 207 +/- 4.4 kg). To measure passage rate of the hay and concentrate portions of the diets, 12 heifer calves (BW = 145 +/- 4.5 kg) were individually fed at 2.3% of BW for 14 d and dosed with Dy-labeled soybean hulls and Yb-labeled hay. In situ DM digestibility of the hays and diets were determined using 3 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 584 +/- 10.4 kg). Harvest interval did not affect (P > or = 0.11) ADG of limit-fed calves during the diet acclimation or growing phases (average 0.32 and 0.80 kg, respectively) or ADG of calves fed ad libitum (average 1.21 kg). Dry matter intake of calves fed ad libitum averaged 7.9 kg/d (3.28% of BW) and was not affected (P > or = 0.22) by harvest interval. Gain:feed was not affected (P > or = 0.20) by harvest interval (0.13 and 0.15 for limit-fed and ad libitum-fed calves, respectively). Increased harvest interval linearly increased (P < 0.01) ruminal retention time of the hay and tended (P = 0.06) to linearly increase ruminal retention time of the concentrate portions of the diet. Harvest interval linearly decreased (P < or = 0.05) the extent of degradability and

  20. The SIRT1 activator SRT1720 extends lifespan and improves health of mice fed a standard diet.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Mercken, Evi M; Palacios, Hector H; Ward, Theresa M; Abulwerdi, Gelareh; Minor, Robin K; Vlasuk, George P; Ellis, James L; Sinclair, David A; Dawson, John; Allison, David B; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-03-13

    The prevention or delay of the onset of age-related diseases prolongs survival and improves quality of life while reducing the burden on the health care system. Activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, improves metabolism and confers protection against physiological and cognitive disturbances in old age. SRT1720 is a specific SIRT1 activator that has health and lifespan benefits in adult mice fed a high-fat diet. We found extension in lifespan, delayed onset of age-related metabolic diseases, and improved general health in mice fed a standard diet after SRT1720 supplementation. Inhibition of proinflammatory gene expression in both liver and muscle of SRT1720-treated animals was noted. SRT1720 lowered the phosphorylation of NF-κB pathway regulators in vitro only when SIRT1 was functionally present. Combined with our previous work, the current study further supports the beneficial effects of SRT1720 on health across the lifespan in mice.

  1. Relationship between membrane potential and respiration rate in isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed an energy dense diet.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, L; Iossa, S; Brand, M D; Liverini, G

    1996-05-24

    We studied the relationship between membrane potential and respiration rate in isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed an energy dense diet. We conceptually divided the system into blocks of reactions that produced or consumed mitochondrial membrane potential and then measured the kinetic response of these blocks of reactions to this potential using NAD-linked and FAD-linked substrates. We show that decreased respiration rate with an NAD-linked substrate is accounted for by decreased kinetic response of the substrate oxidation pathway to the potential. No variation in the kinetic response of the above blocks of reactions to the potential was found using an FAD-linked substrate. These results indicate that FAD-linked and NAD-linked pathways are differently affected in rats fed an energy dense diet.

  2. Effects of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts in high-fat diet-fed obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak-Yong; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Young-Mi; Moon, Dae-In; Oh, Hong-Geun; Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Okjin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Se-Chul; Lee, Kun-Hee; Seol, Su-Yeon; Park, Yong-Sik; Park, Jong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng and its extracts have been used as traditional medicines and functional foods in countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the bioavailability of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts (GS-E3D), and the effects of GS-E3D on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as on metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver in high-fat diet fed obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 5 groups: normal diet group, high fat diet-vehicle group, high fat diet + 0.1 g/kg GS-E3D (0.1-GS-E3D), high fat diet + 0.3 g/kg (0.3-GS-E3D), high fat diet + 1.0 g/kg (1.0-GS-E3D). Treatment of GS-E3D reduced differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with low cytotoxicity. In the animal model, compared to the high fat diet control, serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and leptin level were reduced in treatment animals in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we found that GS-E3D could decrease total hepatic lipid droplets. These results suggest that GS-E3D, as a dietary supplement, has beneficial effects on obesity and may have useful effects in health-care products. PMID:25628725

  3. Energy requirement for maintenance and growth of Nellore bulls and steers fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L O; Boin, C; Fox, D G; Leme, P R; Alleoni, G F; Lanna, D P D

    2002-06-01

    Data from three comparative slaughter experiments with individually fed Nellore bulls (n = 31) and steers (n = 66) were utilized to determine their NEm and NEg requirements when fed high-forage diets. The experimental design provided ranges in ME intake, BW, and ADG for the development of regression equations to predict NEm and NEg requirements. The Nellore bulls (Trial 1) were divided into two intake levels (ad libitum and 65% of the ad libitum). The steers (Trials 2 and 3) were allocated to three intake levels (ad libitum and 55 and 70% of the ad libitum). In both trials, there were three slaughter groups within each intake level. The three end points for the bulls were different days on treatment (100, 150, and 190 d and 130, 180, and 200 d, respectively, for older and younger animal subgroups). The steers were slaughtered when animals of the ad libitum treatment reached 400, 440, and 480 kg shrunk BW (SBW) on average for the first, second, and third group, respectively. For all body composition determinations, whole empty body components were weighed, ground, and subsampled for chemical analysis. In each of the trials, initial body composition was determined with equations developed from a baseline slaughter group, using SBW and empty BW (EBW), fat (EBF), and protein (EBP) as variables. The NEm was similar for bulls and steers; NEm averaged 77.2 kcal/ kg0.75 EBW. However, the efficiency of conversion of ME to net energy for maintenance was greater for steers than for bulls (68.8 and 65.6%, respectively), indicating that bulls had a greater ME requirement for maintenance than steers (5.4%; P < 0.05). Our analyses do not support the NRC (2000) conclusion that Nellore, a Bos indicus breed, has a lower net energy requirement for maintenance than Bos taurus breeds. An equation developed with the pooled data to predict retained energy (RE) was similar to the NRC (2000) equation. A second equation was developed to predict RE adjusted for degree of maturity (u): RE

  4. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Results from the present study suggest that Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  5. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p < 0.05), with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver lipid deposition were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Accordingly, both fecal cholesterol and bile acids levels were significantly increased after LAB administration (p < 0.05). Intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The

  6. Simvastatin increases liver branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in rats fed with low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Knapik-Czajka, Malgorzata

    2014-11-01

    The rate-limiting step in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) disposal is catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). BCKDH activity is regulated mainly by a reversible dephosphorylation (activation)/phosphorylation (inactivation) cycle catalyzed by a specific phosphatase (BDP) and kinase (BDK). Current catalytic activity of BCKDH, described as BCKDH activity state, and thus also BCAAs catabolic rate depend directly on the portion of BCKDH occurring in its active dephosphorylated form. Liver BCKDH activity state alters in response to different nutritional factors. Feeding rats a low-protein diet decreases BCKDH activity. It has been previously shown that lipid lowering drugs, fibrates upregulate liver BCKDH activity and stimulate BCAAs catabolism, especially under the condition of dietary protein deprivation. Effect of statins on liver BCKDH activity has not been studied yet. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effect of simvastatin on liver BCKDH activity, as well as E1, E2 and BDP and BDK mRNA levels in rats fed with either a standard (23% protein) or a low protein (8% protein) diet. For 14 days, simvastatin (80 mg/kg b wt/day) or the vehicle (0.3% methylcellulose) were administrated orally by gavage to the treated and control groups, respectively. The actual BCKDH and total BCKDH activities were assayed spectrophotometrically prior to and following incubation with lambda phosphatase, respectively. The mRNA levels of the selected genes were quantified by means of a semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In rats fed with the low protein diet simvastatin administration reversed physiological adaptation of liver BCKDH to protein restriction and increased liver BCKDH activity state by 39% (p<0.05). Changes in BCKDH activity did not correspond to any changes in mRNA levels for BCKDH catalytic and regulatory enzymes. On the contrary, in rats fed with standard diet liver BCKDH activity state did not alter substantially

  7. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    PubMed

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p < 0.05) for the MCT and soya bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p < 0.05) for the diets containing MCT and soya bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  8. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC.

  9. Changing dietary cation-anion difference for dairy cows fed with two contrasting levels of concentrate in diets.

    PubMed

    Apper-Bossard, E; Peyraud, J L; Faverdin, P; Meschy, F

    2006-02-01

    High-producing dairy cows are commonly fed diets containing a high proportion of rapidly degradable starch, which can cause subacute acidosis and reduce dry matter (DM) intake. Because of the properties of nonmetabolizable cations and anions, increasing the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD = Na + K - Cl - S in mEq/kg of DM) may prevent a drop in DM intake. To test this hypothesis, 48 Holstein cows were blocked into 2 groups of 24 and assigned to two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a split-plot design. Each group received one level of concentrate at either 20% or 40% on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diet containing 20% concentrate was formulated to supply 4% rapidly degradable starch, whereas the diet containing 40% concentrate supplied 22% rapidly degradable starch. Diets in each square were formulated to provide a DCAD of 0, 150, or 300 mEq/kg of DM. The 3 values were obtained by manipulating Na and Cl contents. Intake, 4% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk fat percentage, as well as blood nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate increased with DCAD, but only on the diet providing 40% concentrate. The yield of trans-10 C(18:1) and odd-chain fatty acids decreased with increasing DCAD, whereas trans-11 C(18:1) increased. Again, this occurred only with the diet providing 40% concentrate. Blood pH and HCO(3) concentration increased along with DCAD, irrespective of the concentrate level. A positive DCAD led to increasing DM intake and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows fed highly degradable diets. The mechanism involved may be a localized rumen buffering effect, together with the ability of positive DCAD to maintain blood acid-base status in cows faced with a massive acid input.

  10. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS. PMID:26134356

  11. D-psicose increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat accumulation in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Onishi, Kana; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of D-psicose by increasing energy expenditure in rats pair-fed the high-sucrose diet (HSD). Wistar rats were divided into two dietary groups: HSD containing 5% cellulose (C) and 5% d-psicose (P). The C dietary group was further subdivided into two groups: rats fed the C diet ad libitum (C-AD) and pair-fed the C diet along with those in the P group (C-PF). Resting energy expenditure during darkness and lipoprotein lipase activity in the soleus muscle were significantly higher in the P group than in the C-PF group. Serum levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver and perirenal adipose tissue; and body fat accumulation were all significantly lower in the P group than in the C-PF group. The anti-obesity effects of D-psicose could be induced not only by suppressing lipogenic enzyme activity but also by increasing EE in rats.

  12. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  13. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  14. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin; Roh, Gu Seob

    2016-03-01

    Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  15. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 inhibits adipose tissue inflammation and intestinal permeability in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Michio; Miyoshi, Masaya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Kadooka, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has anti-obesity effects. Obesity is closely correlated with inflammation in adipose tissue, and maintaining adipose tissue in a less-inflamed state requires intestinal integrity or a barrier function to protect the intestine from the disruption that can be caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we examined the anti-inflammatory and intestinal barrier-protecting effects of LG2055 in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat diet (NFD), HFD, or the HFD containing LG2055 (HFD-LG) for 21 weeks. HFD-LG intake significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body weight, visceral fat mass, and the ratio of inflammatory-type macrophages to anti-inflammatory ones in adipose tissue. Mice fed the HFD showed higher intestinal permeability to a fluorescent dextran administered by oral administration and an elevated concentration of antibodies specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the blood compared with those fed the NFD, suggesting an increased penetration of the gut contents into the systemic circulation. These elevations of intestinal permeability and anti-LPS antibody levels were significantly suppressed in mice fed the HFD-LG. Moreover, treatment with LG2055 cells suppressed an increase in the cytokine-induced permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results suggest that LG2055 improves the intestinal integrity, reducing the entry of inflammatory substances like LPS from the intestine, which may lead to decreased inflammation in adipose tissue.

  16. Lipoic acid increases the expression of genes involved in bone formation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Cui, Jue; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2011-04-01

    Antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) has been reported to have a potential prophylactic effect on bone loss induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The aim of this work was to examine the hypothesis that LA decreases bone resorption-related gene expression and increases bone formation-related gene expression in HFD-fed mice, preventing a shift in the bone metabolism balance toward resorption. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, HFD, or HFD plus 0.1% LA for 12 weeks. The bone metabolism-related genes differentially expressed between mice fed HFD and those fed HFD supplemented with LA were identified through complementary DNA microarray. The supplemental LA significantly increased bone mineral density and bone antioxidant capacity in mice fed HFD (P < .05). Compared with the HFD-fed mice, LA induced the decreased expression of genes associated with bone resorption, such as Mmp9 (1.9-fold) and Ctsk (2.3-fold), and increased those genes associated with bone formation, such as Col1a1 (1.3-fold) and Alp1 (1.5-fold). Furthermore, LA upregulated many genes involved in the Igf signaling pathway, such as Igf-1 (increased 1.7-fold), and downregulated genes involved in the p53 apoptotic pathway, such as p53 (decreased 2.3-fold), thus attenuating the HFD-induced inhibition of bone formation. Lipoic acid induced upregulation of Il12a (2.1-fold) and downregulation of Tgfbr1 (4.3-fold) and Il17a (11.3-fold), which may reduce bone resorption. In summary, LA supplementation during HFD could affect bone density, altering gene expression.

  17. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects. PMID:24173620

  18. Troxerutin reverses fibrotic changes in the myocardium of high-fat high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Radika, Mutulur Krishnamoorthy; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamurthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2015-09-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that troxerutin (TX) provides cardioprotection by mitigating lipid abnormalities in a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aims to investigate the reversal effect of TX on the fibrogenic changes in the myocardium of HFFD-fed mice. Adult male Mus musculus mice were grouped into four and fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Each group was divided into two, and the mice were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) from the 16th day. HFFD-fed mice showed marked changes in the electrocardiographic data. Increased levels of myocardial superoxide, p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, transforming growth factor (TGF), smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-9 and -2, and decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of MMPs-1 and -2 were observed. Furthermore, degradation products of troponin I and myosin light chain-1 were observed in the myocardium by immunoblotting. Rise in collagen was observed by hydroxyproline assay, while fibrotic changes were noticed by histology and Western blotting. Hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and myocardial calcium accumulation were also observed in HFFD-fed mice. TX treatment exerted cardioprotective and anti-fibrotic effects in HFFD-fed mice by improving cardiac contractile function, reducing superoxide production and by favorably modifying the fibrosis markers. These findings suggest that TX could be cardioprotective through its antioxidant and antifibrogenic actions. This new finding could pave way for translation studies to human MS.

  19. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects.

  20. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  1. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  2. Haloperidol and rimonabant increase delay discounting in rats fed high-fat and standard-chow diets.

    PubMed

    Boomhower, Steven R; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2014-12-01

    The dopamine and endocannabinoid neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, and obesity. The current study was designed to determine the extent to which haloperidol and rimonabant affected delay discounting in rats fed standard-chow and high-fat diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to free-feed under a high-fat diet (4.73 kcal/g) or a standard-chow diet (3.0 kcal/g) for 3 months. Then, operant sessions began in which rats (n=9 standard chow; n=10 high-fat) chose between one sucrose pellet delivered immediately versus three sucrose pellets after a series of delays. In another condition, carrot-flavored pellets replaced sucrose pellets. After behavior stabilized, acute injections of rimonabant (0.3-10 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally before some choice sessions under both pellet conditions. Haloperidol and rimonabant increased discounting in both groups of rats by decreasing percent choice for the larger reinforcer and area-under-the-curve values. Rats in the high-fat diet condition showed increased sensitivity to haloperidol compared with chow-fed controls; haloperidol increased discounting in both dietary groups in the sucrose condition, but only in the high-fat-fed rats in the carrot-pellet condition. These findings indicate that blocking dopamine-2 and cannabinoid-1 receptors results in increased delay discounting, and that a high-fat diet may alter sensitivity to dopaminergic compounds using the delay-discounting task.

  3. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  4. Impact of combined β-glucanase and xylanase enzymes on growth performance, nutrients utilization and gut microbiota in broiler chickens fed corn or wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Munyaka, P M; Nandha, N K; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M; Khafipour, E

    2016-03-01

    The effects of a xylanase and β-glucanase (XB) blend (2,500 U of xylanase and 250 U of β-glucanase per kg of complete feed) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and digesta microbiota in broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 140 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 replicate cages and fed experimental diets. Diets were based on either corn or wheat without or with supplemental XB. Performance was monitored weekly and excreta were collected from d 17 to 20 for nutrients digestibility and AMEn measurements. On d 21, jejunal contents were collected for viscosity determination whereas ileal and cecal contents were obtained for microbial analysis by Illumina sequencing. Microbial data were analyzed using QIIME and PLS-DA whilst other data were analyzed using SAS. Birds fed wheat diets had higher (P < 0.001) BWG (3.4%) than birds fed corn-based diet whilst birds fed XB had better BWG (4%) and FCR (7%) than birds fed non-XB diets. Birds fed wheat diet had higher (P < 0.001) NDF (46.5%) and less (P = 0.01) CP (-5.4%) digestibility compared to birds fed corn-based diet. XB reduced (P < 0.001) jejunal digesta viscosity to a greater extent in wheat diet (-31%) than in corn-based diet (-10%). Birds fed wheat-based diet with XB had higher (3.5%) starch digestibility than birds fed this diet without XB. Janthinobacterium was associated with non-XB corn-based diet, whereas Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Acidovorax and Blautia were associated with XB corn-based diet in the ileum. A relatively similar microbiome clustering was observed in wheat-based treatments in the cecum. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations between selected ileal or cecal bacterial taxa and AMEn. Diet impacted growth performance but XB was efficacious across diet types, implying that degradation of dietary fibrous components by feed enzymes may stimulate performance in young birds. Data provided

  5. PTEN Inhibition Improves Muscle Regeneration in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Wang, Huiling; Lee, In Hee; Modi, Swati; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mechanisms impairing wound healing in diabetes are poorly understood. To identify mechanisms, we induced insulin resistance by chronically feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD). We also examined the regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) during muscle regeneration because augmented IGF-1 signaling can improve muscle regeneration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Muscle regeneration was induced by cardiotoxin injury, and we evaluated satellite cell activation and muscle maturation in HFD-fed mice. We also measured PIP3 and the enzymes regulating its level, IRS-1–associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and PTEN. Using primary cultures of muscle, we examined how fatty acids affect PTEN expression and how PTEN knockout influences muscle growth. Mice with muscle-specific PTEN knockout were used to examine how the HFD changes muscle regeneration. RESULTS The HFD raised circulating fatty acids and impaired the growth of regenerating myofibers while delaying myofiber maturation and increasing collagen deposition. These changes were independent of impaired proliferation of muscle progenitor or satellite cells but were principally related to increased expression of PTEN, which reduced PIP3 in muscle. In cultured muscle cells, palmitate directly stimulated PTEN expression and reduced cell growth. Knocking out PTEN restored cell growth. In mice, muscle-specific PTEN knockout improved the defects in muscle repair induced by HFD. CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance impairs muscle regeneration by preventing myofiber maturation. The mechanism involves fatty acid–stimulated PTEN expression, which lowers muscle PIP3. If similar pathways occur in diabetic patients, therapeutic strategies directed at improving the repair of damaged muscle could include suppression of PTEN activity. PMID:20200318

  6. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets.

    PubMed

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  7. Deletion of LOX-1 reduces atherogenesis in LDLR knockout mice fed high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jawahar L; Sanada, Nobuhito; Hu, Chang Ping; Chen, Jiawei; Dandapat, Abhijit; Sugawara, Fumiaki; Satoh, Hiroo; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kawase, Yosuke; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro; Schnackenberg, Laura; Beger, Richard; Hermonat, Paul L; Thomas, Maria; Sawamura, Tatsuya

    2007-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and upregulation of LOX-1, an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Here, we describe generation of LOX-1 knockout (KO) mice in which binding of oxLDL to aortic endothelium was reduced and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation preserved after treatment with oxLDL (P<0.01 versus wild-type mice). To address whether endothelial functional preservation might lead to reduction in atherogenesis, we crossed LOX-1 KO mice with LDLR KO mice and fed these mice 4% cholesterol/10% cocoa butter diet for 18 weeks. Atherosclerosis was found to cover 61+/-2% of aorta in the LDLR KO mice, but only 36+/-3% of aorta in the double KO mice. Luminal obstruction and intima thickness were significantly reduced in the double KO mice (versus LDLR KO mice). Expression of redox-sensitive NF-kappaB and the inflammatory marker CD68 in LDLR KO mice was increased (P<0.01 versus wild-type mice), but not in the double KO mice. On the other hand, antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression and superoxide dismutase activity were low in the LDLR KO mice (P<0.01 versus wild-type mice), but not in the double KO mice. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was also preserved in the double KO mice. The proinflammatory signal MAPK P38 was activated in the LDLR KO mice, and LOX-1 deletion reduced this signal. In conclusion, LOX-1 deletion sustains endothelial function leading to a reduction in atherogenesis in association with reduction in proinflammatory and prooxidant signals. PMID:17478727

  8. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  9. Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Natalie; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; van Ruth, Paul; van Ginkel, Roel; McNabb, Paul; Hay, Brenda; O'Connor, Wayne; Kiermeier, Andreas; Deveney, Marty; McLeod, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10⁵ Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g⁻¹ (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹, which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is ∼50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 μg 100 g⁻¹ tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by ∼70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone.

  10. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  11. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  12. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  13. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  14. Effects of Dietary Calcium Supplementation on Bone Metabolism, Kidney Mineral Concentrations, and Kidney Function in Rats Fed a High-Phosphorus Diet.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Shinichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation on bone metabolism, kidney mineral concentrations, and kidney function in rats fed a high-phosphorus (P) diet. Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups and fed their respective diets for 21 d: a diet containing 0.3% P and 0.5% Ca (C), a diet containing 1.5% P and 0.5% Ca (HP), a diet containing 0.3% P and 1.0% Ca (HCa), or a diet containing 1.5% P and 1.0% Ca (HPCa). Compared to the C group, the high-P diet increased serum parathyroid hormone concentration, markers of bone turnover, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand mRNA expression of the femur, kidney Ca and P concentrations, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, and urinary β2-microglobulin excretion, and decreased bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the femur and tibia. Dietary Ca supplementation improved the parameters of bone metabolism and kidney function in rats fed the high-P diet, while there were no significant differences in kidney Ca or P concentrations between the HP and HPCa groups. These results suggest that dietary Ca supplementation prevented the bone loss and decline in kidney function induced by a high-P diet, whereas dietary Ca supplementation did not affect kidney mineral concentrations in rats fed the high-P diet.

  15. Efficacy of dietary spray dried plasma protein to mitigate the negative effects on performance of pigs fed diets with corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A C; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J D; Polo, J; Kim, S W

    2014-09-01

    The ability of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) to reduce the negative effects of multiple mycotoxins from naturally contaminated corn on weaned pig performance and health was investigated (n = 180; 6.84 ± 0.11 kg). For 12 d after weaning, pigs were fed phase 1 nursery diets with either 0% SDPP (PP0) or 6% SDPP (PP6). After 12 d, pigs were fed phase 2 diets for 3 wk. Pigs fed PP0 in phase 1 continued to be fed a phase 2 diet with no SDPP (PP0/PP0) or were fed a diet including corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (M), labeled PP0/PP0M. Pigs fed SDPP in phase 1 were fed either a diet with no SDPP (PP6/PP0), a diet with M and no SDPP (PP6/PP0M), a diet with M and 3% SDPP (PP6/PP3M), or a diet with M and 6% SDPP (PP6/PP6M). During phase 1, pigs fed PP6 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, whereas immunological parameters were not altered. During phase 2, pigs consuming PP0/PP0M had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.05) in contrast to pigs fed PP0/PP0, whereas the performance of pigs fed PP6/PP0M was intermediate to pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0. The ADG and ADFI did not differ for pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0M during phase 2. Performance of pigs fed PP6/PP3M in contrast to pigs fed PP6/PP0M during phase 2 did not differ; however, these pigs had lower (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor α and tended (P = 0.094) to have lower DNA damage. During phase 2, ADG and ADFI of pigs fed PP6/PP6M did not differ from pigs fed PP6/PP0M, but G:F tended (P = 0.067) to be increased in pigs fed PP6/PP6M. Over the entire study period, pigs fed PP0/PP0M had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P = 0.067) to have reduced ADFI. During this time, pigs fed PP6/PP0M tended to have greater ADG and ADFI (P = 0.093 and P = 0.067, respectively) compared with pigs fed PP0/PP0M. Overall, feeding a diet with SDPP improved growth performance and feed intake of young pigs directly after weaning. Feeding multiple M had a negative impact on growth performance of pigs during

  16. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained. PMID:24502172

  17. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  18. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained.

  19. High temperature- and high pressure-processed garlic improves lipid profiles in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong; Kim, Mee Ree

    2012-05-01

    Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles.

  20. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid influence liver triacylglycerol and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim; Deminice, Rafael; Simões-Ambrosio, Livia Maria Cordeiro; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO) on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6) and Fructose (Fr, n = 32), the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased) and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased). The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet.

  1. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  2. Production response of lactating cows fed dried versus wet brewers' grain in diets with similar dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bingham, H R; Radloff, H D

    2003-09-01

    Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (20 intact and 4 fitted with rumen cannula) during early lactation (56 +/- 25.3 d in milk) were assigned to two treatments to determine intake and production responses to feeding dried and wet brewers' grain. There were two cows fitted with a rumen cannula in each treatment. Cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily containing either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The diet contained 47% forage and 53% concentrate. The experimental design was a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square with two periods of 5 wk each. First 2 wk in each period were considered as adaptation to diets and data from the last 3 wk were used for treatment comparisons. Dried and wet brewers' diets contained 68.0 and 66.5% DM, respectively. Feeding brewers' grain dry or wet to dairy cows had no influence on feed intake (25.6 vs. 25.1 kg/d), fat corrected milk yield (40.1 vs. 40.7 kg/d), milk composition and feed consumption. The pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acids and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not different between treatments. Fatty acid composition of milk fat from cows fed diets containing dry or wet brewers' grain was identical, except C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids were lower in milk fat from cows fed wet brewers' grain compared with dried brewers' grain. The results from the present study suggest that the performance of cows fed either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of dietary DM was similar when diets had the same DM. The average price for dried and wet brewers' grain in the United States from July 2001 to June 2002 was dollars 145.3 and dollars 96.9/metric tonne DM, respectively. Using wet instead of dried brewers' grain will save dollars 49/metric tonne minus the difference in storage costs. Wet brewers' grain can be fed to dairy cows in areas that are close to the brewery and provides nutritive value similar to the dried brewers' grain.

  3. Mulberry ethanol extract attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Lai, Jia; Tang, Qiong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. Mulberry is an important source of phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we developed a hypothesis that mulberry exerted beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and evaluated the influence of the mulberry ethanol extract (MEE) on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into 3 groups and fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplementation with MEE. Our results showed that administration of MEE reduced diet-induced body weight gain, improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, alleviated insulin resistance, and improved glucose homeostasis. Analysis of hepatic gene expression indicated that MEE treatment changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MEE supplementation protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the protective effects of MEE were associated with the induction of fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis.

  4. Mulberry ethanol extract attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Lai, Jia; Tang, Qiong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. Mulberry is an important source of phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we developed a hypothesis that mulberry exerted beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and evaluated the influence of the mulberry ethanol extract (MEE) on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into 3 groups and fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplementation with MEE. Our results showed that administration of MEE reduced diet-induced body weight gain, improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, alleviated insulin resistance, and improved glucose homeostasis. Analysis of hepatic gene expression indicated that MEE treatment changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MEE supplementation protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the protective effects of MEE were associated with the induction of fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27262537

  5. Preload recruitable stroke work in the presence of intact cardiovascular reflexes in rats fed a diet high in unsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Trifunovic, B; Woodiwiss, A J; Norton, G R

    1995-01-15

    A decreased inotropic effect of myocardial beta receptor agonists in animals receiving diets high in unsaturated fats (UNSAT) has been demonstrated. The effect of an UNSAT diet on myocardial systolic performance under different loading conditions, in the presence of intact cardiovascular reflexes, has not been examined. We investigated the effect of an UNSAT diet on preload recruitable stroke work (SW) in the anaesthetised, open chest, ventilated rat. A control (CONTROL, 11% by energy), a high saturated fat (SAT, 37% by energy) and a high UNSAT (37% by energy) diet were fed to three groups of rats. At three months, systolic myocardial performance (stroke work: SW) at increasing left ventricular end diastolic pressures (LVEDP) was measured within a physiological preload range. There were no significant differences in either the slope or the intercept of the LVEDP/SW relation were found between the three diet groups. Systemic vascular resistance and heart rate decreased to the same extent in the three diet groups over the range of preloads examined. This occurred as a consequence of intact baroreceptor reflexes. Hence dietary modulation of unsaturated fats does not influence myocardial contraction over a wide range of physiological preloads in the presence of intact baroreceptor reflexes.

  6. Effects of dietary nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on feeding behavior of tethered heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Ruiz de la Torre, J L; Calsamiglia, S

    2006-05-01

    To describe the feeding behavior of growing heifers fed high-concentrate diets with different sources of protein and nonstructural carbohydrates, and to explain the ruminal fermentation pattern, 4 ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two non-structural carbohydrate sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] that differ in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined, resulting in a synchronized, rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized, slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets consisting of a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM and corn-SFM). The corn-SFM diet resulted in a lower frequency of feeding (P < or = 0.05), longer meal length (P < or = 0.043), and larger meal size (P < or = 0.037) than the other 3 diets. Dietary treatment had no effect (P > or = 0.09) on the daily percentages of posture and behaviors. In general, heifers spent 9.97 +/- 0.83% of the day eating, 2.11 +/- 0.42% drinking, 25.13 +/- 1.36% ruminating, 16.97 +/- 1.42% in other activities such as social behavior and self-grooming, and the rest of the day (45.82 +/- 2.55%) resting or doing no chewing activities. Eating, drinking, and social behaviors were performed while standing (P < or = 0.01), whereas resting and ruminating occurred mainly while lying (P = 0.001). Eating took place mainly in the first 4 h after feeding (P = 0.001), whereas ruminating occurred mainly at night (P = 0.001). When chewing activities (eating and ruminating) were expressed per kilogram of DM or NDF from roughage intake, more time (P = 0.004) was spent chewing per kilogram of DMI for barley-based diets, and per kilogram of NDF from roughage intake for barley- (P = 0.01) and SFM- (P = 0.002) based diets. Tethered heifers fed the more fermentable and rapidly synchronized diet (barley

  7. Rapana venosa consumption improves the lipid profiles and antioxidant capacities in serum of rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Leontowicz, Maria; Leontowicz, Hanna; Namiesnik, Jacek; Apak, Resat; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Moncheva, Snejana; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-07-01

    In the recent years, the consumption of seafood has increased. There are no results on the studies of Rapana venosa (Rv) as a supplementation to the diets. We hypothesized that Rv would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids, based on the composition of bioactive compounds and fatty acids. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo actions of Rv from contaminated (C) and non-C (NC) regions of collection on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and enzyme activities in serum of rats fed an atherogenic diet. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each and named control, cholesterol (Chol), Chol/RvC and Chol/RvNC. Rats of all 4 groups were fed the basal diet, which included wheat starch, casein, soybean oil, cellulose, vitamin (American Institute of Nutrition for laboratory animals vitamin mixtures), and mineral mixtures (American Institute of Nutrition for laboratory animals mineral mixtures). During 28 days of the experiment, the rats of the control group received the basal diet only, and the diets of the other 3 groups were supplemented with 1% of Chol, 1% of Chol, and 5% of Rv dry matter from C and NC areas. Dry matter from C and NC areas supplemented diets slightly hindered the rise in serum lipids vs. Chol group: total Chol, 13.18% and 11.63% and low-density lipoprotein Chol, 13.57% and 15.08%, respectively. Cholesterol significantly decreased the value of total antioxidant capacity. The supplementation of Rv to the Chol diet significantly affected the increase of antioxidant capacity in serum of rats, expressed by the 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) method. The water extracts of Rv exhibited high binding properties with bovine serum albumin in comparison with quercetin. In conclusion, atherogenic diets supplemented with Rv from C and NC areas hindered both the rise in serum lipids levels and the decrease in the antioxidant capacity. Based on fluorescence and

  8. Habitat of endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Behrens, M.D.; Davis, G.E.; Haaker, P.L.; Kushner, D.J.; Richards, D. V.; Taniguchi, I. K.; Tegner, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys with a submersible at offshore islands and banks in southern California found that white abalone were most abundant at depths between 43 and 60 m. This is deeper than estimates taken when white abalone were more abundant. Densities were highest at sites far from fishing ports. Controlling for depth and site found that white abalone were significantly more abundant in areas with Laminaria farlowii (an alga) but abalone were not associated with areas high in the cover of other algae (Pelagophycus porra or Eisenia arborea) or the amount of sand in the habitat (except that abalone always occurred on rock). Within an area with abalone, the particular rock they occurred on was significantly larger than unoccupied neighboring rocks. Occupied rocks were not significantly different in algal cover or in sea urchin density than unoccupied neighboring rocks. The position of abalone on a rock was nearer to the rock–sand interface than would be expected based on a random distribution. More white abalone were feeding when in association with red urchins, perhaps because both grazers capture drift algae to eat. These data may aid future efforts to locate white abalone brood stock and identify locations for outplanting.

  9. Influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2010-10-01

    1. The influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets was examined up to 21 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two grain types (maize and wheat) and three conditioning temperatures (60°C, 75°C and 90°C). Broiler starter diets, each based on one grain (maize or wheat), were formulated and pelleted at the three temperatures. 2. Increasing conditioning temperature decreased the body-weight gain and feed intake in wheat-based diets, but birds fed on maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C had higher body-weight gain and feed intake than those fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C. Increasing conditioning temperature increased feed per body-weight gain in both grain-type diets but improved pellet durability index (PDI) only in wheat-based diets; PDI was unaffected in maize-based diets. 3. In wheat-based diets, increasing conditioning temperature decreased the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. Ileal nitrogen digestibility of maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C was higher than at 75°C. Starch digestibility was unaffected by conditioning temperature in maize-based diets. No effect of conditioning temperature was found for apparent metabolisable energy (AME). Increasing conditioning temperature decreased digestible protein and AME intakes in wheat-based diets but, in maize-based diets, birds fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C had lower digestible protein and AME intakes compared to those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C. 4. Small intestine was longer in birds fed on diets conditioned at 75°C and 90°C compared with those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C. 5. Overall, the data suggest that while the effects of conditioning temperature on body-weight gain and feed intake of broilers to 21 d of age differed depending on the grain type, feed per body-weight gain

  10. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshan, Suganya; Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan; Chinnasamy, Velmurugan; Chandiran, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight and oxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profile in rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus (200 mg/kg) offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver). Hyperlipidemia condition assessed in terms of body weight, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, ester cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and atherogenic index and the results showed significant differences between HFD and non-HFD fed rats (p<0.001). High-fat diet treated rats showed changes in hepatic tissue architecture such as micro and macrovascular steatosis, increased fatty infiltration, and inflammation. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H. indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage. PMID:27761421

  11. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  12. Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Joung; Jung, Ha Na; Kim, Ki Nam

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as antioxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation. PMID:20126601

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of heat shock protein 90 from Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino in response to dietary selenium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Qiyong; Xu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the cDNA of heat shock protein 90 from Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (HdhHSP90) was cloned by the combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of HdhHSP90 was of 2660 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 2187 bp encoding a polypeptide of 728 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 84.134 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 4.619. BLAST analysis revealed that HdhHSP90 shared high similarity with other known HSP90s, and the five conserved amino acid blocks defined as HSP90 protein family signatures were also identified in HdhHSP90, which indicated that HdhHSP90 should be a cytosolic member of the HSP90 family. The expression levels of HdhHSP90 in haemocytes and hepatopancreas were measured by real-time PCR after Pacific abalone were fed with semi-purified diets containing graded levels of selenium (0.15, 1.32 and 48.70 mg Kg(-1)) for 20 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the expression levels of HdhHSP90 transcript were significantly up-regulated and reached the maximum (0.47-fold) in hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone fed with optimal dietary Se (1.32 mg Kg(-1)) (p < 0.05). However, these levels significantly decreased in hepatopancreas at the excessive dietary Se (48.70 mg Kg(-1)) (p < 0.01). In haemocytes, the expression of HdhHSP90 mRNA increased and reached the maximum (0.96-fold) at the excessive dietary Se (48.70 mg Kg(-1)) (p < 0.01). It is implied that the expression levels of HdhHSP90 could be affected by dietary Se in hepatopancreas and haemocytes, and HdhHSP90 was potentially involved in the anti-oxidation responses in Pacific abalone H. discus hannai.

  14. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-01-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  15. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  16. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-15

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  17. Polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract exerts hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic effects in mice fed a diet containing high fat and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Benn, Tyler; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Yang, Yue; Pham, Tho X; Ku, Chai Siah; Farruggia, Callie; Harness, Ellen; Smyth, Joan A; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-06-14

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. We investigated whether polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent high fat/high cholesterol (HF/HC) diet-induced metabolic disturbances in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M diet containing HF/HC (16% fat, 0·25% cholesterol, w/w) or the same diet supplemented with 0·1% BCE (w/w) for 12 weeks. There were no differences in total body weight and liver weight between groups. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels were significantly lower in BCE group than in controls, while plasma TAG levels were not significantly different. There was a decreasing trend in hepatic TAG levels, and histological evaluation of steatosis grade was markedly lower in the livers of mice fed BCE. Although the mRNA levels of major regulators of hepatic cholesterol metabolism, i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and LDL receptor (LDLR), were not significantly altered by BCE supplementation, protein expression of mature sterol-regulatory element-binding protein and LDLR was significantly increased with no change in HMGR protein. The expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 that facilitates LDLR protein degradation, as well as one of its transcriptional regulators, i.e. hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, was significantly decreased in the livers of mice fed BCE. Taken together, BCE supplementation decreased plasma TC and glucose, and inhibited liver steatosis, suggesting that this berry may be consumed to prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by diets high in fat and cholesterol.

  18. Effects of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets fed to growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Bondurant, R G; Luebbe, M K; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-08-01

    Crude glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel production and has recently become more available as a livestock feed with the growth of the biofuel industry. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin (GLY) as a feed ingredient in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based growing diets fed to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 50; initial BW = 282 ± 2 kg) were used to determine the effects of GLY when included at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% of DM in a growing diet on cattle performance. In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (n = 54; initial BW = 283 ± 1 kg) were used to determine the effects of replacing SFC (REPSFC) or alfalfa hay (REPAH) with 7.5% GLY or a control diet without GLY (CON) on growing steer performance. In Exp. 1, final BW tended to respond in a quadratic manner (P = 0.09) in which it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Dry matter intake did not differ (P > 0.23), yet ADG responded quadratically (P = 0.04), where it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Feed efficiency (G:F) decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing GLY concentration. In Exp. 2, final BW was greater for steers fed REPAH than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). Steers fed REPAH had a greater ADG than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). When GLY replaced SFC, ADG increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY where it was maximized before decreasing from 7.5 to 10% GLY inclusion. Replacing 7.5% of alfalfa hay (AH) in a growing diet with GLY can be beneficial to animal performance, which is likely the result of GLY being greater in energy than AH.

  19. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. RESULTS Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

  20. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. RESULTS Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. PMID:27698957

  1. Influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and digesta passage in steers fed a forage and a concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Whetsell, M S; Prigge, E C; Nestor, E L

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and ruminal function, five ruminally cannulated steers (550 kg) were fed an orchard grass hay diet ad libitum in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. The mass of ruminal contents was altered by adding varying weights of modified tennis balls to the rumen before the initiation of each 15-d experimental period. Treatments consisted of 50 balls with a specific gravity of 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, or 1.4; the total weight of the balls was 7.45, 8.50, 9.25, 10.55, and 11.55 kg, respectively. Increasing the specific gravity of the balls added to the rumen decreased DMI and particle passage rate (P < 0.05) in a linear manner. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and ruminal function of both forage and concentrate diets. Five ruminally cannulated steers (580 kg) were fed a 70% concentrate (DM basis) or an orchardgrass hay diet ad libitum in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. The mass of ruminal contents was altered as in the first experiment. Treatments consisted of 0 balls added to the rumen of steers fed concentrate diet (control), 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.1 given to steers fed a concentrate diet, 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.4 given to steers fed a concentrate diet, 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.1 given to steers fed a hay diet, and 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.4 given to steers fed hay diet. The addition of balls to the rumen of steers fed the concentrate diet decreased DMI (P < 0.05) compared with the 0-ball treatment, and increasing specific gravity of balls also decreased DMI (P < 0.01) for both concentrate and hay diets. Adding balls to the rumen of steers fed the concentrate diet decreased particle passage rate (P < 0.05), whereas increasing specific gravity of balls decreased particle passage rate for both concentrate and hay diet. The results of this study suggest that the density of ruminal

  2. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less {sup 59}Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on {sup 59}Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on {sup 59}Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on {sup 59}Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on {sup 59}Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal.

  3. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  4. Ant workers die young and colonies collapse when fed a high-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Dussutour, A.; Simpson, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein and carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary insects. Here, we investigated the link between high-protein diet and longevity, both at the level of individual ants and colonies in black garden ants, Lasius niger. We explored how lifespan was affected by the dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and the duration of exposure to a high-protein diet. We show that (i) restriction to high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets decreased worker lifespan by up to 10-fold; (ii) reduction in lifespan on such diets was mainly due to elevated intake of protein rather than lack of carbohydrate; and (iii) only one day of exposure to a high-protein diet had dire consequences for workers and the colony, reducing population size by more than 20 per cent. PMID:22357267

  5. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A.; Plouffe, Louise J.; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet. PMID:27136580

  6. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A; Plouffe, Louise J; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-04-28

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  7. Voluntary running improves in vivo insulin resistance in high-salt diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Li, Ping; Kubota, Masakazu; Nagasaki, Masaru; Sato, Yuzo

    2007-11-01

    It is well known that exercise training, including voluntary running (VR), improves insulin resistance. However, the effect of VR on insulin resistance induced by high salt intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether VR would improve the glucose utilization in normal male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-salt diet (HSD) on 2-week early prevention and 1-week midway intervention protocols. In vivo glucose utilization was measured by euglycemic clamp technique. Further analyses of the possible changes in insulin signaling occurring in skeletal muscle were performed by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The glucose infusion rates (GIRs) after 2 weeks of HSD feeding were decreased (HSD vs. control: 21.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 27 +/- 0.5 mg/kg body wt/min; P < 0.05), and improved by 2 weeks VR to 30.5 +/- 1.5 mg/kg body wt/min. Additionally, the GIRs after 3 weeks of HSD feeding were decreased (HSD vs. control: 20.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 26.5 +/- 0.6 mg/kg body wt/min; P < 0.05), and they also improved by the third week of VR (28.5 +/- 0.7 mg/ kg body wt/min vs. sedentary; P < 0.01). There were no differences in skeletal muscle for the total mass of insulin receptor-beta (IR-beta), IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), Akt, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in any of the groups of 2 weeks of HSD loading control and VR. VR did not regulate the enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-beta and IRS-1 by 2 weeks of HSD feeding. However, the enhanced serine phosphorylation of Akt and the tyrosine phosphorylation of GLUT4 were significantly inhibited by the early VR. HSD also impaired GLUT4 content in the plasma membrane and mRNA expression, but the decreases were improved by 2 weeks of VR. These results suggest that early voluntary exercise would prevent the development of insulin resistance induced by an HSD due in part by enhancing the impaired GLUT4 translocation and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. PMID:17959846

  8. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  9. NADPH oxidase is implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction as found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were distributed in four groups: WT/SCD: six wild-type (WT) mice fed a standard chow diet (SCD); WT/HFD, six WT mice fed a HFD; NOX2−/−/SCD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a SCD; (4) NOX2−/−/HFD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a HFD. After 32 weeks, we studied the liver for: histology; OXPHOS complex activity; fully assembled OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression of OXPHOS subunits; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and oxidative DNA damage. In the liver of WT/HFD mice, we found a significant decreased in the activity of all OXPHOS complexes, in fully assembled complexes, in the amount of OXPHOS subunits, and in gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine was only increased in mitochondrial DNA. The liver of NOX−/−/HFD mice showed mild steatosis but no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lesions were found. OXPHOS activity, OXPHOS subunits, and assembly of subunits into OXPHOS complexes were normal in these mice. We conclude that this study shows that NADPH deficiency protects mice from developing OXPHOS dysfunction and NASH caused by a HFD. PMID:27173483

  10. Low concentration of ethanol favors progenitor cell differentiation and neovascularization in high-fat diet-fed mice model.

    PubMed

    Vergori, Luisa; Lauret, Emilie; Soleti, Raffaella; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2016-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and monocytic cells from bone marrow (BM) can be recruited to the injured endothelium and contribute to its regeneration. During metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, progenitor cell function is impaired. Several studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption prevents the development and progression of atherosclerosis in a variety of animal/mouse models and increases mobilization of progenitor cells. Along with these studies, we identify ethanol at low concentration as therapeutic tool to in vitro expand progenitor cells in order to obtain an adequate number of cells for their use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effects of ethanol on the phenotype of BM-derived cells from mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). HFD did not induce changes in weight of mice but induced metabolic alterations. HFD feeding increased the differentiation of monocytic progenitors but not EPCs. Whereas ethanol at 0.6% is able to increase monocytic progenitor differentiation, 1% ethanol diminished it. Furthermore, ethanol at 0.6% increased the ability of progenitor cells to promote in vivo angiogenesis as well as secretome of BM-derived cells from mice fed with HFD, but not in mice fed normal diet. In conclusion, ethanol at low concentration is able to increase angiogenic abilities of progenitor cells from animals with early metabolic alterations.

  11. Substitution of Soy Protein for Casein Prevents Oxidative Modification and Inflammatory Response Induced in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, S.; Geetha, Rajagopalan; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-rich diet is known to cause metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We aimed to compare the effects of two dietary proteins of animal and plant origins on fructose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in liver. Wistar rats were fed either starch or fructose (60%) diet with casein or soy protein (20%) as the protein source for 8 weeks. Glucose and insulin, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, AOPP, and FRAP were determined in circulation. Intracellular ROS, oxidatively modified proteins (4-HNE and 3-NT adducts), adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and PAI-1 mRNA expression, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and IKKβ, and NF-κB binding activity were assayed in liver. In comparison with starch fed group, fructose + casein group registered significant decline in antioxidant potential and increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and glycated proteins. Increased ROS production, 4-HNE and 3-NT modified proteins, JNK and IKKβ activation, and NF-κB binding activity were observed in them along with increased gene expression of PAI-1, IL-6, and TNF-α and decreased adiponectin expression. Substitution of soy protein for casein reduced oxidative modification and inflammatory changes in fructose-fed rats. These data suggest that soy protein but not casein can avert the adverse effects elicited by chronic consumption of fructose. PMID:25006525

  12. Substitution of soy protein for casein prevents oxidative modification and inflammatory response induced in rats fed high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, S; Geetha, Rajagopalan; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-rich diet is known to cause metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We aimed to compare the effects of two dietary proteins of animal and plant origins on fructose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in liver. Wistar rats were fed either starch or fructose (60%) diet with casein or soy protein (20%) as the protein source for 8 weeks. Glucose and insulin, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, AOPP, and FRAP were determined in circulation. Intracellular ROS, oxidatively modified proteins (4-HNE and 3-NT adducts), adiponectin, TNF- α , IL-6 and PAI-1 mRNA expression, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and IKK β , and NF- κ B binding activity were assayed in liver. In comparison with starch fed group, fructose + casein group registered significant decline in antioxidant potential and increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and glycated proteins. Increased ROS production, 4-HNE and 3-NT modified proteins, JNK and IKK β activation, and NF- κ B binding activity were observed in them along with increased gene expression of PAI-1, IL-6, and TNF- α and decreased adiponectin expression. Substitution of soy protein for casein reduced oxidative modification and inflammatory changes in fructose-fed rats. These data suggest that soy protein but not casein can avert the adverse effects elicited by chronic consumption of fructose. PMID:25006525

  13. Liver glycogen reduces food intake and attenuates obesity in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model.

    PubMed

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Zafra, Delia; Duran, Jordi; Adrover, Anna; Calbó, Joaquim; Guinovart, Joan J

    2015-03-01

    We generated mice that overexpress protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in the liver (PTG(OE)), which results in an increase in liver glycogen. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), these animals reduced their food intake. The resulting effect was a lower body weight, decreased fat mass, and reduced leptin levels. Furthermore, PTG overexpression reversed the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia caused by the HFD and protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Of note, when fed an HFD, PTG(OE) mice did not show the decrease in hepatic ATP content observed in control animals and had lower expression of neuropeptide Y and higher expression of proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus. Additionally, after an overnight fast, PTG(OE) animals presented high liver glycogen content, lower liver triacylglycerol content, and lower serum concentrations of fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate than control mice, regardless of whether they were fed an HFD or a standard diet. In conclusion, liver glycogen accumulation caused a reduced food intake, protected against the deleterious effects of an HFD, and diminished the metabolic impact of fasting. Therefore, we propose that hepatic glycogen content be considered a potential target for the pharmacological manipulation of diabetes and obesity.

  14. Tooth length and incisal wear and growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M

    2015-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species.

  15. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) extract inhibits obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet over the long term.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-14

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are traditionally used to add bitterness and flavour to beer. Although the isomerised hop extracts produced by the brewing process have been thought to ameliorate lipid and glucose metabolism, the influence of untreated hop extracts on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is unclear. The present study examined the anti-obesity effects of a hop extract in male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF diet, or HF diet plus 2 or 5 % hop extract for 20 weeks. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed at week 19. Furthermore, water excretion was evaluated in water-loaded Balb/c male mice. The effects of the extract on lipid accumulation and PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were examined. The hop extract inhibited the increase in body and adipose tissue weight, adipose cell diameter and liver lipids induced by the HF diet. Furthermore, it improved glucose intolerance. The extract enhanced water excretion in water-loaded mice. Various fractions of the hop extract inhibited lipid accumulation and PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hop extracts might be useful for preventing obesity and glucose intolerance caused by a HF diet.

  16. Membrane homeostasis: thermotropic behaviour of microsomal membrane lipids isolated from livers of rats fed cholesterol-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Garg, M L; McMurchie, E J; Sabine, J R

    1985-11-01

    Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) has been applied to study the phase transition properties of isolated lipids from liver microsomal membranes of rats fed high cholesterol diets with or without high levels of either saturated (coconut oil) or unsaturated (sunflower seed oil) fat. DSC of aqueous buffer dispersions of liver microsomal lipids exhibited two independent, reversible phase transitions. The dietary cholesterol treatments had their major effect on the temperature at which the lower phase transition (T1) occurred. This transition occurred at a lower temperature when cholesterol was added to the diet, irrespective of the nature of the fatty acid supplement. However the magnitude of decrease was more when cholesterol was fed with sunflower seed oil. Inclusion of cholesterol into the rat diets also lowered the enthalpy values for the lower phase transition (T1). No appreciable effect on the temperature of the higher phase transition (T2) was observed, however the enthalpy values were slightly decreased by cholesterol feeding. These results suggest that certain domains of microsomal lipids, probably containing some relatively higher melting-point lipids, independently undergo solidus or gel formation and this transition (T2) is not greatly affected by dietary cholesterol. On the other hand, domains representing the bulk of the microsomal lipids undergo a phase change (T1) at temperatures which are dependent on cholesterol content and fatty acid profiles of the membrane, which are in turn, modified by dietary cholesterol intake.

  17. Reduced growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a live invertebrate diet pre-exposed to metal-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Joshua; Welsh, Paul G; Cacela, David; MacConnell, Beth

    2004-08-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed live diets of Lumbriculus variegatus cultured in metal-contaminated sediments from the Clark Fork River Basin (MT, USA), an uncontaminated reference sediment, or an uncontaminated culture medium. Fish were tested in individual chambers; individual growth as well as the nutritional quality and caloric value of each trout's consumed diet were determined. Growth was measured following 14, 28, 42, 56, and 67 d of exposure. A subset of fish was sampled at 35 d for whole-body metals. Metals (whole body, digestive tract, and liver) and histology were measured at the end of the test. We observed significant growth inhibition in trout fed the contaminated diets; growth inhibition was associated with reductions in conversion of food energy to biomass rather than with reduced food intake. Growth inhibition was negatively correlated with As in trout tissue residues. Histological changes in contaminated treatments included hepatic necrosis and degenerative alterations in gallbladder. The present study provides evidence that metal-contaminated sediments can pose a hazard to trout health through a dietary exposure pathway. PMID:15352479

  18. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet.

  19. Resistant starch reduces colonic and urinary p-cresol in rats fed a tyrosine-supplemented diet, whereas konjac mannan does not.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixiao; Morioka, Sahya; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) and konjac mannan (KM) to maintain and improve the large intestinal environment was compared. Wistar SPF rats were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: negative control diet (C diet), tyrosine-supplemented positive control diet (T diet), and luminacoid supplemented diets containing either high-molecular konjac mannan A (KMAT diet), low-molecular konjac mannan B (KMBT diet), high-amylose cornstarch (HAST diet), or heat-moisture-treated starch (HMTST diet). The luminacoid-fed group had an increased content of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum. HAS caused a significant decrease in p-cresol content in the cecum, whereas KM did not. Urinary p-cresol was reduced in the HAST group compared with the T group, but not the KM fed groups. Deterioration in the large intestinal environment was only improved completely in the HAST and HMTST groups, suggesting that RS is considerably more effective than KM in maintaining the large intestinal environment.

  20. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  1. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  2. Growth and wear of incisor and cheek teeth in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl; Schulz, Ellen; Hummel, Jürgen; Fortelius, Mikael; Kircher, Patrick; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Although patterns of tooth wear are crucial in palaeo-reconstructions, and dental wear abnormalities are important in veterinary medicine, experimental investigations on the relationship between diet abrasiveness and tooth wear are rare. Here, we investigated the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness (due to both internal [phytoliths] and external abrasives [sand]) or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on incisor and premolar growth and wear, and incisor and cheek tooth length. Wear and tooth length differed between diets, with significant effects of both internal and external abrasives. While diet abrasiveness was linked to tooth length for all tooth positions, whole forage had an additional effect on upper incisor length only. Tooth growth was strongly related to tooth wear and differed correspondingly between diets and tooth positions. At 1.4-3.2 mm/week, the growth of cheek teeth measured in this study was higher than previously reported for rabbits. Dental abnormalities were most distinct on the diet with sand. This study demonstrates that concepts of constant tooth growth in rabbits requiring consistent wear are inappropriate, and that diet form (whole vs. pelleted) does not necessarily affect cheek teeth. Irrespective of the strong effect of external abrasives, internal abrasives have the potential to induce wear and hence exert selective pressure in evolution. Detailed differences in wear effects between tooth positions allow inferences about the mastication process. Elucidating feedback mechanisms that link growth to tooth-specific wear represents a promising area of future research.

  3. Probing the anti-hyperlipidemic efficacy of the allspice (Pimenta officinalis Lindl.) in rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shyamala, M P; Paramundayil, Julie J; Venukumar, M R; Latha, M S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Pimenta officinalis (APO) was investigated in experimental rats fed with high fat diet (HFD). Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by a significant enhancement in the level of glycerol, triglycerides and phopholipids in serum, and also in liver and kidney tissues. HFD caused oxidative stress in these animals as shown by marked increment in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diene conjugates (CD), and a distinct diminution in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidneys. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed reduced activity in hyperlipidemic rats. All these biochemical parameters showed reliable signs of retrieving towards near-normalcy in APO-administered HFD fed rats. This study unveiled the anti-hyperlipidemic as well as antioxidant activity of APO.

  4. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rats fed 4% red ginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Indirect measurement of saliva secretion in sheep fed diets of different structures and the effect of such diets on ruminal fluid kinetics and fermentation pattern.

    PubMed

    Durić, M; Zhao, G Y; Orskov, E R; Chen, X B

    1994-09-01

    Four Suffolk x Dorset sheep were allocated in a 4 x 4 Latin square design and received a hay-barley-molasses diet in one of four different physical structures: (1) pelleted; (2) pelleted:chopped (60:40); (3) chopped:pelleted (60:40); or (4) chopped. The animals were penned individually and the diet was restricted to provide 20 g of dry matter (DM) per kilogram live weight daily. The effects of the diets on rumen fluid kinetics, fermentation pattern and microbial nitrogen (MN) supply were examined. Saliva secretion was estimated using an indirect method based on water balance in the rumen. When the animals were fed the chopped diet, the salivation rate, rumen fluid volume and rumen liquid outflow were all increased significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). No consistent effect of dietary structure on rumen fluid dilution rate, purine derivative (PD) excretion or MN supply was observed. Dietary structure had no effect on the rumen fermentation pattern, digestibility of DM or nitrogen.

  6. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  7. Effect of ingestion of soy yogurt on intestinal parameters of rats fed on a beef-based animal diet

    PubMed Central

    Bedani, Raquel; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége Dourado; Cano, Veridiana Soares Pereira; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; de Rossi, Graciela Font; Valdez, Elizeu Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ingestion of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 would modify the intestinal count of enterococci, fecal pH and ammonia content in rats fed on a diet containing red meat. The rats were placed in 4 groups: for 60 days, group I was given a standard casein-based rodent feed and groups II-IV, the beef-based feed. From day 30, groups III-IV also received the following products: III) soy yogurt; IV) suspension of E. faecium CRL 183. At the start and on days 30 and 60, feces were collected for the determination of pH, ammonia content, count of enterococci and identification of their species. On day 60, rats were sacrificed and their colons also removed for count of enterococci and identification of their species. Rats that ingested soy yogurt showed no significant change (P<0.05) in fecal counts of Enterococcus spp., but, this rat group showed a higher count of E. faecium than rats that ingested suspension of E. faecium CRL 183. The ingestion of soy yogurt and E. faecium culture caused a significant rise (P < 0.05) in fecal pH and ammonia content. Our results suggest that consumption of soy yogurt fermented with E. faecium CRL 183 and L. helveticus subsp. jugurti could change the species of Enterococcus spp. present in the feces and colon of rats fed on a beef-based diet. However, the fermented soy product and the pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183 also induced undesirable effects such as the increase of fecal pH and ammonia content in the feces of rats fed on a beef-based diet. PMID:24031747

  8. Hepatocyte X-box binding protein 1 deficiency increases liver injury in mice fed a high-fat/sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Henkel, Anne S; LeCuyer, Brian E; Schipma, Matthew J; Anderson, Kristy A; Green, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Fatty liver is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the hepatic unfolded protein response (UPR). Reduced hepatic expression of the UPR regulator X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP1s) is associated with human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and feeding mice a high-fat diet with fructose/sucrose causes progressive, fibrosing steatohepatitis. This study examines the role of XBP1 in nonalcoholic fatty liver injury and fatty acid-induced cell injury. Hepatocyte-specific Xbp1-deficient (Xbp1(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat/sugar (HFS) diet for up to 16 wk. HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice exhibited higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) controls. RNA sequencing and Gene Ontogeny pathway analysis of hepatic mRNA revealed that apoptotic process, inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix structural constituent pathways had enhanced activation in HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Liver histology demonstrated enhanced injury and fibrosis but less steatosis in the HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Hepatic Col1a1 and Tgfβ1 gene expression, as well as Chop and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), were increased in Xbp1(-/-) compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) mice after HFS feeding. In vitro, stable XBP1-knockdown Huh7 cells (Huh7-KD) and scramble control cells (Huh7-SCR) were generated and treated with palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h. PA-treated Huh7-KD cells had increased cytotoxicity measured by lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptotic nuclei, and caspase3/7 activity assays compared with Huh7-SCR cells. CHOP and p-JNK expression was also increased in Huh7-KD cells following PA treatment. In conclusion, loss of XBP1 enhances injury in both in vivo and in vitro models of fatty liver injury. We speculate that hepatic XBP1 plays an important protective role in pathogenesis of NASH.

  9. Role of Sphingolipid Mediator Ceramide in Obesity and Renal Injury in Mice Fed a High-Fat DietS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Treatment of mice with the acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) inhibitor amitriptyline significantly attenuated the HFD-induced plasma ceramide levels. Corresponding to increase in plasma ceramide, the HFD significantly increased the body weight gain, plasma leptin concentration, urinary total protein and albumin excretion, glomerular damage index, and adipose tissue ASMase activity compared with the LFD-fed mice. These HFD-induced changes were also significantly attenuated by treatment of mice with amitriptyline. In addition, the decline of plasma glucose concentration after an intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.15 U/kg b.wt.) was more sustained in mice on the HFD with amitriptyline than on the HFD alone. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose (3 g/kg b.wt.) resulted in a slow increase followed by a rapid decrease in the plasma glucose concentration in LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice, but such blood glucose response was not observed in HFD-fed mice. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated a decrease in the podocin and an increase in the desmin in the glomeruli of HFD-fed mice compared with the LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice. In conclusion, our results reveal a pivotal role for ceramide biosynthesis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and associated kidney damage. PMID:20543095

  10. Hepatocyte X-box binding protein 1 deficiency increases liver injury in mice fed a high-fat/sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Henkel, Anne S; LeCuyer, Brian E; Schipma, Matthew J; Anderson, Kristy A; Green, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Fatty liver is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the hepatic unfolded protein response (UPR). Reduced hepatic expression of the UPR regulator X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP1s) is associated with human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and feeding mice a high-fat diet with fructose/sucrose causes progressive, fibrosing steatohepatitis. This study examines the role of XBP1 in nonalcoholic fatty liver injury and fatty acid-induced cell injury. Hepatocyte-specific Xbp1-deficient (Xbp1(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat/sugar (HFS) diet for up to 16 wk. HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice exhibited higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) controls. RNA sequencing and Gene Ontogeny pathway analysis of hepatic mRNA revealed that apoptotic process, inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix structural constituent pathways had enhanced activation in HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Liver histology demonstrated enhanced injury and fibrosis but less steatosis in the HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Hepatic Col1a1 and Tgfβ1 gene expression, as well as Chop and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), were increased in Xbp1(-/-) compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) mice after HFS feeding. In vitro, stable XBP1-knockdown Huh7 cells (Huh7-KD) and scramble control cells (Huh7-SCR) were generated and treated with palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h. PA-treated Huh7-KD cells had increased cytotoxicity measured by lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptotic nuclei, and caspase3/7 activity assays compared with Huh7-SCR cells. CHOP and p-JNK expression was also increased in Huh7-KD cells following PA treatment. In conclusion, loss of XBP1 enhances injury in both in vivo and in vitro models of fatty liver injury. We speculate that hepatic XBP1 plays an important protective role in pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:26472223

  11. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  12. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  13. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  14. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  15. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states....

  16. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    PubMed

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  17. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). Background D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. Methods ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis. Results The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone. Conclusion Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the

  18. Digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with contrasting levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2008-09-01

    Three experimental diets were used to investigate the digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with different levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber (DF). The low-fiber diet (LF; DF, 16%; soluble DF, 4.8%) was based on wheat and barley. The high-fiber 1 diet (HF1; DF, 41%; soluble DF, 11%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with the coproducts: sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, and pectin residue, and the high-fiber 2 diet (HF2; DF, 44%; soluble DF, 7.3%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with approximately 1/3 of the coproducts used in diet HF1 and 2/3 of brewers spent grain, seed residue, and pea hull (1:1:1, respectively). The diets were studied in 2 series of experiments. In Exp. 1, the digestibility and ileal and fecal flow of nutrients were studied in 6 ileal-cannulated sows placed in metabolic cages designed as a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, energy metabolism was measured in respiration chambers using 6 sows in a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DF level influenced the ileal flow of most nutrients, in particular carbohydrates, which increased from 190 g/d when feeding the LF diet to 538 to 539 g/d when feeding the HF diets; this was also reflected in the digestibility of OM and carbohydrates (P < 0.05). The ranking of total excretion of fecal materials was HF2 > > HF1 > LF, which also was reflected in the digestibility of OM, protein, and carbohydrates. Feeding HF diets resulted in greater CH(4) production, which was related to the amount of carbohydrates (r = 0.79) and OM (r = 0.72) fermented in the large intestine, but with no difference in heat production (12.2 to 13.1 MJ/kg of DM). Retained energy (MJ/kg of DM) was decreased when feeding HF1 compared with LF and negative when feeding HF2. Feeding sows HF1 reduced the activity of animals (5.1 h/24 h) compared with LF (6.1 h/24 h; P = 0.045).

  19. Pancreatic Fat Accumulation, Fibrosis, and Acinar Cell Injury in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Fed a Chronic High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Akiko; Makino, Naohiko; Tozawa, Tomohiro; Shirahata, Nakao; Honda, Teiichiro; Ikeda, Yushi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Miho; Kakizaki, Yasuharu; Akamatsu, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The histological alteration of the exocrine pancreas in obesity has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated biochemical and histological changes in the exocrine pancreas of obese model rats. Methods Zucker lean rats were fed a standard diet, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into 2 groups fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. These experimental groups were fed each of the diets from 6 weeks until 12, 18, 24 weeks of age. We performed blood biochemical assays and histological analysis of the pancreas. Results In the ZDF rats fed a high-fat diet, the ratio of accumulated pancreatic fat area relative to exocrine gland area was increased significantly at 18 weeks of age in comparison with the other 2 groups (P < 0.05), and lipid droplets were observed in acinar cells. Subsequently, at 24 weeks of age in this group, pancreatic fibrosis and the serum exocrine pancreatic enzyme levels were increased significantly relative to the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions In ZDF rats fed a chronic high-fat diet, fat accumulates in pancreatic acinar cells, and this fatty change seems to be related to subsequent pancreatic fibrosis and acinar cell injury. PMID:24717823

  20. Effects of dietary fermentable fiber on fatty acid synthesis and triglyceride secretion in rats fed fructose-based diet: studies with sugar-beet fiber.

    PubMed

    Mazur, A; Gueux, E; Felgines, C; Bayle, D; Nassir, F; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    1992-03-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the role of the dietary fermentable fiber in reduction of hyperlipidemia, we substituted 30% wheat starch with 30% sugar-beet fiber in rats fed a fructose-based (41% fructose), low-fat (2% corn oil) diet. Male Wistar rats ate the test diets for 3 weeks. Feeding the sugar-beet fiber (SBF) diet resulted in a significant enlargement of the cecum; it also increased the concentration of volatile fatty acids compared with rats fed a fiber-free (FF) diet. Feeding SBF decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in the postprandial as well as the postabsorptive period. In the liver, triglyceride levels were depressed in concert with the decreased liver lipogenesis and the post-Triton triglyceride secretion. Liver cholesterol levels were unaffected by SBF diet feeding. SBF-fed animals were markedly less fat compared with fiber-free-diet-fed rats. Adipose tissue lipogenesis was depressed in the postprandial period in SBF-fed animals. In short, this study suggests that substitution of easily digested carbohydrates by certain fermentable fibers may play an interesting role in the reduction of hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  1. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals; our lab has demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against put...

  2. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. Objective: This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Methods: Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy–based control diet or that diet containing 3–7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. Results: The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29–42% and affected (P < 0.05–0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. Conclusions: The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue

  3. Body composition and grip strength are improved in transgenic sickle mice fed a high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Capers, Patrice L; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Cue, Shayla; Chappa, Prasanthi; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Weitzmann, M Neale; Archer, David R; Newman, Gale W; Quarshie, Alexander; Stiles, Jonathan K; Hibbert, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Key pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia includes compensatory erythropoiesis, vascular injury and chronic inflammation, which divert amino acids from tissue deposition for growth/weight gain and muscle formation. We hypothesised that sickle mice maintained on an isoenergetic diet with a high percentage of energy derived from protein (35 %), as opposed to a standard diet with 20 % of energy derived from protein, would improve body composition, bone mass and grip strength. Male Berkeley transgenic sickle mice (S; n 8-12) were fed either 20 % (S20) or 35 % (S35) diets for 3 months. Grip strength (BIOSEB meter) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) were measured. After 3 months, control mice had the highest bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) (P < 0·005). S35 mice had the largest increase in grip strength. A two-way ANOVA of change in grip strength (P = 0·043) attributed this difference to genotype (P = 0·025) and a trend in type of diet (P = 0·067). l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation of the 20 % diet was explored, as a possible mechanism for improvement obtained with the 35 % diet. Townes transgenic sickle mice (TS; n 6-9) received 0·8, 1·6, 3·2 or 6·4 % l-Arg based on the same protocol and outcome measures used for the S mice. TS mice fed 1·6 % l-Arg for 3 months (TS1.6) had the highest weight gain, BMD, BMC and lean body mass compared with other groups. TS3.2 mice showed significantly more improvement in grip strength than TS0·8 and TS1.6 mice (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the high-protein diet improved body composition and grip strength. Outcomes observed with TS1.6 and TS3.2 mice, respectively, confirm the hypothesis and reveal l-Arg as part of the mechanism.

  4. Hepatocyte-Specific Depletion of UBXD8 Induces Periportal Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norihiro; Suzuki, Michitaka; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Abe, Takaya; Shioi, Go; Goto, Hidemi; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that UBXD8 plays a key role in proteasomal degradation of lipidated ApoB in hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the functions of UBXD8 in liver in vivo. For this purpose, hepatocyte-specific UBXD8 knockout (UBXD8-LKO) mice were generated. They were fed with a normal or high-fat diet, and the phenotypes were compared with those of littermate control mice. Hepatocytes obtained from UBXD8-LKO and control mice were analyzed in culture. After 26 wk of a high-fat diet, UBXD8-LKO mice exhibited macrovesicular steatosis in the periportal area and microvesicular steatosis in the perivenular area, whereas control mice exhibited steatosis only in the perivenular area. Furthermore, UBXD8-LKO mice on a high-fat diet had significantly lower concentrations of serum triglyceride and VLDL than control mice. A Triton WR-1339 injection study revealed that VLDL secretion from hepatocytes was reduced in UBXD8-LKO mice. The decrease of ApoB secretion upon UBXD8 depletion was recapitulated in cultured primary hepatocytes. Accumulation of lipidated ApoB in lipid droplets was observed only in UBXD8-null hepatocytes. The results showed that depletion of UBXD8 in hepatocytes suppresses VLDL secretion, and could lead to periportal steatosis when mice are fed a high-fat diet. This is the first demonstration that an abnormality in the intracellular ApoB degradation mechanism can cause steatosis, and provides a useful model for periportal steatosis, which occurs in several human diseases. PMID:25970332

  5. Pasture v. standard dairy cream in high-fat diet-fed mice: improved metabolic outcomes and stronger intestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Bérengère; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Estienne, Monique; Debard, Cyrille; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Daira, Patricia; Bodennec, Jacques; Cousin, Olivier; Vidal, Hubert; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2014-08-28

    Dairy products derived from the milk of cows fed in pastures are characterised by higher amounts of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and several studies have shown their ability to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, their specific metabolic effects compared with standard dairy in a high-fat diet (HFD) context remain largely unknown; this is what we determined in the present study with a focus on the metabolic and intestinal parameters. The experimental animals were fed for 12 weeks a HFD containing 20 % fat in the form of a pasture dairy cream (PDC) or a standard dairy cream (SDC). Samples of plasma, liver, white adipose tissue, duodenum, jejunum and colon were analysed. The PDC mice, despite a higher food intake, exhibited lower fat mass, plasma and hepatic TAG concentrations, and inflammation in the adipose tissue than the SDC mice. Furthermore, they exhibited a higher expression of hepatic PPARα mRNA and adipose tissue uncoupling protein 2 mRNA, suggesting an enhanced oxidative activity of the tissues. These results might be explained, in part, by the higher amounts of ALA in the PDC diet and in the liver and adipose tissue of the PDC mice. Moreover, the PDC diet was found to increase the proportions of two strategic cell populations involved in the protective function of the intestinal epithelium, namely Paneth and goblet cells in the small intestine and colon, compared with the SDC diet. In conclusion, a PDC HFD leads to improved metabolic outcomes and to a stronger gut barrier compared with a SDC HFD. This may be due, at least in part, to the protective mechanisms induced by specific lipids.

  6. Endothelial and vascular dysfunctions and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, Frédéric; Bachelard, Hélène; Badeau, Mylène; Mélançon, Sébastien; Pitre, Maryse; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on vascular and metabolic actions of insulin. Male rats were randomized to receive an HFHS or regular chow diet for 4 wk. In a first series of experiments, the rats had pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters implanted to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. Insulin sensitivity and vascular responses to insulin were assessed during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp performed in conscious rats. In a second series of experiments, new groups of rats were used to examine skeletal muscle glucose transport activity and to determine in vitro vascular reactivity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in muscle and vascular tissues and endothelin content, nitrotyrosine formation, and NAD(P)H oxidase protein expression in vascular tissues. The HFHS-fed rats displayed insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and impaired insulin-mediated renal and skeletal muscle vasodilator responses. A reduction in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, accompanied by a decreased eNOS protein expression in muscles and blood vessel endothelium, and increased vascular endothelin-1 protein content were also noted in HFHS-fed rats compared with control rats. Furthermore, the HFHS diet induced a reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in muscles and increased levels of NAD(P)H oxidase protein and nitrotyrosine formation in vascular tissues. These findings support the importance of eNOS protein in linking metabolic and vascular disease and indicate the ability of a Westernized diet to induce endothelial dysfunction and to alter metabolic and vascular homeostasis.

  7. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    PubMed

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  8. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  9. Decreased cholinergic stimulation of insulin secretion by islets from rats fed a low protein diet is associated with reduced protein kinase calpha expression.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fabiano; Filiputti, Eliane; Arantes, Vanessa C; Stoppiglia, Luis F; Araújo, Eliana P; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Latorraca, Márcia Q; Toyama, Marcos H; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2003-03-01

    Undernutrition has been shown to affect the autonomic nervous system, leading to permanent alterations in insulin secretion. To understand these interactions better, we investigated the effects of carbamylcholine (CCh) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on insulin secretion in pancreatic islets from rats fed a normal (17%; NP) or low (6%; LP) protein diet for 8 wk. Isolated islets were incubated for 1 h in Krebs-bicarbonate solution containing 8.3 mmol glucose/L, with or without PMA (400 nmol/L) and CCh. Increasing concentrations of CCh (0.1-1000 micro mol/L) dose dependently increased insulin secretion by islets from both groups of rats. However, insulin secretion by islets from rats fed the NP diet was significantly higher than that of rats fed the LP diet, and the dose-response curve to CCh was shifted to the right in islets from rats fed LP with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of 2.15 +/- 0.7 and 4.64 +/- 0.1 micro mol CCh/L in islets of rats fed NP and LP diets, respectively (P < 0.05). PMA-induced insulin secretion was higher in islets of rats fed NP compared with those fed LP. Western blotting revealed that the protein kinase (PK)Calpha and phospholipase (PL)Cbeta(1) contents of islets of rats fed LP were 30% lower than those of islets of rats fed NP (P < 0.05). In addition, PKCalpha mRNA expression was reduced by 50% in islets from rats fed LP. In conclusion, a reduced expression of PKCalpha and PLCbeta(1) may be involved in the decreased insulin secretion by islets from LP rats after stimulation with CCh and PMA. PMID:12612139

  10. Profiling of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora of growing pigs fed diets supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Balaskas, Christos; Fava, Fransesca; Tuohy, Kieran M; Gibson, Glenn R; Fegeros, K

    2006-08-01

    It is evident that quantitative information on different microbial groups and their contribution in terms of activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and animals is required in order to formulate functional diets targeting improved gut function and host health. In this work, quantitative information on levels and spatial distributions of Bacteroides spp, Eubacterium spp, Clostridium spp, Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. along the porcine large intestine was investigated using 16S rRNA targeted probes and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Caecum, ascending colon (AC) and rectum luminal digesta from three groups of individually housed growing pigs fed either a corn-soybean basal diet (CON diet) or a prebiotic diet containing 10 g/kg oligofructose (FOS diet) or trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS diet) at the expense of cornstarch were analysed. DAPI staining was used to enumerate total number of cells in the samples. Populations of total cells, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium declined significantly (P < 0.05) from caecum to rectum, and were not affected by dietary treatments. Populations of Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and E. coli did not differ throughout the large intestine. The relative percent (%) contribution of each bacterial group to the total cell count did not differ between caecum and rectum, with the exception of Eubacterium that was higher in the AC digesta. FISH analysis showed that the sum of all bacterial groups made up a small percentage of the total cells, which was 12.4%, 21.8% and 10.3% in caecum, AC and rectum, respectively. This supports the view that in swine, the diversity of GI microflora might be higher compared to other species. In terms of microflora metabolic activity, the substantially higher numerical trends seen in FOS and TOS treatments regarding total volatile fatty acid, acetate concentrations and glycolytic activities, it could be postulated that

  11. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  12. Toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala. The effect of iodine and mineral supplements on penned steers fed a sole diet of Leucaena.

    PubMed

    Jones, R J; Blunt, C G; Nurnberg, B I

    1978-08-01

    Steers fed a sole diet of Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru (leucaena), rapidly developed a hypothyroid condition. Total serum thyroxine (T4) levels declined from c 120 n mol litre-1 to 13 n mol litre-1 within six weeks of full leucaena feeding. Associated with the hypothyroidism was a declined in feed intake, poor weight gain, hair loss, excessive salivation and the development of lesions on the oesophagus of some animals. Light steers (119 kg) were more severely affected than heavy steers (220 kg) and two light steers died. During the eight week period of full leucaena feeding animals gained only 0.18 kg head-1 day-1 compared with 0.73 kg head-1 day -1 for steers fed cowpea (Vigna sinensis) hay. Supplementation with minerals (Fe, Cu, Zn) significantly increased mean daily intake (85.4 v 68.9 g/kg0.75), daily liveweight gain, (334 v 14 g), and serum T3 resin uptake (42.5 v 39.6%); decreased hair loss and skin lesions but did not alleviate the low serum T4 levels. Iodine supplementation did not affect intake, bodyweight gain, serum T4 levels, serum T3 uptake or toxicity scores compared with unsupplemented leucaena fed steers. When the leucaena fed animals were subsequently fed cowpea hay, appetite improved and the serum T4 levels returned to normal within two weeks. For the heavy steers over this period, weight gain was similar to the controls; however, the light steers continued to gain poorly. PMID:718558

  13. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  14. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  15. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals.

  16. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124

  17. Cecal populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli populations after in vivo Escherichia coli challenge in birds fed diets with purified lignin or mannanoligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Baurhoo, B; Letellier, A; Zhao, X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate lignin and mannanoligosaccharides as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in broilers. Dietary treatments for the 2 studies were 1) negative control (CTL-, antibiotic free); 2) positive control (CTL+, diet 1 + 11 mg of virginiamycin/kg); 3) mannanoligosaccharide (MOS; diet 1 + BioMos: 0.2% to 21 d and 0.1% thereafter); 4) LL (diet 1 + 1.25% Alcell lignin); and 5) HL (diet 1 + 2.5% Alcell lignin). In experiment 1, each treatment was assigned to 4 pen replicates (52 birds each). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly for 38 d. At 28 and 38 d, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Body weight and feed intake did not differ among dietary treatments. At d 38, the lactobacilli population was greatest (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS, whereas LL-fed birds had greater (P < 0.05) lactobacilli load than those fed CTL+. Bifidobacteria load was greater (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS or LL compared with those fed CTL+ at both d 28 and 38. However, at d 28 and 38, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria loads were lowest (P < 0.05) in CTL+ or HL-fed birds. In experiment 2, 21-d-old birds from the initial flock were transferred to cages for oral Escherichia coli (O2 and O88 serotypes) challenge (12 birds/treatment). After 3, 6, and 9 d, cecal loads of E. coli were determined. Birds fed HL had a lower E. coli load (P < 0.05) than birds fed CTL- or CTL+ at d 3, and lower than birds fed CTL- at d 6. At d 9, the E. coli load was lower (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS or HL than in those fed the CTL- or CTL+ diets; LL-fed birds had lower E. coli load than those fed CTL-. Birds fed MOS or LL had a comparative advantage over CTL+ birds in increasing populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and lowering E. coli loads after challenge. PMID:18029796

  18. The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally.

    PubMed

    Wene, J D; Connor, W E; DenBesten, L

    1975-07-01

    The hypothesis that clinical and biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA) might occur from the feeding of eucaloric, fat-free diets was tested in two experiments in healthy men. In Study I, eight men were given fat-free, eucaloric diets containing 80% of calories as glucose and 20% as amino acid hydrolysates by a constant drip over a 24-h period. The diets were fed in succession for periods of 2 wk each, either through a superior vena cava catheter or via a nasogastric tube. EFA deficiency was detected by decreases in linoleic acid and by the appearance of 5, 8, 11-eicosatrienoic acid in lipid fractions of plasma. Linoleic acid decreased significantly during 2 wk of the fat-free diet given intravenously from 48.8 to 9.8% (percent of total fatty acids) in cholesterol esters, from 21.2 to 3.2% in phospholipids, from 9.6 to 2.0% in free fatty acids, and from 14.1 to 2.6% in triglycerides. Eicosatrienoic acid, normally undetectable, appeared 0.6% in cholesterol esters, 2.5% in phospholipids, 0.2% in free fatty acids, and 2.3% in triglycerides. EFA deficiency occurred similarly during the nasogastric feeding. In Study II a subject received the same diet continuously by the nasogastric route for 10 days followed by a 24-h fast. He was then given the fat-free diet intermittently in three meals per day for 3 days. Finally, he was repleted with a diet containing 2.6% linoleic acid. By the 3rd day of the continuous nasogastric feeding, linoleic acid had fallen significantly and eicosatrienoic acid had appeared in plasma lipid fractions as in Study I. These findings were accentuated by day 10. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition did not change. Free fatty acid outflow from adipose tissue was presumably suppressed during the 10 days of continuous feeding. With increased free fatty acid outflow during fasting and intermittent feeding, linoleic acid rose and eicosatrienoic acid decreased. After 13 days of repletion with dietary linoleic acid, the EFA deficiency

  19. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  20. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  1. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Vashan, S J; Golian, A; Yaghobfar, A

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the

  2. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Vashan, S J; Golian, A; Yaghobfar, A

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the

  3. Inhibitory effects of Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ye Rim; Won, Sae Bom; Chung, Young-Shin; Kwak, Chung Shil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Because adipose tissue is considered a major source of inflammatory signals, we investigated the protective effects of Doenjang and steamed soybean on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat diet (LF), a high-fat diet (HF), or a high-fat containing Doenjang diet (DJ) or a high-fat containing steamed soybean diet (SS) for 11 weeks. RESULTS Mice fed a DJ diet showed significantly lower body and adipose tissue weights than those in the HF group. Although no significant differences in adipocyte size and number were observed among the HF diet-fed groups, consumption of Doenjang alleviated the incidence of crown-like structures in adipose tissue. Consistently, we observed significantly reduced mRNA levels of oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and p40phox), pro-inflammatory adipokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1), macrophage markers (CD68 and CD11c), and a fibrosis marker (transforming growth factor beta 1) by Doenjang consumption. Gene expression of anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin was significantly induced in the DJ group and the SS group compared to the HF group. The anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects observed in mice fed an SS diet were not as effective as those in mice fed a DJ diet, suggesting that the bioactive compounds produced during fermentation and aging may be involved in the observed health-beneficial effects of Doenjang. CONCLUSIONS Doenjang alleviated oxidative stress and restored the dysregulated expression of adipokine genes caused by excess adiposity. Therefore, Doenjang may ameliorate systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity via inhibition of inflammatory signals of adipose tissue. PMID:26060534

  4. Direct-fed microbials containing lactate-producing bacteria influence ruminal fermentation but not lactate utilization in steers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kenney, N M; Vanzant, E S; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R

    2015-05-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) have been shown to improve gain and growth efficiency and also modulate ruminal fermentation. In Exp. 1,72 beef steers were used to compare a lactate-producing bacterial (LAB) DFM consisting primarily of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium,and a lactate-producing and lactate-utilizing (LAB/LU) DFM consisting primarily of L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium both fed at 10(9) cfu/d. Steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet for 153 d and then slaughtered for collection of carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed acorn-based finishing diet and treated with 10(9) cfu/d of LAB DFM. Rumen fluid was sampled on d 14 and 28 over a 12-h period. Steers were ruminally dosed with a 2-L solution of neutralized DL-lactate (0.56 M)and Cr-EDTA (13.22 M) 3 h postfeeding on d 15 and 29. Ruminal samples were collected at 10- and 20-minintervals for the first and second hour postdosing. No differences (P ≥ 0.14) between control (CON) and LAB for DMI, ADG, growth efficiency, or carcass characteristics were observed. Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for LAB/LU than LAB from d 0 to 28 but did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) thereafter. Average daily gain was greater (P = 0.04) and efficiency tended(P = 0.06) to be greater for LAB than LAB/LU over the entire 153 d. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate were unaffected(P ≥ 0.24). Molar proportions of acetate exhibited a DFM by hour interaction (P = 0.04); however, on average, molar proportion of acetate was 4.4% greater for DFM. Conversely, DFM did not affect the molar proportion of propionate (P = 0.39). On average,molar proportions of propionate tended to increase(P = 0.07), and acetate tended to decrease (P = 0.07)across days. Mean daily ruminal pH was similar for CON on d 14 and 28, whereas mean pH increased from d 14 to 28 for DFM (DFM × day; P = 0.08).Minimum pH remained unchanged for CON over time but increased from d

  5. Direct-fed microbials containing lactate-producing bacteria influence ruminal fermentation but not lactate utilization in steers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kenney, N M; Vanzant, E S; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R

    2015-05-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) have been shown to improve gain and growth efficiency and also modulate ruminal fermentation. In Exp. 1,72 beef steers were used to compare a lactate-producing bacterial (LAB) DFM consisting primarily of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium,and a lactate-producing and lactate-utilizing (LAB/LU) DFM consisting primarily of L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium both fed at 10(9) cfu/d. Steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet for 153 d and then slaughtered for collection of carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed acorn-based finishing diet and treated with 10(9) cfu/d of LAB DFM. Rumen fluid was sampled on d 14 and 28 over a 12-h period. Steers were ruminally dosed with a 2-L solution of neutralized DL-lactate (0.56 M)and Cr-EDTA (13.22 M) 3 h postfeeding on d 15 and 29. Ruminal samples were collected at 10- and 20-minintervals for the first and second hour postdosing. No differences (P ≥ 0.14) between control (CON) and LAB for DMI, ADG, growth efficiency, or carcass characteristics were observed. Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for LAB/LU than LAB from d 0 to 28 but did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) thereafter. Average daily gain was greater (P = 0.04) and efficiency tended(P = 0.06) to be greater for LAB than LAB/LU over the entire 153 d. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate were unaffected(P ≥ 0.24). Molar proportions of acetate exhibited a DFM by hour interaction (P = 0.04); however, on average, molar proportion of acetate was 4.4% greater for DFM. Conversely, DFM did not affect the molar proportion of propionate (P = 0.39). On average,molar proportions of propionate tended to increase(P = 0.07), and acetate tended to decrease (P = 0.07)across days. Mean daily ruminal pH was similar for CON on d 14 and 28, whereas mean pH increased from d 14 to 28 for DFM (DFM × day; P = 0.08).Minimum pH remained unchanged for CON over time but increased from d

  6. Erectile dysfunction precedes coronary artery endothelial dysfunction in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose, Western pattern diet.

    PubMed

    La Favor, Justin D; Anderson, Ethan J; Hickner, Robert C; Wingard, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    Introduction.  It is suggested that erectile dysfunction (ED) may be an early risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Aim.  The goal of this study was to determine whether development of ED precedes the onset of coronary artery endothelial dysfunction in response to a Western diet (WD), thereby establishing whether the WD differentially impacts the endothelium in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, a goal was to determine if diet-induced ED is reversible with intracavernosal sepiapterin treatment. Methods.  Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a WD for 4, 8, or 12 weeks, or a control diet for 8 weeks. Erectile function was evaluated by measuring the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to electrical field stimulation of the cavernosal nerve near the major pelvic ganglion, in the absence and presence of sepiapterin. Coronary artery endothelial function was evaluated ex vivo with cumulative doses of acetylcholine (ACh) applied to segments of the left anterior descending coronary artery preconstricted with serotonin. Main Outcome Measures.  Erectile function was assessed as the ICP response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), normalized to MAP. Coronary artery endothelial function was assessed as the effective concentration producing 50% of a maximal response (EC50 ) of the ACh response. Results.  The ICP/MAP response to EFS was significantly attenuated following both 8 and 12 weeks of the WD compared with the control diet (P < 0.05). Sepiapterin treatment augmented the ICP/MAP response in all WD groups (P < 0.05). The coronary artery EC50 of the ACh response was not different from control following 4 or 8 weeks but was significantly elevated following 12 weeks of the WD (P < 0.01). Conclusions.  These data suggest that erectile function is reduced prior to coronary artery endothelial function in response to the WD. Improvement of erectile function with sepiapterin in WD rats indicates that nitric oxide

  7. Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kiani, A; Alstrup, L; Nielsen, M O

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets.

  8. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  9. Myeloid-specific SIRT1 Deletion Aggravates Hepatic Inflammation and Steatosis in High-fat Diet-fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Kim, Hwajin; Heo, Rok Won; Shin, Hyun Joo; Yi, Chin-ok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates cellular metabolism and inflammatory response. The organ-specific deletion of SIRT1 induces local inflammation and insulin resistance in dietary and genetic obesity. Macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, however, the macrophage-specific SIRT1 function in the context of obesity is largely unknown. C57/BL6 wild type (WT) or myeloid-specific SIRT1 knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks. Metabolic parameters and markers of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in liver were compared in WT and KO mice. SIRT1 deletion enhanced HFD-induced changes on body and liver weight gain, and increased glucose and insulin resistance. In liver, SIRT1 deletion increased the acetylation, and enhanced HFD-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), hepatic inflammation and macrophage infiltration. HFD-fed KO mice showed severe hepatic steatosis by activating lipogenic pathway through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), and hepatic fibrogenesis, as indicated by induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen secretion. Myeloid-specific deletion of SIRT1 stimulates obesity-induced inflammation and increases the risk of hepatic fibrosis. Targeted induction of macrophage SIRT1 may be a good therapy for alleviating inflammation-associated metabolic syndrome. PMID:26330758

  10. Modifications of plasma proteome in long-lived rats fed on a coenzyme Q10-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Santos-González, Mónica; Gómez Díaz, Consuelo; Navas, Plácido; Villalba, José Manuel

    2007-08-01

    Dietary coenzyme Q(10) prolongs life span of rats fed on a PUFAn-6-enriched diet. Our aim was to analyze changes in the levels of plasma proteins of rats fed on a PUFAn-6 plus coenzyme Q(10)-based diet. This approach could give novel insights into the mechanisms of life span extension by dietary coenzyme Q(10) in the rat. Serum albumin, which decreases with aging in the rat, was significantly increased by coenzyme Q(10) supplementation both at 6 and 24 months. After depletion of the most abundant proteins by affinity chromatography, levels of less abundant plasma proteins were also studied by using 2D-electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting analysis. Our results have shown that lifelong dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) induced significant decreases of plasma hemopexin, apolipoprotein H and inter-alpha-inhibitor H4P heavy chain (at both 6 and 24 months), preprohaptoglobin, fibrinogen gamma-chain precursor, and fetuin-like protein (at 6 months), and alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor and type II peroxiredoxin (at 24 months). On the other hand, coenzyme Q(10) supplementation resulted in significant increases of serine protease inhibitor 3, vitamin D-binding protein (at 6 months), and Apo A-I (at 24 months). Our results support a beneficial role of dietary coenzyme Q(10) decreasing oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk, and modulating inflammation during aging.

  11. Heart CD36 expression is increased in murine models of diabetes and in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwalt, D E; Scheck, S H; Rhinehart-Jones, T

    1995-01-01

    High levels of CD36 expression are found in triglyceride storing and secreting cells such as differentiated adipocytes and mammary secretory epithelial cells and in some capillary endothelial cells. We have found high levels of CD36 in the capillary endothelium of murine adipose tissue and in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Muscle cells themselves were CD36 negative. No CD36 was found in brain endothelium. Cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues are highly oxidative and catabolize long-chain fatty acids as a source of energy while brain tissue does not use long-chain fatty acids for energy production. Since capillary endothelial cell CD36 expression appeared to correlate with parenchymal cell fatty acid utilization and since CD26 has been identified recently as a long-chain fatty acid-binding protein, we examined heart tissue CD36 expression in murine models of insulin-dependent (nonobese diabetic, NOD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (KKAY). Diabetic NOD and KKAY mice had serum triglyceride levels 2.6- and 4.2-fold higher, respectively, than normal mice and exhibited 7- and 3.5-fold higher levels of heart microsomal CD36, respectively, than control mice. Mice fed a 40% fat diet expressed heart tissue CD36 at a level 3.5-fold higher than those fed a 9% fat diet. These data suggest that endothelial cell CD36 expression is related to parenchymal cell lipid metabolism. Images PMID:7544802

  12. Exposure to excess insulin (glargine) induces type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice fed on a chow diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Gu, Haihua; Guo, Huailan; Zha, Longying; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that insulin plays an important role in the nutrient-induced insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to excess long-acting insulin (glargine) can cause typical type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in normal mice fed on a chow diet. C57BL/6 mice were treated with glargine once a day for 8 weeks, followed by evaluations of food intake, body weight, blood levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and cytokines, insulin signaling, histology of pancreas, ectopic fat accumulation, oxidative stress level, and cholesterol content in mitochondria in tissues. Cholesterol content in mitochondria and its association with oxidative stress in cultured hepatocytes and β-cells were also examined. Results show that chronic exposure to glargine caused insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and relative insulin deficiency (T2DM). Treatment with excess glargine led to loss of pancreatic islets, ectopic fat accumulation in liver, oxidative stress in liver and pancreas, and increased cholesterol content in mitochondria of liver and pancreas. Prolonged exposure of cultured primary hepatocytes and HIT-TI5 β-cells to insulin induced oxidative stress in a cholesterol synthesis-dependent manner. Together, our results show that chronic exposure to excess insulin can induce typical T2DM in normal mice fed on a chow diet.

  13. Histological study of tibial dyschondroplasia-like lesion from light-type chicks fed cysteine-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Cook, M E

    1994-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD)-like lesions were induced in New Hampshire x Single-Comb White Leghorn cross chicks (NH x SCWL) by feeding excess levels of cysteine. The chicks fed a corn/soybean-meal-based diet had no spontaneous TD. The chicks fed the basal diet supplemented with 1.5% or 3.0% cysteine showed more than 50% TD-like lesions at 10 days of age; in another experiment, 1.6% cysteine induced TD (15%) at 3 weeks of age. A low incidence of rachitic-like lesions was found in Expt. 2 but was not associated with the dietary treatments. The TD-like lesion had a normal upper growth plate and a large mass of cartilage extending into the metaphysis; in contrast, the rachitic-like lesion had a widened upper growth plate. Microscopic examinations of the growth plates showed a widened prehypertrophic zone for the TD-like lesion and a widened proliferative zone for the rachitic-like lesion compared with the normal growth plate.

  14. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P < 0.01). High concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents. PMID:26319309

  15. Muscle and liver protein synthesis and degradation in growing rats fed a raw field bean (Vicia faba L.) diet.

    PubMed

    Goena, M; Santidrián, S; Cuevillas, F; Larralde, J

    1988-12-01

    Body weight gain, food intake, gastrocnemius muscle and liver weight, protein and RNA content, as well as the fractional rates of muscle and liver protein synthesis (ks, according to the method of constant infusion of L-[14C]tyrosine), growth (kg) and degradation (kd), along with RNA activity (g of protein synthesized per day/g RNA) of both organs, were determined in growing male rats fed ad libitum over a period of 10 days on 18.7% protein diets containing either casein (5% of methionine added) (control) or the raw legume field bean (Vicia faba L.) as the sole sources of protein. It has been found that as compared to control rats, those fed the raw legume diet exhibited a significant reduction in the rate of growth, muscle RNA, ks, kg, kd and RNA activity, and a significant increase in liver ks, kd and RNA activity. All differences were statistically significant at least at the 5% level. The possible nature of these findings is discussed.

  16. Protective effect of myristic acid on renal necrosis occurring in rats fed a methyl-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Monserrat, A J; Cutrin, J C; Coll, C

    2000-02-01

    Weanling rats fed a methyl-deficient diet develop acute renal failure, the morphological features of which vary from focal tubular necrosis to widespread cortical necrosis. We and others have shown that coconut oil, rich in saturated fatty acids, has a renal protective effect in this experimental model. In the experiment we are reporting now, we studied which fatty acid is involved in the protection afforded by coconut oil by feeding five groups of methyl-deficient rats a mixture of corn oil and hydrogenated vegetable oil, C6-C8-C10 fatty acids, C12 fatty acid, C14 fatty acid and C16-C18 fatty acids. Five groups of rats receiving the same diets supplemented with choline chloride were used as controls. The group of methyl-deficient rats fed C14 fatty acid (myristic acid) showed a greater percentage of surviving animals and lower renal damage than the other groups of methyl-deficient rats, indicating that the protective effect of coconut oil found in previous experiments is due to its high content of myristic acid.

  17. Exposure to excess insulin (glargine) induces type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice fed on a chow diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Gu, Haihua; Guo, Huailan; Zha, Longying; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that insulin plays an important role in the nutrient-induced insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to excess long-acting insulin (glargine) can cause typical type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in normal mice fed on a chow diet. C57BL/6 mice were treated with glargine once a day for 8 weeks, followed by evaluations of food intake, body weight, blood levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and cytokines, insulin signaling, histology of pancreas, ectopic fat accumulation, oxidative stress level, and cholesterol content in mitochondria in tissues. Cholesterol content in mitochondria and its association with oxidative stress in cultured hepatocytes and β-cells were also examined. Results show that chronic exposure to glargine caused insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and relative insulin deficiency (T2DM). Treatment with excess glargine led to loss of pancreatic islets, ectopic fat accumulation in liver, oxidative stress in liver and pancreas, and increased cholesterol content in mitochondria of liver and pancreas. Prolonged exposure of cultured primary hepatocytes and HIT-TI5 β-cells to insulin induced oxidative stress in a cholesterol synthesis-dependent manner. Together, our results show that chronic exposure to excess insulin can induce typical T2DM in normal mice fed on a chow diet. PMID:24741073

  18. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet. PMID:23291748

  19. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  20. Expression of retinoic acid nuclear receptors and tissue transglutaminase is altered in various tissues of rats fed a vitamin A-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Shoemaker, A; Simsiman, R; Denning, M; Zachman, R D

    1992-11-01

    The effects of vitamin A nutritional status on the levels of expression of retinoic acid nuclear receptors (RAR), and the retinoic acid-responsive gene, tissue transglutaminase, were determined in rats. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for approximately 7 wk developed vitamin A deficiency, as confirmed by the depletion of liver retinol and retinyl palmitate. Controls were fed the same diet supplemented with 24 mg/kg retinyl acetate. The levels of expression of RAR beta mRNA were approximately 80% lower in bladder, brain, liver, lung and trachea and those of RAR gamma mRNA were approximately 50% lower in bladder, lung and trachea of rats fed the vitamin A-deficient diet than in controls. The levels of expression of RAR alpha mRNA were approximately 90% lower in brain and approximately 30% greater in liver, kidney, intestine and lung of rats fed the vitamin A-deficient diet. Vitamin A deficiency also resulted in reduced expression of tissue transglutaminase in the bladder, lungs and trachea, which paralleled the effects observed for RAR beta and RAR gamma. When vitamin A-deficient rats were subsequently fed a retinol-deficient diet supplemented with retinoic acid for 4 wk, the expression of RAR (beta and gamma) and tissue transglutaminase returned to the control levels. These results indicate that vitamin A nutritional status in rats influences the expression of both RAR and tissue transglutaminase in certain tissues. PMID:1279143

  1. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  2. Defective adipose tissue development associated with hepatomegaly in cathepsin E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Kido, Mizuho A; Hatakeyama, Junko; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-03-28

    Cathepsin E is an intracellular aspartic proteinase, which is predominantly distributed in immune-related and epithelial cells. However, the role of the enzyme in adipose tissues remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cathepsin E-deficient (CatE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a mouse model of obesity. HFD-fed CatE(-/-) mice displayed reduced body weight gain and defective development of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Moreover, fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice showed abnormal lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues characterized by hepatomegaly, which is probably due to defective adipose tissue development. Detailed pathological and biochemical analyses showed that hepatomegaly was accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice. In fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice, the number of macrophages infiltrating into WAT was significantly lower than in fat-induced wild-type mice. Thus, the impaired adipose tissue development in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice was probably due to reduced infiltration of macrophages and may lead to hepatomegaly accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Capsaicin-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus and alterations in gut microbial count in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Baboota, Ritesh K; Murtaza, Nida; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Karmase, Aniket; Kaur, Jaspreet; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is a global health problem and recently it has been seen as a growing concern for developing countries. Several bioactive dietary molecules have been associated with amelioration of obesity and associated complications and capsaicin is one among them. The present work is an attempt to understand and provide evidence for the novel mechanisms of anti-obesity activity of capsaicin in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Swiss albino mice divided in three groups (n=8-10) i.e. control, HFD fed and capsaicin (2mg/kg, po)+HFD fed were administered respective treatment for 3months. After measuring phenotypic and serum related biochemical changes, effect of capsaicin on HFD-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT) (visceral and subcutaneous), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and gut microbial alterations was studied and quantified. Our results suggest that, in addition to its well-known effects, oral administration of capsaicin (a) modulates hypothalamic satiety associated genotype, (b) alters gut microbial composition, (c) induces "browning" genotype (BAT associated genes) in subcutaneous WAT and (d) increases expression of thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in BAT. The present study provides evidence for novel and interesting mechanisms to explain the anti-obesity effect of capsaicin.

  4. Effects of casein and glucose on responses of cows fed diets based on restrictively fermented grass silage.

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, A; Varvikko, T; Huhtanen, P

    2003-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether well fed dairy cows given restrictively fermented grass silage diet will respond to incremental glucose and amino acid supply at early stage of lactation. Four rumen-cannulated Finnish Ayrshire cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 14-d periods. The cows were fed good quality restrictively fermented grass silage ensiled with a formic acid additive for ad libitum intake. A concentrate mixture consisting of barley (85%) and solvent extracted rapeseed meal (11.4%) was given at a rate of 9 kg/d. The four treatments were continuous abomasal infusions of water (control), casein 300 g/d, glucose 300 g/d, and casein 300 g/d + glucose 300 g/d. The infusions had only minor effects on feed intake, diet digestibility, or rumen fermentation pattern. Both casein and glucose infusions increased milk, protein and lactose yields the effects being partly additive on the combined infusion. Infused casein increased milk protein and urea as well as plasma urea concentrations. Both casein and glucose tended to increase plasma glucose concentration. Casein increased arterial plasma concentrations of essential amino acids (EAA), branched-chain AA (BCAA), and total AA (TAA). Both casein and glucose, although glucose usually less than casein, increased arteriovenous differences of EAA, nonessential AA, BCAA, and TAA. Extraction efficiencies of AA were higher for glucose than for casein. Mammary plasma flow was at highest on the control diet, but reduced owing to infused nutrients, the reduction being less with combined rather than separate infusions of casein and glucose. Based on the partly additive increases in milk production parameters and changes in plasma metabolites, it is suggested that glucose alone increased milk protein yield by sparing AA from hepatic utilization, while casein increased both supply of AA and glucose. It was concluded that cows at early stage of lactation fed diets comprising of restrictively

  5. Lipogenesis Is Decreased by Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins According to Liver Proteomics of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet*

    PubMed Central

    Baiges, Isabel; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bladé, Cinta; Gregersen, Niels; Arola, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins have been reported to have several beneficial effects on health in relation to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). This is the first study of the effects of flavonoids on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. Three groups of rats were fed over a period of 13 weeks either a chow diet (control), an HFD, or a high fat diet supplemented for the last 10 days with GSPE (HFD + GSPE). The liver proteome was fractionated, using a Triton X-114-based two-phase separation, into soluble and membrane protein fractions so that total proteome coverage was considerably improved. The data from isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based nano-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 90 proteins with a significant (p < 0.05) minimal expression difference of 20% due to metabolic syndrome (HFD versus control) and 75 proteins due to GSPE treatment (HFD + GSPE versus HFD). The same animals have previously been studied (Quesada, H., del Bas, J. M., Pajuelo, D., Díaz, S., Fernandez-Larrea, J., Pinent, M., Arola, L., Salvadó, M. J., and Bladé, C. (2009) Grape seed proanthocyanidins correct dyslipidemia associated with a high-fat diet in rats and repress genes controlling lipogenesis and VLDL assembling in liver. Int. J. Obes. 33, 1007–1012), and GSPE was shown to correct dyslipidemia observed in HFD-fed rats probably through the repression of hepatic lipogenesis. Our data corroborate those findings with an extensive list of proteins describing the induction of hepatic glycogenesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in HFD, whereas the opposite pattern was observed to a large extent in GSPE-treated animals. GSPE was shown to have a wider effect than previously thought, and putative targets of GSPE involved in the reversal of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome were revealed. Some

  6. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were