Science.gov

Sample records for abalone haliotis tuberculata

  1. Vibrio harveyi Adheres to and Penetrates Tissues of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the First Hours of Contact

    PubMed Central

    Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

  2. Vibrio harveyi adheres to and penetrates tissues of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the first hours of contact.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Growth of the European abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: Seasonality and ageing using stable oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, Sabine; Huchette, Sylvain; Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition ( 18O/ 16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55 mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates.

  4. Identification of cDNAs encoding HSP70 and HSP90 in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: Transcriptional induction in response to thermal stress in hemocyte primary culture.

    PubMed

    Farcy, Emilie; Serpentini, Antoine; Fiévet, Bruno; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2007-04-01

    Heat-shock proteins are a multigene family of proteins whose expression is induced by a variety of stress factors. This work reports the cloning and sequencing of HSP70 and HSP90 cDNAs in the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. The deduced amino acid sequences of both HSP70 and HSP90 from H. tuberculata shared a high degree of homology with their homologues in other species, including typical eukaryotic HSP70 and HSP90 signature sequences. We examined their transcription expression pattern in abalone hemocytes exposed to thermal stress. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that both HSP70 and HSP90 mRNA were expressed in control animals but rapidly increased after heat-shock.

  5. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  6. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  7. Protective Efficacy of a Pseudoalteromonas Strain in European Abalone, Haliotis tuberculata, Infected with Vibrio harveyi ORM4.

    PubMed

    Offret, Clément; Rochard, Vincent; Laguerre, Hélène; Mounier, Jérôme; Huchette, Sylvain; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2018-02-06

    The hemolymph of healthy marine invertebrates is known to harbor antibiotic-producing bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Such strains are potential probiotics to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. In the present study, we screened a collection of Pseudoalteromonas strains isolated from the hemolymph of oyster and mussel for antimicrobial activity against Vibrio harveyi, a pathogenic species responsible for high mortality in abalone. Subsequently, the protective efficacy of the most active strain named hCg-6 was investigated in abalone culture faced with a Vibrio harveyi ORM4 infection. First, we have controlled the Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 safety for abalone health. To that end, animals were immersed for 4 h in Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 suspensions in seawater. The abalone viability was monitored and Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 was tracked by quantitative-PCR in abalone hemolymph. After immersion, no abalone death occurred while the strain hCg-6 was significantly detected in hemolymph. Therefore, the strain hCg-6 was considered safe for abalone and evaluated for its ability to protect abalone against V. harveyi (injection of 1 × 10 3 Vibrio per animal). A 4-h long immersion of abalone in a seawater suspension of Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 (1 × 10 6  CFU mL -1 ) prior to infection with Vibrio harveyi significantly improved the abalone viability. Indeed, 15 days post infection, the hCg-6 treatment used increased the abalone survival rate from 16% in untreated animals to 40% in treated abalone. We hypothesized that Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 antibacterial activity increased the hemomicrobiota shielding effect. In conclusion, Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 is a promising anti-Vibrio strain for abalone culture.

  8. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal and algal diet-driven patterns of the digestive microbiota of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a generalist marine herbivore.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Angélique; Mest, Laëtitia; Perennou, Morgan; Dittami, Simon M; Caralp, Claire; Coulombet, Céline; Huchette, Sylvain; Roussel, Sabine; Michel, Gurvan; Leblanc, Catherine

    2018-03-27

    Holobionts have a digestive microbiota with catabolic abilities allowing the degradation of complex dietary compounds for the host. In terrestrial herbivores, the digestive microbiota is known to degrade complex polysaccharides from land plants while in marine herbivores, the digestive microbiota is poorly characterized. Most of the latter are generalists and consume red, green, and brown macroalgae, three distinct lineages characterized by a specific composition in complex polysaccharides, which represent half of their biomass. Subsequently, each macroalga features a specific epiphytic microbiota, and the digestive microbiota of marine herbivores is expected to vary with a monospecific algal diet. We investigated the effect of four monospecific diets (Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata) on the composition and specificity of the digestive microbiota of a generalist marine herbivore, the abalone, farmed in a temperate coastal area over a year. The microbiota from the abalone digestive gland was sampled every 2 months and explored using metabarcoding. Diversity and multivariate analyses showed that patterns of the microbiota were significantly linked to seasonal variations of contextual parameters but not directly to a specific algal diet. Three core genera: Psychrilyobacter, Mycoplasma, and Vibrio constantly dominated the microbiota in the abalone digestive gland. Additionally, a less abundant and diet-specific core microbiota featured genera representing aerobic primary degraders of algal polysaccharides. This study highlights the establishment of a persistent core microbiota in the digestive gland of the abalone since its juvenile state and the presence of a less abundant and diet-specific core community. While composed of different microbial taxa compared to terrestrial herbivores, the digestive gland constitutes a particular niche in the abalone holobiont, where bacteria (i) may cooperate to degrade algal polysaccharides to

  10. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-03

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented.

  11. Habitat of endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Behrens, M.D.; Davis, G.E.; Haaker, P.L.; Kushner, D.J.; Richards, D. V.; Taniguchi, I. K.; Tegner, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys with a submersible at offshore islands and banks in southern California found that white abalone were most abundant at depths between 43 and 60 m. This is deeper than estimates taken when white abalone were more abundant. Densities were highest at sites far from fishing ports. Controlling for depth and site found that white abalone were significantly more abundant in areas with Laminaria farlowii (an alga) but abalone were not associated with areas high in the cover of other algae (Pelagophycus porra or Eisenia arborea) or the amount of sand in the habitat (except that abalone always occurred on rock). Within an area with abalone, the particular rock they occurred on was significantly larger than unoccupied neighboring rocks. Occupied rocks were not significantly different in algal cover or in sea urchin density than unoccupied neighboring rocks. The position of abalone on a rock was nearer to the rock–sand interface than would be expected based on a random distribution. More white abalone were feeding when in association with red urchins, perhaps because both grazers capture drift algae to eat. These data may aid future efforts to locate white abalone brood stock and identify locations for outplanting.

  12. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  13. Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Pil Soo; Kim, Joon Yong; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-02-01

    A novel, Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and coccus-shaped bacterium, strain WL80(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. Optimal growth occurred at 30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 1% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain WL80(T) fell within the cluster of the genus Actinomyces, with highest sequence similarity to the type strains of Actinomyces radicidentis (98.8% similarity) and Actinomyces urogenitalis (97.0% similarity). The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. Menaquinone-10 (H4) was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 70.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values with closely related strains indicated less than 7.6% genomic relatedness. The results of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WL80(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinomyces, for which the name Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WL80(T) ( = KACC 17211(T) = JCM 18848(T)).

  14. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones. PMID:26593905

  15. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-11-18

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  16. Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm

  17. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of a small HSP26 gene of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Ok; Nam, Bo Hye; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Sang Jun; Jee, Young Ju; Kong, In Soo; Choi, Tae Jin

    2008-07-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are evolutionally conserved from micro organism to mammals and play important roles in many biological processes including thermal tolerance. We isolated a homologue of small HSP26 (sHSP26) from a subtracted cDNA library of heat shock-treated abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The abalone sHSP26 encompossed 793 nt, including a coding region of 501 nt. The deduced amino acid sequence of the abalone sHSP26 contained well conserved alpha-crystallin domain and showed overall identities of 27-31% with the other species' sHSP proteins. The abalone sHSP26 transcript was induced by heat shock treatment, but not by cold shock treatment.

  19. Immunological changes in response to herpesvirus infection in abalone Haliotis laevigata and Haliotis rubra hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dang, Vinh T; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Crane, Mark St J; Speck, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Australian abalone production has been affected by outbreaks of abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) caused by a herpesvirus (AbHV). In this study, we undertook experimental transmission trials by immersion to study the abalone immune response to infection with AbHV. Representative cellular and humoural immune parameters of abalone, including total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide anion (SO) and antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), were examined in apparently healthy (sub-clinical) and moribund abalone after challenge. In the early infection, sub-clinical stage (days 1-3), THC was found to increase significantly in infected abalone. TaqMan qPCR confirmed 20.5% higher viral load in moribund abalone compared to apparently healthy abalone, indicating that the abundance of AbHV within abalone is linked to their clinical signs. At the clinical stage of infection, THC was significantly lower in moribund abalone, but increased in AbHV-exposed but apparently healthy abalone, in comparison to non-infected controls. SO was reduced in all abalone that were PCR-positive for AbHV. THC and SO level were found to be negatively correlated with the presence of AbHV in abalone, but no effect of AbVH exposure was observed on the haemolymph antiviral activity. These results suggest that abalone mount an initial cellular immune response to AbHV infection, but this response cannot be sustained under high viral loads, leading to mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangjing; Yang, Zhihui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2008-08-01

    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines’ autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  1. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  2. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  3. Identification and characterization of Vibrio harveyi associated with diseased abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qingru; Shi, Liuyang; Ke, Caihuan; You, Weiwei; Zhao, Jing

    2013-03-26

    Mass mortality of farmed small abalone Haliotis diversicolor occurred in Fujian, China, from 2009 to 2011. Among isolates obtained from moribund abalones, the dominant species AP37 exhibited the strongest virulence. After immersion challenge with 106 CFU ml-1 of AP37, abalone mortalities of 0, 53 and 67% were induced at water temperatures of 20°C, 24°C, and 28°C, respectively. Following intramuscular injection, AP37 showed a low LD50 (median lethal concentration) value of 2.9 × 102 CFU g-1 (colony forming units per gram abalone wet body weight). The LT50 (median lethal time) values were 5.2 h for 1 × 106 CFU abalone-1, 8.4 h for 1 × 105 CFU abalone-1, and 21.5 h for 1 × 104 CFU abalone-1. For further analysis of virulence, AP37 was screened for the production of extracellular factors. The results showed that various factors including presence of flagella and production of extracellular enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase and haemolysin, could be responsible for pathogenesis. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain AP37 showed >98.8% similarity to Vibrio harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens and V. rotiferianus, so it could not be identified by this method. However, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated sequences, including the rpoD, rctB, gyrB, toxR and pyrH genes, identified strain AP37 as V. harveyi. Phenotypic characters of AP37 were identified by API 20E. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, strain AP37 exhibited susceptibility to 7 antibiotics and resistance to 13. This is the first report of a V. harveyi-related species being linked with the mass mortality of adult abalone H. diversicolor in southern China.

  4. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Preparation, characterisation and use for antioxidant oligosaccharides of a cellulase from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) viscera.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Le-Chang; Qiu, Xu-Jian; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2016-07-01

    In China, abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) production is growing annually. During industrial processing, the viscera, which are abundant of cellulase, are usually discarded or processed into low-value feedstuff. Thus, it is of interest to obtain cellulase from abalone viscera and investigate its application for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. A cellulase was purified from the hepatopancreas of abalone by ammonium sulfate precipitation and two-steps column chromatography. The molecular weight of the cellulase was 45 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis yielded 103 amino acid residues, which were identical to cellulases from other species of abalone. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the cellulase is an endo-1,4-β-glucanase. Hydrolysis of seaweed Porphyra haitanensis polysaccharides by the enzyme produced oligosaccharides with degree of polymerisation of two to four, whose monosaccharide composition was 58% galactose, 4% glucose and 38% xylose. The oligosaccharides revealed 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. It is feasible and meaningful to utilise cellulase from the viscera of abalone for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Dong; Huang, Min; Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  7. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone. PMID:26313647

  8. Genetic diversity and stock identification of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) in Taiwan and Japan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan

    2017-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is a commercially valuable species for both fisheries and aquaculture. The production of annual farmed small abalone in Taiwan, once the highest in the world, has dramatically decreased in the past 15 years, and currently, the industry is close to collapse. Understanding the genetic diversity of small abalone and developing stock identification methods will be useful for genetic breeding, restoring collapsed stocks, managing stocks, and preventing illegal trade. We investigated 307 cultured and wild individuals from Taiwan, Japan, and Bali Island (Indonesia) by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis of mtDNA COI gene sequences revealed that the individuals collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia could be identified, and showed significant genetic divergence. In addition, the Indonesian population (Haliotis diversicolor squamata) was significantly different from the other populations and might need to be considered a separate species. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism marker in the mtDNA COI gene that can be used to distinguish the Taiwan population from the Japan population. We also developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection. Furthermore, we could identify the cultured stocks, wild population, and hybrid stocks by using 6 microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism. This study contributes useful tools for stock identification and the production of high-disease resistant small abalone strains (Japan × Taiwan or Taiwan × Japan). Efforts should be made to avoid unintentional random genetic mixing of the Taiwan population with the Japan population and subsequent breakdown of population differentiation, which impair local adaptation of the Taiwan wild population. Molecular markers revealed a split between the Taiwan and Japan populations, and the existence of a possible barrier to the free

  9. Genome sequence of pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai): the first draft genome in family Haliotidae.

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kang, Jeong-Ha; Park, Jung Youn; An, Cheul Min; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Choul Ji; Yu, Jae Woong; Yoon, Joon; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Kwondo; Kim, Duk Kyung; Lee, SaetByeol; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Chul; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Myunghee; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Shin, Ga-Hee; Ka, Sojeong; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2017-05-01

    Abalones are large marine snails in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis belonging to the class Gastropoda of the phylum Mollusca. The family Haliotidae contains only one genus, Haliotis, and this single genus is known to contain several species of abalone. With 18 additional subspecies, the most comprehensive treatment of Haliotidae considers 56 species valid [ 1 ]. Abalone is an economically important fishery and aquaculture animal that is considered a highly prized seafood delicacy. The total global supply of abalone has increased 5-fold since the 1970s and farm production increased explosively from 50 mt to 103 464 mt in the past 40 years. Additionally, researchers have recently focused on abalone given their reported tumor suppression effect. However, despite the valuable features of this marine animal, no genomic information is available for the Haliotidae family and related research is still limited. To construct the H . discus hannai genome, a total of 580-G base pairs using Illumina and Pacbio platforms were generated with 322-fold coverage based on the 1.8-Gb estimated genome size of H . discus hannai using flow cytometry. The final genome assembly consisted of 1.86 Gb with 35 450 scaffolds (>2 kb). GC content level was 40.51%, and the N50 length of assembled scaffolds was 211 kb. We identified 29 449 genes using Evidence Modeler based on the gene information from ab initio prediction, protein homology with known genes, and transcriptome evidence of RNA-seq. Here we present the first Haliotidae genome, H . discus hannai , with sequencing data, assembly, and gene annotation information. This will be helpful for resolving the lack of genomic information in the Haliotidae family as well as providing more opportunities for understanding gastropod evolution. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Genetic diversity and stock identification of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) in Taiwan and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan

    2017-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is a commercially valuable species for both fisheries and aquaculture. The production of annual farmed small abalone in Taiwan, once the highest in the world, has dramatically decreased in the past 15 years, and currently, the industry is close to collapse. Understanding the genetic diversity of small abalone and developing stock identification methods will be useful for genetic breeding, restoring collapsed stocks, managing stocks, and preventing illegal trade. We investigated 307 cultured and wild individuals from Taiwan, Japan, and Bali Island (Indonesia) by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis of mtDNA COI gene sequences revealed that the individuals collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia could be identified, and showed significant genetic divergence. In addition, the Indonesian population (Haliotis diversicolor squamata) was significantly different from the other populations and might need to be considered a separate species. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism marker in the mtDNA COI gene that can be used to distinguish the Taiwan population from the Japan population. We also developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection. Furthermore, we could identify the cultured stocks, wild population, and hybrid stocks by using 6 microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism. This study contributes useful tools for stock identification and the production of high-disease resistant small abalone strains (Japan × Taiwan or Taiwan × Japan). Efforts should be made to avoid unintentional random genetic mixing of the Taiwan population with the Japan population and subsequent breakdown of population differentiation, which impair local adaptation of the Taiwan wild population. Molecular markers revealed a split between the Taiwan and Japan populations, and the existence of a possible barrier to the free

  11. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to functional hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Venter, Leonie; Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Mason, Shayne; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Z

    2018-03-23

    Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone ( Haliotis midae) subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to functional hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Leonie; Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J.; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J.; Mason, Shayne; Vosloo, Andre

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone (Haliotis midae) subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29572259

  13. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  14. Ganglioneuritis causing high mortalities in farmed Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata and Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Hooper, C; Hardy-Smith, P; Handlinger, J

    2007-05-01

    To investigate an outbreak of sudden severe mortality in farmed abalone from coastal Victoria. The outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in three farms following abalone movements from the wild and between farms. The initial on farm investigation identified a number of features that when considered together were highly suggestive of an infectious aetiology. In many cases, dead abalone had no significant gross lesions. Others had swollen mouths and some had prolapse and eversion of the radula. Histologically, the lesions centred on the nerves innervating the labial apparatus, primarily the cerebral and buccal ganglia, cerebral commissure and peripheral nerve branches arising from these. Nervous tissue necrosis and haemocyte infiltration were the dominant lesions seen microscopically in affected nerves. A recent outbreak of mortality in Australian abalone was associated with neurotropic lesions, which have not previously been described in this country. The on farm and between farm pattern of spread of the outbreak, a history of abalone movements linking farms, clinical observation of moribund and dead abalone were all highly suggestive of a virulent infectious agent.

  15. Gene expression profiling in respond to TBT exposure in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor by tributyltin (TBT) exposure using a cDNA microarray containing 2473 unique transcripts. Totally, 107 up-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated genes were found. For further investigation of candidate genes from microarray data and EST analysis, quantitative real-time PCR was performed at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 192 h TBT exposure. 26 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in different time course, 3 of them were unknown. Some gene homologues like cellulose, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, ferritin subunit 1 and thiolester containing protein II CG7052-PB might be the good biomarker candidate for TBT monitor. The identification of stress response genes and their expression profiles will permit detailed investigation of the defense responses of small abalone genes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Identification and characterization of miRNAs transcriptome in the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    PubMed

    Picone, Barbara; Rhode, Clint; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2017-02-01

    Aquatic animal diseases are one of the most important limitations to the growth of aquaculture. miRNAs represent an important class of small ncRNAs able to modulate host immune and stress responses. In Mollusca, a large phylum of invertebrates, miRNAs have been identified in several species. The current preliminary study identified known miRNAs from the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. The economic and ecological importance of abalone makes this species a suitable model for studying and understanding stress response in marine gastropods. Furthermore, the identification of miRNA, represents an alternative and powerful tool to combat infectious disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    PubMed Central

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization. PMID:25669609

  18. Genomic Characterization of a Novel Phage Found in Black Abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) Infected with Withering Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closek, C. J.; Langevin, S.; Burge, C. A.; Crosson, L.; White, S.; Friedman, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Withering syndrome (WS), caused by the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsia-like organism (RLO), infects many species of abalone. Black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), one of two endangered species of abalone, has experienced high population losses along the California coast due to WS. Recently, we observed reduced pathogenicity and mortality events in RLO-infected abalone when a novel bacteriophage (phage) was also present. To better understand phage-bacterium dynamics and develop more informative diagnostic tools, we sequenced the genome of the novel phage associated with the RLO responsible for WS. Metagenomic sequencing libraries were prepared with extracted genomic DNA from two experimentally infected H. cracherodii and phage sequences were enriched using hydroxyapatite chromatography normalization. Normalized libraries were individually barcoded and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. Raw sequence reads were processed using VIrominer and de novo assembly produced one single phage-like contig (35.7Kb) from the experimentally infected abalone. This highly divergent genome had closest homology with a virus associated with abalone shriveling syndrome (SS). Of the 34 predicted ORFs, overlapping homology with the SS virus ranged from 20-72%, demonstrating the phage sequenced is genetically distinct from any known phage. The phage-like sequences represented a significant portion of the total reads sequenced ( 2 million of the 12 million paired-end reads; 17%) and we obtained 94,000X coverage across the novel phage genome. Beyond characterization of this novel phage, which appears to reduce pathogenicity of the RLO, the genome enabled us to develop quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization assays as diagnostic tools. These tools allow us to detect and quantify this phage in the endangered H. cracherodii.

  19. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diatom diet selectivity by early post-larval abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under hatchery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuyu; Gao, Yahui; Liang, Junrong; Chen, Changping; Zhao, Donghai; Li, Xuesong; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    Benthic diatoms constitute the primary diet of abalone during their early stages of development. To evaluate the dietary preferences of early post-larval abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, we analyzed the gut contents of post-larvae that settled on diatom films. We compared the abundance and species diversity of diatom assemblages in the gut to those of the epiphytic diatom assemblages on the attachment films, and identified 40 benthic diatom species in the gut contents of post-larvae 12 to 24 d after settlement. The most abundant taxa in the gut contents were Navicula spp., Amphora copulate, and Amphora coffeaeformis. Navicula spp. accounted for 64.0% of the cell density. In the attachment films, we identified 110 diatom species belonging to 38 genera. Pennate diatoms were the dominant members including the species Amphiprora alata, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cylindrotheca closterium, Navicula sp. 2, and A. coffeaeformis. Nano-diatoms (<20 μm in length) accounted for a considerable proportion of the total species number and cell density of the diatom assemblages in the gut contents and on the films. This suggests that nano-diatoms are important to the efficient production of abalone seed. The difference of the composition and abundance of diatoms between in the guts and on the biofilms suggests that early post-larval grazing was selective. An early post-larval abalone preferred nano-diatoms and the genera Navicula and Amphora during the month after settlement.

  1. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Shu, Jing; Zhao, Cui; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Lingfeng; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai). Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences, after redundancy elimination. Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17, with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922, respectively. Twelve of the 17 loci (70.6%) were successfully amplified in H. diversicolor. Seventeen loci segregated in three families, with three showing the presence of null alleles (17.6%). The adequate level of variability and low frequency of null alleles observed in H. discus hannai, together with the high rate of transportability across Haliotis species, make this set of EST-SSR markers an important tool for comparative mapping, marker-assisted selection, and evolutionary studies, not only in the Pacific abalone, but also in related species.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of prohormone convertase 1 gene in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-03-01

    Prohormone convertases (PCs) are calcium-dependent serine endoproteases of the subtilisin family that play a key role in the posttranslational processing of precursors for bioactive peptides. In this study, the cDNA of PC1 from abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) was cloned and sequenced. The PC1 cDNA consisted of 2216 bp with an open reading frame of 2010 bp encoding a 670 amino acid peptide. Comparative structural analysis revealed that abalone PC1 shared high similarity and identity with most PC counterparts. The profile of deduced peptide of PC1 was composed of an N-terminal signal peptide, a prosegment domain, a catalytic domain and a P domain, which were common in many species. Sequence analysis indicated that the abalone PC1 was highly conserved in catalytic domain, including three conserved serine catalytic signatures that comprised a catalytic triad active center. Also conserved were the potential cleavage site for release of the mature peptide, a cognate integrin binding site RGD in P domain, and four cysteine residues involved in forming an intrachain disulfide bridge. To further investigate the functions of PC1 in abalone, real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine the expression level of this gene at three different reproduction stages (i.e. pre-, during- and post-breeding). Results indicated that PC1 was expressed throughout the three stages but the expression levels varied with the timepoints and different tissues in abalone. The expression levels of PC1 in digestive gland were much higher than those of the gonad. In female abalone, the expression of PC1 was higher at pre-breeding and during-breeding stages (P<0.05), and the expression declined at the subsequent stage. Whereas, the level of PC1 in male individual did not exhibit a significant difference in various reproduction stages. Also, the natural enzyme activity of PC1 partially exhibited a similar tendency with the mRNA expression. According to the results, it can be

  3. Hyperparasitism by the bacteriophage (Caudovirales) infecting Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales-like prokaryote) parasite of wild abalone Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata from the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Muñoz-Flores, Monserrat; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Hernández Rodriguez, Mónica; Ángel Del Río-Portilla, Miguel; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2016-10-01

    Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage. To date, there is no information on the epizootiology of CXc and its bacteriophage in natural populations of abalone; furthermore, it is unknown if the bacteriophage was also present in CXc infecting blue abalone Haliotis fulgens. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of CXc, as well as to determine the distribution and prevalence of the bacteriophage and to study interactions between host sex and hyperparasitism in blue abalone and yellow abalone. Tissue samples were obtained from seven localities where the commercial capture of wild abalone is carried out. Samplings were conducted throughout the 2012-2013 capture seasons and a total of 182 blue abalone and 170 yellow abalone were obtained. The prevalence and intensity of CXc and the prevalence of the bacteriophage were determined by histology. The identity of CXc was confirmed by PCR, product sequence analysis and in situ hybridization while the identity of the bacteriophage was corroborated by TEM. The prevalence of CXc infected and uninfected by the bacteriophage was 80% in blue abalone and 62% in yellow abalone. Low infection intensities were found in 86% of blue abalone and 82% of yellow abalone. Infection intensity was significantly higher in undifferentiated yellow abalone. The bacteriophage in CXc showed a prevalence of 22% and 31% in blue abalone and yellow abalone respectively. These results show that CXc and

  4. SNP discovery and High Resolution Melting Analysis from massive transcriptome sequencing in the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    The California red abalone, Haliotis rufescens that belongs to the Haliotidae family, is the largest species of abalone in the world that has sustained the major fishery and aquaculture production in the USA and Mexico. This native mollusk has not been evaluated or assigned a conservation category even though in the last few decades it was heavily exploited until it disappeared in some areas along the California coast. In Chile, the red abalone was introduced in the 1970s from California wild abalone stocks for the purposes of aquaculture. Considering the number of years that the red abalone has been cultivated in Chile crucial genetic information is scarce and critical issues remain unresolved. This study reports and validates novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers for the red abalone H. rufescens using cDNA pyrosequencing. A total of 622 high quality SNPs were identified in 146 sequences with an estimated frequency of 1 SNP each 1000bp. Forty-five SNPs markers with functional information for gene ontology were selected. Of these, 8 were polymorphic among the individuals screened: Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vitellogenin (VTG), lysin, alginate lyase enzyme (AL), Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), sulfatase 1A precursor (S1AP) and ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (ODC). Two additional sequences were also identified with polymorphisms but no similarities with known proteins were achieved. To validate the putative SNP markers, High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) was conducted in a wild and hatchery-bred population. Additionally, SNP cross-amplifications were tested in two further native abalone species, Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata. This study provides novel candidate genes that could be used to evaluate loss of genetic diversity due to hatchery selection or inbreeding effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  6. Epipodial Tentacle Gene Expression and Predetermined Resilience to Summer Mortality in the Commercially Important Greenlip Abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Shiel, Brett P; Hall, Nathan E; Cooke, Ira R; Robinson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Jan M

    2017-04-01

    "Summer mortality" is a phenomenon that occurs during warm water temperature spikes that results in the mass mortality of many ecologically and economically important mollusks such as abalone. This study aimed to determine whether the baseline gene expression of abalone before a laboratory-induced summer mortality event was associated with resilience to summer mortality. Tentacle transcriptomes of 35 greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) were sequenced prior to the animals being exposed to an increase in water temperature-simulating conditions which have previously resulted in summer mortality. Abalone derived from three source locations with different environmental conditions were categorized as susceptible or resistant to summer mortality depending on whether they died or survived after the water temperature was increased. We detected two genes showing significantly higher expression in resilient abalone relative to susceptible abalone prior to the laboratory-induced summer mortality event. One of these genes was annotated through the NCBI non-redundant protein database using BLASTX to an anemone (Exaiptasia pallida) Transposon Ty3-G Gag Pol polyprotein. Distinct gene expression signatures were also found between resilient and susceptible abalone depending on the population origin, which may suggest divergence in local adaptation mechanisms for resilience. Many of these genes have been suggested to be involved in antioxidant and immune-related functions. The identification of these genes and their functional roles have enhanced our understanding of processes that may contribute to summer mortality in abalone. Our study supports the hypothesis that prestress gene expression signatures are indicative of the likelihood of summer mortality.

  7. Genetic differentiation between fake abalone and genuine Haliotis species using the forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) method.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wai Y; Reid, David G; Kam, Wan L; Lau, Yuk Y; Sham, Wing C; Tam, Silvia Y K; Sin, Della W M; Mok, Chuen S

    2011-05-25

    Abalones ( Haliotis species) are a popular delicacy and commonly preserved in dried form either whole or in slices or small pieces for consumption in Asian countries. Driven by the huge profit from trading abalones, dishonest traders may substitute other molluscan species for processed abalone, of which the morphological characteristics are frequently lost in the processed form. For protection of consumer rights and law enforcement against fraud, there is a need for an effective methodology to differentiate between fake and genuine abalone. This paper describes a method (validated according to the international forensic guidelines provided by SWGDAM) for the identification of fake abalone species using forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) analysis. A study of the local market revealed that many claimed "abalone slice" samples on sale are not genuine. The fake abalone samples were found to be either volutids of the genus Cymbium (93%) or the muricid Concholepas concholepas (7%). This is the first report of Cymbium species being used for the preparation and sale as "abalone" in dried sliced form in Hong Kong.

  8. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  9. Effects of Multiple Stressors on Red Abalone (Haliotis rufescens) Fertilization Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, C. A.; Aalto, E.; De Leo, G.; Litvin, S.; Lovera, C.; Micheli, F.; Woodson, C. B.; Monismith, S. G.; Barry, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Acidification, hypoxia, and ocean warming are escalating threats in the world's coastal waters, with potentially severe consequences for marine life and ocean-based economies. In particular, eastern boundary current ecosystems, including the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), are experiencing large-scale declines in pH and dissolved oxygen (DO)—with the latter linked to changes in thermal stratification and shoaling of the oxygen minimum zone. To examine the consequences of ocean acidification and other climate-related changes in oceanographic conditions on nearshore marine populations within the CCLME, we are assessing the potential effects of current and future upwelling-type conditions on the population dynamics of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), with a focus on sensitive early life history phases (e.g., fertilization, larval development, and juvenile growth and survival) expected to be important determinants of population dynamics. Here, we present the first experimental results on the impacts of combined exposures of low pH and low DO on abalone fertilization success. Our results show that abalone fertilization success is significantly reduced when the gametes are exposed to a decrease in seawater pH from 8.0 to 7.2. Furthermore, low pH in combination with hypoxic exposure—e.g., a decrease in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L DO to 1 mg/L DO—does not further decrease fertilization rates, suggesting a lack of synergistic or additive effects of these multiple stressors on the reduction of fertilization success. Although the focus of this study is to characterize the effects of multiple stressors on the early life history of abalone, the implications of these results are expected to be relevant for a variety of marine taxa with similar reproductive modes.

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of a HSP70 gene from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peizhou; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; He, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), the primary member of HSPs that are responsive of thermal stress, is found in all multicellular organisms and functions mostly as molecular chaperon. The inducible HSP70 cDNA cloned from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), was highly homologous to other HSP70 genes. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific abalone HSP70 was 2631bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 90bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 573bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 1968bp. The HSP70 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 655 amino acids with an ATPase domain of 382 amino acids, the substrate peptide binding domain of 161 amino acids and a C-terminus domain of 112 amino acids. The temporal expression of HSP70 was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR after heat shock and bacterial challenge. Challenge of Pacific abalone with heat shock or the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum resulted in a dramatic increase in the expression of HSP70 mRNA level in muscle, followed by a recovery to normal level after 96h. Unlike the muscle, the levels of HSP70 expression in gills reached the top at 12h and maintained a relatively high level compared with the control after thermal and bacterial challenge. The upregulated mRNA expression of HSP70 in the abalone following heat shock and infection response indicates that the HSP70 gene is inducible and involved in immune response.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cloning and characterization of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) actin gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongming; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Chen, Hong

    2004-10-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3‧ RACE and 5‧ RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3‧ untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5‧ untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin (β-actin) than to human muscle actin.

  13. The immune response of Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and its susceptibility to Vibrio parahaemolyticus at different salinity levels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winton; Juang, Feng-Ming; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2004-03-01

    Addition of NaCl at 2.5% to 3.5% to tryptic soy broth (TSB) significantly increased the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with V. parahaemolyticus grown in TSB containing NaCl at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5% at a dose of 1.6 x 10(5)colony-forming units (cfu) abalone(-1). After 48 h, the cumulative mortality was significantly higher for the abalone challenged with V. parahaemolyticus grown in 2.5% than those grown in 0.5 and 1.5% NaCl. In other experiments, abalones held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with TSB-grown V. parahaemolyticus (1.6 x 10(5)cfu abalone(-1)), and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand seawater. All abalones held in 20 per thousand were killed in 48 h. The mortality of V. parahaemolyticus-injected abalone held in 30 per thousand was significantly lower over 24-120 h. Abalone held in 30 per thousand seawater and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand were examined for THC (total haemocyte count), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahemolyticus after 24 and 72 h. The THC increased directly related with salinity levels. Phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus decreased significantly for the abalone in 20, 25 and 35 per thousand. It is concluded that the abalone transferred from 30 per thousand to 20, 25 and 35 per thousand had reduced immune ability and decreased resistance against V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  14. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a heat shock protein 90 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2011-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90s (hsp90s) are chaperones that contribute to the proper folding of cellular proteins and help animals cope with the cellular protein damages in stress conditions. In this study, an hsp90 gene was isolated from disc abalone (Haliotis discus). The complete nucleotide sequence of the hsp90 gene contains an open reading frame of 2,184 base pairs, encoding an 84 kDa protein. Disk abalone hsp90 shares high sequence similarity with other hsp90 family proteins. Although the phylogenetic analysis did not classify it into the hsp90α group, the inductivity of this gene was confirmed by heat shock and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge test. Disk abalone hsp90 gene displayed a rapid and reversible induction response to both an exposure of typical heat shock and the LPS challenge. Once given the sublethal heat shock treatment, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene was significantly up-regulated. With a recovery of 12 h, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene gradually attenuated to the control level. These observations reflected the feedback regulation of abalone heat shock responses faithfully. In response to LPS challenge, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene was significantly increased within 2 h and it approached maximum induction at 4 h later and recovered finally the reference level in 24 h. Take all together, the cloning and expression analysis of disk abalone hsp90 gene provided useful molecular information of abalone responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the chronic stressors in abalone culture environments and diagnose the animal health status.

  15. Tributyltin and triphenyltin induce spermatogenesis in ovary of female abalone, Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, T; Kojima, M; Kaya, M; Matsuo, T; Shiraishi, H; Morita, M; Adachi, Y

    2002-01-01

    Two-month flow-through exposure experiments of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were conducted with abalone, Haliotis gigantea. Nominal concentrations of 100 ng TBT/l and 100 ng TPhT/l caused significant spermatogenesis in ovaries of exposed females. There were also significantly more contracted primary oocytes observed in females exposed to either TBT or TPhT than controls. The incidence of two types of unknown cells was also significant in females exposed to TPhT. No significant histological changes were observed in testis of exposed males. This ovarian spermatogenesis caused by TBT and/or TPhT resembles gastropod imposex. Remarkably high concentrations of TBT and TPhT were observed in the head (including central nervous system ganglia), compared to muscles concentrations. Accumulation of TBT and TPhT in the head may disturb reproductive hormonal regulators through neuropeptides released from ganglia. This, as well as possible aromatase inhibition, may be one of the inducers for spermatogenesis in the abalone ovaries.

  16. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Alex R.; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae – or any feedstock – which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g−1) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g−1 of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

  17. Tributyltin toxicity in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) assessed by antioxidant enzyme activity, metabolic response, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-11-15

    A toxicity test was performed to investigate the possible harmful effects of tributyltin (TBT) on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta). Animals were exposed to TBT in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10 and 50 ng/L) for 30 days under laboratory conditions. TBT-free conditions were used as control treatments. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), along with levels of haemolymph metabolites, and hepatopancreas histopathology were analyzed. The results showed that TBT decreased SOD activity, and increased POD level and MDA production in a dose-dependent way, indicating that oxidative injury was induced by TBT. Haemolymph metabolite measurements showed that TBT increased alanine and glutamate levels, and decreased glucose content, which suggested perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of acetate and pyruvate in the haemolymph indicated partial alteration of lipid metabolism. A decrease in lactate and an increase in succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, indicated disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Hepatopancreas tissues also exhibited inflammatory responses characterized by histopathological changes such as cell swelling, granular degeneration, and inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TBT was a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone ( Haliotis rubra ) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  19. Sequences characterization of microsatellite DNA sequences in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-01-01

    The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using magnetic bead hybridization selection method, and the microsatellite DNA sequences were analyzed in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Three hundred and fifty white colonies were screened using PCR-based technique, and 84 clones were identified to potentially contain microsatellite repeat motif. The 84 clones were sequenced, and 42 microsatellites and 4 minisatellites with a minimum of five repeats were found (13.1% of white colonies screened). Besides the motif of CA contained in the oligoprobe, we also found other 16 types of microsatellite repeats including a dinucleotide repeat, two tetranucleotide repeats, twelve pentanucleotide repeats and a hexanucleotide repeat. According to Weber (1990), the microsatellite sequences obtained could be categorized structurally into perfect repeats (73.3%), imperfect repeats (13.3%), and compound repeats (13.4%). Among the microsatellite repeats, relatively short arrays (<20 repeats) were most abundant, accounting for 75.0%. The largest length of microsatellites was 48 repeats, and the average number of repeats was 13.4. The data on the composition and length distribution of microsatellites obtained in the present study can be useful for choosing the repeat motifs for microsatellite isolation in other abalone species.

  20. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste

    PubMed Central

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M.; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A.

    2016-01-01

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin. PMID:28042854

  1. Effects of chemical cues on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis asinina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Bai, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Low larval survival, poor settlement, and abnormal metamorphosis are major problems in seed production of donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina. We examined the effects of chemical cues including epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and serotonin on larval survival, settlement, and metamorphosis in order to determine the possibility of using these chemicals to induce the problems. The results show that epinephrine could enhance metamorphosis rate at 10-6 mol/L only but higher concentrations (10-3-10-4 mol/L); and nor-epinephrine could inhibit the performance significantly, and serotonin could increase significantly the performance at a wide-range concentration (10-3-10-6 mol/L). Treatment with serotonin at 10-5 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest settlement rate (42.2%) and survival rate (49.3%), while at 10-4 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest metamorphosis rate (38.8%). Therefore, serotonin may be used as a fast metamorphosis inducer in abalone culture.

  2. An AFLP genetic linkage map of pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Yanhong, Xu; Ruihai, Yu; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-07-01

    A genetic linkage map of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) was constructed using AFLP markers based on a two-way pseudo-testeross strategy in a full-sib family. With 33 primer combinations, a total of 455 markers (225 from the female parent and 230 from the male parent) segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphism: heterozygous in one parent and null in the other. The female framework map consisted of 174 markers distributed in 18 linkage groups, equivalent to the H. discus hannai haploid chromosome number, and spanning a total length of 2031.4 cM, with an average interval of 13.0 cM between adjacent markers. The male framework map consisted of 195 markers mapped on 19 linkage groups, spanning a total length of 2273.4 cM, with an average spacing of 12.9 cM between adjacent markers. The estimated coverage for the framework linkage maps was 81.2% for the female and 82.1% for the male, on the basis of two estimates of genome length. Fifty-two markers (11.4%) remained unlinked. The level of segregation distortion observed in this cross was 20.4%. These linkage maps will serve as a starting point for linkage studies in the Pacific abalone with potential application for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.

  3. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    TenBrook, Patti L; Kendall, Shellie M; Viant, Mark R; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2003-02-26

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were exposed to 3.6 microM (0.5 ppm) 14C-labelled p-nitrophenol (PNP) for 24 h, then were allowed to depurate in clean seawater for another 24 h. Absorption, conditional uptake clearance and elimination rate constants were 0.12+/-0.04 h(-1), 3.2+/-1.1 ml g(-1) h(-1) and 0.05+/-0.02 h(-1), respectively. The sigmoidal shape of the PNP uptake curve suggests a biphasic process. A whole-organism total concentration factor (TCF) of 2.37+/-0.07 was determined from equilibrium tissue and water concentrations, with the highest concentration of PNP plus metabolites found in gill tissue (11.8+/-0.2 nmol g(-1), wet weight). Digestive gland, foot muscle and remaining body tissues accumulated 8.8+/-0.9, 7.7+/-0.6 and 7.5+/-0.6 nmol g(-1) radiolabelled residues, respectively. Abalone depurated 91.6% of absorbed PNP within 24 h, of which 87.5+/-3.1% was unmetabolized parent compound, 13.1+/-3.1% was p-nitrophenylsulfate, 0.32+/-0.09% was p-nitroanisole, and 0.14+/-0.07% was p-acetamidophenol.

  4. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST) investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein) protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions. PMID:21050442

  5. Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Natalie; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; van Ruth, Paul; van Ginkel, Roel; McNabb, Paul; Hay, Brenda; O'Connor, Wayne; Kiermeier, Andreas; Deveney, Marty; McLeod, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10⁵ Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g⁻¹ (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹, which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is ∼50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 μg 100 g⁻¹ tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by ∼70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of differentially expressed reproductive and metabolic proteins in the female abalone (Haliotis laevigata) gonad following artificial induction of spawning.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Botwright, Natasha A; Reverter, Antonio; Cook, Mathew T; Harris, James O; Wijffels, Gene; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2017-12-01

    Inefficient control of temperate abalone spawning prevents pair-wise breeding and production of abalone with highly marketable traits. Traditionally, abalone farmers have used a combination of UV irradiation and application of temperature gradients to the tank water to artificially induce spawning. Proteins are known to regulate crucial processes such as respiration, muscle contraction, feeding, growth and reproduction. Spawning as a pre-requisite of abalone reproduction is likely to be regulated, in part, by endogenous proteins. A first step in elucidating the mechanisms that regulate spawning is to identify which proteins are directly involved during spawning. The present study examined protein expression following traditional spawning induction in the Haliotis laevigata female. Gonads were collected from abalone in the following physiological states: (1) spawning; (2) post-spawning; and (3) failed-to-spawn. Differential protein abundance was initially assessed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for protein identification. A number of reproductive proteins such as vitellogenin, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 29 and prohibitin, and metabolic proteins such as thioredoxin peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and heat shock proteins were identified. Differences in protein abundance levels between physiological states were further assessed using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Positive associations were observed between the abundance of specific proteins, such as heat shock cognate 70 and peroxiredoxin 6, and the propensity or failure to spawn in abalone. These findings have contributed to better understand both the effects of oxidative and heat stress over abalone physiology and their influence on abalone spawning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-03-09

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  8. In vitro anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant properties of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Gobe, Glenda C; Osborne, Simone A

    2017-07-01

    Abalone viscera contain sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities. In this study, a hydrolysate was prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera using papain and bromelain and fractionated using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Hydrolysates and fractions were investigated for in vitro thrombin inhibition mediated through heparin cofactor II (HCII) as well as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and whole blood. On the basis of sulphated polysaccharide concentration, the hydrolysate inhibited thrombin through HCII with an inhibitor concentration at 50% (IC50) of 16.5 μg/mL compared with 2.1 μg/mL for standard heparin. Fractionation concentrated HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition down to an IC50 of 1.8 μg/mL and improved anti-coagulant activities by significantly delaying clotting time. This study confirmed the presence of anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant molecules in blacklip abalone viscera and demonstrated that these activities can be enriched with a simple chromatography regime. Blacklip abalone viscera warrant further investigation as a source of nutraceutical or functional food ingredients. Graphical abstract Schematic showing preparation of bioactive extracts and fractions from blacklip abalone.

  9. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-01-01

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone. PMID:28282934

  10. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) via EST database mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Aibin; Bao, Zhenmin; Wang, Mingling; Chang, Dan; Yuan, Jian; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Liang, Chengzhu; Hu, Jingjie

    2008-05-01

    The EST database of the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) was mined for developing microsatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more microsatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, cluster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify scorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of H o and H e varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  11. In vitro growth of flat aragonite crystals between the layers of the insoluble organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis laevigata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Katharina I.; Heinemann, Fabian; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritz, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Nacre of abalone shells consists of aragonite platelets and organic material, the so-called organic matrix. During the growth process of the shell the aragonite platelets grow into a scaffold formed by the organic matrix. In this work we tried to mimic this growth process by placing a piece of the insoluble organic matrix (which is a part of the organic matrix) of the abalone Haliotis laevigata in a crystallization device which was flowed through by CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions. Using this setup amongst others flat aragonite crystals grow on the insoluble organic matrix. When investigating these crystals in a transmission electron microscope it is possible to recognize similarities to the structure of nacre, like the formation of mineral bridges and growth between layers of the insoluble organic matrix. These similarities are presented in this paper.

  12. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P < 0.05) less firm and chewy than pre-rigor processed irrespective of muscle type, processing time, or pressure. L values increased with pressure to 68.9 at 300 MPa for pre-rigor processed foot, 73.8 for post-rigor processed foot, 90.9 for pre-rigor processed adductor, and 89.0 for post-rigor processed adductor. Scanning electron microscopy images showed fraying of collagen fibers in processed adductor, but did not show pressure-induced compaction of the foot myofibrils. Post-rigor processed abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  15. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to assess crossover interference and homozygosity in gynogenetic diploid Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    PubMed

    Nie, H-T; Li, Q; Kong, L-F

    2014-06-01

    Recombination analysis in gynogenetic diploids is a powerful tool for assessing the degree of inbreeding, investigating crossover events and understanding chiasma interference during meiosis. To estimate the marker-centromere recombination rate, the inheritance pattern of 654 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was examined in the 72-h veliger larvae of two meiogynogenetic diploid families in the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The second-division segregation frequency (y) of the AFLP loci ranged from 0.00 to 0.96, with 23.9% of loci showing y-values higher than 0.67, evidencing the existence of interference. The average recombination frequency across the 654 AFLP loci was 0.45, allowing estimation of the fixation index of 0.55, indicating that meiotic gynogenesis could provide an effective means of rapid inbreeding in the Pacific abalone. The AFLP loci have a small proportion (4.4%) of y-values greater than 0.90, suggesting that a relatively low or intermediate degree of chiasma interference occurred in the abalone chromosomes. The information obtained in this study will enhance our understanding of the abalone genome and will be useful for genetic studies in the species. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Design of an optimum computer vision-based automatic abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) grading algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-03

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yucheol; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2010-11-01

    A BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA was cloned from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated as AbLECT-1. A full-length (705 bp) of AbLECT-1 cDNA was composed of a 576 bp open reading frame that translates into a putative peptide of 192 amino acids. Deduced amino acid sequence of AbLECT-1 had 15.5- and 27.8% identity and similarity to human LECT-1, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results showed that the mRNA of AbLECT-1 was constitutively expressed in abalone hemocytes, gills, mantle, muscle, digestive tract and hepatopancreas in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the AbLECT-1 transcription level was induced in hemocytes after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes suggesting that it may be involved in immune response reactions in abalone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival, growth and DNA methylation of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Li, Junyuan; Mu, Wendan; Lian, Jianwu; Xue, Yanjie; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Temperature and salinity are two of the most potent abiotic factors influencing marine mollusks. In this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, and also examined the DNA methylation alteration that may underpin the phenotypic variation of abalone exposed to different rearing conditions. The single-factor data showed that the suitable ranges of temperature and salinity were 16-28°C at a constant salinity of 32, and 24-40 at a constant temperature of 20°C, respectively. The two-factor data indicated that both survival and growth were significantly affected by temperature, salinity and their interaction. The optimal temperature-salinity combination for juveniles was 23-25°C and 30-36. To explore environment-induced DNA methylation alteration, the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the genomic methylation profiles of abalone reared in optimal and adverse conditions. Neither temperature nor salinity induced evident changes in the global methylation level, but 67 and 63 differentially methylated loci were identified in temperature and salinity treatments, respectively. The between-group eigen analysis also showed that both temperature and salinity could induce epigenetic differentiation in H. discus hannai Ino. The results of our study provide optimal rearing conditions for juvenile H. discus hannai Ino, and represent the first step toward revealing the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of abalone in response to thermal and salt stresses.

  20. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M Tim; Moore, James; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2-3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  1. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  2. De novo characterisation of the greenlip abalone transcriptome (Haliotis laevigata) with a focus on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family.

    PubMed

    Shiel, Brett P; Hall, Nathan E; Cooke, Ira R; Robinson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Jan M

    2015-02-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) are economically important molluscs for fisheries and aquaculture industries worldwide. Despite this, genomic resources for abalone and molluscs are still limited. Here we present a description and functional annotation of the greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) transcriptome. We present a focused analysis on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family of genes with putative functions affecting temperature stress and immunity. A total of ~38 million paired end Illumina reads were obtained, resulting in a Trinity assembly of 222,172 contigs with minimum length of 200 base pairs and maximum length of 33 kilobases. The 20,702 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions by BLAST. We created a program to maximise the number of functionally annotated genes, and over 10,000 contigs were assigned Gene ontologies (GO terms). By using CateGOrizer, immunity related GO terms for stressors such as heat, hypoxia, oxidative stress and wounding received the highest counts. Twenty-six contigs with homology to the HSP70 family of genes were identified. Ninety-one putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in the abalone HSP70 contigs. Eleven of these were considered non-synonymous. The annotated transcriptome described in this study will be a useful basis for future work investigating the genetic response of abalone to stress.

  3. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway is involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Guodong; Lin, Shi; Zeng, Xinyang; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2016-12-01

    The PI3K-AKT signal pathway has been found to be involved in many important physiological and pathological processes of the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the AKT (HdAKT) and PI3K (HdPI3K) gene of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor were cloned and characterized for the important status of PI3K and AKT protein in PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. The full length cDNAs of HdAKT and HdPI3K are 2126 bp and 6052 bp respectively, encoding proteins of 479 amino acids and 1097 amino acids, respectively. The mRNA expression level of fourteen genes in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that all these fourteen genes were ubiquitously expressed in seven selected tissues. Meanwhile, HdAKT was expressed in haemocytes with the highest expression level (p < 0.05) next in hepatopancreas (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the expression level of HdPI3K in haemocytes was higher than other tissues. Under normal condition, the gene expression level of HdAKT, HdPI3K, and other PI3K-AKT signaling pathway members were significantly up-regulated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection which demonstrated that HdAKT, HdPI3K, and other PI3K-AKT signaling pathway members play a role in the innate immune system of abalone. The mRNA expression of these genes in gills, haemocytes and hepatopancreas was significantly down-regulated after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus stimulation with environment stimulation (thermal, hypoxia and thermal & hypoxia). These results indicate that the dual/multiple stresses defeat the immune system and lead to immunosuppression in abalone. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway may be involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibacterial activity and immune responses of a molluscan macrophage expressed gene-1 from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Won, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jehee

    2014-08-01

    The membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins play an important role in the innate immune response against invading microbial pathogens. In the current study, a member of the MACPF domain-containing proteins, macrophage expressed gene-1 (MPEG1) encoding 730 amino acids with the theoretical molecular mass of 79.6 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.49 was characterized from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbMPEG1). We found that the characteristic MACPF domain (Val(131)-Tyr(348)) and transmembrane segment (Ala(669)-Ile(691)) of AbMPEG1 are located in the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Ortholog comparison revealed that AbMPEG1 has the highest sequence identity with its pink abalone counterpart, while sequences identities of greater than 90% were observed with MPEG1 members from other abalone species. Likewise, the furin cleavage site KRRRK was highly conserved in all abalone species, but not in other species investigated. We identified an intron-less genomic sequence within disk abalone AbMPEG1, which was similar to other mammalian, avian, and reptilian counterparts. Transcription factor binding sites, which are important for immune responses, were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AbMPEG1. qPCR revealed AbMPEG1 transcripts are present in every tissues examined, with the highest expression level occurring in mantle tissue. Significant up-regulation of AbMPEG1 transcript levels was observed in hemocytes and gill tissues following challenges with pathogens (Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: lipopolysaccharides and poly I:C immunostimulant). Finally, the antibacterial activity of the MACPF domain was characterized against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria using a recombinant peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the biological significance of the AbMPEG1 gene includes a role in

  5. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  6. Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

  7. Innate immune parameters and haemolymph protein expression profile to evaluate the immunotoxicity of tributyltin on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhong-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Li, Lei; Gao, Yun-Feng

    2010-10-01

    The immunotoxicity of tributyltin (TBT) on marine gastropods has been comparatively little studied although risks to wildlife associated with this compound are well known. In this study, a 30-day trial was conducted to evaluate the immunotoxic effects on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by exposing a range of doses of TBT (0, 2, 10, and 50 ng/L). Innate immune parameters, including phagocytic ability (PA), lysozyme activity, phenoloxidase (PO) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were monitored at intervals of 5, 15 and 30 days. Haemolymph protein expression profile was also examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that PA value, lysozyme activity and PO level significantly decreased compared with the controls (P < 0.05), which indicated that TBT exposure markedly suppressed non-specific immune competence. Exposure to TBT also caused variation in protein expression patterns of haemolymph. Among the protein spots of differential expressions, seven proteins from the haemolymph of TBT-treated abalone were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Three protein spots increased and were identified as carrier-like peptide, peroxidase 21 precursor and creatine phosphokinase. These proteins are believed to up-regulate in expression as a response to detoxification and antioxidative stress mechanisms. The other four protein spots that down-regulated in TBT-treated groups were identified as aromatase-like protein, protein kinase C, ceruloplasmin and microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1, and these proteins play an important role in endocrine regulation and immune defense. Taken together, the results demonstrate that TBT impair abalone immunological ability and is a potential immune disruptor. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    PubMed Central

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h 2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CV A) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h 2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h 2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CV A of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h 2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  10. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    PubMed

    Brokordt, Katherina B; González, Roxana C; Farías, William J; Winkler, Federico M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3-16.2% in young adults and of 2.7-8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals.

  11. Involvement of clip-domain serine protease in the anti-Vibrio immune response of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)-Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Jian; Chen, Yu-Lei; Duan, Xue-Kun; Jin, Teng-Chuan; Li, Yue; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) is a major pathogen for abalone, an important economical shellfish in coastal area of China. There is little known about the abalone innate immune system against pathogen infection. Clip-domain serine proteases (cSPs) are increasingly recognized to play important roles in host immune defense in invertebrates. In this study, we cloned a cSP (Hdh-cSP) from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). We found out that Hdh-cSP was widely expressed in multiple tissues of abalone, with highest level in the immune-like organ, hepatopancreas. V. parahemolyticus infection induced significantly elevated expression of Hdh-cSP in addition to better-characterized innate immune component genes including Rel/NF-κB, allograft inflammatory factor (ALInFa), macrophage expressed protein (MEP) and caspase-8. Importantly, the silencing of Hdh-cSP reduced the expression of these genes, suggesting that Hdh-cSP was an upstream regulatory factor in V. parahemolyticus infection. Further analysis showed that apoptosis of hemocytes was inhibited when the transcription of Hdh-cSP was knocked down, suggesting that Hdh-cSP participated in cell apoptosis by regulation of caspase 8 expression in V. parahemolyticus infection. Therefore, our study established an important role of cSP in the innate immunity against V. parahemolyticus infection in abalone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of antiaggregants on the in vitro viability, cell count and stability of abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Bouwman, Mai-Louise; Young, Tim; Mérien, Fabrice; Alfaro, Andrea C

    2018-07-01

    The ability to successfully prepare and preserve haemocyte cells for microscopy and flow cytometry is critical for the investigation of animal immune systems. In this study, we observed the total cell count, in vitro viability and stability of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes with different antiaggregants and handling protocols. Haemocyte stability was evaluated by direct observation of haemocytes under the microscope and calculating the aggregation index. Haemocyte counts and viability were measured via flow cytometry and tested for the effect of different antiaggregants (Alsever's solution at three concentrations, and specialised blood collection tubes containing lithium heparin and K 2 EDTA) at different temperatures and storage times. Results showed that Alsever's solution is an effective antiaggregant at haemolymph:antiaggregant dilution ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Lithium heparin was ineffective as an antiaggregant, whereas K 2 EDTA was similarly as effective as Alsever's solution. The influence of different mixing techniques (vortex, pipetting and flipping) were subsequently tested using the K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes, revealing that proper mixing should be performed immediately. High cell viability can be achieved by mixing samples by either 10 s of vortexing (1000 rpm), 10 times pipetting or 20 times flipping. The in vitro storage of abalone haemocytes in AS and K 2 EDTA as antiaggregants at ambient room temperature was highly effective for up to 24 h (75-85% viability; 0.05-0.15 aggregation index) and is recommended for haemocyte studies in H. iris. Utilization of K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes were advantageous since they are more cost effective compared to Alsever's solution, and samples can be prepared more efficiently. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Transcriptional responses of metallothionein gene to different stress factors in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2016-11-01

    A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses. Tissue distribution and basal expression patterns of MT mRNAs indicated a potential association between ovarian MT expression and sexual maturation. Developmental expression pattern suggested the maternal contribution of MT mRNAs to embryonic and early larval developments. Abalone MT mRNAs could be significantly induced by various heavy metals in different tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocyte) in a tissue- and/or metal-dependent fashion. In addition, the abalone MT gene was highly modulated in responsive to other non-metal, stimulatory treatments such as immune challenge (LPS, polyI:C and bacterial injections), hypoxia (decrease from normoxia 8 ppm-2 ppm), thermal elevation (increase from 20 °C to 30 °C), and xenobiotic exposure (250 ppb of 17α-ethynylestradiol and 0.25 ppb of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) where differential expression patterns were toward either up- or down-regulation depending on types of stimulations and tissues examined. Taken together, our results highlight that MT is a multifunctional effector playing in wide criteria of cellular pathways especially associated with development and stress responses in this abalone species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were <28%, whereas those from seawater showed large fluctuations in resistance to each of the tested antibiotics. Many strains showed higher resistant rates (>40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptome-wide polymorphisms of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) reveal patterns of gene flow and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    De Wit, Pierre; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2013-06-01

    Global climate change is projected to accelerate during the next century, altering oceanic patterns in temperature, pH and oxygen concentrations. Documenting patterns of genetic adaptation to these variables in locations that currently experience geographic variation in them is an important tool in understanding the potential for natural selection to allow populations to adapt as climate change proceeds. We sequenced the mantle transcriptome of 39 red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) individuals from three regions (Monterey Bay, Sonoma, north of Cape Mendocino) distinct in temperature, aragonite saturation, exposure to hypoxia and disease pressure along the California coast. Among 1.17 × 10(6) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in this study (1.37% of the transcriptome), 21 579 could be genotyped for all individuals. A principal components analysis concluded that the vast majority of SNPs show no population structure from Monterey, California to the Oregon border, in corroboration with several previous studies. In contrast, an FST outlier analysis indicated 691 SNPs as exhibiting significantly higher than expected differentiation (experiment-wide P < 0.05). From these, it was possible to identify 163 genes through BLAST annotation, 34 of which contained more than one outlier SNP. A large number of these genes are involved in biomineralization, energy metabolism, heat-, disease- or hypoxia-tolerance. These genes are candidate loci for spatial adaptation to geographic variation that is likely to increase in the future. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  18. Perlinhibin, a Cysteine-, Histidine-, and Arginine-Rich Miniprotein from Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) Nacre, Inhibits In Vitro Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Karlheinz; Siedler, Frank; Treccani, Laura; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2007-01-01

    We have isolated a 4.785 Da protein from the nacreous layer of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (greenlip abalone) shell after demineralization with acetic acid. The sequence of 41 amino acids was determined by Edman degradation supported by mass spectrometry. The most abundant amino acids were cysteine (19.5%), histidine (17%), and arginine (14.6%). The positively charged amino acids were almost counterbalanced by negatively charged ones resulting in a calculated isoelectric point of 7.86. Atomic-force microscopy studies of the interaction of the protein with calcite surfaces in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution or calcium chloride solution showed that the protein bound specifically to calcite steps, inhibiting further crystal growth at these sites in carbonate solution and preventing crystal dissolution when carbonate was substituted with chloride. Therefore this protein was named perlinhibin. X-ray diffraction investigation of the crystal after atomic-force microscopy growth experiments showed that the formation of aragonite was induced on the calcite substrate around holes caused by perlinhibin crystal-growth inhibition. The strong interaction of the protein with calcium carbonate was also shown by vapor diffusion crystallization. In the presence of the protein, the crystal surfaces were covered with holes due to protein binding and local inhibition of crystal growth. In addition to perlinhibin, we isolated and sequenced a perlinhibin-related protein, indicating that perlinhibin may be a member of a family of closely related proteins. PMID:17496038

  19. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  20. Effects of the dietary administration of sodium alginate on the immune responses and disease resistance of Taiwan abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winton; Yu, Jyun-Sian

    2013-03-01

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown algae was reported to enhance the immune response and resistance of fish and shrimp. In this study, survival rates of the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its non-specific immune parameters such as the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to V. parahaemolyticus by H. diversicolor supertexta were determined when abalone (4.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹. Abalone fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ for 14 days and at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ for 21 days had significantly higher survival rates than those fed the control diet after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. The relative survival percentages of abalone fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ sodium alginate-containing diets for 14 and 21 days were 16.1%, 40.0%, and 48.0%, and 63.6%, 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus of abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the control diet for 14 days. After 21 days, the PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus by abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the other diets. It was concluded that sodium alginate can be used as an immunostimulant for abalone through dietary administration to enhance immune responses of abalone and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus, which were related to the dose and timing of administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Robert J; Coyne, Vernon E

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  3. Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Robert J.; Coyne, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone. PMID:24466176

  4. Application of novel polymorphic microsatellite loci identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the genetic characterization of wild and released populations.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (F(ST) = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at

  5. Genomic characterization and expression profiles upon bacterial infection of a novel cystatin B homologue from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    Premachandra, H K A; Wan, Qiang; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Choi, Cheol Young; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-12-01

    Cystatins are a large family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors which are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes. In the present study, we identified a gene related to cystatin superfamily, AbCyt B, from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and BAC library screening. The complete cDNA sequence of AbCyt B is comprised of 1967 nucleotides with a 306 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for 101 amino acids. The amino acid sequence consists of a single cystatin-like domain, which has a cysteine proteinase inhibitor signature, a conserved Gly in N-terminal region, QVVAG motif and a variant of PW motif. No signal peptide, disulfide bonds or carbohydrate side chains were identified. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed that AbCyt B shares up to 44.7% identity and 65.7% similarity with the cystatin B genes from other organisms. The genomic sequence of AbCyt B is approximately 8.4 Kb, consisting of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that AbCyt B was closely related to the cystatin B from pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under the family 1.Functional analysis of recombinant AbCyt B protein exhibited inhibitory activity against the papain, with almost 84% inhibition at a concentration of 3.5 μmol/L. In tissue expression analysis, AbCyt B transcripts were expressed abundantly in the hemocyte, gill, mantle, and digestive tract, while weakly in muscle, testis, and hepatopancreas. After the immune challenge with Vibrio parahemolyticus, the AbCyt B showed significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of relative mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes at 24 and 6 h of post infection, respectively. These results collectively suggest that AbCyst B is a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and is also potentially involved in immune responses against invading bacterial pathogens in abalone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-07-01

    Diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. This study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Copper, Zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), and thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2) expression levels were altered in gills, and hemocytes at different magnitudes. In gills, only MnSOD, catalase, and SeGPx genes were completely upregulated by post-challenge of bacterial and VHSV. Among them, SeGPx demonstrated strong upregulation by 16-fold (bacteria) and 2-fold (VHSV) in gills, and 5-fold (bacteria) and 3.0-fold (VHSV) in hemocytes. None of the genes examined were downregulated (in gills and hemocytes) by bacteria challenge even though CuZnSOD and TPx showed downregulation (completely) in hemocytes by VHSV. In general, abalone hemocytes had lower potential to induce antioxidant enzyme transcripts upon bacteria and VHSV challenge than gills. Based upon these results, we suggest that abalones induce oxidative stress in tissues during the bacteria and VHSV challenge, and the identified response of antioxidant enzymes could be supported for maintaining a low-level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may serve as a signal for activating immune reactions against pathogenic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  8. Effects of tributyltin and benzo[a]pyrene on the immune-associated activities of hemocytes and recovery responses in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Huang, Wei-Bin; Wang, Qiang-Wei; Wu, Man-Li; Liu, Jie; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study reports that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induces immunomodulation in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor. In the present study, it was further observed that long-term chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of BaP modulated the immunocompetence of abalones in terms of the change in activity of the antioxidant and immune associated parameters tested. In addition, the effect of tributyltin (TBT), another important genotoxicant in the aquatic environment, was investigated. Exposure of abalones to sublethal concentrations of TBT and BaP for 21 days resulted in significant decrease of total hemocyte count, phagocytosis, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. Conversely induction of extra and intra cellular superoxide generation, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity was present when the abalones were exposed to TBT and BaP. Most of the immune associated parameters tested showed clear time dependent response to both toxicants. Within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to BaP, recovery was observed as evidenced by most of the parameters returning to their normal level. However, no recovery was observed within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to TBT as evidenced by continued elevation of intra cellular superoxide and nitrite production and decrease in THC, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. This suggested a prolonged TBT-induced impact on the immune reaction and possibly more damage than that caused by BaP. Overall the results suggest that chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of TBT or BaP causes modulations in the immunocompetence of abalones with most of the immune associated parameters tested being stimulated, and this might be harmful to the host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone samplemore » series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.« less

  10. Transcriptome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for abalone (Haliotis midae): validation and application using GoldenGate medium-throughput genotyping assays.

    PubMed

    Bester-Van Der Merwe, Aletta; Blaauw, Sonja; Du Plessis, Jana; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2013-09-23

    Haliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and single nucleotide (SNPs). Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%-69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers) with a global genotyping success rate of 76%-85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174) were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50) located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture.

  11. TiO2 nanoparticles in the marine environment: impact on the toxicity of tributyltin to abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2011-04-15

    Little information is available on the potential ecotoxicity of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) in the marine environment. To carefully address this issue, the toxicity of nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO(2)) aggregates in the marine environment was evaluated using abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) embryonic development as a model. The effect of nTiO(2) aggregates on the toxicity of the highly toxic marine antifouling compound tributyltin (TBT) to abalone embryos was also investigated. No developmental effects of nTiO(2) were observed at 2 mg/L but concentrations ≥10 mg/L caused hatching inhibition and malformations. The presence of 2 mg/L nTiO(2) increased the toxicity of TBT up to 20-fold compared with TBT alone. This enhancement of TBT may be due to the combined effects of TBT adsorption onto nTiO(2) aggregates and the internalization of nTiO(2) aggregates by abalone embryos. These observations indicate that MNMs may have important indirect impacts on aquatic organisms by varying the toxicity of coexisting pollutants. Thus, risk assessments for MNMs should consider both their direct effects and possible indirect effects of interactions with other environmental contaminants.

  12. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; He, Qingguo; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses, especially thermal stress. Here we examined the response of Hsp70 gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino). For the chronic exposure, abalones were maintained at 8, 12, 20, and 30°C for four months and their mRNA levels were measured. The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30°C-acclimated group, followed by the 8°C-acclimated group and then the 12°C- and 20°C-acclimated groups. After the long-term acclimation, gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8°C and 38°C for 30 min. Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure. The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups. Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions, through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  13. First insight into the heritable variation of the resistance to infection with the bacteria causing the withering syndrome disease in Haliotis rufescens abalone.

    PubMed

    Brokordt, Katherina; González, Roxana; Farías, William; Winkler, Federico E; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2017-11-01

    Withering syndrome disease has experienced worldwide spread in the last decade. This fatal disease for abalone is produced by a rickettsia-like organism (WS-RLO), the bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis". To evaluate the potential of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) to improve its resistance to infection by WS-RLO, the additive genetic component in the variation of this trait was estimated. For this, the variation in infection intensity with WS-RLOs and WS-RLOv (phage-infected RLOs) was analyzed in 56 families of full-sibs maintained for three years in a host-parasite cohabitation aquaculture system. A WS-RLO prevalence of 65% was observed in the analysed population; and from the total WS-RLO inclusions 60% were hyperparasited with the phage (WS-RLOv). The decrease in the food ingestion rate was the sole negative effect associated with increasing WS-RLO intensity of infection, suggesting that the high level of WS-RLOv load may have diminished the symptoms of WS disease in the analyzed abalones. The estimated heritabilities were moderate to mid, but significant, varying from 0.21 to 0.23 and 0.36 for WS-RLO and WS-RLOv infections, respectively. This suggests that variation in resistance to infection with WS-RLO may respond to selection in the evaluated red abalone population. Estimated response to selection (G) for the level of infection by WS-RLO indicated that if the 10% of red abalone with the lowest infection level is selected as broodstock, a 90% reduction in the intensity of infection in the progeny can be expected, even with the lowest estimation of heritability (h 2 =0.21). This strong response would be also due to the large phenotypic variance of this trait. Strong positive correlations, both phenotypic and genotypic, were observed between infection intensities with WS-RLO and WS-RLOv, indicating that selection to increase resistance to one of the types of RLOs will affect resistance in the other in the same direction. This is the first

  14. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  15. Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822).

    PubMed

    López-Landavery, Edgar A; Portillo-López, Amelia; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2014-10-10

    The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Baja California, México, and despite this, few gene expression studies have been done in tissues such as gill, head and gonad. For this purpose, reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool for gene expression evaluation. For a reliable analysis, however, it is necessary to select and validate housekeeping genes that allow proper transcription quantification. Stability of nine housekeeping genes (ACTB, BGLU, TUBB, CY, GAPDH, HPRTI, RPL5, SDHA and UBC) was evaluated in different tissues of red abalone (gill, head and gonad/digestive gland). Four-fold serial dilutions of cDNA (from 25 ngμL(-1) to 0.39 ngμL(-1)) were used to prepare the standard curve, and it showed gene efficiencies between 0.95 and 0.99, with R(2)=0.99. geNorm and NormFinder analysis showed that RPL5 and CY were the most stable genes considering all tissues, whereas in gill HPRTI and BGLU were most stable. In gonad/digestive gland, RPL5 and TUBB were the most stable genes with geNorm, while SDHA and HPRTI were the best using NormFinder. Similarly, in head the best genes were RPL5 and UBC with geNorm, and GAPDH and CY with NormFinder. The technical variability analysis with RPL5 and abalone gonad/digestive gland tissue indicated a high repeatability with a variation coefficient within groups ≤ 0.56% and between groups ≤ 1.89%. These results will help us for further research in reproduction, thermoregulation and endocrinology in red abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and functional characterization of a novel molluskan ortholog of TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Hyowon; Zoysa, Mahanama De; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    Immune signaling cascades have an indispensable role in the host defense of almost all the organisms. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is considered as a prominent signaling pathway in vertebrate as well as invertebrate species. Within the signaling cascade, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) has been shown to have a crucial role in the modulation of immune signaling in animals. Here, we attempted to characterize a novel molluskan ortholog of TTRAP (AbTTRAP) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and analyzed its expression levels under pathogenic stress. The complete coding sequence of AbTTRAP consisted of 1071 nucleotides, coding for a 357 amino acid peptide, with a predicted molecular mass of 40 kDa. According to our in-silico analysis, AbTTRAP resembled the typical TTRAP domain architecture, including a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase domain. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed its common ancestral invertebrate origin, where AbTTRAP was clustered with molluskan counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR showed universally distributed expression of AbTTRAP in selected tissues of abalone, from which more prominent expression was detected in hemocytes. Upon stimulation with two pathogen-derived mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), transcript levels of AbTTRAP in hemocytes and gill tissues were differentially modulated with time. In addition, the recombinant protein of AbTTRAP exhibited prominent endonuclease activity against abalone genomic DNA, which was enhanced by the presence of Mg(2+) in the medium. Collectively, these results reinforce the existence of the TNF signaling cascade in mollusks like disk abalone, further implicating the putative regulatory behavior of TTRAP in invertebrate host pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  18. Effects of ocean acidification with pCO2 diurnal fluctuations on survival and larval shell formation of Ezo abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, Toshihiro; Takami, Hideki; Muraoka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yukio; Nakatsubo, Ayumi; Kimura, Ryo; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of constant and diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 on development and shell formation of larval abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The larvae was exposed to different pCO 2 conditions; constant [450, 800, or 1200 μatm in the first experiment (Exp. I), 450 or 780 μatm in the second experiment (Exp. II)] or diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 (800 ± 400 or 1200 ± 400 μatm in Exp. I, 450 ± 80, 780 ± 200 or 780 ± 400 μatm in Exp. II). Mortality, malformation rates or shell length of larval abalone were not significantly different among the 450, 800, and 800 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments. Meanwhile, significantly higher malformation rates and smaller shells were detected in the 1200 and 1200 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments than in the 450 μatm pCO 2 treatment. The negative impacts were greater in the 1200 ± 400 μatm than in the 1200 μatm. Shell length and malformation rate of larval abalone were related with aragonite saturation state (Ω-aragonite) in experimental seawater, and greatly changed around 1.1 of Ω-aragonite which corresponded to 1000-1300 μatm pCO 2 . These results indicate that there is a pCO 2 threshold associated with Ω-aragonite in the seawater, and that pCO 2 fluctuations produce additional negative impacts on abalone when above the threshold. Clear relationships were detected between abalone fitness and the integrated pCO 2 value over the threshold, indicating that the effects of OA on development and shell formation of larval abalone can be determined by intensity and time of exposure to pCO 2 over the threshold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  20. Two duplicated chicken-type lysozyme genes in disc abalone Haliotis discus discus: molecular aspects in relevance to structure, genomic organization, mRNA expression and bacteriolytic function.

    PubMed

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-08-01

    Lysozymes are crucial antibacterial proteins that are associated with catalytic cleavage of peptidoglycan and subsequent bacteriolysis. The present study describes the identification of two lysozyme genes from disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and their characterization at sequence-, genomic-, transcriptional- and functional-levels. Two cDNAs and BAC clones bearing lysozyme genes were isolated from abalone transcriptome and BAC genomic libraries, respectively and sequences were determined. Corresponding deduced amino acid sequences harbored a chicken-type lysozyme (LysC) family profile and exhibited conserved characteristics of LysC family members including active residues (Glu and Asp) and GS(S/T)DYGIFQINS motif suggested that they are LysC counterparts in disc abalone and designated as abLysC1 and abLysC2. While abLysC1 represented the homolog recently reported in Ezo abalone [1], abLysC2 shared significant identity with LysC homologs. Unlike other vertebrate LysCs, coding sequence of abLysCs were distributed within five exons interrupted by four introns. Both abLysCs revealed a broader mRNA distribution with highest levels in mantle (abLysC1) and hepatopancreas (abLysC2) suggesting their likely main role in defense and digestion, respectively. Investigation of temporal transcriptional profiles post-LPS and -pathogen challenges revealed induced-responses of abLysCs in gills and hemocytes. The in vitro muramidase activity of purified recombinant (r) abLysCs proteins was evaluated, and findings indicated that they are active in acidic pH range (3.5-6.5) and over a broad temperature range (20-60 °C) and influenced by ionic strength. When the antibacterial spectra of (r)abLysCs were examined, they displayed differential activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains providing evidence for their involvement in bacteriolytic function in abalone physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune priming and portal of entry effectors improve response to vibrio infection in a resistant population of the European abalone.

    PubMed

    Dubief, Bruno; Nunes, Flavia L D; Basuyaux, Olivier; Paillard, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Since 1997, populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata suffer mass mortalities attributed to the bacterium Vibrio harveyi. These mortalities occur at the spawning season, when the abalone immune system is depressed, and when temperatures exceed 17 °C, leading to favorable conditions for V. harveyi proliferation. In order to identify mechanisms of disease resistance, experimental successive infections were carried out on two geographically distinct Brittany populations: one that has suffered recurrent mortalities (Saint-Malo) and one that has not been impacted by the disease (Molène). Furthermore, abalone surviving these two successive bacterial challenges and uninfected abalone were used for several post-infection analyses. The Saint-Malo population was found to be resistant to V. harveyi infection, with a survival rate of 95% compared to 51% for Molène. While in vitro quantification of phagocytosis by flow cytometry showed strong inhibition following the first infection, no inhibition of phagocytosis was observed following the second infection for Saint-Malo, suggesting an immune priming effect. Moreover, assays of phagocytosis of GFP-labelled V. harveyi performed two months post-infection show an inhibition of phagocytosis by extracellular products of V. harveyi for uninfected abalone, while no effect was observed for previously infected abalone from Saint-Malo, suggesting that the effects of immune priming may last upwards of two months. Detection of V. harveyi by qPCR showed that a significantly greater number of abalone from the susceptible population were positive for V. harveyi in the gills, indicating that portal of entry effectors may play a role in resistance to the disease. Collectively, these results suggest a potential synergistic effect of gills and hemolymph in the resistance of H. tuberculata against V. harveyi with an important involvement of the gills, the portal of entry of the bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Molecular identification and functional delineation of a glutathione reductase homolog from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Insights as a potent player in host antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M L P B; Wickramasinghe, P D S U; Bathige, S D N K; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Kim, Gi-Young; Park, Myoung Ae; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biochemical conversion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into the reduced form (GSH). Since the ratio between the two forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is important for the optimal function of GSH to act as an antioxidant against H 2 O 2 , the contribution of GSR as an enzymatic regulatory agent to maintain the proper ratio is essential. Abalones are marine mollusks that frequently encounter environmental factors that can trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H 2 O 2 . Therefore, we conducted the current study to reveal the molecular and functional properties of a GSR homolog in the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The identified cDNA sequence (2325 bp) has a 1356 bp long open reading frame (ORF), coding for a 909 bp long amino acid sequence, which harbors a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain (171-246 aa), a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase dimerization domain, and a NAD(P)(+)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily signature domain. Four functional residues: the FAD binding site, glutathione binding site, NADPH binding motif, and assembly domain were identified to be conserved among the other species. The recombinant abalone GSR (rAbGSR) exhibited detectable activity in a standard glutathione reductase activity assay. The optimum pH and optimal temperature for the reaction were found to be 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively, while the ionic strength of the medium had no effect. The enzymatic reaction was vastly inhibited by Cu +2 and Cd +2 ions. A considerable effect of cellular protection was detected with a disk diffusion assay conducted with rAbGSR. Moreover, an MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed the significance of the protective role of rAbGSR in cell function. Furthermore, AbGSR was found to be ubiquitously distributed in different types of abalone tissues. AbGSR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in response to three immune challenges

  3. Molecular characterization of kappa class glutathione S-transferase from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and changes in expression following immune and stress challenges.

    PubMed

    Sandamalika, W M Gayashani; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Liyanage, D S; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lim, Han-Kyu; Lee, Jehee

    2018-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isoenzymes represent a complex group of proteins that are involved in phase II detoxification in several organisms. In this study, GST kappa (GSTκ) from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus; AbGSTκ) was characterized at both the transcriptional and functional levels to determine its potential capacity to perform as a detoxification agent under conditions of different stress. The predicted AbGSTκ protein consists of 227 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 25.6 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 7.78. In silico analysis reveals that AbGSTκ is a disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbA), consisting of a thioredoxin domain, GSH binding sites (G-sites), and a catalytic residue. In contrast, no hydrophobic ligand binding site (H-site), or signal peptides, were detected. AbGSTκ showed the highest sequence identity with the orthologue from pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) (60.0%). In a phylogenetic tree, AbGSTκ clustered closely together with other fish GSTκs, and was evolutionarily distanced from other cytosolic GSTs. The predicted three-dimensional structure clearly demonstrates that the dimer adopts a butterfly-like shape. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that GSTκ was highly expressed in the digestive tract, suggesting it has detoxification ability. Depending on the tissue and time, AbGSTκ showed different expression patterns, and levels of expression, following challenge of the abalone with immune stimulants. Enzyme kinetics of the purified recombinant proteins demonstrated its conjugating ability using 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH) as substrates, and suggested it has a low affinity for both substrates. The optimum temperature and pH for the rAbGSTκ GSH: CDNB conjugating activity were found to be 35 °C and pH 8, respectively indicating that the abalone is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Cibacron blue (100 μM) was

  4. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone.

  5. Molecular identification and functional analysis of two variants of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Bathige, S D N K; Lee, Seongdo; Lee, Jehee

    2018-02-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a crucial adaptor protein of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin 1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways and is involved in a diverse array of inflammatory responses via NF-κB activation. In the present study, two MyD88 variants were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X. The deduced AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X comprised 433 and 354 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 48.85 kDa and 40.17 kDa, respectively. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X possessed typical MyD88 domain structural features including an N-terminal death domain (DD) and C-terminal toll interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain similar to those in mammals. Expression analysis of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA at different early embryonic developmental stages of abalone by qPCR revealed that their constitutive expression at all developmental stages analyzed with the considerably higher values at the 16-cell (AbMyD88-2) and morula stages (AbMyD88-X). In unchallenged disk abalones, AbMyD88-2 was highly expressed in muscles, while AbMyD88-X mRNA was predominantly transcribed in hemocytes. Moreover, AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA were differentially modulated in abalone hemocytes after a challenge with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C). Overexpression of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X in HEK293T cells induced the activation of the NF-κB promoter. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X involvement in inflammatory responses was characterized by their overexpression in RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. These results revealed comparatively higher NO (Nitric oxide) production, induction of inflammatory mediator genes (iNOS and COX2), and proinflammatory genes (IL1β, IL6 and TNFα) expression in abalone MyD88s-overexpressing cells than in mock control in the presence or absence of LPS

  6. Structural changes and rheological properties of dry abalone meat ( Haliotis diversicolor) during the process of water restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Zhang, Yaqi; Xu, Jiachao; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Qingxi; Chang, Yaoguang

    2007-10-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24 h to 72 h, the instantaneous modulus E 0 and viscosity η 1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time ( τ 1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters ( E 0, η 1, τ 1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  7. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

    2011-06-01

    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (p<0.05). Excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) significantly increases the Zn content and significantly decreases the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (p<0.05). These findings showed that dietary Zn (33.8 mg/kg) could highly trigger the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular identification of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) tetraspanin 33 and CD63: Insights into potent players in the disk abalone host defense system.

    PubMed

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Bathige, S D N K; Herath, H M L P B; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lee, Jehee

    2017-10-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins involved in a diverse range of physiological processes including differentiation, adhesion, signal transduction, cell motility, and immune responses. In the present study, two tetraspanins, CD63 and tetraspanin 33 (TSPAN33) from disk abalone (AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33), were identified and characterized at the molecular level. The coding sequences for AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 encoded polypeptides of 234 and 290 amino acids (aa) with predicted molecular mass of 25.3 and 32.5 kDa, respectively. The deduced AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 protein sequences were also predicted to have a typical tetraspanin domain architecture, including four transmembrane domains (TM), short N- and C- terminal regions, a short intracellular loop, as well as a large and small extracellular loop. A characteristic CCG motif and cysteine residues, which are highly conserved across CD63 and TSPAN33 proteins of different species, were present in the large extracellular loop of both abalone tetraspanins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 clustered in the invertebrate subclade of tetraspanins, thus exhibiting a close relationship with tetraspanins of other mollusks. The AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 mRNA transcripts were detected at early embryonic development stages of disk abalone with significantly higher amounts at the trochophore stage, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in embryonic development. Both AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 were ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues of unchallenged abalones analyzed, with the highest expression levels found in hemocytes. Moreover, significant induction of AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 mRNA expression was observed in immunologically important tissues, such as hemocytes and gills, upon stimulation with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and two potent immune stimulators [polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and

  10. Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Zhao, Kong-Nan; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Osborne, Simone A; Gobe, Glenda C

    2017-08-04

    Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to Wistar rats via oral gavage (N = 8) for assessment as an oral therapeutic. To ensure that the preparation had anti-coagulant activity prior to oral administration, it was assessed in rat blood by thromboelastography (TEG) significantly increasing reaction (R) time (or time until clot formation). Following in vitro confirmation of anti-coagulant activity, 40 mg of the preparation was orally administered to rats with blood samples collected at 2, 4, and 6 h post-gavage. Assessment of all blood samples by TEG showed some prolongation of R time from 355 to 380 s after 4 h. Dosing of the post-gavage blood samples with the abalone preparation to confirm anti-thrombotic activity in vitro revealed residual anti-coagulant activity, further suggesting that oral administration did increase anti-coagulant potential in the collected blood but that bioavailability was low. Assessment of tissues and haematological parameters showed no obvious harmful effects of the abalone preparation in animals. In summary, even though oral administration of fractionated and pooled blacklip abalone extract to rats delayed clotting after 4 h, bioavailability of the preparation appeared to be low and may be more appropriate for intravenous administration as an anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant therapeutic.

  11. Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Masci, Paul P.; Zhao, Kong-Nan; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Osborne, Simone A.; Gobe, Glenda C.

    2017-01-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to Wistar rats via oral gavage (N = 8) for assessment as an oral therapeutic. To ensure that the preparation had anti-coagulant activity prior to oral administration, it was assessed in rat blood by thromboelastography (TEG) significantly increasing reaction (R) time (or time until clot formation). Following in vitro confirmation of anti-coagulant activity, 40 mg of the preparation was orally administered to rats with blood samples collected at 2, 4, and 6 h post-gavage. Assessment of all blood samples by TEG showed some prolongation of R time from 355 to 380 s after 4 h. Dosing of the post-gavage blood samples with the abalone preparation to confirm anti-thrombotic activity in vitro revealed residual anti-coagulant activity, further suggesting that oral administration did increase anti-coagulant potential in the collected blood but that bioavailability was low. Assessment of tissues and haematological parameters showed no obvious harmful effects of the abalone preparation in animals. In summary, even though oral administration of fractionated and pooled blacklip abalone extract to rats delayed clotting after 4 h, bioavailability of the preparation appeared to be low and may be more appropriate for intravenous administration as an anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant therapeutic. PMID:28777290

  12. Draft genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant Shewanella algae strain AC isolated from small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Ting; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chen, Shi-Yu; Hong, Yu-Kai; Wu, Zong-Yen; Liu, Po-Yu

    2018-06-19

    Shewanella algae is an environmental marine bacteria and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Moreover, there are increasing reports of strains showing multi-drug resistance, particularly carbapenem-resistant isolates. Although S. algae have been found in bivalve shellfish aquaculture, there is very little genome-wide data on resistant determinants in S. algae from shellfish. In the study, we aimed to determine the whole genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant S. algae strain AC isolated from small abalone in Taiwan. Genome DNA was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform using 250bp paired-end reads. De novo genome assembly was performed using Velvet v1.2.07. The whole genome was annotated and several candidate genes for antimicrobial resistance were identified. The genome size was calculated at 4,751,156bp, with a mean G+C content of 53.09%. A total of 4,164 protein-coding sequences, 7 rRNAs, 85 tRNAs, and 5 non-coding RNAs were identified. The genome contains genes associated with resistance to β-lactams, trimethoprim, tetracycline, colistin, and quinolone resistance. Multiple efflux pump genes were also detected. Small abalone is a potential source of foodborne drug resistant S. algae. The genome sequence of a carbapenem-resistant S. algae strain AC isolated from small abalone will provide valuable information for further study of the dissemination of resistance genes at the human-animal interface. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  14. First characterisation of the populations and immune-related activities of hemocytes from two edible gastropod species, the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell, Turbo cornutus.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lambert, Christophe; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    The disk abalone Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell Turbo cornutus are edible gastropod species of high economic value, mainly in Asia. Mortality outbreaks and variations in worldwide stock abundance have been reported and suggested to be associated, at least in part, with pathogenic infections. Ecology, biology and immunology of both species are currently not well documented. The characterisation of the immune systems of these species is necessary to further assess the responses of H. discus discus and T. cornutus to environmental, chemical and disease stresses. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and immune-related activities of hemocytes in both species using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Two types of hemocytes were identified in the disk abalone hemolymph, blast-like cells and hyalinocytes; whereas four main hemocyte types were distinguished in the spiny top shell, blast-like cells, type I and II hyalinocytes, and granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed differences between cell types in immune-related activities. Three subsets of hemocytes, defined by differing lysosomal characteristics, were observed in the hemolymph of the spiny top shell, and only one in the disk abalone. Phagocytic activity was higher in H. discus discus hemocytes than in T. cornutus hemocytes, and the kinetics of PMA-stimulated oxidative activity was different between hemocytes of the disk abalone and the spiny top shell. Finally our results suggest for the first time a predominant mitochondrial origin of oxidative activity in gastropod hemocytes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A cysteine protease (cathepsin Z) from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-05

    Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain superfamily. It participates in the host immune defense via phagocytosis, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, proliferation, and migration of immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Hence, CTSZ is also acknowledged as an acute-phase protein in host immunity. In this study, we sought to identify the CTSZ homolog from disk abalone (AbCTSZ) and characterize it at the molecular, genomic, and transcriptional levels. AbCTSZ encodes a protein with 318 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36kDa. The structure of AbCTSZ reveals amino acid sequences that are characteristic of the signal sequence, pro-peptide, peptidase-C1 papain family cysteine protease domain, mini-loop, HIP motif, N-linked glycosylation sites, active sites, and conserved Cys residues. A pairwise comparison revealed that AbCTSZ shared the highest amino acid homology with its molluscan counterpart from Crassostrea gigas. A multiple alignment analysis revealed the conservation of functionally crucial elements of AbCTSZ, and a phylogenetic study further confirmed a proximal evolutionary relationship with its invertebrate counterparts. Further, an analysis of AbCTSZ genomic structure revealed seven exons separated by six introns, which differs from that of its vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of AbCTSZ in early developmental stages and in eight different tissues. Higher levels of AbCTSZ transcripts were found in trochophore, gill, and hemocytes, highlighting its importance in the early development and immunity of disk abalone. In addition, we found that viable bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides significantly modulated AbCTSZ transcription. Collectively, these lines of evidences suggest that AbCTSZ plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of disk abalone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  16. Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Novel Peptides Derived from the Lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji Young; Park, Eun Hee; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Woo-Jin; An, Chul Min; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2016-12-14

    Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. The molecular mass of the protein portion was 45.5 kDa, and the predicted isoelectric point of the mature protein was 4.93. Characteristic potential polysaccharide binding motif, glucanase motif, and β-glucan recognition motif were identified in the LGBP of HDH. We used its polysaccharide-binding motif sequence to design two novel antimicrobial peptide analogs (HDH-LGBP-A1 and HDH-LGBP-A2). By substituting a positively charged amino acid and amidation at the C -terminus, the pI and net charge of the HDH-LGBP increased, and the proteins formed an α-helical structure. The HDH-LGBP analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal effective concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 2.2 μg/mL. Additionally, both were toxic against human cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cell lines but not much on human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that HDH-LGBP analogs disturb the cancer cell membrane and cause apoptotic cell death. These results suggest the use of HDH-LGBP analogs as multifunctional drugs.

  17. Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Novel Peptides Derived from the Lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji Young; Park, Eun Hee; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Woo-Jin; An, Chul Min; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. The molecular mass of the protein portion was 45.5 kDa, and the predicted isoelectric point of the mature protein was 4.93. Characteristic potential polysaccharide binding motif, glucanase motif, and β-glucan recognition motif were identified in the LGBP of HDH. We used its polysaccharide-binding motif sequence to design two novel antimicrobial peptide analogs (HDH-LGBP-A1 and HDH-LGBP-A2). By substituting a positively charged amino acid and amidation at the C-terminus, the pI and net charge of the HDH-LGBP increased, and the proteins formed an α-helical structure. The HDH-LGBP analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal effective concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 2.2 μg/mL. Additionally, both were toxic against human cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cell lines but not much on human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that HDH-LGBP analogs disturb the cancer cell membrane and cause apoptotic cell death. These results suggest the use of HDH-LGBP analogs as multifunctional drugs. PMID:27983632

  18. Differential responses of juvenile and adult South African abalone (Haliotis midae Linnaeus) to low and high oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, Andre; Laas, Anél; Vosloo, Dalene

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates have evolved multiple responses to naturally variable environmental oxygen, all aimed at either maintaining cellular oxygen homeostasis or limiting cellular damage during or after hypoxic or hyperoxic events. We assessed organismal (rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) and cellular (heat shock protein expression, anti-oxidant enzymes) responses of juvenile and adult abalone exposed to low (~83% of saturation), intermediate (~95% of saturation) and high (~115% of saturation) oxygen levels for one month. Using the Comet assay, we measured DNA damage to determine whether the observed trends in the protective responses were sufficient to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Juveniles were unaffected by moderately hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Elevated basal rates of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were sufficient to prevent DNA fragmentation and protein damage. Adults, with their lower basal rate of anti-oxidant enzymes, had increased DNA damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions, indicating that the antioxidant enzymes were unable to prevent oxidative damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. The apparent insensitivity of juvenile abalone to decreased and increased oxygen might be related to their life history and development in algal and diatom biofilms where they are exposed to extreme diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH): analysis of oligomeric stability of HtH1 and HtH2, and comparison with keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH1 and KLH2.

    PubMed

    Harris, J R; Scheffler, D; Gebauer, W; Lehnert, R; Markl, J

    2000-12-01

    The multimeric/higher oligomeric states of the two isoforms of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH1 and HtH2) have been assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of negatively stained specimens, for comparison with previously published structural data from keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH1 and KLH2) [see Harris, J.R., Gebauer, W., Guderian, F.U., Markl, J., 1997a. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), I: Reassociation from Immucothel followed by separation of KLH1 and KLH2. Micron, 28, 31-41; Harris, J.R., Gebauer, W., Söhngen, S.M., Nermut, M.V., Markl, J., 1997b. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). II: Characteristic reassociation properties of purified KLH1 and KLH2. Micron, 28, 43-56; Harris, J.R., Gebauer, W., Adrian, M., Markl, J., 1998. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH): Slow in vitro reassociation of KLH1 and KLH2 from Immucothel. Micron, 29, 329-339]. In purified samples of both HtH isoforms, the hollow cylindrical ca 8MDa didecamer predominates together with a small number of decamers, but tri- and longer multidecamers are detectable only in the HtH2. The stability of the two HtH isoforms under varying ionic conditions have been monitored, thereby enabling conditions for the production of stable decamers to be established. The ability of these decamers to reform multimers in the presence of 10 and 100mM concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4), and also of individual HtH1 and HtH2 subunits (produced by pH 9.6 dissociation in glycine-NaOH buffer), to reassociate in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, has been assessed. For the HtH1 decamers, the predominant multimeric product is the didecamer at 10 and 100mM calcium and magnesium concentrations, whereas for the HtH2 decamers, large numbers of multidecamers are produced, with the reaction proceeding more completely at the higher calcium and magnesium concentration. With the HtH1 subunit, reassociation in the presence of 10 and 100mM calcium and magnesium ions yielded

  2. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  3. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Roles in early development and immunity-related transcriptional responses.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants. AbMAPK1 harbors a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 23 bps, a coding sequence of 1104 bps, and a 3' UTR of 448 bp. The putative peptide comprises a predicted molecular mass of 42.2 kDa, with a theoretical pI of 6.28. Based on the in silico analysis, AbMAPK1 possesses two N-glycosylation sites, one S_TK catalytic domain, and a conserved His-Arg-Asp domain (HRD). In addition, a conservative glycine rich ATP-phosphate-binding loop and a threonine-x-tyrosine motif (TEY) important for the autophosphorylation were also identified in the protein. Homology assessment of AbMAPK1 showed several conserved regions, and ark clam (Aplysia californica) showed the highest sequence identity (87.9%). The phylogenetic analysis supported close evolutionary kinship with molluscan orthologs. Constitutive expression of AbMAPK1 was observed in six different tissues of disk abalone, with the highest expression in the digestive tract, followed by the gills and hemocytes. Highest AbMAPK1 mRNA expression level was detected at the trochophore developmental stage, suggesting its role in abalone cell differentiation and proliferation. Significant modulation of AbMAPK1 expression under pathogenic stress suggested its putative involvement in the immune defense mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of oxytetracycline baths as therapeutic treatment for the control of the agent of withering syndrome (WS) in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Winkler, Federico M; García, Ricardo; Valdivia, María Vicenta; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2018-03-01

    Withering Syndrome (WS) is a lethal disease that affects abalone species in both wild and farmed populations. This infection, caused by the rickettsial-like intracellular organism (RLO) Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, can severely impair the normal development of affected animals, and ultimately, their survival. The most common line of action against the WS has been the use of antibiotics, specifically oxytetracycline (OTC), administered via intramuscular injection and per os via medicated feed. In the present study, we have assessed the effectiveness of OTC baths as therapeutic treatment for the control of the WS agent in H. rufescens. Clinical signs of infection were monitored for 11 months in treated juveniles, in addition to feed consumption rate, growth patterns and gonad development. Abalones were asymptomatic until the end of the experiment, when a small number of non-treated animals exhibited clinical signs of infection. Gonad maturity was not observed. OTC treated animals grew significantly less than their non-treated counterparts, being 4.3% shorter and 13.6% lighter at the end of the experiment. They also displayed negative allometry, i.e. for the same shell length, they were lighter than non-treated groups. Furthermore, the weight of muscle and soft tissues in OTC treated animals was lighter than in the other groups, while no differences were found in shell weight. The feed consumption rate was the same for all groups, thus the observed growth patterns cannot be attributed to a decreased feed intake. One possible explanation is that antibiotic treatment may have impacted gut microflora, thus preventing efficient nutrient digestion and absorption and, indirectly, reducing growth. Prevalence of RLOs causing WS (WS-RLO) and the variant form (RLOv), infected with a bacteriophague and non virulent, were significantly lower in the OTC-treated group than in the other groups. Similar results were observed for the mean intensity of RLOv, while for WS

  7. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2014-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  10. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2013-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture. PMID:24367359

  11. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2013-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  12. Speciation of Bio-Available Iodine in Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hyphenated with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Using an In Vitro Method.

    PubMed

    Doh, Han Sol; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-06-01

    Abalone is one of the most valuable marine products found in East Asia because it is rich in nutritious substances including iodine. In this study, the in vitro dialyzability approach was used to assess the bio-available iodine species in abalone. Iodide, iodate, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine (MIT), and 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). To assure the consistency, reliability, and accuracy of the data, the method was validated. Comparison of the total iodine in abalone muscle and viscera indicated that abalone muscle showed greater digestion/absorption efficiency than abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 68.13 ± 2.59% and 47.88 ± 5.76% and absorption efficiency: 59.78 ± 2.93% and 35.12 ± 1.43% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). However, evaluation of the sum of the analyzed iodine species targeted in this study by HPLC-ICP-MS indicated that abalone muscle showed lower digestion efficiency and similar absorption efficiency compared to that of abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 35.52 ± 5.41% and 28.84 ± 1.83%; absorption efficiency: 23.56 ± 4.38% and 27.56 ± 1.51% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). The main forms of iodine detected in abalone muscle were iodide and MIT, whereas iodide was the major form in abalone viscera. The bio-available iodine in abalone was quantified via an in vitro method employing HPLC-ICP-MS. The results of this study indicated that abalone is feasible as a new iodine source and may prospectively find application in iodine-fortified foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Assessing Withering Syndrome Resistance in California Black Abalone: Implications for Conservation and Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    worldwide. California Sea Grant College Program UC San Diego Title: Assessing withering syndrome resistance in California black abalone : Implications...Hunter S.(2009). Assessing withering syndrome resistance in California black abalone : Implications for conservation and restoration. UC San Diego...California Sea Grant College Program. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7c39q78n Keywords: black abalone , Haliotis cracherodii, captive breeding

  14. Innate resistance of New Zealand paua to abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Slater, Joanne; Crane, Mark St J

    2017-06-01

    The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a range-expanding sea urchin on behaviour of commercially fished abalone.

    PubMed

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Johnson, Craig R; Thomson, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.

  16. Effects of a Range-Expanding Sea Urchin on Behaviour of Commercially Fished Abalone

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; Johnson, Craig R.; Thomson, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. Conclusions/Significance The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour. PMID:24073195

  17. Metabolic responses of Haliotis diversicolor to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Shi, Yanyan; Cai, Shuhui; Feng, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a devastating bacterial pathogen that often causes outbreak of vibriosis in abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Elucidation of metabolic mechanisms of abalones in responding to V. parahemolyticus infection is essential for controlling the epidemic. In this work, 1 H NMR-based metabolomic techniques along with correlation and network analyses are used to investigate characteristic metabolites, as well as corresponding disturbed pathways in hepatopancreas and gill of H. diversicolor after V. parahemolyticus infection for 48 h. Results indicate that obvious gender- and tissue-specific metabolic responses are induced. Metabolic responses in female abalones are more clearly observed than those in males, which are primarily manifested in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the depletion of organic osmolytes (homarine, betaine and taurine) in the infected gills of female abalones, as well as in the depletion of glutamate, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in the infected hepatopancreases of female abalones. Moreover, based on major metabolic functions of the characteristic metabolites, we have found that V. parahemolyticus infection not only cause the disturbance in energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and osmotic balance, but also induce oxidative stress, immune stress and neurotoxic effect in different tissues with various mechanisms. Our study provides details of metabolic responses of abalones to V. parahemolyticus infection and will shed light on biochemical defence mechanisms of male and female hosts against pathogen infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploiting genomic data to identify proteins involved in abalone reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Botwright, Natasha A; McWilliam, Sean M; Cook, Mathew T; Harris, James O; Wijffels, Gene; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2014-08-28

    Aside from their critical role in reproduction, abalone gonads serve as an indicator of sexual maturity and energy balance, two key considerations for effective abalone culture. Temperate abalone farmers face issues with tank restocking with highly marketable abalone owing to inefficient spawning induction methods. The identification of key proteins in sexually mature abalone will serve as the foundation for a greater understanding of reproductive biology. Addressing this knowledge gap is the first step towards improving abalone aquaculture methods. Proteomic profiling of female and male gonads of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, was undertaken using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Owing to the incomplete nature of abalone protein databases, in addition to searching against two publicly available databases, a custom database comprising genomic data was used. Overall, 162 and 110 proteins were identified in females and males respectively with 40 proteins common to both sexes. For proteins involved in sexual maturation, sperm and egg structure, motility, acrosomal reaction and fertilization, 23 were identified only in females, 18 only in males and 6 were common. Gene ontology analysis revealed clear differences between the female and male protein profiles reflecting a higher rate of protein synthesis in the ovary and higher metabolic activity in the testis. A comprehensive mass spectrometry-based analysis was performed to profile the abalone gonad proteome providing the foundation for future studies of reproduction in abalone. Key proteins involved in both reproduction and energy balance were identified. Genomic resources were utilised to build a database of molluscan proteins yielding >60% more protein identifications than in a standard workflow employing public protein databases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of genetic markers in abalone through construction of a SNP database.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-H; Appleyard, S A; Elliott, N G; Jee, Y-J; Lee, J B; Kang, S W; Baek, M K; Han, Y S; Choi, T-J; Lee, Y S

    2011-06-01

    In the absence of a reference genome, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) discovery in a group of abalone species was undertaken by random sequence assembly. A web-based interface was constructed, and 11 932 DNA sequences from the genus Haliotis were assembled, with 1321 contigs built. Of these, 118 contigs that consisted of at least ten annotation groups were selected. The 1577 putative SNPs were identified from the 118 contigs, with SNPs in several HSP70 gene contigs confirmed by PCR amplification of an 809-bp DNA fragment. SNPs in the HSP70 gene were compared across eight abalone species. A total of 129 polymorphic sites, including heterozygote sites within and among species, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial HSP70 gene region showed separation of the tested abalone into two groups, one reflecting the southern hemisphere species and the other the northern hemisphere species. Interestingly, Haliotis iris from New Zealand showed a closer relationship to species distributed in the northern Pacific region. Although HSP genes are known to be highly conserved among taxa, the validation of polymorphic SNPs from HSP70 in this mollusc demonstrates the applicability of cross-species SNP markers in abalone and the first step towards universal nuclear markers in Haliotis. © 2010 NFRDI, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water temperatures. We measured abalone body temperatures in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean temperature and daily temperature variability on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily temperature variability increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water temperatures and was independent of temperature variability. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water temperatures periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.

  1. Dynamics and distribution of black abalone populations at San Nicolas Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Hochberg, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    Dense populations of black abalones (Haliotis cracherodii Leach) were monitored in permanent intertidal plots at nine sites on San Nicolas Island from 1981 through 1990. Densities were essentially constant at all four sites along the north shore of the island throughout the study period. Densities at five sites along the south shore were more variable, possibly reflecting asynchronous variation in recruitment, mortality resulting from wave disturbance, and removal by people. Temporal variation of abalone densities apparently was not influenced by sea otters or abalone withering syndrome during this study. Abalones were strongly aggregated in space. Highest densities occurred in areas of irregular substrata, apparently as a result of preference for crevices and vertical faces. The locations of dense patches were persistent in time.

  2. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  3. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Carolyn S.; Wight, Nathan; Crosson, Lisa M.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations. PMID:24672512

  4. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carolyn S; Wight, Nathan; Crosson, Lisa M; Vanblaricom, Glenn R; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host-parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  5. Mechanical properties and structure of Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Hemifusus tuba conch shells: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Chen, Chen; Liang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (abalone shell) and Hemifusus tuba conch shell have been studied for the purpose to comparatively investigate the mechanisms by which nature designs composites. It is shown that both shells are composed of aragonite and a small amount of proteins while the conch shell shows finer microstructure but lower strength than abalone shell. It is also shown that the fresh shells exhibits better property than those after heat-treatments. It is therefore supposed that the size of inorganic substance is not a dominant factor to improve strength, while both proteins in shells and the microstructure of inorganic matter also play important roles.

  6. Comparison of three inert markers in measuring apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile abalone under different culture condition and temperature regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, K. U.; Adams, L.; Stone, D.; Savva, N.; Adams, M.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative research using three inert markers, chromic oxide, yttrium and ytterbium to measure the apparent nutrient digestibility of experimental feed in juvenile Hybrid abalone (Haliotis rubra X H. laevigata) and Greenlip abalone (H.laevigata) revealed that apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP) measured using yttrium and ytterbium in hybrid abalone were significantly different across the treatments. Protein digestibility measured in experimental tanks was higher than those measured in indoor and outdoor commercial tanks, regardless of inert marker used. Chromic oxide led to overestimated ADCP compared to when measured using yttrium and ytterbium. There were no significant interactions between temperature and inert markers when measuring ADCP and apparent digestibility of gross energy (ADGE). However, there was a significant difference of ADCP amongst inert markers when measured in greenlip abalone cultured at two temperatures. While measurements of ADge calculated using three inert markers shared the same value.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness.

  8. Nacre in Abalone Shell: Organic and Inorganic Components and their effects to the Formation and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Maria Isabel

    Abalone nacre is a natural composite that exhibits exceptional mechanical properties due to its organization that extends to various levels of hierarchy. Most of the toughness has been attributed by nacre's third level of hierarchy which entitles a brick and mortar structure consisting of the CaCO3 tiles and organic interlayers. However, there are other important components that are vital to the structure and strength of red abalone nacre. The process of formation of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre following periods of growth interruption, taking into consideration important environmental factors (access to food and temperature) and to employ high-magnification characterization techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to better understand how the soft tissue (e.g. epithelium and organic membrane) influences the mechanism of growth. The structure-property relationship of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre, focusing in the individual constituents (isolated mineral and isolated organic component) and comparing that to the integrated structure. Mechanical tests such as, tensile tests, microscratch, and nanoindentation is performed on the isolated organic constituent and the isolated mineral of red abalone shell. Specimens are characterized by SEM to verify the toughening and deformation mechanisms. Results obtained from the isolated mineral validate the importance of the organic constituent as the mechanical properties decline greatly as the organic component is removed. This approach forms a general picture of the mechanical response of the organic interlayers and growth bands and their effect on the toughness of the abalone nacre. These results are significant to understand the important characteristics of abalone nacre, such as the structure and mechanical properties, and an attempt to aid in improving the latest attempts to produce novel nacre-inspired materials.

  9. Structural and functional biological materials: Abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min

    A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 mum by 10 mum aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were

  10. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  11. Calcifying algae maintain settlement cues to larval abalone following algal exposure to extreme ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Jennifer K; Barry, James P; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Potts, Donald C; Palumbi, Stephen R; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2017-07-18

    Ocean acidification (OA) increasingly threatens marine systems, and is especially harmful to calcifying organisms. One important question is whether OA will alter species interactions. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide space and chemical cues for larval settlement. CCA have shown strongly negative responses to OA in previous studies, including disruption of settlement cues to corals. In California, CCA provide cues for seven species of harvested, threatened, and endangered abalone. We exposed four common CCA genera and a crustose calcifying red algae, Peyssonnelia (collectively CCRA) from California to three pCO 2 levels ranging from 419-2,013 µatm for four months. We then evaluated abalone (Haliotis rufescens) settlement under ambient conditions among the CCRA and non-algal controls that had been previously exposed to the pCO 2 treatments. Abalone settlement and metamorphosis increased from 11% in the absence of CCRA to 45-69% when CCRA were present, with minor variation among CCRA genera. Though all CCRA genera reduced growth during exposure to increased pCO 2 , abalone settlement was unaffected by prior CCRA exposure to increased pCO 2 . Thus, we find no impacts of OA exposure history on CCRA provision of settlement cues. Additionally, there appears to be functional redundancy in genera of CCRA providing cues to abalone, which may further buffer OA effects.

  12. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  13. New alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata bats, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2014-04-01

    Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island).

  14. Setting realistic recovery targets for two interacting endangered species, sea otter and northern abalone.

    PubMed

    Chadès, Iadine; Curtis, Janelle M R; Martin, Tara G

    2012-12-01

    Failure to account for interactions between endangered species may lead to unexpected population dynamics, inefficient management strategies, waste of scarce resources, and, at worst, increased extinction risk. The importance of species interactions is undisputed, yet recovery targets generally do not account for such interactions. This shortcoming is a consequence of species-centered legislation, but also of uncertainty surrounding the dynamics of species interactions and the complexity of modeling such interactions. The northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and one of its preferred prey, northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), are endangered species for which recovery strategies have been developed without consideration of their strong predator-prey interactions. Using simulation-based optimization procedures from artificial intelligence, namely reinforcement learning and stochastic dynamic programming, we combined sea otter and northern abalone population models with functional-response models and examined how different management actions affect population dynamics and the likelihood of achieving recovery targets for each species through time. Recovery targets for these interacting species were difficult to achieve simultaneously in the absence of management. Although sea otters were predicted to recover, achieving abalone recovery targets failed even when threats to abalone such as predation and poaching were reduced. A management strategy entailing a 50% reduction in the poaching of northern abalone was a minimum requirement to reach short-term recovery goals for northern abalone when sea otters were present. Removing sea otters had a marginally positive effect on the abalone population but only when we assumed a functional response with strong predation pressure. Our optimization method could be applied more generally to any interacting threatened or invasive species for which there are multiple conservation objectives. © 2012 Society for

  15. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate thatmore » different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.« less

  16. Polarization-dependent imaging contrast in abalone shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Guo, Jinghua; Ariosa, Daniel; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-02-01

    Many biominerals contain micro- or nanocrystalline mineral components, organized accurately into architectures that confer the material with improved mechanical performance at the macroscopic scale. We present here an effect which enables us to observe the relative orientation of individual crystals at the submicron scale. We call it polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC), as it is an imaging development of the well-known x-ray linear dichroism. Most importantly, PIC is obtained in situ, in biominerals. We present here PIC in the prismatic and nacreous layers of Haliotis rufescens (red abalone), confirm it in geologic calcite and aragonite, and corroborate the experimental data with theoretical simulated spectra. PIC reveals different and unexpected aspects of nacre architecture that have inspired theoretical models for nacre formation.

  17. Complete genome sequence of a phage hyperparasite of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales) - a pathogen of Haliotis spp (Gasteropoda).

    PubMed

    Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Ángel; Licea-Navarro, Alexei F; Gonzales-Sánchez, Ricardo; Guerrero, Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Bacteriophages are recognized as major mortality agents of microbes, among them intracellular marine rickettsiales-like bacteria. Recently, a phage hyperparasite of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) has been described. This bacterium is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS) which is a chronic and potentially lethal disease of abalone species from California, USA and the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. This hyperparasite which infects CXc could be used as a biocontrol agent for WS. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain genomic information to characterize this phage. In this study, the first complete genome sequence of a novel phage, Xenohaliotis phage (pCXc) was determined. The complete genome of pCXc from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) is 35,728 bp, while the complete genome of pCXc from yellow abalone (Haliotis corrugata) is 35,736 bp. Both phage genomes consist of double-stranded DNA with a G + C content of 38.9%. In both genomes 33 open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted. Only 10 ORFs encode proteins that have identifiable functional homologues. These 10 ORFs were classified by function, including structural, DNA replication, DNA packaging, nucleotide transport and metabolism, life cycle regulation, recombination and repair, and additional functions. A PCR method for the specific detection of pCXc was developed. This information will help to understand a new group of phages that infect intracellular marine rickettsiales-like bacteria in mollusks.

  18. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 tomore » 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.« less

  19. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  20. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  1. Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Davis, Andrew R

    2011-08-07

    The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO(2) treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6-7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO(2), and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species.

  2. Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A.; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Davis, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO2 treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6–7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO2, and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species. PMID:21177689

  3. Relationships between and formation dynamics of the microbiota of consumers, producers, and the environment in an abalone aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Zhao, Wang; Liu, Guang-Feng; Wang, Jiang-Yong

    2017-01-01

    An ecosystem is a community comprising living and nonliving components of the environment. Microbes are ubiquitous elements in each of these components. The dynamics of microbiota formation in an ecosystem is important to elucidate, because how the different components of a system exchange microbes, and how the microbes control ecological processes remain unresolved. In this study, an abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, seed-nursing pond was used as a model system. We first examined changes in bacterial communities during the seedling cultivation of this herbivorous juvenile aquatic invertebrate animal. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial community dynamics and spatio-temporal interactions of different system components: consumers (abalone), producers (algae or a substrate), and the environment (water). DGGE fingerprints revealed that the developmental stages of abalone influences bacterial communities of both the abalone and substrate. Although the communities in water fluctuated daily, they could be divided into two clusters that coincided with abalone stages, reflecting the transition from larva to juvenile at around day 21. Pyrosequencing showed that the microbiota in the abalone and substrate had more operational taxonomic units in common than that of either with water. The Bray-Curtis similarity index was used to quantify the formation dynamics of microbiota among the various components of the system. The bacterial communities in producers and consumers showed similar changes. These communities were unstable at the beginning and then slowly stabilized over time. The environmental bacterial community was more stable than the bacterial communities in consumers and producers, and may have been the basis for stability in the system. Our research provides insights into the dynamics of microbiota formation in various biotic elements of a system that will contribute to predictive systems modeling.

  4. Monomorphic pathogens: The case of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis from abalone in California, USA and Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cicala, Francesco; Moore, James D; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl

    2018-05-01

    Withering syndrome (WS) is a chronic wasting disease affecting abalone species attributed to the pathogen Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc). Wild populations of blue (Haliotis fulgens) and yellow (H. corrugata) abalone have experienced unusual mortality rates since 2009 off the peninsula of Baja California and WS has been hypothesized as a possible cause. Currently, little information is available about the genetic diversity of CXc and particularly the possible existence of strains differing in pathogenicity. In a recent phylogenetic analysis, we characterized five coding genes from this rickettsial pathogen. Here, we analyze those genes and two additional intergenic non-coding regions following multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and multi-spacer typing (MST) approaches to assess the genetic variability of CXc and its relationship with blue, yellow and red (H. rufescens) abalone. Moreover, we used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reads from gut microbiomes of blue and yellow abalone to complete the genetic characterization of this prokaryote. The presence of CXc was investigated in more than 150 abalone of the three species; furthermore, a total of 385 DNA sequences and 7117 16S rRNA reads from Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis were used to evaluate its population genetic structure. Our findings suggest the absence of polymorphism in the DNA sequences of analyzed loci and the presence of a single lineage of CXc infecting abalone from California (USA) and Baja California (Mexico). We posit that the absence of genetic variably in this marine rickettsia may be the result of evolutionary and ecological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between and formation dynamics of the microbiota of consumers, producers, and the environment in an abalone aquatic system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wang; Liu, Guang-Feng; Wang, Jiang-Yong

    2017-01-01

    An ecosystem is a community comprising living and nonliving components of the environment. Microbes are ubiquitous elements in each of these components. The dynamics of microbiota formation in an ecosystem is important to elucidate, because how the different components of a system exchange microbes, and how the microbes control ecological processes remain unresolved. In this study, an abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, seed-nursing pond was used as a model system. We first examined changes in bacterial communities during the seedling cultivation of this herbivorous juvenile aquatic invertebrate animal. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial community dynamics and spatio-temporal interactions of different system components: consumers (abalone), producers (algae or a substrate), and the environment (water). DGGE fingerprints revealed that the developmental stages of abalone influences bacterial communities of both the abalone and substrate. Although the communities in water fluctuated daily, they could be divided into two clusters that coincided with abalone stages, reflecting the transition from larva to juvenile at around day 21. Pyrosequencing showed that the microbiota in the abalone and substrate had more operational taxonomic units in common than that of either with water. The Bray-Curtis similarity index was used to quantify the formation dynamics of microbiota among the various components of the system. The bacterial communities in producers and consumers showed similar changes. These communities were unstable at the beginning and then slowly stabilized over time. The environmental bacterial community was more stable than the bacterial communities in consumers and producers, and may have been the basis for stability in the system. Our research provides insights into the dynamics of microbiota formation in various biotic elements of a system that will contribute to predictive systems modeling. PMID

  6. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Snail, Melanoides tuberculata

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Nadzifah, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae) were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59 mg L−1, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al). Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor) in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals. PMID:22666089

  7. Development and preliminary evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for Halioticida noduliformans in abalone tissues.

    PubMed

    Greeff, Mariska R; Christison, Kevin W; Macey, Brett M

    2012-06-13

    Abalone Haliotis midae exhibiting typical clinical signs of tubercle mycosis were discovered in South African culture facilities in 2006, posing a significant threat to the industry. The fungus responsible for the outbreak was identified as a Peronosporomycete, Halioticida noduliformans. Currently, histopathology and gross observation are used to diagnose this disease, but these 2 methods are neither rapid nor sensitive enough to provide accurate and reliable diagnosis. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for the detection and quantification of a variety of pathogens, so therefore we aimed to develop a qPCR assay for species-specific detection and quantification of H. noduliformans. Effective extraction of H. noduliformans genomic DNA from laboratory grown cultures, as well as from spiked abalone tissues, was accomplished by grinding samples using a pellet pestle followed by heat lysis in the presence of Chelax-100 beads. A set of oligonucleotide primers was designed to specifically amplify H. noduliformans DNA in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, and tested for cross-reactivity to DNA extracted from related and non-related fungi isolated from seaweeds, crustaceans and healthy abalone; no cross-amplification was detected. When performing PCR assays in an abalone tissue matrix, an environment designed to be a non-sterile simulation of environmental conditions, no amplification occurred in the negative controls. The qPCR assay sensitivity was determined to be approximately 0.28 pg of fungal DNA (~2.3 spores) in a 25 µl reaction volume. Our qPCR technique will be useful for monitoring and quantifying H. noduliformans for the surveillance and management of abalone tubercle mycosis in South Africa.

  8. [Tapeworm Oochoristica tuberculata (Rudolphi, 1819)--parasite of the lizard Eremias argus Peters, 1869 in Zabaikalie].

    PubMed

    Dugarov, Zh N; Baldanova, D R; Khamnueva, T R

    2012-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of the tapeworm Oochoristica tuberculata from the lizard Eremias argus is given from the northern border of the host areal. The complexes of most stable and most variable characters of this tapeworm are determined. The list of hosts is given for Oochoristica tuberculata.

  9. Iridescence of a shell of mollusk Haliotis Glabra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Wong, D.; Lee, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Pearls and shells of some mollusks are attractive inorganic materials primarily owing to the beauty of their natural lustrous and iridescent surface. The iridescent colors can be explained by diffraction or interference or both, depending on the microstructure of the surface. Strong iridescent colors are very evident on the polished shell of the mollusk Haliotis Glabra, commonly known as abalone. It would be interesting to study how these colors are produced on the surface of the shell. By using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface of the shell is found to have a fine-scale diffraction grating structure, and stacks of thin crystalline nacreous layers or platelets are found below the surface. These observations suggest that the iridescent colors are caused by both diffraction and interference. From measurements done on the diffraction patterns that were obtained using a He-Ne laser illuminating the shell, the groove width of the grating structure was derived. Good agreement was found between the derived groove density by diffraction and that measured directly using the SEM. The crystalline structure of the nacreous layers of the shell is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SEM observations. The infrared absorption peaks of 700, 713, 862 and 1083 cm-1 confirmed that the nacre of the shell is basically aragonite. The strong iridescent colors of the shell are the result of high groove density on the surface which causes diffraction. The uniform stacking of layers of nacre below the surface of the shell also causes interference effects that contribute to the iridescent colors.

  10. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  11. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states. ...

  12. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Akter Mitu, Shahida; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280‑320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between <11.8 and <16.9 µg/ml, respectively. Subsequently, cell viability was compared between cultured HaCaT cells exposed to serial doses of UV-B from 1 to 11 (x10) mJ/cm2 and containing 4 different concentrations of abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 µg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P<0.001) following treatment with 2.5 and 5 µg/ml extract. Without extract, cell viability was significantly reduced upon exposure to UV-B at 4 mJ/cm2. Three morphological changes were observed in HaCaT cells following UV-B exposure, including i) condensation of cytoplasm; ii) shrunken cells and plasma membrane bubbling; and iii) condensation of chromatin material. A calcein AM‑propidium iodide live‑dead assay showed that cells could survive cytoplasmic condensation, yet cell death occurred when damage also included membrane bubbling and chromatin changes. Western blot analysis of HaCaT cell COX‑2, p38, phospho‑p38, SPK/JNK and phospho‑SPK/JNK following exposure to >2.5 µg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX‑2, phospho‑p38 and phospho‑SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence

  13. Hybridization improved bacteria resistance in abalone: Evidence from physiological and molecular responses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2018-01-01

    Hybridization is an effective way of improving germplasm in abalone, as it often generates benign traits in the hybrids. The hybrids of Haliotis discus hannai and H. gigantea have shown heterosis in terms of disease resistance than one or both parental species. In the present study, to elucidate the physiological and molecular mechanism of this heterosis, we analyzed the dynamic changes of several immune indexes including survival rate, total circulating haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species level (ROS) and phenoloxidase activity (PO) in two parental species, H. discus hannai (DD) and H. gigantea (GG), and their reciprocal hybrids H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG), H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) challenged with a mixture of Vibrio harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus (which have been demonstrated to be pathogenic to abalone). Besides, we cloned and analyzed three important immune genes: heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), ferritin and cold shock domain protein (csdp) in H. discus hannai and H. gigantea, then further investigated their mRNA level changes in the four abalone genotypes after bacterial challenge. Results showed that these physiological and molecular parameters were significantly induced by bacterial exposure, and their changing patterns were obviously different between the four genotypes: (1) Survival rates of the two hybrids were higher than both parental species after bacterial exposure; (2) DG had higher THC than the other three genotypes; (3) Phagocytosis responded slower in the hybrids than in the parental species; (4) DD's ROS level was lower than the other three genotypes at 48 h post infection; (5) Phenoloxidase activity was lower in DD during the infection compared to the other genotypes; (6) mRNA levels of hsp70 and csdp, were always lower in at least one parental species (DD) than in the hybrids after the bacterial exposure. Results from this study indicate that the hybrids

  14. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Mitu, Shahida Akter; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280–320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between <11.8 and <16.9 μg/ml, respectively. Subsequently, cell viability was compared between cultured HaCaT cells exposed to serial doses of UV-B from 1 to 11 (x10) mJ/cm2 and containing 4 different concentrations of abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 μg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P<0.001) following treatment with 2.5 and 5 μg/ml extract. Without extract, cell viability was significantly reduced upon exposure to UV-B at 4 mJ/cm2. Three morphological changes were observed in HaCaT cells following UV-B exposure, including i) condensation of cytoplasm; ii) shrunken cells and plasma membrane bubbling; and iii) condensation of chromatin material. A calcein AM-propidium iodide live-dead assay showed that cells could survive cytoplasmic condensation, yet cell death occurred when damage also included membrane bubbling and chromatin changes. Western blot analysis of HaCaT cell COX-2, p38, phospho-p38, SPK/JNK and phospho-SPK/JNK following exposure to >2.5 μg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX-2, phospho-p38 and phospho-SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract

  15. Nonsynonymous substitution in abalone sperm fertilization genes exceeds substitution in introns and mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Edward C.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Vacquier, Victor D.

    1998-01-01

    Strong positive Darwinian selection acts on two sperm fertilization proteins, lysin and 18-kDa protein, from abalone (Haliotis). To understand the phylogenetic context for this dramatic molecular evolution, we obtained sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI), and genomic sequences of lysin, 18-kDa, and a G protein subunit. Based on mtDNA differentiation, four north Pacific abalone species diverged within the past 2 million years (Myr), and remaining north Pacific species diverged over a period of 4–20 Myr. Between-species nonsynonymous differences in lysin and 18-kDa exons exceed nucleotide differences in introns by 3.5- to 24-fold. Remarkably, in some comparisons nonsynonymous substitutions in lysin and 18-kDa genes exceed synonymous substitutions in mtCOI. Lysin and 18-kDa intron/exon segments were sequenced from multiple red abalone individuals collected over a 1,200-km range. Only two nucleotide changes and two sites of slippage variation were detected in a total of >29,000 nucleotides surveyed. However, polymorphism in mtCOI and a G protein intron was found in this species. This finding suggests that positive selection swept one lysin allele and one 18-kDa allele to fixation. Similarities between mtCOI and lysin gene trees indicate that rapid adaptive evolution of lysin has occurred consistently through the history of the group. Comparisons with mtCOI molecular clock calibrations suggest that nonsynonymous substitutions accumulate 2–50 times faster in lysin and 18-kDa genes than in rapidly evolving mammalian genes. PMID:9724763

  16. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of hybridization in improving the immune response and thermal tolerance of abalone.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Luo, Lianzhong; Ke, Caihuan

    2014-07-01

    Recently, frequent death of cultured abalone drew our attention to the stress tolerance of abalone. Hybridization is an effective way of genetic improvement in aquaculture, which can introduce improved traits to the hybrids. In this study, we challenged the hybrids between Haliotis discus hannai and Haliotis gigantea, and their parents with bacteria (vibrio harveyi, vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahemolyticus), then held them at 20 °C and 28 °C, survival rates of the parental populations and hybrid populations were recorded. Then we tested the immune responses and thermal-induced responses of the four populations at different temperatures. Total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), acid phosphatase activity (ACP), alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), and HSP70 expression were determined on day 1 and day 7 of the temperature exposure. Results showed higher survival rates of the hybrids than their parents against bacteria challenge. For immune parameters, THCs were evaluated at 28 °C, while increased THC was also observed in H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) and H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD) at 12 °C (day 7); at 28 °C, respiratory burst was activated (day 1 and 7), while SOD activity first rose then fell over 7-days exposure; AKP activity was elevated at 12 °C and 28 °C (day 1), most notably in DG, and an increased level of ACP was observed in DG at 28 °C (day 7); MPO activity was suppressed at 12 °C and 28 °C on day 1, but recovered on day 7. For HSP70, increased HSP70 levels were observed in all populations at 28 °C (day 1), and DD got the lowest HSP70 level after 7-days exposure at 28 °C. Overall, the results suggest that temperature changes could significantly affect the physiological status of abalone, and hybrids may be more resistant to disease and thermal stresses than their parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Identification of irradiated abalone by ESR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Yeping; Wang, Chuanxian; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhong, Weike; Geng, Jinpei; Lu, Di; Ding, Zhuoping

    2012-05-01

    To establish an analytical method for the detection and identification of irradiated abalone by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to study the spectral characteristics of abalone and the characteristic peak for quantitation. There were obvious different ESR spectra between unirradiated and irradiated abalone. The g factor for unirradiated abalone was 2.0055-2.0060, the g1 and g2 factor for irradiated abalone were (2.0027 +/- 0.0001) and (1.9994 +/- 0.0001), respectively. The ESR signal intensity of characteristic peak was positively correlated with absorbed dose in the range of 0.5 - 10 kGy, left peak was the characteristic peak for quantitation and the detection limit was < or = 0.5 kGy. It was difficult to quantitate when the absorbed dose was over 10 kGy. ESR characteristic peak and g factor were able to qualitatively determine the irradiation of abalone. ESR spectroscopy is an effective method to determine whether the abalone being irradiated or not.

  19. Leucopenia associated with abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    PubMed

    Hooper, C; Slocombe, R; Day, R; Crawford, S

    2012-01-01

    To compare microscopic lesion severity with circulating total haemocyte counts (THC) in abalone affected by abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG). A herpes-like virus led to severe mortality in a number of Australian abalone farms in 2006. The infection was associated with severe necrotising ganglioneuritis. The microscopic lesions were well demarcated, affecting the neural tissue almost exclusively and were characterised by necrosis and increased cellularity in affected ganglia and nerves. On two farms, the presence or absence of typical AVG pathology was compared with THC. Those abalone with microscopic lesions of AVG had significantly lower haemocyte counts. The mean THC in abalone with no evidence of AVG from both farms was 4.6 × 10(6)/mL (±0.3 SE). The THC in AVG-affected abalone in farm 1 was 2.8 × 10(6)/mL (±0.5 SE) and farm 2 was 0.98 × 10(6)/mL (±0.4 SE). Severe AVG is associated with leucopenia in affected abalone. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Genetic changes in muscle protein following hybridization between Haliotis diversicolor reeve Japan and Taiwan populations revealed using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; You, Weiwei; Yu, Jinjin; Wang, Dexiang; Ke, Caihuan

    2013-03-01

    Protein expression patterns were compared in a Japan and Taiwan population of Haliotis diversicolor and in a hybrid between them using 2DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF analyses. Using the software PDQuest, 924 ± 7 protein spots were detected in the Japan population (RR), 861 ± 11 in the Taiwan population (TT), and 882 ± 9 in the F1 hybrid (TR). RR and TR were clustered together, but the distance between RR and TT was the maximum using hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 46 gel spots were identified and a total of 15 spots matched with abalone proteins (a 33.6% identification rate). Hybrid exhibiting additivity or overdominance accounted for 73.9% of these 46 identified proteins. The 46 differentially expressed proteins were shown to be involved in major biological processes, including muscle contraction and regulation, energy metabolism, and stress response. The proteins involved in energy metabolism included adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase β subunit, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, enolase, arginine kinase, and tauropine dehydrogenase. These proteins exhibited additivity in their offspring. The proteins involved in stress responses included HSP Hsp70 (exhibiting overdominance in the offspring) and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (exhibiting additivity). These results suggested that proteomic approach is suitable for analysis of heterosis and functional prediction of abalone hybridization. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resources. Abundant food resources including bacterial and diatom films, crustose coralline algae, and a...) Juvenile settlement habitat. Rocky intertidal and subtidal habitat containing crustose coralline algae and... crustose coralline algae, outcompeting encrusting sessile invertebrates (e.g. tube worms and tube snails...

  2. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resources. Abundant food resources including bacterial and diatom films, crustose coralline algae, and a...) Juvenile settlement habitat. Rocky intertidal and subtidal habitat containing crustose coralline algae and... crustose coralline algae, outcompeting encrusting sessile invertebrates (e.g. tube worms and tube snails...

  3. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resources. Abundant food resources including bacterial and diatom films, crustose coralline algae, and a...) Juvenile settlement habitat. Rocky intertidal and subtidal habitat containing crustose coralline algae and... crustose coralline algae, outcompeting encrusting sessile invertebrates (e.g. tube worms and tube snails...

  4. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  5. Three new species of Pharygodonidae (Nematoda: Oxyuridea) in Laudakia tuberculata (Squamata: Agamidae) from Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-06-01

    Parapharyngodon tuberculata sp. nov., Thelandros tuberculata sp. nov. and Thelandros dehradunensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of a rock lizard, Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827), are described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon tuberculata sp. nov. is the 8th Oriental species and 59th species assigned to the genus Parapharyngodon and differs from other species of the genus by possessing 3 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate cloacal lip, 112-115 µm spicule length and postbulbar ovary. Thelandros tuberculata sp. nov. is the 5th and Thelandros dehradunensis sp. nov. the 6th Oriental species, respectively, and they are the 40th and 41st species assigned to the genus Thelandros. They differ from other species of the genus in caudal papillae arrangement, length of spicules, and structure of the anterior end of the esophagus. We transfer Parapharyngodon arequipensis Calisaya and Cordova, 1997 to Thelandros arequipensis (Calisaya and Cordova, 1997) comb. n. based upon the presence of a terminal operculum in the egg and large, pendant, caudal papillae.

  6. Heat inactivation of a norovirus surrogate in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of temperature and heat treatment duration on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) from both viral cell culture lysate (7-8 log10 PFU) and experimentally contaminated abalone meat and viscera (5-6 log10 PFU) as a model of human norovirus (NoV). MNV-1 titers in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 1.93-4.55, 1.79-3.00, and 2.26-3.26 log10 PFU/ml, respectively, after treatment at 70 °C for 1-10 min. Treatment at 85 °C for 1-5 min gradually reduced MNV-1 titers in abalone meat to 2.71-4.15 log10 PFU/ml. MNV-1 titers in abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 2.91-3.46 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 85 °C for 1-3 min. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in MNV-1 titers in the abalone meat and viscera among treatment groups (70 °C for 5 min, 70 °C for 3 min, and 85 °C for 1 min). Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in cell culture lysate was determined at 85 °C for ≥1 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min. Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in abalone was determined at 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for meat, and 85 °C for 5 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for viscera. At treatments at 70 °C, the Td-values (3 log reduction time) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the cell culture lysate (3.38) than for the abalone meat (6.07) and viscera (10.73). Td = 3 values were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between abalone meat (1.78) and abalone viscera (1.33) at treatments at 85 °C. This study suggests that 100 °C for ≥0.5 min could potentially be used to inactivate NoV in molluscan shellfishes, including viscera.

  7. Abalone viral ganglioneuritis: establishment and use of an experimental immersion challenge system for the study of abalone herpes virus infections in Australian abalone.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Mohammad, Ilhan; Hyatt, Alexander D; Crameri, Sandra G; Fegan, Mark; Crane, Mark St J

    2012-05-01

    In late 2005, acute mortalities occurred in abalone on farms located in Victoria, Australia. Disease was associated with infection by an abalone herpes virus (AbHV). Subsequently, starting in 2006, the disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) was discovered in wild abalone in Victorian open waters. Currently, it continues to spread, albeit at a slow rate, along the Victorian coast-line. Here, we report on experimental transmission trials that were carried out by immersion using water into which diseased abalone had shed infectious viral particles. At various time points following exposure, naïve abalone were assessed by an AbHV-specific real-time PCR and histological analyses including in situ hybridization (ISH). Results demonstrated that while exposed abalone began displaying clinical signs of the disease from 60 hours post exposure (hpe), they tested positive for the presence of viral DNA at 36 hpe. Of further interest, the AbHV DNA probe used in the ISH assay detected the virus as early as 48 hpe. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It’s therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection. PMID:27088873

  10. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  11. The effects of intermittent exposure to low-pH and low-oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low-pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low-pH and/or low-oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low-pH (7.5, total scale) and low-O2 (40% saturation, mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h, twice over a 15-day period, juveniles experienced 5-20% higher mortality in the low-oxygen treatments compared to control conditions. Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low-oxygen and low-pH treatments. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when juveniles were exposed simultaneously to low-pH and low-O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low-oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas pH is a crucial factor for their growth. However, the high individual variation in growth rate under low levels of both pH and oxygen suggests that cryptic phenotypic plasticity may promote resistance to prolonged upwelling conditions by a portion of the population.

  12. Duplicate Abalone Egg Coat Proteins Bind Sperm Lysin Similarly, but Evolve Oppositely, Consistent with Molecular Mimicry at Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Springer, Stevan A.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2013-01-01

    Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis), some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp.), a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d N/d S) of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14), and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL. PMID:23408913

  13. Prokaryotic microbiota in the digestive cavity of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Lara, Sara; Urdiain, Mercedes; Mora-Ruiz, Merit; Prieto, Laura; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    The microbiota associated to the gastric cavity of four exemplars of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata has been studied by means of cultured-dependent and -independent methods. The pyrosequencing approach rendered a very reduced diversity of Bacteria with four major groups shared by the four exemplars that made up to 95% of the total diversity. The culturing approach recovered low abundant organisms and some of them also detected by the pyrosequencing approach. The major key organisms were related to the genera Spiroplasma, Thalassospira, Tenacibaculum (from the pyrosequencing data), and Vibrio (from the cultivable fraction). Altogether the results indicate that C. tuberculata harbors an associated microbiota of very reduced diversity. On the other hand, some of the major key players may be potential pathogens and the host may serve as dispersal mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Paradynomene tuberculata Sakai, 1963 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Dynomenidae): Synapomorphies with dromiid sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, B. G. M.; Guinot, D.; de Forges, B. Richer

    1993-10-01

    The dynomenid spermatozoon, exemplified here by Paradynomene tuberculata, resembles the spermatozoa of the Dromiidae, Homolidae and lyreidine raninoids and differs markedly from those of other crabs (the heterotreme, thoracotremes, raninines and raninoidines) in the depressed, discoidal form of the acrosome and the capitate form of the perforatorium. Four or five apparent dynomenid—dromiid sperm synapomorphies are recognizable. (1) Dynomenids ( P. tuberculata) and dromiids differ from homolids and lyreidines in the greater depression of the acrosome (ratio of length to width=0.3); (2) the capitate head of the perforatorium is bilaterally prolonged in P. tuberculata as in dromiids though symmetrical in homolids; (3) dynomenid and dromiid sperm lack the—albeit variably developed—posterior median process of the nucleus seen in homolids, anomurans, raninoids and lower heterotremes; (4) P. tuberculata, like dromiids and less distinctly homolids, has an apical protuberance of subopercular material through the opercular perforation, unknown in other crabs, being distinct from the apical button of thoracotreme sperm; (5) a less certain synapomorphy is the anterolateral electron-pale peripheral zone of the acrosome. These synapomorphies endorse a sister-group relationship of dynomenids and dromiids, P. tuberculata sperm differs notably from the sperm of dromiids in the more complex zonation of the acrosome. The perforatorium lacks the radial rays (“spiked wheel”) of homolid sperm and does not show the “amoeboid” form seen in lyreidines. Absence of internal corrugations of the perforatorial chamber is a major difference from all examined raninids. Centrioles are only very tentatively identifiable. Nuclear arms are absent in glutaraldehyde fixed spermatozoa of P. tuberculata and have not been observed in the dromiid Petalomera lateralis but are present as three small radial vertices in the dromiid Dromidiopsis edwardsi and in homolids. P. tuberculata resembles

  15. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value. PMID:26880843

  16. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2016-03-05

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value.

  18. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  19. Transmission efficiency of two flea species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) involved in plague epizootics among prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Aryn P; Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Montenieri, John A; Tripp, Daniel W; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gage, Kenneth L; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-06-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta. We tested the efficiency of O. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit Y. pestis daily from 24 to 96 h postinfection and compared it to previously collected data for O. hirsuta. We found that O. tuberculata cynomuris has over threefold greater transmission efficiency (0.18 infected fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h postinfection) than O. hirsuta (0.05 fleas transmit). Using a simple model of flea-borne transmission, we combine these laboratory measurements with field data on monthly flea loads to compare the seasonal vectorial capacity of these two flea species. Coinciding with seasonal patterns of flea abundance, we find a peak in potential for flea-borne transmission in March, during high O. tuberculata cynomuris abundance, and in September-October when O. hirsuta is common. Our findings may be useful in determining the timing of insecticidal dusting to slow plague transmission in black-tailed prairie dogs.

  20. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low.

  1. Perlwapin, an Abalone Nacre Protein with Three Four-Disulfide Core (Whey Acidic Protein) Domains, Inhibits the Growth of Calcium Carbonate Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Treccani, Laura; Mann, Karlheinz; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a new protein from the nacreous layer of the shell of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (abalone). Amino acid sequence analysis showed the protein to consist of 134 amino acids and to contain three sequence repeats of ∼40 amino acids which were very similar to the well-known whey acidic protein domains of other proteins. The new protein was therefore named perlwapin. In addition to the major sequence, we identified several minor variants. Atomic force microscopy was used to explore the interaction of perlwapin with calcite crystals. Monomolecular layers of calcite crystals dissolve very slowly in deionized water and recrystallize in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. When perlwapin was dissolved in the supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, growth of the crystal was inhibited immediately. Perlwapin molecules bound tightly to distinct step edges, preventing the crystal layers from growing. Using lower concentrations of perlwapin in a saturated calcium carbonate solution, we could distinguish native, active perlwapin molecules from denaturated ones. These observations showed that perlwapin can act as a growth inhibitor for calcium carbonate crystals in saturated calcium carbonate solution. The function of perlwapin in nacre growth may be to inhibit the growth of certain crystallographic planes in the mineral phase of the polymer/mineral composite nacre. PMID:16861275

  2. Morphological tricks and blessed genitalia: rectifying the family placement of Fijicolana tuberculata (Opiliones: Laniatores: Zalmoxidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Abel; Sharma, Prashant P; Proud, Daniel N

    2016-01-07

    The type specimens of Fijicolana tuberculata Roewer, 1963 were re-examined and the male genital morphology is illustrated and described for the first time. Despite the presence of several morphological features that are typical of Samoidae, such as the presence of scopulae on legs III and IV, genital morphology unambiguously indicates that this species belongs to the Zalmoxidae rather than to the Samoidae. Fijicolana Roewer, 1963 is newly synonymized with Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886. However, the newly implied combination is preoccupied by Z. tuberculatus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1948 thus the replacement name Zalmoxis roeweri nom. nov. is proposed to avoid secondary homonymy. The definition of Z. roeweri nom. nov. is amended, and the morphology of this species is compared with other representatives of Zalmoxidae and Samoidae. We conclude that the presence of scopulae alone is not a sufficiently diagnostic characteristic for Samoidae and, therefore, correctly placing taxa into families within Samooidea + Zalmoxoidea requires additional morphological evidence (e.g. genital morphology). In light of this result, we point out that the "scopulated" Australasian samoids Badessania metatarsalis Roewer, 1949, Sawaiellus berlandi Roewer, 1949 and Parasamoa gressitti Goodnight & Goodnight, 1957 require re-examination in order to detect potential errors in their family placement.

  3. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

  4. The low diverse gastric microbiome of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata is dominated by four novel taxa.

    PubMed

    Viver, Tomeu; Orellana, Luis H; Hatt, Janet K; Urdiain, Mercedes; Díaz, Sara; Richter, Michael; Antón, Josefa; Avian, Massimo; Amann, Rudolf; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2017-08-01

    Cotylorhiza tuberculata is an important scyphozoan jellyfish producing population blooms in the Mediterranean probably due to pelagic ecosystem's decay. Its gastric cavity can serve as a simple model of microbial-animal digestive associations, yet poorly characterized. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic population binning and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we show that only four novel clonal phylotypes were consistently associated with multiple jellyfish adults. Two affiliated close to Spiroplasma and Mycoplasma genera, one to chlamydial 'Candidatus Syngnamydia', and one to bacteroidetal Tenacibaculum, and were at least one order of magnitude more abundant than any other bacteria detected. Metabolic modelling predicted an aerobic heterotrophic lifestyle for the chlamydia, which were found intracellularly in Onychodromopsis-like ciliates. The Spiroplasma-like organism was predicted to be an anaerobic fermenter associated to some jellyfish cells, whereas the Tenacibaculum-like as free-living aerobic heterotroph, densely colonizing the mesogleal axis inside the gastric filaments. The association between the jellyfish and its reduced microbiome was close and temporally stable, and possibly related to food digestion and protection from pathogens. Based on the genomic and microscopic data, we propose three candidate taxa: 'Candidatus Syngnamydia medusae', 'Candidatus Medusoplasma mediterranei' and 'Candidatus Tenacibaculum medusae'. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  6. Extract from the zooxanthellate jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata modulates gap junction intercellular communication in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-05-22

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean "fried egg jellyfish" Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7 and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  7. Insights into adhesion of abalone: A mechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Sai; Liu, Jianlin

    2018-01-01

    Many living creatures possess extremely strong capability of adhesion, which has aroused great attention of many scientists and engineers. Based on the self-developed equipment, we measured the normal and shear adhesion strength of the abalone underwater and out of water on different contact surfaces. It is found that the adhesion force of the abalone can amount to 200 or 300 times its body weight. The effects of wettability and roughness of the surface, and the frictional coefficient of mucus on the adhesion strength have been discussed. The theoretical calculation manifests that the normal adhesion force mainly stems from the suction pressure, van der Waals force and capillary force of the pedal, and their limit values are given. These findings may provide some inspirations to engineer new-typed materials, micro-devices, adhesives and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic potential of abalone and status of bioactive molecules: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Suleria, H A R; Masci, P P; Gobe, G C; Osborne, S A

    2017-05-24

    Marine organisms are increasingly being investigated as sources of bioactive molecules with therapeutic applications as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In particular, nutraceuticals are gaining popularity worldwide owing to their therapeutic potential and incorporation in functional foods and dietary supplements. Abalone, a marine gastropod, contains a variety of bioactive compounds with anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities. For thousands of years different cultures have used abalone as a traditional functional food believing consumption provides health benefits. Abalone meat is one of the most precious commodities in Asian markets where it is considered a culinary delicacy. Recent research has revealed that abalone is composed of many vital moieties like polysaccharides, proteins, and fatty acids that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. A review of past and present research is presented with relevance to the therapeutic potential of bioactive molecules from abalone.

  9. Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae): a study based on development of extractive system and in silico and in vitro properties

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, H.S.; Salgueiro, A.C.F.; Colpo, A.Z.C.; Paula, F.R.; Mendez, A.S.L.; Folmer, V.

    2016-01-01

    Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we aimed to investigate the different extractive techniques on phytochemical parameters, as well as to evaluate the toxicity and antioxidant capacity of S. tuberculata extracts using in silico and in vitro models. Therefore, in order to determine the dry residue content and the main compound 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) concentration, extracts from leaves and roots were prepared testing ethanol and water in different proportions. Extracts were then assessed by Artemia salina lethality test, and toxicity prediction of 20E was estimated. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenger assays, ferric reducing power assay, nitrogen derivative scavenger, deoxyribose degradation, and TBARS assays. HPLC evaluation detected 20E as main compound in leaves and roots. Percolation method showed the highest concentrations of 20E (0.134 and 0.096 mg/mL of extract for leaves and roots, respectively). All crude extracts presented low toxic potential on A. salina (LD50 >1000 µg/mL). The computational evaluation of 20E showed a low toxicity prediction. For in vitro antioxidant tests, hydroethanolic extracts of leaves were most effective compared to roots. In addition, hydroethanolic extracts presented a higher IC50 antioxidant than aqueous extracts. TBARS formation was prevented by leaves hydroethanolic extract from 0.015 and 0.03 mg/mL and for roots from 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL on egg yolk and rat tissue, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that S. tuberculata extracts are a considerable source of ecdysteroids and possesses a significant antioxidant property with low toxic potential. PMID:27409335

  10. Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae): a study based on development of extractive system and in silico and in vitro properties.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, H S; Salgueiro, A C F; Colpo, A Z C; Paula, F R; Mendez, A S L; Folmer, V

    2016-07-11

    Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we aimed to investigate the different extractive techniques on phytochemical parameters, as well as to evaluate the toxicity and antioxidant capacity of S. tuberculata extracts using in silico and in vitro models. Therefore, in order to determine the dry residue content and the main compound 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) concentration, extracts from leaves and roots were prepared testing ethanol and water in different proportions. Extracts were then assessed by Artemia salina lethality test, and toxicity prediction of 20E was estimated. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenger assays, ferric reducing power assay, nitrogen derivative scavenger, deoxyribose degradation, and TBARS assays. HPLC evaluation detected 20E as main compound in leaves and roots. Percolation method showed the highest concentrations of 20E (0.134 and 0.096 mg/mL of extract for leaves and roots, respectively). All crude extracts presented low toxic potential on A. salina (LD50 >1000 µg/mL). The computational evaluation of 20E showed a low toxicity prediction. For in vitro antioxidant tests, hydroethanolic extracts of leaves were most effective compared to roots. In addition, hydroethanolic extracts presented a higher IC50 antioxidant than aqueous extracts. TBARS formation was prevented by leaves hydroethanolic extract from 0.015 and 0.03 mg/mL and for roots from 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL on egg yolk and rat tissue, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that S. tuberculata extracts are a considerable source of ecdysteroids and possesses a significant antioxidant property with low toxic potential.

  11. Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2013-10-01

    Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody.

  12. Intra-plant differences in seaweed nutritional quality and chemical defenses: Importance for the feeding behavior of the intertidal amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván

    2011-10-01

    As a result of their morphological complexity, large macroalgae show intra-thallus variations in their nutritional composition and secondary metabolite content, which influences the trophic ecology of herbivorous invertebrates, and ultimately their fitness. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the variability in nutritional quality (protein content, carbohydrates, lipids, and total organic matter), secondary metabolites (phlorotannins), and structure (shape and toughness) between blades and stipes of the macroalgae Durvillaea Antarctica. Specifically, we looked at their effect on feeding preference, rate of consumption, absorption efficiency, and growth rate of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata, one of the most abundant organisms on Chilean sandy beaches. Proteins, carbohydrates, total organic matter and phlorotannin contents were significantly higher in blades than in stipes. Preference experiments revealed that the amphipods preferred blades when fresh pieces of blades and stipes were offered at the same time. Similar results were found when artificial food (in which structures of both parts of the alga were standardized) was offered, suggesting that shape and toughness of the two different parts of the alga did not influence preference patterns of O. tuberculata. Absorption efficiency of O. tuberculata was higher on blades compared to stipes. When the amphipods were kept with each of the algal parts separately (i.e. no choice), they consumed a significantly higher amount of stipe, which suggests that O. tuberculata used food quantity to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of stipes. The higher nutritional values of blades compared to stipes appears to explain observed preference patterns by O. tuberculata. Phlorotannin content did not appear to inhibit blade consumption, suggesting that the nutritional quality of the food could be more important than chemical defense in determining food choice in O. tuberculata. Growth did not differ

  13. Variable feeding behavior in Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet 1849): Exploring the relative importance of macroalgal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that

  14. Extraction optimization and UHPLC method development for determination of the 20-hydroxyecdysone in Sida tuberculata leaves.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Hemerson S; Koetz, Mariana; Santos, Marí Castro; Jandrey, Elisa Helena Farias; Folmer, Vanderlei; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro

    2018-04-01

    Sida tuberculata (ST) is a Malvaceae species widely distributed in Southern Brazil. In traditional medicine, ST has been employed as hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. Additionally, this species is chemically characterized by flavonoids, alkaloids and phytoecdysteroids mainly. The present work aimed to optimize the extractive technique and to validate an UHPLC method for the determination of 20-hydroxyecdsone (20HE) in the ST leaves. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used in method optimization. The extractive methods tested were: static and dynamic maceration, ultrasound, ultra-turrax and reflux. In the Box-Behnken three parameters were evaluated in three levels (-1, 0, +1), particle size, time and plant:solvent ratio. In validation method, the parameters of selectivity, specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification (LOD, LOQ), precision, accuracy and robustness were evaluated. The results indicate static maceration as better technique to obtain 20HE peak area in ST extract. The optimal extraction from surface response methodology was achieved with the parameters granulometry of 710 nm, 9 days of maceration and plant:solvent ratio 1:54 (w/v). The UHPLC-PDA analytical developed method showed full viability of performance, proving to be selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust for 20HE detection in ST leaves. The average content of 20HE was 0.56% per dry extract. Thus, the optimization of extractive method in ST leaves increased the concentration of 20HE in crude extract, and a reliable method was successfully developed according to validation requirements and in agreement with current legislation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting glycogen concentration in the foot muscle of abalone using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

    PubMed

    Fluckiger, Miriam; Brown, Malcolm R; Ward, Louise R; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A

    2011-06-15

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict glycogen concentrations in the foot muscle of cultured abalone. NIR spectra of live, shucked and freeze-dried abalones were modelled against chemically measured glycogen data (range: 0.77-40.9% of dry weight (DW)) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The calibration models were then used to predict glycogen concentrations of test abalone samples and model robustness was assessed from coefficient of determination of the validation (R2(val)) and standard error of prediction (SEP) values. The model for freeze-dried abalone gave the best prediction (R2(val) 0.97, SEP=1.71), making it suitable for quantifying glycogen. Models for live and shucked abalones had R2(val) of 0.86 and 0.90, and SEP of 3.46 and 3.07 respectively, making them suitable for producing estimations of glycogen concentration. As glycogen is a taste-active component associated with palatability in abalone, this study demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a rapid method to monitor the factors associated with abalone quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Bacteriophage-Related Chimeric Marine Virus Infecting Abalone

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jun; Cai, Guiqin; Lin, Qiying; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2010-01-01

    Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV) can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin). The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB) protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria. PMID:21079776

  17. A new species of Haliotis (Gastropoda) from São Tomé & Príncipe Islands, Gulf of Guinea, with comparisons to other Haliotis found in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Owen, Buzz

    2014-07-16

    The Haliotidae from the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa are reviewed. The distribution of the mainland species Haliotis marmorata Linnaeus, 1758 is confirmed and compared to the insular species from the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe which is described as Haliotis geigeri n. sp. Both species are illustrated and compared to the other known Haliotidae from the eastern Atlantic.

  18. Evaluation of abalone β-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.

    PubMed

    Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the potential of abalone β-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia β-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. Abalone β-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia β-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) β-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone β-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli β-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone β-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone β-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone β-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids.

  19. Discovery of an Exotic Population of Thereuonema tuberculata (Chilopoda:Scutigeromorpha), the Japanese House Centipede, in Ohio, U.S.A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-28

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) April 2011 – May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discovery of an Exotic Population of Thereuonema...North America and is recognized as the only scutigeromorph in most of the United States and Canada. I report on the discovery of a population of the...2017) 177:162–164 Notes and Discussion Piece Discovery of an Exotic Population of Thereuonema tuberculata (Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha), the Japanese

  20. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  1. Discovery of novel virus sequences in an isolated and threatened bat species, the New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Moore, Nicole E.; Murray, Zak L.; McInnes, Kate; White, Daniel J.; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Bats harbour a diverse array of viruses, including significant human pathogens. Extensive metagenomic studies of material from bats, in particular guano, have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viral taxa that were previously unknown. New Zealand has only two extant indigenous terrestrial mammals, which are both bats, Mystacina tuberculata (the lesser short-tailed bat) and Chalinolobus tuberculatus (the long-tailed bat). Until the human introduction of exotic mammals, these species had been isolated from all other terrestrial mammals for over 1 million years (potentially over 16 million years for M. tuberculata). Four bat guano samples were collected from M. tuberculata roosts on the isolated offshore island of Whenua hou (Codfish Island) in New Zealand. Metagenomic analysis revealed that this species still hosts a plethora of divergent viruses. Whilst the majority of viruses detected were likely to be of dietary origin, some putative vertebrate virus sequences were identified. Papillomavirus, polyomavirus, calicivirus and hepevirus were found in the metagenomic data and subsequently confirmed using independent PCR assays and sequencing. The new hepevirus and calicivirus sequences may represent new genera within these viral families. Our findings may provide an insight into the origins of viral families, given their detection in an isolated host species. PMID:25900137

  2. Discovery of novel virus sequences in an isolated and threatened bat species, the New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Moore, Nicole E; Murray, Zak L; McInnes, Kate; White, Daniel J; Tompkins, Daniel M; Hall, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Bats harbour a diverse array of viruses, including significant human pathogens. Extensive metagenomic studies of material from bats, in particular guano, have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viral taxa that were previously unknown. New Zealand has only two extant indigenous terrestrial mammals, which are both bats, Mystacina tuberculata (the lesser short-tailed bat) and Chalinolobus tuberculatus (the long-tailed bat). Until the human introduction of exotic mammals, these species had been isolated from all other terrestrial mammals for over 1 million years (potentially over 16 million years for M. tuberculata). Four bat guano samples were collected from M. tuberculata roosts on the isolated offshore island of Whenua hou (Codfish Island) in New Zealand. Metagenomic analysis revealed that this species still hosts a plethora of divergent viruses. Whilst the majority of viruses detected were likely to be of dietary origin, some putative vertebrate virus sequences were identified. Papillomavirus, polyomavirus, calicivirus and hepevirus were found in the metagenomic data and subsequently confirmed using independent PCR assays and sequencing. The new hepevirus and calicivirus sequences may represent new genera within these viral families. Our findings may provide an insight into the origins of viral families, given their detection in an isolated host species.

  3. 78 FR 69033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Pinto Abalone as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... of the Baja California Peninsula and includes green (H. fulgens), pink (H. corrugata), black (H... based upon two species, the green and pink abalone, which together represent over 95 percent of the... coastlines and their market value remains high. Authorities in British Columbia have reported 30 abalone...

  4. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Actinomyces radicidentis and Actinomyces haliotis, coccoid Actinomyces species isolated from the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Claesson, Rolf; Sjögren, Ulf; Esberg, Anders; Brundin, Malin; Granlund, Margareta

    2017-12-01

    There are few reports on the bacterial species Actinomyces radicidentis in the literature. In this study, putative A. radicidentis isolates were collected from 16 root canal samples from 601 examined patients. The isolates were examined by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Arbitrarily-primed (AP-) PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and MALDI-TOF analyses. In parallel, two A. radicidentis reference strains and two putative A. radicidentis isolates from United Kingdom were tested. Sixteen of the 18 isolates were confirmed as A. radicidentis. The remaining two isolates, both of which were isolated from root canals (one from Sweden and the other from the UK), but were identified as Actinomyces haliotis by sequencing ∼ 1300 base pairs of the 16S rRNA-gene. This isolates had a divergent, but between them similar, AP-PCR pattern, and a common distribution of sequence signatures in the 16S rRNA gene, but were not identified by MALDI-TOF. A. haliotis is a close relative to A. radicidentis, hitherto only been described from a sea-snail. The identity of A. haliotis was confirmed by a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences with species specific sequences included, and by additional biochemical tests. The examined bacteria exhibited similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns when tested for 10 separate antibiotic classes with E-tests (bioMérieux). The MIC 90 for β-lactams (benzylpenicillin and cefuroxime) and vancomycin was 0.5 mg/L, for colistin and ciprofloxacin 8 mg/mL and for the other antibiotic classes ≤ 25 mg/mL The isolation of A. haliotis from infected dental root canals cast doubt on the accepted opinion that all Actinomyces infections have an endogenous source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distal impacts of aquarium trade: Exploring the emerging sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata) artisanal shore gathering fishery in Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Lewin, Sebastián; Vergara, Karina; De La Barra, Christian; Godoy, Natalio; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Gelcich, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Artisanal fishery activities support the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Within these fisheries, distal global drivers can promote switching between alternative target resources. These drivers can promote the rapid development of new, unregulated and previously unexploited fisheries that pose a threat to the sustainability of ecosystems. In this paper, we describe a new artisanal shore gathering activity that targets a previously unexploited resource: the sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata). The activity is driven by aquarium trade demand for food. We used mixed methods to describe the activity, assessed basic socio-economic incentives, and estimated Catches per Unit Effort. Results show that the sandhopper plays an important role for the livelihoods of shore gatherers engaged in the activity. Gatherers have adapted and developed two main extraction methods with different degrees of investment and extraction rates. Furthermore, gatherers have developed local knowledge regarding the ecology and management of the resource. Results show that economic incentives can motivate a rapid expansion of this unregulated activity. Future research gaps and management options to address the development of this fishery are discussed in light of these findings.

  7. Direct observation of the transition from calcite to aragonite growth as induced by abalone shell proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J B; Paloczi, G T; Kindt, J H; Michenfelder, M; Smith, B L; Stucky, G; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2000-01-01

    The mixture of EDTA-soluble proteins found in abalone nacre are known to cause the nucleation and growth of aragonite on calcite seed crystals in supersaturated solutions of calcium carbonate. Past atomic force microscope studies of the interaction of these proteins with calcite crystals did not observe this transition because no information about the crystal polymorph on the surface was obtained. Here we have used the atomic force microscope to directly observe changes in the atomic lattice on a calcite seed crystal after the introduction of abalone shell proteins. The observed changes are consistent with a transition to (001) aragonite growth on a (1014) calcite surface. PMID:11106633

  8. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Gu; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Ryu, Jae Ha; Kang, Sung Jin; Im, Chang-Rok; Ii Kim, Jae; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2010-10-20

    Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB). Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight) and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining). Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein) from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  9. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB). Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight) and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining). Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein) from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells. PMID:20961430

  10. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed nacre from red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-07-01

    In this work, photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy has been utilized to study interfacial interactions of undisturbed nacre and nacre powder from red abalone shell. The spectra of both undisturbed nacre and nacre powder showed characteristic bands of aragonite and proteins. Although nacre powder and undisturbed nacre are chemically identical, PA-FTIR spectrum of undisturbed nacre is found to be significantly different from that of nacre powder. A broad and strong band is observed at around 1485 cm -1 in nacre powder. The intensity of this band is notably reduced in undisturbed nacre. This result is explained on the basis of interfacial interactions between aragonite platelets and acidic proteins. It is also observed that band at around 1788 cm -1 originates from three overlapping bands 1797, 1787 and 1778 cm -1. The band at around 1787 cm -1 is assigned to C dbnd O stretching of carboxylate groups of acidic proteins. The other two bands at 1797 and 1778 cm -1, originate from aragonite and have been assigned to combination bands, ν 3 + ν 4a and ν 3 + ν 4b, respectively. For the study of stratification in undisturbed nacre, PA-FTIR spectra have been collected in step scan mode. The variation in spectra with depth can be attributed to changes in conformation of proteins as well as interfacial interactions.

  11. From untargeted LC-QTOF analysis to characterisation of opines in abalone adductor muscle: Theory meets practice.

    PubMed

    Venter, Leonie; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Loots, Du Toit; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Zander

    2017-12-15

    Abalone have a unique ability to use pyruvate, various amino acids and dehydrogenases, to produce opines as means to prevent the accumulation of NADH during anaerobic conditions. In this study, the theoretical masses, formulae and fragment patterns of butylated opines were used to predict which of these compounds could be found in the abalone adductor muscle using untargeted liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of flight-mass spectrometry. These findings were validated using synthesised opine standards. In essence alanopine, lysopine, strombine and tauropine produced in abalone adductor muscle could be characterised using the highest identification confidence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 daysmore » before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.« less

  13. Effects for rapid conversion from abalone shell to hydroxyapaptite nanosheets by ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shengnan; Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Li, Qian; Shi, Xuetao; Ding, Shinnjyh; Zhang, Qiqing

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been widely used for repairing or substituting human hard tissues. In this paper, two typical ionic surfactants, cation hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were used for rapid conversion of HAP from abalone shell. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the prepared HAP is flake-like structure. From X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis, these samples contain a small amount of calcium carbonate whose content gradually increases by increasing the surfactants. The results showed that the HAP formed fast on the layer of abalone shell powder with the assistance of CTAB and SDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Local oceanographic variability influences the performance of juvenile abalone under climate change.

    PubMed

    Boch, C A; Micheli, F; AlNajjar, M; Monismith, S G; Beers, J M; Bonilla, J C; Espinoza, A M; Vazquez-Vera, L; Woodson, C B

    2018-04-03

    Climate change is causing warming, deoxygenation, and acidification of the global ocean. However, manifestation of climate change may vary at local scales due to oceanographic conditions. Variation in stressors, such as high temperature and low oxygen, at local scales may lead to variable biological responses and spatial refuges from climate impacts. We conducted outplant experiments at two locations separated by ~2.5 km and two sites at each location separated by ~200 m in the nearshore of Isla Natividad, Mexico to assess how local ocean conditions (warming and hypoxia) may affect juvenile abalone performance. Here, we show that abalone growth and mortality mapped to variability in stress exposure across sites and locations. These insights indicate that management decisions aimed at maintaining and recovering valuable marine species in the face of climate change need to be informed by local variability in environmental conditions.

  15. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods.

  16. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  17. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W1/O/W2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W1 = distilled water, W2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W1 is water and W2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties. PMID:28515645

  18. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese.

    PubMed

    Choi, HeeJeong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W 1 /O/W 2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W 1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W 2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W 1 = distilled water, W 2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W 1 is water and W 2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties.

  19. The Phantom Menace for Patients with Hepatobiliary Diseases: Shewanella haliotis, Often Misidentified as Shewanella algae in Biochemical Tests and MALDI-TOF Analysis.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Hyunwoong; Kim, Sunjoo

    2017-03-24

    Although Shewanella algae has been known to have weak pathogenicity, case reports on infections with this species have been steadily increasing. S. algae and S. haliotis are difficult to distinguish from each other with conventional phenotypic methods. We reviewed the microbiological and clinical features of S. algae and S. haliotis infections at our institute. Bacterial culture and identification reports from patient samples from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed to screen the cases of Shewanella infections. In addition to conventional biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were performed for 19 stored bacterial isolates. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. All isolates were identified as S. algae by using VITEK 2. MALDI-TOF also identified all isolates as S. algae with a 99.9 confidence value. In contrast, 16S rRNA analysis identified 10 isolates as S. algae and 9 isolates as S. haliotis. Both S. algae (60%) and S. haliotis (77%) infections were strongly associated with diseases of the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas. To distinguish between S. algae and S. haliotis, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis seems more accurate than biochemical tests or MALDI-TOF. Patients with underlying diseases in the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas seem to be susceptible to these marine pathogens.

  20. The development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Kuo, S T; Renault, T; Chang, P H

    2014-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA. Two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. The method developed was specific for the detection of abalone herpesvirus, without cross-reactions with other tested herpesviruses including ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), European eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus (KHV) and an avian herpesvirus. The LAMP assay was 100 folds more sensitive than a conventional PCR and 10 folds less sensitive than a SYBR Green PCR. These results indicate that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of abalone herpesvirus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Henry T. Y.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J.; Hansma, Paul K.

    2010-10-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force-displacement-velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators.

  3. Ecdysteroids in Sida tuberculata R.E. Fries (Malvaceae): chemical composition by LC-ESI-MS and selective anti-Candida krusei activity.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Hemerson Silva; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Camargo, Graziela; Garcia, Cássia V; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Mendez, Andreas S L

    2015-09-01

    Sida tuberculata is found in a region of South America and has traditionally been consumed as an infusion or tea. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of aqueous infusions from leaves and roots were investigated. LC-ESI-MS mass spectra were successfully obtained and used to identify four ecdysteroids: 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-β-D-xylose and a hydroxyecdysterone derivative. The in vitro antifungal activity was studied, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established against Candida krusei isolates. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by the determination of the biofilm removal efficiency in contaminated central venous catheter (CVC) coupons. The preparations exhibited antifungal activity against the species tested, with MICs ranging from 3.90 to 62.50 μg/ml. The infusion removed the C. krusei biofilm after 90 min of exposure. The observed bioactivity and composition of ecdysteroids will contribute to the future development of antifungal substances for clinical use or as food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental expression of Hsp90, Hsp70 and HSF during morphogenesis in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have dual functions, participating in both the stress response and a broad range of developmental processes. At physiological temperatures, it has been demonstrated in deuterostomes (vertebrates) and ecdysozoans (insects) that Hsps are expressed in tissues that are undergoing differentiation and morphogenesis. Here we investigate the developmental expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and their regulatory transcription factor heat shock transcription factor (HSF) in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina, a representative of the 3rd major lineage of bilaterian animals, the Lophotrochozoa. HasHsp70, HasHsp90 and HasHSF are maternally expressed in H. asinina and are progressively restricted to the micromere lineage during cleavage. During larval morphogenesis, they are expressed in unique and overlapping patterns in the prototroch, foot, and mantle. Hsp expression peaked in these tissues during periods of cell differentiation and morphogenesis, returning to lower levels after morphogenesis was complete. These patterns of Hsp and HSF expression in H. asinina are akin to those observed in ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with Hsps being activated in cells and tissues undergoing morphogenesis.

  5. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  6. Whole-genome sequencing reveals that Shewanella haliotis Kim et al. 2007 can be considered a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella algae Simidu et al. 1990.

    PubMed

    Szeinbaum, Nadia; Kellum, Cailin E; Glass, Jennifer B; Janda, J Michael; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2018-04-01

    Previously, experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between Shewanellahaliotis JCM 14758 T and Shewanellaalgae JCM 21037 T had suggested that the two strains could be considered different species, despite minimal phenotypic differences. The recent isolation of Shewanella sp. MN-01, with 99 % 16S rRNA gene identity to S. algae and S. haliotis, revealed a potential taxonomic problem between these two species. In this study, we reassessed the nomenclature of S. haliotis and S. algae using available whole-genome sequences. The whole-genome sequence of S. haliotis JCM 14758 T and ten S. algae strains showed ≥97.7 % average nucleotide identity and >78.9 % digital DDH, clearly above the recommended species thresholds. According to the rules of priority and in view of the results obtained, S. haliotis is to be considered a later heterotypic synonym of S. algae. Because the whole-genome sequence of Shewanella sp. strain MN-01 shares >99 % ANI with S. algae JCM 14758 T , it can be confidently identified as S. algae.

  7. Nanoscale elasticity mappings of micro-constituents of abalone shell by band excitation-contact resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2014-01-01

    The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the elasticity variations of the abalone shell caused by different micro-constituents and crystal orientations are reported, and the elasticity values of the aragonite and calcite nanograins are quantified.The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the

  8. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). BLACK, GREEN, and RED ABALONES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) BLACK, GREEN, AND RED ABALONES by Jerald S. Ault Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies 4600...F, 7AD-A162 638 SPECIES PROFILES LIFE HISTORIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL 1/ REQUIREMENTS OF COASTAL (U) COOPERATIVE INST FOR MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC STUDIES...histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates . U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 82(11). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, TR

  9. Anti-inflammatory and burn injury wound healing properties of the shell of Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Shing-Yi Sean; Su, Wei-Yang; Lin, Yuan-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chen, Chun-Hong; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2016-11-28

    The shell of Haliotis diversicolor, or shijueming (SJM), is a type of traditional Chinese medicine. The SJM has appeared in historical records as early as the third and fourth centuries. Historical records have revealed that SJM had mainly been used to treat eye diseases. After the Qing Dynasty (1757), records had emerged, detailing the use of SJM for treating skin injuries, particularly for treating poorly managed ulcers or traumatic wounds. Furthermore, in our anti-inflammation-screening system, SJM significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins. Previous studies have yet to adopt an animal model to verify the phenomenon and described in the historical records regarding the efficacy of SJM in promoting wound healing. Besides, the mechanism of wound healing effect of SJM is also not clear. This study applied in vitro and in vivo models, tissue section analysis, and western blotting to evaluate the effect of SJM on wound healing. The RAW 264.7 cells were used in anti-inflammatory activity assay and phagocytic assay. Male Wistar rats were used to evaluate the effect of SJM on burn injury healing. A copper block (2 × 2 cm, 150 g) preheated to 165 °C in a dry bath was used to contact the skin area for 10 s, thus creating a full-thickness burn injury. The results were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, picrosirius red staining and Western blotting. The results revealed that in the in vitro model, the presence of SJM decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and enhanced the functions of macrophages. The results of the rat burn injury model revealed that SJM decreased neutrophil infiltration, promoted wound healing, thus increasing the collagen I content and promoting the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) protein. We speculate that the effect and mechanism of SJM on promoting wound healing is related to macrophage activation. In the inflammation phase, SJM alleviates inflammation by

  10. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A

    2009-03-01

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within ±12° from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate.

  11. Variations of 210Po and 210Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of 210Po to the radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Germain, P; Solier, L; Gouret, G

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of (210)Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(3)) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10(5)) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to (210)Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 microGh(-1) for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 microGh(-1) for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 microSvy(-1)).

  12. Effect of abalone farming on seawater movement and benthic foraminiferal assemblage of Zostera marina in the inner bay of Wando, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Choi, Yang Ho; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Jae Ung

    2016-08-15

    Tidal current survey as well as geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analyses of sediment cores were conducted in an abalone farm and a Zostera bed to understand the degree to which the abalone farm facilities installed along a channel in a shallow sea affect the benthic environment and ecology. In the abalone farm, Ammonia beccarii-Pseudoparrella naraensis-Elphidium somaense-Rosalina globularis-Trochammina hadai and P. naraensis-E. somaense-A. beccarii-T. hadai assemblages appeared owing to an increase in the total nitrogen content from the biodeposits. The Zostera bed consisted of A. beccarii-P. naraensis-Buccella frigida-T. hadai assemblage owing to the gradual expansion of a brackish shallow-water environment by the rapidly decreasing current speed, and it may have flourished. Moreover, the total sulfur, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents in the sediments decreased remarkably more than those of the pre-abalone farming did, caused by the vigorous activity of Zostera marina physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Offshore survey provides answers to coastal stability and potential offshore extensions of landslides into Abalone Cove, Palos Verdes peninsula, Calif

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F.; Slosson, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The configuration and stability of the present coast line near Abalone Cove, on the south side of Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is related to the geology, oceanographic conditions, and recent and ancient landslide activity. This case study utilizes offshore high resolution seismic profiles, side-scan sonar, diving, and coring, to relate marine geology to the stability of a coastal region with known active landslides utilizing a desk top computer and off-the-shelf software. Electronic navigation provided precise positioning that when applied to computer generated charts permitted correlation of survey data needed to define the offshore geology and sea floor sediment patterns. Amore » mackintosh desk-top computer and commercially available off-the-shelf software provided the analytical tools for constructing a base chart and a means to superimpose template overlays of topography, isopachs or sediment thickness, bottom roughness and sediment distribution patterns. This composite map of offshore geology and oceanography was then related to an extensive engineering and geological land study of the coastal zone forming Abalone Cove, an area of active landslides. Vibrocoring provided ground sediment data for high resolution seismic traverses. This paper details the systems used, present findings relative to potential landslide movements, coastal erosion and discuss how conclusions were reached to determine whether or not onshore landslide failures extend offshore.« less

  14. The complete sequences and gene organisation of the mitochondrial genomes of the heterodont bivalves Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica – and the first record for a putative Atpase subunit 8 gene in marine bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement is highly variable among molluscs and especially among bivalves. Of the 30 complete molluscan mt-genomes published to date, only one is of a heterodont bivalve, although this is the most diverse taxon in terms of species numbers. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica, (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Heterodonta) and describe their gene contents and genome organisations to assess the variability of these features among the Bivalvia and their value for phylogenetic inference. Results The size of the mt-genome in Acanthocardia tuberculata is 16.104 basepairs (bp), and in Hiatella arctica 18.244 bp. The Acanthocardia mt-genome contains 12 of the typical protein coding genes, lacking the Atpase subunit 8 (atp8) gene, as all published marine bivalves. In contrast, a complete atp8 gene is present in Hiatella arctica. In addition, we found a putative truncated atp8 gene when re-annotating the mt-genome of Venerupis philippinarum. Both mt-genomes reported here encode all genes on the same strand and have an additional trnM. In Acanthocardia several large non-coding regions are present. One of these contains 3.5 nearly identical copies of a 167 bp motive. In Hiatella, the 3' end of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nad)6 gene is duplicated together with the adjacent non-coding region. The gene arrangement of Hiatella is markedly different from all other known molluscan mt-genomes, that of Acanthocardia shows few identities with the Venerupis philippinarum. Phylogenetic analyses on amino acid and nucleotide levels robustly support the Heterodonta and the sister group relationship of Acanthocardia and Venerupis. Monophyletic Bivalvia are resolved only by a Bayesian inference of the nucleotide data set. In all other analyses the two unionid species, being to only ones with genes located on both strands, do not group with the remaining bivalves. Conclusion The two mt

  15. 77 FR 61575 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... surveys (1979-80), quantitative survey effort started in 1981, when nine permanent research sites in rocky..., several species of marine mammal incidental to abalone research surveys on San Nicolas Island (SNI). DATES... only, of marine mammals incidental to research surveys investigating the black abalone (Haliotis...

  16. Validation of housekeeping genes as internal controls for studying biomarkers of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in disk abalone by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2011-04-01

    Our experiments were designed to identify suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs) in disk abalone as internal controls to quantify biomarker expression following endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Relative expression levels of twelve candidate HKGs were examined by real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in gill and hepatopancreas of abalone following a 7-day challenge with either tributyltin chloride (TBT) or 17β-estradiol (E2). The expression levels of several conventional HKGs, such as 18s rRNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-actin, were significantly altered by the challenges, indicating that they might not be suitable internal controls. Instead, the geNorm analysis pinpointed ribosomal protein L-5/ elongation factor 1 and ribosomal protein L-5/ succinate dehydrogenase as the most stable HKGs under TBT and E2 challenges, respectively. Moreover, these three HKGs also showed the highest stabilities overall amongst different tissues, genders and EDC challenges. The expression of a biomarker gene, cytochrome P450 4B (CYP4), was also investigated and exhibited a significant increase after the challenges. Importantly, when unsuitable HKGs were used for normalization, the influence of two EDCs on CYP4 expression was imprecisely overestimated or underestimated, which strongly emphasized the importance of selecting appropriately validated HKGs as internal controls in biomarker studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilizing Tritium and CFC-12 to Determine Groundwater Sources in an Unconfined Aquifer Within the Abalone Cove Landslide, Palos Verdes, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, E. L.; Hammond, D. E.; Douglas, R.; Clark, J. F.; Avisar, D.; Dunker, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Abalone Cove landslide occupies 80 acres of an ancient landslide complex on the Palos Verdes peninsula, and was re-activated in 1979. The uphill portion of the ancient landslide complex has remained stable in historic times. Water infiltration into the slide is a short term catalyst for mass movement in the area, so it is important to determine the sources of groundwater throughout the slide mass. Water may enter the slide mass through direct percolation of recent precipitation, inflow along the head scarp of the ancient landslide or by rising through the slide plane from a deeper aquifer. The objective of this contribution is to use geochemical tracers (tritium and CFC-12) in combination with numerical modeling to constrain the importance of each of these sources. Numerical models were constructed to predict geochemical tracer concentrations throughout the basin, assuming that the only source of water to the slide mass is percolation of recent precipitation. Predicted concentrations were then compared to measured tracer values. In the ancient landslide, predicted and measured tracer concentrations are in good agreement, indicating that most of the water in this area is recent precipitation falling within the basin. Groundwater recharged uphill of the ancient landslide contributes minor flow into the complex through the head scarp, with the majority of this water flowing beneath the ancient slide plane. However, predicted tracer concentrations in the toe of the Abalone Cove landslide are not consistent with measured values. Both CFC-12 and tritium concentrations indicate that water is older than predicted and communication between the slide mass and the aquifer beneath the slide plane must occur in this area. Infiltration of this deep circulating water may exert upward hydraulic pressure on the landslide slip surface, increasing the potential for movement. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that current movement is only occurring in the area in

  18. The presence of abalone egg-laying hormone-like peptide in the central nervous system and ovary of the Spotted Babylon, Babylonia areolata.

    PubMed

    Saetan, Jirawat; Boonyoung, Piyakorn; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn; Kruangkum, Thanapong; Khornchatri, Kanjana; Thaweethamsewee, Pinij; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2017-09-01

    Recently, the neuronal classification of the ivory shell Spotted Babylon, Babylonia areolata, was readily demonstrated. Regarding its importance as marine economic molluscan species, the attempt to understand the neuroendocrine regulation is necessary. This study firstly demonstrated the neurosecretory cells as well as the existence and distribution of the egg-laying hormone (ELH)-like peptide in the central nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the B. areolata. The neurosecretory cell was characterized by the cytoplasmic purple dot-like structure as stained by the Gomori's paraldehyde fuchsin. Using the anti-abalone (a) ELH, we detected the aELH-like-peptide in neurons (Nr) and neurosecretory cells (Ns) of all ganglia including the cerebral, pleural, parietal, pedal and buccal ganglia. The aELH-like peptide was also present in the neuropil of each. It was noted that not all Ns presented the aELH-like peptide. In the ovary, the aELH-like peptide was slightly detected in early developing oocytes and strongly detected in late developing oocytes and follicular cells. This study firstly reported the evidence of ELH-like peptide in the CNS and ovary of the B. areolata. The molecular cloning as well as to investigate the function of ELH in this species is needed as it will be beneficial for future applications in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment Quality Characterization Naval Station San Diego

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Bioassays using an am- phipod (Rhepoxynius abronius), larvae of the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and larval abalone (Haliotis sp.) indicated...sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal ( SEM ) in bulk sedim ent (pm ole.g-dry1...Diego Gas & Electric SDIWQR San Diego Interagency Water Quality Control Board SEM Simultaneously Extracted Metals Si Silicon SI Site Investigation SOD

  20. 78 FR 14078 - Endangered Species; File No. 17405

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... David Lapota, Ph.D., Department of the Navy, SPAWAR Systems Center, Pacific, Environmental Sciences... take black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) for purposes of scientific research. DATES: Written... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The purpose of the proposed research is to overcome key...

  1. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM) [Gilbert et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130

  2. The effects of drilling muds on marine invertebrate larvae and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.T.; Barnett, A.M.; Krause, P.R.

    1997-06-01

    A series of laboratory experiments tested the effects of drilling muds from an active platform off southern California on larvae and adults of marine invertebrates. Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were used to determine effects of drilling muds on fertilization, early development, survivorship, and settlement, and experiments on adult brown cup corals (Paracyathus stearnsii) tested effects on adult survivorship, viability, and tissue loss. Exposures to drilling muds did not have an effect on abalone fertilization or early development. However, several exposures to drilling muds resulted in weak, but significant, positive effects of drilling muds on settlement of competent larvae. In contrast,more » settlement of red abalone larvae on natural coralline algal crusts decreased with increasing concentrations of drilling muds. This suggests that drilling muds affect either the abalone`s ability to detect natural settlement inducers, or they affect the inducer itself. Exposure of brown cup corals to concentrations of drilling muds adversely impacted their survivorship and viability. These effects were likely caused by increased tissue mortality of the coral polyps.« less

  3. Population dynamics can be more important than physiological limits for determining range shifts under climate change.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Damien A; Mellin, Camille; Russell, Bayden D; Akçakaya, Reşit H; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Caley, Julian M; Connell, Sean D; Mayfield, Stephen; Shepherd, Scoresby A; Brook, Barry W

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that species' responses to climate changes are best predicted by modelling the interaction of physiological limits, biotic processes and the effects of dispersal-limitation. Using commercially harvested blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) as case studies, we determine the relative importance of accounting for interactions among physiology, metapopulation dynamics and exploitation in predictions of range (geographical occupancy) and abundance (spatially explicit density) under various climate change scenarios. Traditional correlative ecological niche models (ENM) predict that climate change will benefit the commercial exploitation of abalone by promoting increased abundances without any reduction in range size. However, models that account simultaneously for demographic processes and physiological responses to climate-related factors result in future (and present) estimates of area of occupancy (AOO) and abundance that differ from those generated by ENMs alone. Range expansion and population growth are unlikely for blacklip abalone because of important interactions between climate-dependent mortality and metapopulation processes; in contrast, greenlip abalone should increase in abundance despite a contraction in AOO. The strongly non-linear relationship between abalone population size and AOO has important ramifications for the use of ENM predictions that rely on metrics describing change in habitat area as proxies for extinction risk. These results show that predicting species' responses to climate change often require physiological information to understand climatic range determinants, and a metapopulation model that can make full use of this data to more realistically account for processes such as local extirpation, demographic rescue, source-sink dynamics and dispersal-limitation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Phase transition of aragonite in abalone nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yuanlin; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian

    2013-04-01

    Nacre is composed of about 95 vol.% aragonite and 5 vol.% biopolymer and famous for its "brick and mortar" microstructure. The phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre is lower than the pure aragonite. In situ XRD was used to identify the phase transition temperature from aragonite to calcite in nacre, based on the analysis of TG-DSC of fresh nacre and demineralized nacre. The results indicate that the microstructure and biopolymer are the two main factors that influence the phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre.

  5. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants to the early life stages of two marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.M.; George, S.; Benner, D.

    1993-10-01

    Acute, flow-through, spiked-exposure toxicity tests were performed on the early life stages of two marine species using two oil dispersants. The species represent two common near-shore marine taxa: molluscs (red abalone, Haliotis rufescens) and crustaceans (kelp forest mysid, Holmesimysis costata). The dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants and solvents. The toxicity data showed that one dispersant, Slik-A-Way, was more toxic than the other, Nokomis[reg sign] 3, to both species. Median-effect concentration estimates for the two dispersants were significantly different between species. Slik-A-Way median-effect concentrations ranged from 16.8 to 23.9 initial ppm for Haliotis and 25.9more » to 34.6 initial ppm for Holmesimysis, whereas Nokomis[reg sign] 3 median-effect concentrations ranged from 21.0 to 24.0 initial ppm for Haliotis and from 118.0 to 123.2 initial ppm for Holmesimysis. Differences in toxicity seen in the two dispersants may be due to differences in surfactant formulations.« less

  6. Predicting the Distribution of Commercially Important Invertebrate Stocks under Future Climate

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Bayden D.; Connell, Sean D.; Mellin, Camille; Brook, Barry W.; Burnell, Owen W.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2012-01-01

    The future management of commercially exploited species is challenging because techniques used to predict the future distribution of stocks under climate change are currently inadequate. We projected the future distribution and abundance of two commercially harvested abalone species (blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra and greenlip abalone, H. laevigata) inhabiting coastal South Australia, using multiple species distribution models (SDM) and for decadal time slices through to 2100. Projections are based on two contrasting global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The SDMs identified August (winter) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as the best descriptor of abundance and forecast that warming of winter temperatures under both scenarios may be beneficial to both species by allowing increased abundance and expansion into previously uninhabited coasts. This range expansion is unlikely to be realised, however, as projected warming of March SST is projected to exceed temperatures which cause up to 10-fold increases in juvenile mortality. By linking fine-resolution forecasts of sea surface temperature under different climate change scenarios to SDMs and physiological experiments, we provide a practical first approximation of the potential impact of climate-induced change on two species of marine invertebrates in the same fishery. PMID:23251326

  7. Nanoscale Transforming Mineral Phases in Fresh Nacre

    DOE PAGES

    DeVol, Ross T.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Marcus, Matthew A.; ...

    2015-09-24

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner layer of many mollusk shells, is a biomineral lamellar composite of aragonite (CaCO 3) and organic sheets. Biomineralization frequently occurs via transient amorphous precursor phases, crystallizing into the final stable biomineral. In nacre, despite extensive attempts, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors have remained elusive. They were inferred from non-nacre-forming larval shells, or from a residue of amorphous material surrounding mature gastropod nacre tablets, and have only once been observed in bivalve nacre. Here we present the first direct observation of ACC precursors to nacre formation, obtained from the growth front of nacre in gastropodmore » shells from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), using synchrotron spectromicroscopy. Surprisingly, the abalone nacre data show the same ACC phases that are precursors to calcite (CaCO 3) formation in sea urchin spicules, and not proto-aragonite or poorly crystalline aragonite (pAra), as expected for aragonitic nacre. In contrast, we find pAra in coral.« less

  8. Nanoscale Transforming Mineral Phases in Fresh Nacre.

    PubMed

    DeVol, Ross T; Sun, Chang-Yu; Marcus, Matthew A; Coppersmith, Susan N; Myneni, Satish C B; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2015-10-21

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner layer of many mollusk shells, is a biomineral lamellar composite of aragonite (CaCO3) and organic sheets. Biomineralization frequently occurs via transient amorphous precursor phases, crystallizing into the final stable biomineral. In nacre, despite extensive attempts, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors have remained elusive. They were inferred from non-nacre-forming larval shells, or from a residue of amorphous material surrounding mature gastropod nacre tablets, and have only once been observed in bivalve nacre. Here we present the first direct observation of ACC precursors to nacre formation, obtained from the growth front of nacre in gastropod shells from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), using synchrotron spectromicroscopy. Surprisingly, the abalone nacre data show the same ACC phases that are precursors to calcite (CaCO3) formation in sea urchin spicules, and not proto-aragonite or poorly crystalline aragonite (pAra), as expected for aragonitic nacre. In contrast, we find pAra in coral.

  9. SciTech Connect

    DeVol, Ross T.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Marcus, Matthew A.

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner layer of many mollusk shells, is a biomineral lamellar composite of aragonite (CaCO 3) and organic sheets. Biomineralization frequently occurs via transient amorphous precursor phases, crystallizing into the final stable biomineral. In nacre, despite extensive attempts, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors have remained elusive. They were inferred from non-nacre-forming larval shells, or from a residue of amorphous material surrounding mature gastropod nacre tablets, and have only once been observed in bivalve nacre. Here we present the first direct observation of ACC precursors to nacre formation, obtained from the growth front of nacre in gastropodmore » shells from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), using synchrotron spectromicroscopy. Surprisingly, the abalone nacre data show the same ACC phases that are precursors to calcite (CaCO 3) formation in sea urchin spicules, and not proto-aragonite or poorly crystalline aragonite (pAra), as expected for aragonitic nacre. In contrast, we find pAra in coral.« less

  10. Tablet-level origin of toughening in abalone shells and translation to synthetic composite materials.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Juster, Allison L; Latourte, Felix J; Loh, Owen Y; Gregoire, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D

    2011-02-01

    Nacre, the iridescent material in seashells, is one of many natural materials employing hierarchical structures to achieve high strength and toughness from relatively weak constituents. Incorporating these structures into composites is appealing as conventional engineering materials often sacrifice strength to improve toughness. Researchers hypothesize that nacre's toughness originates within its brick-and-mortar-like microstructure. Under loading, bricks slide relative to each other, propagating inelastic deformation over millimeter length scales. This leads to orders-of-magnitude increase in toughness. Here, we use in situ atomic force microscopy fracture experiments and digital image correlation to quantitatively prove that brick morphology (waviness) leads to transverse dilation and subsequent interfacial hardening during sliding, a previously hypothesized dominant toughening mechanism in nacre. By replicating this mechanism in a scaled-up model synthetic material, we find that it indeed leads to major improvements in energy dissipation. Ultimately, lessons from this investigation may be key to realizing the immense potential of widely pursued nanocomposites.

  11. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High expression of new genes in trochophore enlightening the ontogeny and evolution of trochozoans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Fan, Dingding; Dunwell, Thomas L; Li, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Guofan

    2016-10-04

    Animals with trochophore larvae belong to Trochozoa, one of the main branches of Bilateria. In addition to exhibiting spiral cleavage and early cell fate determination, trochozoans typically undergo indirect development, which contributes to the most unique characteristics of their ontogeny. The indirect development of trochozoans has provoked discussion regarding the origin and evolution of marine larvae and is interesting from the perspective of phylogeny-ontogeny correspondence. While these phylo-onto correlations have an hourglass shape in Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, plants and even fungi, they have seldom been studied in Trochozoa, and even Lophotrochozoa. Here, we compared the ontogenetic transcriptomes of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Bivalvia, Mollusca), the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda, Mollusca), and the sand worm Perinereis aibuhitensis (Polychaeta, Annelida) using several complementary phylotranscriptomic methods to examine their evolutionary trajectories. The results revealed the late trochophore stage as the phylotypic phase. However, this basic pattern is accompanied with increased use of new genes in the trochophore stages which marks specific adaptations of the larval body plans.

  13. Recovery of Coastal Fauna after the 2011 Tsunami in Japan as Determined by Bimonthly Underwater Visual Censuses Conducted over Five Years.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Reiji; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yokoyama, Katsuhide; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Massive tsunamis induce catastrophic disturbance in marine ecosystems, yet they can provide unique opportunities to observe the process of regeneration. Here, we report the recovery of fauna after the 2011 tsunami in northeast Japan based on underwater visual censuses performed every two months over five years. Both total fish abundance and species richness increased from the first to the second year after the tsunami followed by stabilization in the following years. Short-lived fish, such as the banded goby Pterogobius elapoides, were relatively abundant in the first two years, whereas long-lived species, such as the black rockfish Sebastes cheni, increased in the latter half of the survey period. Tropical fish species were recorded only in the second and third years after the tsunami. The body size of long-lived fish increased during the survey period resulting in a gradual increase of total fish biomass. The recovery of fish assemblages was slow at one site located in the inner bay, where the impact of the tsunami was the strongest. Apart from fish, blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. occurred only in the first two years after the tsunami, whereas the abundances of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and abalone Haliotis discus hannai increased after the second year. Although we lack quantitative data prior to the tsunami, we conclude that it takes approximately three years for coastal reef fish assemblages to recover from a heavy disturbance such as a tsunami and that the recovery is dependent on species-specific life span and habitat.

  14. Temporal variation in biodeposit organic content and sinking velocity in long-line shellfish culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lihua; Zhang, Jihong

    2016-09-01

    We measured the organic content and sinking velocities of biodeposits from two scallop species ( Chlamys farreri, Patinopecten yessoensis) and abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) that were cultured on suspended long-lines. Measurements were conducted every two months from April 2010 to February 2011. The shellfish were divided into three size groups (small, middle, and big sizes). At each sample point, we assessed biodeposit organic content, average sinking velocity, the frequency distribution of sinking velocities, and the correlation between organic content and sinking velocity. The organic content of biodeposits varied significantly among months ( P<0.05) and the pattern of change varied among species. Sinking velocities varied significantly, ranging from <0.5 cm/s to >1.9 cm/s. The sinking velocities of biodeposits from C. farreri and P. yessoensis were 0.5-1.5 cm/s and from H. discus hannai were <0.7 cm/s. The organic content was significantly negatively correlated to the sinking velocity of biodeposits in C. farreri ( P<0.001) and P. yessoensis ( P<0.05).

  15. Chemical-mechanical stability of the hierarchical structure of shell nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinmei; Guo, Wanlin

    2010-02-01

    The hierarchical structure and mechanical property of shell nacre are experimentally investigated from the new aspects of chemical stability and chemistry-mechanics coupling. Through chemical deproteinization or demineralization methods together with characterization techniques at micro/nano scales, it is found that the nacre of abalone, haliotis discus hannai, contains a hierarchical structure stacked with irregular aragonite platelets and interplatelet organic matrix thin layers. Yet the aragonite platelet itself is a nanocomposite consisting of nanoparticles and intraplatelet organic matrix framework. The mean diameter of the nanoparticles and the distribution of framework are quite different for different platelets. Though the interplatelet and intraplatelet organic matrix can be both decomposed by sodium hydroxide solution, the chemical stability of individual aragonite platelets is much higher than that of the microstructure stacked with them. Further, macroscopic bending test or nanoindentation experiment is performed on the micro/nanostructure of nacre after sodium hydroxide treatment. It is found that the Young’s modulus of both the stacked microstructure and nanocomposite platelet reduced. The reduction of the microstructure is more remark than that of the platelet. Therefore the chemical-mechanical stability of the nanocomposite platelet itself is much higher than that of the stacked microstructure of nacre.

  16. Complementary DNA cloning and molecular evolution of opine dehydrogenases in some marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Toshiyasu; Sato, Minoru; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Yokoyama, Takehiko; Kan-No, Nobuhiro; Nagahisa, Eizou; Janssen, Frank; Grieshaber, Manfred K

    2004-01-01

    The complete complementary DNA sequences of genes presumably coding for opine dehydrogenases from Arabella iricolor (sandworm), Haliotis discus hannai (abalone), and Patinopecten yessoensis (scallop) were determined, and partial cDNA sequences were derived for Meretrix lusoria (Japanese hard clam) and Spisula sachalinensis (Sakhalin surf clam). The primers ODH-9F and ODH-11R proved useful for amplifying the sequences for opine dehydrogenases from the 4 mollusk species investigated in this study. The sequence of the sandworm was obtained using primers constructed from the amino acid sequence of tauropine dehydrogenase, the main opine dehydrogenase in A. iricolor. The complete cDNA sequence of A. iricolor, H. discus hannai, and P. yessoensis encode 397, 400, and 405 amino acids, respectively. All sequences were aligned and compared with published databank sequences of Loligo opalescens, Loligo vulgaris (squid), Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish), and Pecten maximus (scallop). As expected, a high level of homology was observed for the cDNA from closely related species, such as for cephalopods or scallops, whereas cDNA from the other species showed lower-level homologies. A similar trend was observed when the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. Furthermore, alignment of these sequences revealed some structural motifs that are possibly related to the binding sites of the substrates. The phylogenetic trees derived from the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were consistent with the classification of species resulting from classical taxonomic analyses.

  17. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection. PMID:22855690

  18. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  19. Recovery of Coastal Fauna after the 2011 Tsunami in Japan as Determined by Bimonthly Underwater Visual Censuses Conducted over Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Reiji; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yokoyama, Katsuhide; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Massive tsunamis induce catastrophic disturbance in marine ecosystems, yet they can provide unique opportunities to observe the process of regeneration. Here, we report the recovery of fauna after the 2011 tsunami in northeast Japan based on underwater visual censuses performed every two months over five years. Both total fish abundance and species richness increased from the first to the second year after the tsunami followed by stabilization in the following years. Short-lived fish, such as the banded goby Pterogobius elapoides, were relatively abundant in the first two years, whereas long-lived species, such as the black rockfish Sebastes cheni, increased in the latter half of the survey period. Tropical fish species were recorded only in the second and third years after the tsunami. The body size of long-lived fish increased during the survey period resulting in a gradual increase of total fish biomass. The recovery of fish assemblages was slow at one site located in the inner bay, where the impact of the tsunami was the strongest. Apart from fish, blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. occurred only in the first two years after the tsunami, whereas the abundances of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and abalone Haliotis discus hannai increased after the second year. Although we lack quantitative data prior to the tsunami, we conclude that it takes approximately three years for coastal reef fish assemblages to recover from a heavy disturbance such as a tsunami and that the recovery is dependent on species-specific life span and habitat. PMID:27942028

  20. Management adaptation of invertebrate fisheries to an extreme marine heat wave event at a global warming hot spot.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Nick; Kangas, Mervi; Denham, Ainslie; Feng, Ming; Pearce, Alan; Hetzel, Yasha; Chandrapavan, Arani

    2016-06-01

    An extreme marine heat wave which affected 2000 km of the midwest coast of Australia occurred in the 2010/11 austral summer, with sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies of 2-5°C above normal climatology. The heat wave was influenced by a strong Leeuwin Current during an extreme La Niña event at a global warming hot spot in the Indian Ocean. This event had a significant effect on the marine ecosystem with changes to seagrass/algae and coral habitats, as well as fish kills and southern extension of the range of some tropical species. The effect has been exacerbated by above-average SST in the following two summers, 2011/12 and 2012/13. This study examined the major impact the event had on invertebrate fisheries and the management adaption applied. A 99% mortality of Roei abalone ( Haliotis roei ) and major reductions in recruitment of scallops ( Amusium balloti ), king ( Penaeus latisulcatus ) and tiger ( P. esculentus ) prawns, and blue swimmer crabs were detected with management adapting with effort reductions or spatial/temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and restocking being evaluated. This study illustrates that fisheries management under extreme temperature events requires an early identification of temperature hot spots, early detection of abundance changes (preferably using pre-recruit surveys), and flexible harvest strategies which allow a quick response to minimize the effect of heavy fishing on poor recruitment to enable protection of the spawning stock. This has required researchers, managers, and industry to adapt to fish stocks affected by an extreme environmental event that may become more frequent due to climate change.

  1. Dynamic expression of ancient and novel molluscan shell genes during ecological transitions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Daniel J; Wörheide, Gert; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-01-01

    Background The Mollusca constitute one of the most morphologically and ecologically diverse metazoan phyla, occupying a wide range of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. The evolutionary success of the molluscs can in part be attributed to the evolvability of the external shell. Typically, the shell first forms during embryonic and larval development, changing dramatically in shape, colour and mineralogical composition as development and maturation proceeds. Major developmental transitions in shell morphology often correlate with ecological transitions (e.g. from a planktonic to benthic existence at metamorphosis). While the genes involved in molluscan biomineralisation are beginning to be identified, there is little understanding of how these are developmentally regulated, or if the same genes are operational at different stages of the mollusc's life. Results Here we relate the developmental expression of nine genes in the tissue responsible for shell production – the mantle – to ecological transitions that occur during the lifetime of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina (Vetigastropoda). Four of these genes encode evolutionarily ancient proteins, while four others encode secreted proteins with little or no identity to known proteins. Another gene has been previously described from the mantle of another haliotid vetigastropod. All nine genes display dynamic spatial and temporal expression profiles within the larval shell field and juvenile mantle. Conclusion These expression data reflect the regulatory complexity that underlies molluscan shell construction from larval stages to adulthood, and serves to highlight the different ecological demands placed on each stage. The use of both ancient and novel genes in all stages of shell construction also suggest that a core set of shell-making genes was provided by a shared metazoan ancestor, which has been elaborated upon to produce the range of molluscan shell types we see today. PMID:17845714

  2. Toughening mechanisms in laminated composites: A biomimetic study in mollusk shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, Shekhar Shripad

    2000-10-01

    Mollusk shells can be described as structural biocomposite materials composed of a mineral (aragonite) and a continuous, albeit minor, organic (protein) component. The conch shell, Strombus Gigas, has intermediate strength and high fracture toughness. The high fracture toughness is a result of enhanced energy dissipation during crack propagation due to delamination, crack bridging, frictional sliding etc. A theoretical and experimental study was conducted on the crack bridging mechanisms operative in the shell. Four-point bend tests were conducted. Acoustic emission and post-mortem dye penetrants were used to characterize the crack propagation, together with conventional fractography. A two layer composite configuration is seen in the shells, with the tough and weak layers having a toughness ratio of ˜4 (Ktough = 2.2MPam1/2). This toughness ratio is a requisite for multiple cracking in the weak layer. A theoretical shear lag analysis of the crack bridging phenomena in the tough layer is shown to lead to a bridging law for the crack wake of the form of p = betau1/2 (p is the bridging traction for a crack opening u, with beta, being a constant of proportionality). Finite element analysis yielded a value of beta = 630 Nmm-5/2 and ucritical = 5 mum for the bridging law parameters. In a nonlinear fracture mechanics phenomenology, these values are relevant material parameters, rather than a critical stress intensity factor. The work of fracture for unnotched specimens is three orders of magnitude higher than mineral aragonite, and is demonstrated numerically incorporating the toughening mechanisms in the shell. Similar structural adaptations have been observed and studied in the red abalone shell, haliotis rufescens and the spines of the sea urchin, Heterocentrotus trigonarius. The toughening mechanisms seen in these shells give insight into structural design needs of brittle matrix composites (BMC) as well as conventional structural ceramics.

  3. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Vibrio halioticoli Genes Encoding Three Types of Polyguluronate Lyase.

    PubMed

    Sugimura; Sawabe; Ezura

    2000-01-01

    The alginate lyase-coding genes of Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), which was isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai, were cloned using plasmid vector pUC 18, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Three alginate lyase-positive clones, pVHB, pVHC, and pVHE, were obtained, and all clones expressed the enzyme activity specific for polyguluronate. Three genes, alyVG1, alyVG2, and alyVG3, encoding polyguluronate lyase were sequenced: alyVG1 from pVHB was composed of a 1056-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 352 amino acid residues; alyVG2 gene from pVHC was composed of a 993-bp ORF encoding 331 amino acid residues; and alyVG3 gene from pVHE was composed of a 705-bp ORF encoding 235 amino acid residues. Comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among AlyVG1, AlyVG2, and AlyVG3 revealed low homologies. The identity value between AlyVG1 and AlyVG2 was 18.7%, and that between AlyVG2 and AlyVG3 was 17.0%. A higher identity value (26.0%) was observed between AlyVG1 and AlyVG3. Sequence comparison among known polyguluronate lyases including AlyVG1, AlyVG2, and AlyVG3 also did not reveal an identical region in these sequences. However, AlyVG1 showed the highest identity value (36.2%) and the highest similarity (73.3%) to AlyA from Klebsiella pneumoniae. A consensus region comprising nine amino acid (YFKAGXYXQ) in the carboxy-terminal region previously reported by Mallisard and colleagues was observed only in AlyVG1 and AlyVG2.

  4. Oligomeric stability of Rapana venosa hemocyanin (RvH) and its structural subunits.

    PubMed

    Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina; Schwarz, Heinz; Dolashki, Aleksandar; Stevanovic, Stefan; Fecker, Miriam; Saeed, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-21

    The two structural subunits RvH1 and RvH2 were separated after overnight dialysis of Rapana venosa Hc against 130 mM Gly/NaOH buffer, pH 9.6, on an ion exchange column Hiload 26/10 Sepharose Q using a fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The reassociation characteristics of these two RvH isoforms and the native molecule were studied in buffers with different pH values and concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Reassociation of mixed RvH subunits was performed over a period of several days using a stabilizing buffer (SB) of pH 7.0 containing different concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. After 2 days of dialysis, an RvH subunit mixture of didecamers and multidecamers was observed in the presence of 100 mM CaCl(2) and MgCl(2), though RvH1 and RvH2 are biochemically and immunologically different and have also different dissociation properties. The reassociation, performed at pH 9.6 with 2 mM CaCl(2) and MgCl(2) at 4 degrees C over a period of one to several weeks, led to the formation of decameric oligomers, while didecamers formed predominantly in the SB at pH 7.0. Higher concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions led to a more rapid reassociation of RvH1 resulting in long stable multidecamers and helical tubules, which were stable and slowly dissociated into shorter multidecamers and decamers at higher pH values. The reassociation of the RvH2 structural subunit in the same buffers processed slowly and yielded didecamers, shorter tubule polymers and long multidecamers which are less stable at higher pH values. The stability of RvH isoforms under varying ionic conditions is compared with the stability of keyhole limpet (KLH, Megathura crenulata) hemocyanin (KLH) and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) isoforms. The process of dissociation and reassociation is connected with changes of the fluorescence intensity at 600 nm, which can be explained by differences in opalescence of the solutions of these two isoforms. The solutions of longer tubule

  5. 75 FR 68377 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... basalt tool, 317 non-human bone fragments, 1 abalone shell fragment, 2 ash/soil samples, 1 groundstone, 1 quartz chunk, 3 abalone pendants and 4 olivella beads. One of the burials identified was associated with... groundstones, 2 steatite beads, 1 abalone pendant, 2 clamshell disk beads, 23 olivella beads and 2 steatite...

  6. Dietary change of the rock lobster Jasus lalandii after an ‘invasive’ geographic shift: Effects of size, density and food availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, C. N.; Blamey, L. K.; Atkinson, L. J.; Branch, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    During the 1990s the rock lobster Jasus lalandii shifted its focus of distribution south-eastwards along the coast of South Africa, to establish a dense population in an area where it was previously rare. This coincided with a marked decrease in the sea urchin Parechinus angulosus, a preferred prey item of J. lalandii and a vital source of shelter for juveniles of the abalone Haliotis midae. The range expansion of lobsters has thus economic and ecological ripple effects. We determined the diets of small (50-65 mm carapace length) and large (>69 mm CL) rock lobsters from gut content analyses, and compared them between three 'lobster invaded' sites and three adjacent 'non-invaded' sites where densities are still low. At the non-invaded sites, diets were collectively heterogeneous but the dietary breadth of individual lobsters was narrow (in contradiction to generally accepted ecological theory), and the lobsters fed mainly on large, individual, mobile, high-energy prey such as sea urchins and large winkles. Conversely, at invaded sites where lobster densities were high, they consumed predominantly small, colonial or sessile low-energy prey such as sponges, barnacles and foliar algae, and the diet was significantly more uniform among individuals, but broader within individuals. This was a direct result of the contrasting benthic community structure of the two areas, and consequent prey availability - itself caused by differences in intensity of rock-lobster predation. Cannibalism was unexpectedly greater at non-invaded sites, possibly as a result of lobsters being larger there. The diet of small and large lobsters also differed significantly. Large rock lobsters predominantly consumed large individual prey such as lobsters, urchins and crabs, while small rock lobsters ate mainly colonial, sessile prey such as sponges and barnacles, and small prey such as tiny winkles and crustaceans. Dietary selectivity indices revealed that algae and sponges were negatively selected

  7. The Nanomechanics of Biomineralized Soft-Tissues and Organic Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezares-Chavez, Jiddu

    The research reported on in this dissertation is concerned with the macro-molecular constitution and geometrical organization of the soft-tissue comprising the matrix of the nacreous portion of the shell of Haliotis rufescens, the Red abalone. Nacre is one of literally legions of intricate biomineralized structures that exist in nature and has long served as a paradigm for elegant and optimized structural de-sign. Biomineralization involves, inter alia, the uptake and synthesis of elements and compounds from the environment and their incorporation into highly optimized functional structures. Nacre has a structure described as a brick wall like with a matrix of biopolymer layers that are preformed and serve as a template into which nanocrystalline tiles of CaCO3 precipitate. The matrix, or what are known as inter-lamellar layers, are of particular interest as they impart both toughness and strength to the composite ceramic nacre structure. The work first involved a histochemical mapping of the macromolecular structure of the interlamellar layers; this revealed the locations of proteins and functional molecular groups that serve as nucleation sites for the ceramic tiles. Parallel studies on the nacre of Nautilus pompilius, the Chambered Nautilus, revealed the generality of the findings. Of particular interest was determining both the content and layout of chitin within these layers. In fact it was determined that chitin was organized as mostly unidirectional architecture of fibrils, with a certain fraction of fibrils laying at cross directions. Most remarkably, it was found that the fibrils possessed a very long range connectivity that spanned many tiles. This was determined by systematic atomic force (afm) and analytical optical histochemical microscopy. These findings were further verified by a unique form of mechanical testing whereby tensile testing was conducted on groups of interlamellar layers extracted from nacre. Mechanical testing led to a quantitative

  8. Trophic flows, kelp culture and fisheries in the marine ecosystem of an artificial reef zone in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongxin; Zhang, Xiumei; Lozano-Montes, Hector M.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the ecosystem structure and function of the nearshore reefs in the Lidao coastal ecosystem of northern China, a region of intensive kelp aquaculture, and fisheries enhancements, including the deployment of artificial reefs and release of cultured marine species. An Ecopath model, with 20 functional groups representing 81 species, was developed for a representative area in the region and Ecosim was used to explore two scenarios for alternative fishing practices and surrounding aquaculture activities. The mean trophic levels (TLs) of the functional groups ranged from 1.0 for the primary producers (phytoplankton, benthic algae and seagrass) and detritus to 4.14 for Type III fishes (fishes found in the water column above the artificial reefs, e.g., Scomberomorus niphonius). The mean transfer efficiency through the whole system was 11.7%, and the ecosystem had a relative low maturity, stability and disturbance resistance, indicating that it was at a developing stage. Nearly half of the total system biomass (48.9% of 620.20 t km-2 year-1), excluding detritus, was comprised of benthic finfish and invertebrates. The total yield from all fisheries (86.82 t/km2/year) was dominated by low trophic level herbivorous and detritivorous species, such as the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (TL = 2.1, 46.07%), other echinoderms (sea urchins Asterias amurensis and Strongylocentrotus nudus, TL = 2.1, 34.6%) and abalone Haliotis discus hannai (TL = 2.0, 18.4%), and as a consequence, the mean TL of the catch was low (2.1). The results from the Ecosim simulation of closing all fisheries for 20 years predicted an increase of about 100% in the relative biomass of the main exploited species, A. japonicus and H. discus hannai. The simulated removal of all kelp farms over 10 years resulted in a two fold increase in the relative biomass of Type III fishes and a 120% increase in their main prey (i.e. Small pelagic fish), while the relative biomass of A. japonicus and

  9. Trends in Anti-Nuclear Protests in the United States, 1984-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Obispo, CA. 2 days of peaceful protests at Diablo Canyon nuclear powerplant against licensing of plant. Date: January 12 and 13, 1984 Group: Abalone ...Members of the Abalone Alliance and the Livermore Action Group blocked entrance to Bohemian Grove club, a conservative all-male club to which Reagan...belongs, to protest the club members’ connections to the nuclear weapons industry. Date: July 22, 1984 Group: Abalone and Livermore Action Group

  10. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL USE Arctic char (anadromous) 521 Bering flounder (Hippoglossoides robustus) 116 Dolly varden... 680 Wrymouths 211 SHELLFISH Abalone, northern (pinto) 860 CLAMS: Arctic surf 812 Cockle 820 Eastern...

  11. 75 FR 23800 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... ceremonial headdress made of wood, eagle or eider down, sea lion whiskers, ermine hide, abalone shell... teeth are made of abalone shell. The top of the headdress is decorated with alternating sea lion [[Page... and culture. Furthermore, no tribal member consented to alienate it, and no evidence exists to...

  12. A polysaccharide-peptide complex from abalone mushroom (Pleurotus abalonus) fruiting bodies increases activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduces lipid peroxidation in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ng, T B; Song, M; Yuan, F; Liu, Z K; Wang, C L; Jiang, Y; Fu, M; Liu, F

    2007-06-01

    The antioxidant effects of a polysaccharide-peptide complex (F22) from mushroom (Pleurotus abalonus)-fruiting bodies were studied. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver, kidney, and brain of senescence-accelerated mice showed a marked increase after treatment with the polysaccharide-peptide complex. Concurrently, the gene expression levels of SOD, CAT, and GPx, as determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction, were up-regulated in the liver, kidney, and brain, whereas the MDA content in these organs declined. The maximal lifespan of the mice was prolonged.

  13. 76 FR 80393 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... the Remains In March 1901, human remains representing, at minimum, six individuals (catalog numbers... child's basket (catalog number 70830) and an abalone shell comprised of one larger piece of shell and...

  14. Survival and ecophysiology of tree seedlings during El Nino drought in a tropical moist forest in Panama

    Treesearch

    Betinna M.J. Engelbrecht; S. Joseph Wright; Diane De Steven

    2002-01-01

    In tropical forests, severe droughts caused by El Nino events may strongly influence the water relations of tree seedlings and thereby increase their mortality. Data on known-aged seedlings of three common shade-tolerant canopy tree species (Trichilia tuberculata, Tetragastris panamensis and Quararibea asterolepis) in a Panamanian...

  15. Taxonomy of intertidal cheilostome Bryozoa of Maceió, northeastern Brazil. Part 1: Suborders Inovicellina, Malacostegina and Thalamoporellina.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Almeida, Ana C S; Winston, Judith E

    2016-03-29

    Thirteen cheilostome bryozoan species from intertidal habitats of Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil, are reported here. We describe four new species: Aetea cultrata n. sp., Biflustra marcusi n. sp., Biflustra sphinx n. sp. and Jellyella brasiliensis n. sp. Two other species of Inovicellina, Aetea arcuata Winston & Hayward, 2012, and Aetea curta Jullien, 1888, and four species of Malacostegina, Arbocuspis bellula (Hincks, 1881), Arbocuspis bicornis (Hincks, 1881), Arbocuspis ramosa (Osburn, 1940), and Jellyella tuberculata (Bosc, 1802), are reported on drift algae. Three species of Thalamoporellina are found for the first time in Maceió, Labioporella tuberculata Winston, Vieira & Woollacoot, 2014, Steginoporella           magnilabris (Busk, 1854) and Thalamoporella floridana Osburn, 1940.

  16. Systematics and distribution of Cristaria plicata (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Klishko, Olga K.; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Froufe, Elsa; Bogan, Arthur E.; Abakumova, Vera Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of anodontine bivalve species placed in the genus Cristaria (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from the Russian Far East is still not stable among authors. Some recognize only one valid species Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815) while others accept two additional species, Cristaria tuberculata Schumacher, 1817 and Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847). In the present study, these taxonomic doubts are addressed using analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and shell morphometry. No significant differences have been revealed by the COI DNA sequences or the main statistical morphometric indices from the three Cristaria forms. In the specimens analysed, changes in shell morphometry with age suggest that original descriptions of the different forms may be attributed solely to differences in age and sex. We consider that Cristaria plicata, Cristaria tuberculata and Cristaria herculea from the Russian Far East should be considered as a single species, namely Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815), with Cristaria tuberculata and Cristaria herculea as junior synonyms. The geographic range of Cristaria plicata and its conservation status are also presented here. PMID:27110206

  17. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-07-29

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

  18. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  19. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Mattos, Aline Carvalho de; Silva, Elizangela Feitosa da; Santos, Sonia Barbosa Dos; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study) and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study). Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae). In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso) during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%). The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  20. 75 FR 58424 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... bone awl pendant, 27 dentalia beads, 4 copper pendants, 1 copper bracelet, 1 projectile point and 1 bone awl. During the period July 1939 - September 1940, funerary objects were systematically removed... abalone shell pendant, 2 scrapers, 2 bone awls, 1 piece of matting, 1 flake, 2 dentalia necklace fragments...

  1. 77 FR 25742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... funerary objects are 1 basalt piece, 1 bone awl, 2 unworked and worked cache forms, 1 scraper, 2 pestles, 1..., 1 bone harpoon, 1 bone awl, 4 knives, 6 projectile points, 1 string of copper bone beads, 100... bear penis bones, 2 gravers, 13 perforated elk teeth, 2 abalone gorgets, 6 copper pendants, 5 worked...

  2. Southern Africa’s Transnational Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    14 &15. The smugglers load boats with Zimbabwean ivory , cigarettes, liquor and fish to sell to Zambians. Firearms Angola Namibia Page 18. Firearm...between SADC countries in this regard and more alignment in the region’s policies on abalone poaching ." Annette Hubschle, “Organized Crime in Southern

  3. 75 FR 78227 - Endangered Species; File No. 14400

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... black abalone, a species listed as endangered on February 13, 2009. The objective of this monitoring is...) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent...

  4. West Coast Region Home :: NOAA Fisheries West Coast Region

    Science.gov Websites

    Environmental Policy Act Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund Sovereign Relations Dolphin-safe Tuna Aquaculture -safe Tuna Sustainable Seafood Ecosystem-Based Management Hatcheries Resources Permits & . . . NOAA Fisheries researchers working to recover the critically endangered white abalone need to answer

  5. 40 CFR 408.331 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 408.331 Section 408.331 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Abalone Processing...

  6. 40 CFR 408.335 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 408.335 Section 408.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Abalone...

  7. 40 CFR 408.333 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 408.333 Section 408.333 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.333...

  8. 40 CFR 408.336 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.336 Section 408.336 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Abalone Processing...

  9. 40 CFR 408.334 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 408.334 Section 408.334 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Abalone...

  10. 76 FR 66805 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... which 4,843 were form letters submitted by supporters of the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) and 20 were nearly identical to the form letters but included additional information. Comments were also... abalone and its habitat. Comment 29: In one of the form letters submitted by a supporter of CBD, one...

  11. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa Barbara...

  12. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa Barbara...

  13. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from calcite biominerals in recent gastropod shells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean Pierre; Cusack, Maggie

    2011-04-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a microscopy technique that reveals in situ crystallographic information. Currently, it is widely used for the characterization of geological materials and in studies of biomineralization. Here, we analyze high resolution EBSD data from biogenic calcite in two mollusk taxa, Concholepas and Haliotis, previously used in the understanding of complex biomineralization and paleoenvironmental studies. Results indicate that Concholepas has less ordered prisms than in Haliotis, and that in Concholepas the level of order is not homogenous in different areas of the shell. Overall, the usefulness of data integration obtained from diffraction intensity and crystallographic orientation maps, and corresponding pole figures, is discussed as well as its application to similar studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cherchez la femme - impact of ocean acidification on the egg jelly coat and attractants for sperm.

    PubMed

    Foo, Shawna A; Deaker, Dione; Byrne, Maria

    2018-04-19

    The impact of ocean acidification on marine invertebrate eggs and consequences for sperm chemotaxis are unknown. In the sea urchins Heliocidaris tuberculata and H. erythrogramma , with small (93µm) and large (393µm) eggs, respectively, we documented the effect of decreased pH on the egg jelly coat, an extracellular matrix that increases target size for sperm and contains sperm attracting molecules. In near future conditions (pH 7.8, 7.6) the jelly coat of H. tuberculata decreased by 11 and 21%, reducing egg target size by 9 and 17%, respectively. In contrast, the egg jelly coat of H. erythrogramma was not affected. The reduction in the jelly coat has implications for sperm chemotaxis in H. tuberculata In the presence of decreased pH and egg chemicals, the sperm of this species increased their velocity, motility and linearity, behaviour that was opposite to that seen for sperm exposed to egg chemicals in ambient conditions. Egg chemistry appears to cause a reduction in sperm velocity where attractants guide them in the direction of the egg. Investigation of the effects of decreased pH on sperm isolated from egg chemistry does not provide an integrative assessment of the effects of ocean acidification on sperm function. Differences in the sensitivity of the jelly coat of the two species is likely associated with egg evolution in H. erythrogramma We highlight important unappreciated impacts of ocean acidification on marine gamete functionality, and insights into potential winners and losers in a changing ocean, pointing to the advantage conveyed by evolution of large eggs. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Tanaidaceans (Crustacea) from the Central Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. I. The genera Collettea, Robustochelia and Tumidochelia

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of are described from the manganese nodule province between the Clarion and the Clipperton Fracture Zone of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean, and collected during the Nodinaut expedition on board the r/v l´Atalante in the summer of 2004. The new species belongs to three genera as: Collettea (Collettea longisetosa), Robustochelia (Robustochelia pacifica), and Tumidochelia (Tumidochelia tuberculata). A key to the genus Tumidochelia is presented and the validity of the genera Robustochelia and Collettea is discussed. PMID:21594100

  16. Stoneflies of the genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve, Fujian of China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xue-Feng; Murányi, Dávid; Wang, Guo-Quan; Li, Wei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Neoperla are reviewed from Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve located in the Fujian Province of southeastern China, including the description of a new species, Neoperla brevistyla sp. n. The new species is compared to similar taxa. The first records of five Neoperla species, Neoperla henana Li, Wu & Zhang, 2011, Neoperla similiserecta Wang & Li, 2012, Neoperla qingyuanensis Yang & Yang, 1995, Neoperla xuansongae Li & Li, 2013 and Neoperla tuberculata Wu, 1938 are given for the Wuyi Mountain. A provisional key is provided for facilitating the identification of these species. PMID:24039532

  17. Stoneflies of the genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve, Fujian of China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xue-Feng; Murányi, Dávid; Wang, Guo-Quan; Li, Wei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    The species of the genus Neoperla are reviewed from Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve located in the Fujian Province of southeastern China, including the description of a new species, Neoperla brevistyla sp. n. The new species is compared to similar taxa. The first records of five Neoperla species, Neoperla henana Li, Wu & Zhang, 2011, Neoperla similiserecta Wang & Li, 2012, Neoperla qingyuanensis Yang & Yang, 1995, Neoperla xuansongae Li & Li, 2013 and Neoperla tuberculata Wu, 1938 are given for the Wuyi Mountain. A provisional key is provided for facilitating the identification of these species.

  18. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces weremore » repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.« less

  19. Investigations on mechanism of self-healing and cavity filling in case of steel inoculated with seashell powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibullah, Parvaiz; Siddiqui, Ghazala; Saleem, Yasir

    2017-05-01

    Seashells are comprised largely of a brittle ceramic material (calcite, the stuff of chalk) in the form of microscopic slates. Shells, such as the abalones, reinforced with a kind of protein mortar in efforts to evaluate on how seashells repair themselves. We have identified the protein and mechanism on how the protein mortar stretches itself into ligaments that bridge the gap, with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  20. Procurement of a Nanoindenter for Structure-Function Analyses of Biologically Inspired High Performance Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-13

    abalone shell (Figures 3, 4). Here, we can see that the damage is significantly mitigated in the nacreous regions while cracks formed in the Calcitic...properties. Page 5 / 11 Identifying the crack propagation mechanisms helps to identify new designs for impact resistant materials, so the...human tooth from dentin – dentin/ enamel junction – enamel . It is clear that higher resolution scans are necessary to interrogate local structure

  1. Supplemental Environmental Assessment to the U.S. Air Force February 1995 Environmental Assessment for the California Spaceport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    communities are adapted to periodic burning, and many plant species re-sprout readily after fire. Where disturbances are more frequent and intense...and missile operations include the following: continue supporting Air Force Space Command; incorporate flexibility that will permit adaptation to...designated critical habitat for southern steelhead trout located on VAFB (USAF 2011e). Abalone are gastropods Supplemental Environmental Assessment to the

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Assessment PEGASUS Air Launched Space Booster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    central and southern California. The broad-leaved forest formation, consisting of the mixed hardwood, southern oak, and the blue oak-digger pine...species of mollusks, such as abalones, cams, and squid, are harvested commercially. Octopus is sometimes taken for food. The crustacean harvest in...borealis Sei whale En, T B. musculus Blue whale En, T B. physalus Finback whale En, T Eubalaena sieboldii Right whale En, T

  3. Trematode infections in farm animals and their vector snails in Saint Martin’s Island, the southeastern offshore area of Bangladesh in the Bay of Bengal

    PubMed Central

    YASIN, M. Golam; ALIM, Md. Abdul; Anisuzzaman; AHASAN, Syed Ali; MUNSI, Md. Nuruzzaman; CHOWDHURY, Emdadul Haque; HATTA, Takeshi; TSUJI, Naotoshi; MONDAL, Md. Motahar Hussain

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of snail-borne trematode (SBT) infections in farm animals on the offshore Saint (St.) Martin’s Island of Bangladesh were 68.9% for cattle, 76.7% for buffaloes, 56.3% for goats, respectively. Examination of fecal samples showed that paramphistomes infection was the most common at 50.5% followed by schistosomes at 23.7% and Fasciola at 2.3%. Fasciola infection was found in cattle (1.9%) and buffaloes (16.7%) but not in goats. Schistosome infection in cattle, buffaloes and goats were 31.1, 6.7 and 17.5%, respectively. Prevalence of SBTs was higher in older animals. Thiara tuberculata (Melanoides tuberculata) were found to serve as vector for paramphistomes and Indoplanorbis exustus for schistosomes and paramphistomes, respectively. Our results suggest that SBT and their vector snails are highly endemic on St. Martin’s Island of Bangladesh, and proper attention is needed to control these infections. PMID:29503348

  4. Major regulatory factors in the evolution of development: the roles of goosecoid and Msx in the evolution of the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Keen A; Andrews, Mary E; Rudolf Turner, F; Raff, Rudolf A

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factors Gsc and Msx are expressed in the oral ectoderm of the indirect-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata. Their patterns of expression are highly modified in the direct developer Heliocidaris erythrogramma, which lacks an oral ectoderm. We here test the hypothesis that they are large effect genes responsible for the loss of the oral ectoderm module in the direct-developing larva of H. erythrogramma as well as for the restoration of an overt oral ectoderm in H.e. xH.t. hybrids. We undertook misexpression/overexpression and knockdown assays in the two species and in hybrids by mRNA injection. The results indicate that dramatic changes of function of these transcription factors has occurred. One of these genes, Gsc, has the ability when misexpressed to partially restore oral ectoderm in H. erythrogramma. On the other hand, Msx has lost any oral function and instead has a role in mesoderm proliferation and patterning. In addition, we found that the H. tuberculataGsc is up regulated in H.e. xH.t. hybrids, showing a preferential use of the indirect developing parental gene in the development of the hybrid. We suggest that Gsc qualifies as a gene of large evolutionary effect and is partially responsible for the evolution of direct development of H. erythrogramma. We discuss these results in light of modularity and genetic networks in development, as well as in their implications for the rapid evolution of large morphological changes in development.

  5. [Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis

    2010-12-01

    Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined.

  6. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  7. Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea natalensis by the ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in a man-made dam in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E

    1982-03-01

    Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored.

  8. Interactive effects of temperature, food and skeletal mineralogy mediate biological responses to ocean acidification in a widely distributed bryozoan.

    PubMed

    Swezey, Daniel S; Bean, Jessica R; Ninokawa, Aaron T; Hill, Tessa M; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric

    2017-04-26

    Marine invertebrates with skeletons made of high-magnesium calcite may be especially susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) due to the elevated solubility of this form of calcium carbonate. However, skeletal composition can vary plastically within some species, and it is largely unknown how concurrent changes in multiple oceanographic parameters will interact to affect skeletal mineralogy, growth and vulnerability to future OA. We explored these interactive effects by culturing genetic clones of the bryozoan Jellyella tuberculata (formerly Membranipora tuberculata ) under factorial combinations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), temperature and food concentrations. High CO 2 and cold temperature induced degeneration of zooids in colonies. However, colonies still maintained high growth efficiencies under these adverse conditions, indicating a compensatory trade-off whereby colonies degenerate more zooids under stress, redirecting energy to the growth and maintenance of new zooids. Low-food concentration and elevated temperatures also had interactive effects on skeletal mineralogy, resulting in skeletal calcite with higher concentrations of magnesium, which readily dissolved under high CO 2 For taxa that weakly regulate skeletal magnesium concentration, skeletal dissolution may be a more widespread phenomenon than is currently documented and is a growing concern as oceans continue to warm and acidify. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Interactive effects of temperature, food and skeletal mineralogy mediate biological responses to ocean acidification in a widely distributed bryozoan

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Jessica R.; Ninokawa, Aaron T.; Hill, Tessa M.; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Marine invertebrates with skeletons made of high-magnesium calcite may be especially susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) due to the elevated solubility of this form of calcium carbonate. However, skeletal composition can vary plastically within some species, and it is largely unknown how concurrent changes in multiple oceanographic parameters will interact to affect skeletal mineralogy, growth and vulnerability to future OA. We explored these interactive effects by culturing genetic clones of the bryozoan Jellyella tuberculata (formerly Membranipora tuberculata) under factorial combinations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and food concentrations. High CO2 and cold temperature induced degeneration of zooids in colonies. However, colonies still maintained high growth efficiencies under these adverse conditions, indicating a compensatory trade-off whereby colonies degenerate more zooids under stress, redirecting energy to the growth and maintenance of new zooids. Low-food concentration and elevated temperatures also had interactive effects on skeletal mineralogy, resulting in skeletal calcite with higher concentrations of magnesium, which readily dissolved under high CO2. For taxa that weakly regulate skeletal magnesium concentration, skeletal dissolution may be a more widespread phenomenon than is currently documented and is a growing concern as oceans continue to warm and acidify. PMID:28424343

  10. Ecotoxicological effect characterisation of widely used organic UV filters.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, D; Sieratowicz, A; Zielke, H; Oetken, M; Hollert, H; Oehlmann, J

    2012-04-01

    Chemical UV filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common UV filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Due to their life habits, these organism are especially affected by lipophilic substances. Additionally, two direct sediment contact assays utilising zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) were conducted. EHMC caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of 0.4 mg/kg (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and 10 mg/kg (Melanoides tuberculata). At high concentrations sublethal effects could be observed for D. rerio after exposure to EHMC (NOEC 100 mg/kg). B-MDM and OCR showed no effects on any of the tested organism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are the anticipatory pathways in lecithotrophic larvae that delay metamorphosis adaptations? (A review).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    During anticipatory development in lecithotrophic larvae that delay metamorphosis, the growth and differentiation of features of the adult action system continue to develop at a slow pace even though they do not become functional. After metamorphosis occurs, the larger size and advanced development of these components may allow juveniles to initially grow at a faster rate than they normally would. Anticipatory development has been demonstrated in archeogastropods, some solitary ascidians and a hydrozoan. In the gastropod Haliotis and the hydrozoan Phialidium anticipatory development increases the initial growth rate of juveniles. In Haliotis and ascidians all of the larvae of a given female that live long enough exhibit anticipatory development. In Phialidium, the ability of a given female to produce larvae that can exhibit anticipatory development is a maternal polymorphic character. In Haliotis and solitary ascidians that exhibit anticipatory development, it appears to be a slower version of the rapid developmental changes that occur in parts of the adult action system at metamorphosis. In Phialidium, developmental changes in relative sizes of the different presumptive regions of the polyp are slowly altered prior to and independently of metamorphosis. Anticipatory development is not linked to the decrease in the size or nutrient reserves of older larvae but to the length of their larval period. From an evolutionary perspective, the mechanisms that operate during anticipatory development are probably of adaptive significance for lecithotrophic larvae of species that spend variable amounts of time in the water column because of a patchy distribution of appropriate settlement cues. The developmental mechanisms that underlie anticipatory development may have been used during the transition from lecithotrophy to planktotrophy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2007-06-29

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation's polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers.

  13. Laser Imaging Polarimetry of Nacre.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joshua A; Metzler, Rebecca A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Burgess, Carrie; Regan, Brian; Spano, Samantha; Cvarch, Ben A; Galvez, Enrique J

    2018-03-25

    Nacre is a complex biomaterial made of aragonite-tablet bricks and organic mortar that is considerably resilient against breakage. Nacre has been studied with a wide range of laboratory techniques, leading to understanding key fundamentals, and informing the creation of bio-inspired materials. In this article we present an optical polarimetric technique to investigate nacre, taking advantage of the translucence and birefringence of its micro-components. We focus our study on three classes of mollusks that have nacreous shells: bivalve (Pinctada fucata), gastropod (Haliotis asisina and Haliotis rufescens) and cephalopod (Nautilus pompilius). We sent polarized light from a laser through thin samples of nacre and did imaging polarimetry of the transmitted light. We observed clear distinctions between the structures of bivalve and gastropod, due to the spatial variation of their birefringence. The patterns for cephalopod were more similar to bivalve than gastropod. Bleaching of the samples disrupted the transmitted light. Subsequent refilling of the bivalve and gastropod nacre samples with oil produced optical patterns similar to those of unbleached samples. In cephalopod samples we found that bleaching produced irreversible changes in the optical pattern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Actinomyces vulturis sp. nov., isolated from Gyps himalayensis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangli; Lu, Shan; Wang, Yiting; Lai, Xin-He; Wen, Yumeng; Jin, Dong; Yang, Jing; Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Gui; Pu, Ji; Lan, Ruiting; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming short rods (VUL7T and VUL8) were isolated from rectal swabs of Old World vultures, namely Gyps himalayensis, in Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, China. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 6-7, with 1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences classified the two strains to the genus Actinomyces, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (95 %) to type strains of Actinomyces haliotis, Actinomyces radicidentis and Actinomyces urogenitalis. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. MK-10(H4) was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 54.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values with the most closely related species ofthe genusActinomyces was 24.6 %. The two strains can be differentiated from the most closely related species such as A. haliotis, A. radicidentis, A. graevenitzii and A. urogenitalis by a list of carbohydrate fermentations and enzyme activities. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analysis, strains VUL7T and VUL8 represent novel species of the genus Actinomyces, for which the name Actinomyces vulturis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VUL7T (=CGMCC 4.7366T=DSM 103437T).

  15. Layer-by-layer assembly surface modified microbial biomass for enhancing biorecovery of secondary gold.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Kang, Naixin; Cao, Yanlan; Shi, Chaohong; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qin, Benqian

    2017-02-01

    Enhancement of the biosorption capacity for gold is highly desirable for the biorecovery of secondary gold resources. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI) was grafted on Shewanella haliotis surface through layer-by-layer assembly approach so as to improve the biosorption capacity of Au(III). Results showed that the relative contribution of amino group to the biosorption of Au(III) was the largest one (about 44%). After successful grafting 1, 2 and 3-layer PEI on the surface of biomass, the biosorption capacity significantly enhanced from 143.8mg/g to 597.1, 559.1, and 536.8mg/g, respectively. Interestingly, the biomass modified with 1-layer PEI exhibited 4.2 times higher biosorption capacity than the untreated control. When 1-layer modified biomass was subjected to optimizing the various conditions by response surface methodology, the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity could reach up to 727.3mg/g. All findings demonstrated that PEI modified S. haliotis was effective for enhancing gold biorecovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui in Field-Collected Snails: A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chontananarth, Thapana

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of the cercarial stage of an intestinal trematode, Haplorchis taichui, in thiarid snails (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) was investigated using light microscope and species-specific PCR procedures. A total of 988 snails were collected from Mae Taeng district, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, which comprised of 3 species; Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, and Thiara scabra. The overall prevalence of pleurolophocercous cercariae was 21.7% as determined by the morphology. For genetic detection of H. taichui infection in snails, 2 primers Hapt_F (5'-GGCCAACGCAATCGTCATCC-3') and Hapt_R (5'-GCGTCGGGTTTCAGACATGG-3'), were used. The genomic DNA of H. taichui, which was used as a positive control, gave an amplification of the 256 bp fragment. The overall prevalence of H. taichui from specific PCR was 9.7%. The proportion of H. taichui among the pleurolophocercous cercariae in this study was 44.9%. PMID:21234240

  17. Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.

    1985-11-01

    The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptakemore » of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.« less

  18. Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.

    PubMed

    Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-12-17

    Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market.

  19. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

  20. Symmetrization in jellyfish: reorganization to regain function, and not lost parts.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Michael J; Goentoro, Lea

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). We propose reorganization to regain function without recovery of initial morphology as a potentially broad class of self-repair strategy beyond radially symmetrical animals, and discuss the implications of this finding on the evolution of self-repair strategies in animals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials.

    PubMed

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-06

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (σth ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre.

  2. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials

    PubMed Central

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (σth ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre. PMID:25551150

  3. Fire and vegetation history on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands, and long-term environmental change in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starratt, Scott W.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, Robert S.; Jass, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term history of vegetation and fire was investigated at two locations – Soledad Pond (275 m; from ca. 12 000 cal. a BP) and Abalone Rocks Marsh (0 m; from ca. 7000 cal. a BP) – on Santa Rosa Island, situated off the coast of southern California. A coastal conifer forest covered highlands of Santa Rosa during the last glacial, but by ca. 11 800 cal. a BP Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub and grassland replaced the forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150 cal. a BP, as the pond dried frequently, and coastal sage scrub covered the nearby hillslopes. By ca. 6900 cal. a BP grasslands recovered at both sites. Pollen of wetland plants became prominent at Soledad Pond after ca. 4500 cal. a BP, and at Abalone Rocks Marsh after ca. 3465 cal. a BP. Diatoms suggest freshening of the Abalone Rocks Marsh somewhat later, probably by additional runoff from the highlands. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general increase occurs after ca. 7000 cal. a BP, and especially after ca. 4500 cal. a BP. The Holocene pattern closely resembles population levels constructed from the archaeological record, and suggests a potential influence by humans on the fire regime of the islands, particularly during the late Holocene.

  4. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  5. Flea abundance, diversity, and plague in Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in northern New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Friggens, Megan M; Parmenter, Robert R; Boyden, Michael; Ford, Paulette L; Gage, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Plague, a flea-transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a primary threat to the persistence of prairie dog populations (Cynomys spp.). We conducted a 3-yr survey (2004-2006) of fleas from Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico. Our objectives were to describe flea communities and identify flea and rodent species important to the maintenance of plague. We live-trapped prairie dogs and conducted burrow sweeps at three colonies in spring and summer of each year. One hundred thirty prairie dogs and 51 golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) were captured over 3,640 trap nights and 320 burrows were swabbed for fleas. Five flea species were identified from prairie dogs and ground squirrels and four were identified from burrow samples. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant species found on prairie dogs and in burrows. Oropsylla idahoensis was most common on ground squirrels. Two colonies experienced plague epizootics in fall 2004. Plague-positive fleas were recovered from burrows (O. hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata tuberculata) and a prairie dog (O. hirsuta) in spring 2005 and summer 2006. Three prairie dogs collected in summer 2005 and 2006 had plague antibody. We found a significant surge in flea abundance and prevalence, particularly within burrows, following plague exposure. We noted an increased tendency for flea exchange opportunities in the spring before O. hirsuta reached its peak population. We hypothesize that the role of burrows as a site of flea exchange, particularly between prairie dogs and ground squirrels, may be as important as summer conditions that lead to buildup in O. hirsuta populations for determining plague outbreaks.

  6. Bryozoans as indicators of global change: predictable shifts in morphology and carbonate mineralogy in response to warming and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, D. S.; Bean, J. R.; Ninokawa, A. T.; Sanford, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have documented variation in skeletal structure and carbonate mineralogy across a broad range of marine invertebrate taxa. Intraspecific changes in growth, morphology, and carbonate composition may occur in response to local and global changes in temperature, carbonate saturation state, and nutrient availability. Recurring upwelling along the west coast of the United States creates an alongshore mosaic of Ocean Acidification (OA), which may induce plastic responses and/or select for adaptive skeletal construction that can withstand pCO2 and temperature changes. Calcifying bryozoans provide a unique study system for investigating carbonate precipitation under variable conditions. Using a newly constructed flow-through CO2 control apparatus, we tested whether three laboratory-reared populations of the bryozoans Membranipora serrilamella, M. tuberculata and Celleporella cornuta showed differences in growth, calcification, and skeletal composition in response to simulated future OA conditions. Under elevated pCO2 (1200 μatm), bryozoans showed no significant differences in growth rate (new zooids added) compared to clones reared under current atmospheric values. However, C. cornuta colonies raised under high CO2 were significantly lighter, with less carbonate per zooid compared to colonies grown in present-day conditions (400 μatm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that elevated pCO2 led to dissolution of bryozoan skeletons, which did not occur at 400 μatm. Structural changes in M. tuberculata and C. cornuta colonies may be related to the dissolution of high magnesium calcite skeletal components. Analyses of bryozoan morphological responses along with environmental proxies (δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca ratios) could yield high resolution records of temperature and pH, which could be used to help reconstruct environmental variation along the California coast.

  7. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Bakhsh Tareen, Rsool; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Rehman, Saeed-Ur; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province, Pakistan. The ethnobotanical results contain quantitative information on medicinal plants diversity documented for the first time in the area. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews, rapid appraisal approach, open ended questionnaire and personal observations. Results were analyzed using quantitative indices of information consent factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). In total of 102 plant species belonging to 47 families were reported for the medicinal purposes. Asteraceae was found to be dominant family in terms of species in the area with 11 species. The whole plant and leaves were noted as most frequently used parts (24%). Decoction (31% with 40 species) was the most commonly used preparation method. Highest ICF value (1) was recorded for antidote category. 100% fidelity level was found for four plant species i.e. Achillea welhemsii, Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, and Seripidium quettense. The highest use value was reported for the Acroptilon repens (0.5) while highest RFC value was calculated for Berberis balochistanica and Citrullus colocynthis (0.18). Highest use report was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, Malva neglecta and Mentha longifolia with five use reports for each. The area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. However, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. This study provides basis for the conservation of the local flora, its use as food and medicine. It also provides various socio-economic dimensions associated with the common people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  9. Optimized adhesives for strong, lightweight, damage-resistant, nanocomposite materials: new insights from natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, P. K.; Turner, P. J.; Ruoff, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    From our investigations of natural composite materials such as abalone shell and bone we have learned the following. (1) Nature is frugal with resources: it uses just a few per cent glue, by weight, to glue together composite materials. (2) Nature does not avoid voids. (3) Nature makes optimized glues with sacrificial bonds and hidden length. We discuss how optimized adhesives combined with high specific stiffness/strength structures such as carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets could yield remarkably strong, lightweight, and damage-resistant materials.

  10. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  11. Structural biological composites: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Marc A.; Lin, Albert Y. M.; Seki, Yasuaki; Chen, Po-Yu; Kad, Bimal K.; Bodde, Sara

    2006-07-01

    Biological materials are complex composites that are hierarchically structured and multifunctional. Their mechanical properties are often outstanding, considering the weak constituents from which they are assembled. They are for the most part composed of brittle (often, mineral) and ductile (organic) components. These complex structures, which have risen from millions of years of evolution, are inspiring materials scientists in the design of novel materials. This paper discusses the overall design principles in biological structural composites and illustrates them for five examples; sea spicules, the abalone shell, the conch shell, the toucan and hornbill beaks, and the sheep crab exoskeleton.

  12. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  13. Stepwise Elastic Behavior in a Model Elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawe, Dhananjay M.; Cohen, Claude; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2004-12-01

    MonteCarlo simulations of an entanglement-free cross-linked polymer network of semiflexible chains reveal a peculiar stepwise elastic response. For increasing stress, step jumps in strain are observed that do not correlate with changes in the number of aligned chains. We show that this unusual behavior stems from the ability of the system to form multiple ordered chain domains that exclude the cross-linking species. This novel elastomer shows a toughening behavior similar to that observed in biological structural materials, such as muscle proteins and abalone shell adhesive.

  14. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nababan, A. A.; Sitompul, O. S.; Tulus

    2018-04-01

    K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is a good classifier, but from several studies, the result performance accuracy of KNN still lower than other methods. One of the causes of the low accuracy produced, because each attribute has the same effect on the classification process, while some less relevant characteristics lead to miss-classification of the class assignment for new data. In this research, we proposed Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio as a parameter to see the correlation between each attribute in the data and the Gain Ratio also will be used as the basis for weighting each attribute of the dataset. The accuracy of results is compared to the accuracy acquired from the original KNN method using 10-fold Cross-Validation with several datasets from the UCI Machine Learning repository and KEEL-Dataset Repository, such as abalone, glass identification, haberman, hayes-roth and water quality status. Based on the result of the test, the proposed method was able to increase the classification accuracy of KNN, where the highest difference of accuracy obtained hayes-roth dataset is worth 12.73%, and the lowest difference of accuracy obtained in the abalone dataset of 0.07%. The average result of the accuracy of all dataset increases the accuracy by 5.33%.

  16. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  17. Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment

    DOE PAGES

    Kanukollu, Saranya; Voget, Sonja; Pohlner, Marion; ...

    2016-03-12

    Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase ( mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able tomore » switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. Among the ability to convert other sulfur compounds it has the genetic capacity to produce climatically active dimethyl sulfide. Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a flagellum ( fla1) and a type IV pilus biogenesis, which is speculated to be a prerequisite for biofilm formation. This is also related to genes responsible for signalling such as N-acyl homoserine lactones, as well as quip-genes responsible for quorum quenching and antibiotic biosynthesis. Pairwise similarities of 16S rRNA genes (98.56 % sequence similarity to the next relative S. haliotis) and the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (21.20 % sequence similarity to S. haliotis) indicated Shimia str. SK013 to be considered as a new species. In conclusion, the genome analysis of Shimia str. SK013 offered first insights into specific physiological and phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of Roseobacter-affiliated bacteria to the benthic environment.« less

  18. Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Kanukollu, Saranya; Voget, Sonja; Pohlner, Marion

    Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase ( mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able tomore » switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. Among the ability to convert other sulfur compounds it has the genetic capacity to produce climatically active dimethyl sulfide. Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a flagellum ( fla1) and a type IV pilus biogenesis, which is speculated to be a prerequisite for biofilm formation. This is also related to genes responsible for signalling such as N-acyl homoserine lactones, as well as quip-genes responsible for quorum quenching and antibiotic biosynthesis. Pairwise similarities of 16S rRNA genes (98.56 % sequence similarity to the next relative S. haliotis) and the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (21.20 % sequence similarity to S. haliotis) indicated Shimia str. SK013 to be considered as a new species. In conclusion, the genome analysis of Shimia str. SK013 offered first insights into specific physiological and phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of Roseobacter-affiliated bacteria to the benthic environment.« less

  19. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40

  20. KatharoSeq Enables High-Throughput Microbiome Analysis from Low-Biomass Samples

    PubMed Central

    Minich, Jeremiah J.; Zhu, Qiyun; Janssen, Stefan; Hendrickson, Ryan; Amir, Amnon; Vetter, Russ; Hyde, John; Doty, Megan M.; Stillwell, Kristina; Benardini, James; Kim, Jae H.; Allen, Eric E.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbiome analyses of low-biomass samples are challenging because of contamination and inefficiencies, leading many investigators to employ low-throughput methods with minimal controls. We developed a new automated protocol, KatharoSeq (from the Greek katharos [clean]), that outperforms single-tube extractions while processing at least five times as fast. KatharoSeq incorporates positive and negative controls to reveal the whole bacterial community from inputs of as few as 50 cells and correctly identifies 90.6% (standard error, 0.013%) of the reads from 500 cells. To demonstrate the broad utility of KatharoSeq, we performed 16S rRNA amplicon and shotgun metagenome analyses of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory spacecraft assembly facility (SAF; n = 192, 96), 52 rooms of a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU; n = 388, 337), and an endangered-abalone-rearing facility (n = 192, 123), obtaining spatially resolved, unique microbiomes reproducible across hundreds of samples. The SAF, our primary focus, contains 32 sOTUs (sub-OTUs, defined as exact sequence matches) and their inferred variants identified by the deblur algorithm, with four (Acinetobacter lwoffii, Paracoccus marcusii, Mycobacterium sp., and Novosphingobium) being present in >75% of the samples. According to microbial spatial topography, the most abundant cleanroom contaminant, A. lwoffii, is related to human foot traffic exposure. In the NICU, we have been able to discriminate environmental exposure related to patient infectious disease, and in the abalone facility, we show that microbial communities reflect the marine environment rather than human input. Consequently, we demonstrate the feasibility and utility of large-scale, low-biomass metagenomic analyses using the KatharoSeq protocol. IMPORTANCE Various indoor, outdoor, and host-associated environments contain small quantities of microbial biomass and represent a niche that is often understudied because of technical constraints. Many studies that

  1. Quantitative study of medicinal plants used by the communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range, northern Pakistani-Afghan borders.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Wahid; Badshah, Lal; Ullah, Manzoor; Ali, Maroof; Ali, Asghar; Hussain, Farrukh

    2018-04-25

    The residents of remote areas mostly depend on folk knowledge of medicinal plants to cure different ailments. The present study was carried out to document and analyze traditional use regarding the medicinal plants among communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range northern Pakistani-Afghan border. A purposive sampling method was used for the selection of informants, and information regarding the ethnomedicinal use of plants was collected through semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed through quantitative indices viz. relative frequency citation, use value, and family use value. The conservation status of medicinal plants was enumerated with the help of International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria (2001). Plant samples were deposited at the Herbarium of Botany Department, University of Peshawar for future reference. One hundred eight informants including 72 male and 36 female were interviewed. The informants provided information about 92 plants species used in the treatment of 53 ailments. The informant reported maximum number of species used for the treatment of diabetes (16 species), followed by carminatives (12 species), laxatives (11 species), antiseptics (11 species), for cough (10 species), to treat hepatitis (9 species), for curing diarrhea (7 species), and to cure ulcers (7 species), etc. Decoction (37 species, i.e., 40%) was the common method of recipe preparation. Most familiar medicinal plants were Withania coagulans, Caralluma tuberculata, and Artemisia absinthium with relative frequency (0.96), (0.90), and (0.86), respectively. The relative importance of Withania coagulans was highest (1.63) followed by Artemisia absinthium (1.34), Caralluma tuberculata (1.20), Cassia fistula (1.10), Thymus linearis (1.06), etc. This study allows identification of novel uses of plants. Abies pindrow, Artemisia scoparia, Nannorrhops ritchiana, Salvia reflexa, and Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum have not been reported

  2. The role of rice fields, fish ponds and water canals for transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in aquaculture ponds in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Henry; Dung, Bui Thi; The, Dang Tat; Viet, Nguyen Khue; Dalsgaard, Anders; Van, Phan Thi

    2015-12-08

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), such as Clonorchis sinensis, Opistorchis viverini (Opisthorchiidae) and intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae, constitute a public health hazard in Vietnam and infections with these trematodes has been linked to consumption of raw or undercooked fish from aquaculture. The FZT transmission pathways, however, are more complicated than just the presence of intermediate snail hosts in aquaculture ponds as ponds may exchange water with surrounding habitats such as rice fields and irrigation canals and thereby these surrounding habitats may be a source of snails and cercariae and contribute to FZT infection in cultured fish. This is a longitudinal descriptive study on selected farms (n = 30) in Nam Dinh Province which is endemic for FZT. At each farm, we sampled one pond, a small irrigation canal used to supply the pond with water, and a nearby rice field. At each of these three sites, we estimated the density of the FZT intermediate snail hosts and determined their trematode infection status. Comparative analysis was performed for the prevalence and density of FZT infections in fish and snails. Species of the Thiaridae, and most notably Melanoides tuberculata, the most important host species for FZT belonging to the Heterophyidae, were particularly abundant in ponds and small canals, i.e. M. tuberculata was found in 27 ponds and 13 small canals. Bithynia fuchsiana, a potential host for both Heterophyidae and Opisthorchiidae, was rarely found in fish ponds but common in rice fields. A total of 12 types of cercariae were found in the snails and pleurolophocercous cercariae, primarily FZT, constituted about 40 % of all cercarial infections. The fish species cultured were mainly carp species and Haplorchis pumilio was the dominating trematode species infecting fish. Clonorchis spp. were not recorded in any of the ponds. FZT transmission to fish was intense during the summer period (May-June to November) but less intense

  3. Effects of an aged copper contamination on distribution of earthworms, reproduction and cocoon hatchability.

    PubMed

    Mirmonsef, Hassan; Hornum, Hanne D; Jensen, John; Holmstrup, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Contaminated soil is a problem throughout the industrialized world, and a significant proportion of these sites are polluted with heavy metals such as copper. Ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites requires ecotoxicological studies with spiked soils as well as in-situ ecological observations. Here, we report laboratory and field assessment of copper toxicity for earthworms at a Danish site (Hygum) exclusively contaminated with an increasing gradient in copper from background to highly toxic levels (>1000mgkg -1 dry soil). More specifically, we report effects on field populations, body contents of copper, hatching of earthworm cocoons and reproduction of the common species Aporrectodea tuberculata. Abundance of earthworms and cocoons decreased significantly from about 400-150m -2 along the gradient as the soil copper concentration increased from ca. 50 to ca. 1000mgkg -1 . At lower concentrations, the population was dominated by endogeic species, whereas at high concentrations the population was dominated by epigeic species. At high copper contents the internal concentration of copper was in the range 100-160mgkg -1 dry tissue. Despite the high internal copper contents, hatchability of field collected cocoons was not impaired in any species. The EC50 reproduction value of A. tuberculata was about 220mg copper kg -1 dry soil in the first two exposure periods, but nearly doubled in the third period suggesting that an acclimation response had occurred. Also in the laboratory reproduction test, cocoon hatchability was not reduced, but rather slightly stimulated by copper. Based on these results we discuss the possibility that acute exposure in laboratory experiments is more detrimental than exposure in a field situation, perhaps because increased tolerance may be acquired through natural selection and genetic adaptation through increased use of defense mechanisms such as metallothioneins. Further, we discuss that the rather high tissue copper level of

  4. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. The mollusk layers bricks of calcium carbonate (the main ingredient in classroom chalk) and mortar of biopolymer to form a new material (top and bottom left) that is twice as hard and 1,000 times as tough as either of the original building materials.

  5. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-07

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.

  6. Milk of calcium in abdomen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Kuo-How; Chang, Chin-Chen; Liu, Kao-Lang

    2011-03-01

    A 45-year-old woman had an asymptomatic abnormality on a screening abdominal radiograph. The radiopaque mass in her right upper abdomen was surrounded by numerous "pearls" and resembled an abalone on the supine abdominal radiograph. We advised an additional upright abdominal radiograph, which showed a calcium fluid level. We also clarified the location of the cystic lesion at the right floating kidney, which changed its location between the supine and upright positions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right renal cyst with a calcium-fluid interface owing to the milk of calcium. The patient was then followed up without additional investigation or the need for intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of acoustic classification of sidescan sonar data for mapping benthic habitat in the Northern Channel Islands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Highly reflective seafloor features imaged by sidescan sonar in nearshore waters off the Northern Channel Islands (California, USA) have been observed in subsequent submersible dives to be areas of thin sand covering bedrock. Adjacent areas of rocky seafloor, suitable as habitat for endangered species of abalone and rockfish, and encrusting organisms, cannot be differentiated from the areas of thin sand on the basis of acoustic backscatter (i.e. grey level) alone. We found second-order textural analysis of sidescan sonar data useful to differentiate the bottom types where data is not degraded by near-range distortion (caused by slant-range and ground-range corrections), and where data is not degraded by far-range signal attenuation. Hand editing based on submersible observations is necessary to completely convert the sidescan sonar image to a bottom character classification map suitable for habitat mapping.

  8. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  9. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  10. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of dentin matrix protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J.; Fantner, G. E.; Fisher, L. W.; Hansma, P. K.

    2008-09-01

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-15

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. Strong thin coatings, or lamellae, in Brinker's research are formed when objects are dip-coated. Evaporation drives the self-assembly of molecular aggregates (micelles) of surfactant, soluble silica, and organic monomers and their further self-organization into layered organic and inorganic assemblies.

  12. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. Strong thin coatings, or lamellae, in Brinker's research are formed when objects are dip-coated. Evaporation drives the self-assembly of molecular aggregates (micelles) of surfactant, soluble silica, and organic monomers and their further self-organization into layered organic and inorganic assemblies.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-15

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. The mollusk layers bricks of calcium carbonate (the main ingredient in classroom chalk) and mortar of biopolymer to form a new material (top and bottom left) that is twice as hard and 1,000 times as tough as either of the original building materials.

  14. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self

  15. Expression of M6 and M7 lysin in Mytilus edulis is not restricted to sperm, but occurs also in oocytes and somatic tissue of males and females.

    PubMed

    Heß, Anne-Katrin; Bartel, Manuela; Roth, Karina; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Heilmann, Katja; Kenchington, Ellen; Micheel, Burkhard; Stuckas, Heiko

    2012-08-01

    Sperm proteins of marine sessile invertebrates have been extensively studied to understand the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. Apart from molecules such as bindin of sea urchins or lysin of abalone species, the acrosomal protein M7 lysin of Mytilus edulis has been analyzed. M7 lysin was found to be under positive selection, but mechanisms driving the evolution of this protein are not fully understood. To explore functional aspects, this study investigated the protein expression pattern of M7 and M6 lysin in gametes and somatic tissue of male and female M. edulis. The study employs a previously published monoclonal antibody (G26-AG8) to investigate M6 and M7 lysin protein expression, and explores expression of both genes. It is shown that these proteins and their encoding genes are expressed in gametes and somatic tissue of both sexes. This is in contrast to sea urchin bindin and abalone lysin, in which gene expression is strictly limited to males. Although future studies need to clarify the functional importance of both acrosomal proteins in male and female somatic tissue, new insights into the evolution of sperm proteins in marine sessile invertebrates are possible. This is because proteins with male-specific expression (bindin, lysin) might evolve differently than proteins with expression in both sexes (M6/M7 lysin), and the putative function of both proteins in females opens the possibility that the evolution of M6/M7 lysin is under sexual antagonistic selection, for example, mutations beneficial to the acrosomal function that are less beneficial the function in somatic tissue of females. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Multigenetic characterization of 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis'.

    PubMed

    Cicala, Francesco; Moore, James D; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl

    2017-01-01

    'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis' (or Ca.Xc) is the aetiological agent of withering syndrome, a chronic wasting disease affecting most if not all North American species of abalone, and has been described as a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote. Genetic data regarding this species are limited to the 16S rRNA gene. The inability to grow it axenically has hindered its genetic and genomic characterization and, in consequence, a thorough analysis of its systematics. Here, we amplified and sequenced five genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, ftsZ, virD4 and virB11) of Ca.Xc from infected abalone to analyse its phylogenetic position. Phylogenies from concatenated DNA and amino acid sequences with representative genera of most Rickettsiales unequivocally place Ca.Xc in the family Anaplasmataceae. Furthermore, the family has two reciprocally monophyletic lineages: one leading to (Neorickettsia, Ca.Xc) and the other to ((Ehrlichia, Anaplasma), Wolbachia)). A molecular-clock Bayesian reconstruction places Ca.Xc as the most basal lineage in Anaplasmataceae. These phylogenetic hypotheses shed light on patterns of host evolution and of ecological transitions. Specifically, Neorickettsia and Ca.Xc inhabit aquatic hosts whereas the remaining Anaplasmataceae are found in terrestrial hosts. Additionally, our evolutionary timeline places the directly transmitted marine Ca.Xc as the basal Anaplasmataceae, ancestral to both freshwater and terrestrial species with adaptations leading to more complex life cycles involving intermediate vectors or reservoir species; this supports the hypothesis of a marine origin for this bacterial family.

  17. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Marcela P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources. PMID:25540651

  18. Molluscan shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the worldwide population. Immediate-type food allergies are mediated by the production of IgE antibodies to specific proteins that occur naturally in allergenic foods. Symptoms are individually variable ranging from mild rashes and hives to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Seafood allergies are among the most common types of food allergies on a worldwide basis. Allergies to fish and crustacean shellfish are very common. Molluscan shellfish allergies are well known but do not appear to occur as frequently. Molluscan shellfish allergies have been documented to all classes of mollusks including gastropods (e.g., limpet, abalone), bivalves (e.g., clams, oysters, mussels), and cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopus). Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in molluscan shellfish. The allergens in oyster (Cra g 1), abalone (Hal m 1), and squid (Tod p 1) have been identified as tropomyosin. Cross-reactivity to tropomyosin from other molluscan shellfish species has been observed with sera from patients allergic to oysters, suggesting that individuals with allergies to molluscan shellfish should avoid eating all species of molluscan shellfish. Cross-reactions with the related tropomyosin allergens in crustacean shellfish may also occur but this is less clearly defined. Occupational allergies have also been described in workers exposed to molluscan shellfish products by the respiratory and/or cutaneous routes. With food allergies, one man's food may truly be another man's poison. Individuals with food allergies react adversely to the ingestion of foods and food ingredients that most consumers can safely ingest (Taylor and Hefle, 2001). The allergens that provoke adverse reactions in susceptible individuals are naturally occurring proteins in the specific foods (Bush and Hefle, 1996). Molluscan shellfish, like virtually all foods that contain protein, can provoke allergic reactions in some

  19. Rapid enzymatic hydrolysis using a novel recombinant β-glucuronidase in benzodiazepine urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ayodele A; Chester, Scot A; Strickland, Erin C; McIntire, Gregory L

    2014-10-01

    Only trace amounts of parent benzodiazepines are present in urine following extensive metabolism and conjugation. Thus, hydrolysis of glucuronides is necessary for improved detection. Enzyme hydrolysis is preferred to retain identification specificity, but can be costly and time-consuming. The assessment of a novel recombinant β-glucuronidase for rapid hydrolysis in benzodiazepine urinalysis is presented. Glucuronide controls for oxazepam, lorazepam and temazepam were treated with IMCSzyme™ recombinant β-glucuronidase. Hydrolysis efficiency was assessed at 55°C and at room temperature (RT) using the recommended optimum pH. Hydrolysis efficiency for four other benzodiazepines was evaluated solely with positive patient samples. Maximum hydrolysis of glucuronide controls at 5 min at RT (mean analyte recovery ≥ 94% for oxazepam and lorazepam and ≥ 80% for temazepam) was observed. This was considerably faster than the optimized 30 min incubation time for the abalone β-glucuronidase at 65°C. Mean analyte recovery increased at longer incubation times at 55°C for temazepam only. Total analyte in patient samples compared well to targets from abalone hydrolysis after recombinant β-glucuronidase hydrolysis at RT with no incubation. Some matrix effect, differential reactivity, conjugation variability and transformation impacting total analyte recovery were indicated. The unique potential of the IMCSzyme™ recombinant β-glucuronidase was demonstrated with fast benzodiazepine hydrolysis at RT leading to decreased processing time without the need for heat activation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 210Po in the marine biota of Korean coastal waters and the effective dose from seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Hong, G H; Lee, H M; Cho, B E

    2017-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 210 Po were determined in plankton and selected species of macroalgae, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish from Korean coastal waters to understand 210 Po distribution in these trophic levels and to assess the effective dose of 210 Po from seafood ingested by the average Korean. The activity concentration of 210 Po in macroalgae, mixed plankton, anchovy (whole body), abalone muscle, and abalone viscera was 0.97-1.43, 32-137, 59-392, 2.93 ± 0.86, and 1495 ± 484 Bq kg -1 (w.w.), respectively. Polonium-210 concentration in the whole flesh of mussel and oyster were 47.8 ± 5.9 and 45.3 ± 7.1 Bq kg -1 (w.w.), respectively. Polonium-210 concentration in the muscle of the five tested species of fish other than anchovy ranged from 0.51 to 5.56 Bq kg -1 (w.w.), with the lowest amount in a demersal species. In fish, 210 Po activity concentration was as much as three orders of magnitude higher in viscera than in muscle. The average annual effective 210 Po dose per average Korean adult, who consumes 42.8 kg of seafood a year (excluding anchovy), was estimated to be 94 μSv y -1 , with 42-71% of this attributed to shellfish. Further studies are required to assess the dose of 210 Po from anchovy owing to its high activity concentration and the manner in which anchovy is consumed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of huge tsunami in March 2011 on seaweed bed distributions in Shizugawa Bay, Sanriku Coast, revealed by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Shingo X.; Sasa, Shuji; Sawayama, Shuhei; Tsujimoto, Ryo; Terauchi, Genki; Yagi, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2012-10-01

    Seaweed beds are very important for abalones and sea urchins as a habitat. In Sanriku Coast, these animals are target species of coastal fisheries. The huge tsunami hit Sanriku Coast facing Pacific Ocean on 11 March 2011. It is needed for fishermen to know present situation of seaweed beds and understand damages of the huge tsunami on natural environments to recover coastal fisheries. We selected Shizugawa Bay as a study site because abalone catch of Shizugawa Bay occupied the first position in Sanriku Coast. To evaluate impact of tsunami on seaweed beds, we compared high spatial resolution satellite image of Shizugawa Bay before the tsunami with that after the tsunami by remote sensing with ground surveys to know impact of the tsunami on seaweed beds. We used two multi-band imageries of commercial high-resolution satellite, Geoeye-1, which were taken on 4 November 2009 before the tsunami and on 22 February 2012 after the tsunami. Although divers observed the tsunami damaged a very small part of Eisenia bicyclis distributions on rock substrates at the bay head, it was not observed clearly by satellite image analysis. On the other hand, we found increase in seaweed beds after the tsunami from the image analysis. The tsunami broke concrete breakwaters, entrained a large amount of rocks and pebble from land to the sea, and disseminated them in the bay. Thus, hard substrates suitable for attachment of seaweeds were increased. Ground surveys revealed that seaweeds consisting of E. bicyclis, Sargassum and Laminaria species grew on these hard substrates on the sandy bottom.

  2. New locality record for Haplorchoides mehrai and possible interactions with Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in cyprinid fishes in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Manpratum, Yupin; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn

    2017-02-01

    Metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic liver fluke, and Haplorchoides sp., a trematode maturing in catfish, are commonly found in cyprinid fish, the second intermediate hosts of both flukes. However, the specific identity of Haplorchoides sp. in Thailand and a precise assessment of the effects of co-infections with O. viverrini have never been clarified. Therefore, we aimed to identify the species of Haplorchoides and to investigate possible interactions of the two trematode species in cyprinid fishes. Based on the morphology and morphometry of the cercaria, metacercaria, and adult stages, the Haplorchoides species found was identified as Haplorchoides mehrai Pande and Shukla 1976. Thailand is formally recorded as a new locality for H. mehrai, where naturally infected hosts include the snail Melanoides tuberculata (first intermediate host), the cyprinid fishes Hampala dispar, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Puntius leiacanthus, Labiobarbus burmanicus, and Cirrhina jullieni (second intermediate hosts), and a catfish, Mystus nemurus (definitive host). The co-infection rates of O. viverrini and H. mehrai were significantly associated with fish species and fish body region (P < 0.001), with an overall significantly higher average intensity of H. mehrai (126.26 metacercariae/fish) than that of O. viverrini (18.02 metacercariae/fish). Further work is required to demonstrate the extent and mechanisms of possible interactions between these trematode species in the fish host. These data may provide a better understanding of O. viverrini transmission dynamics, and help design integrated control interventions.

  3. Removal of anthracene and phenanthrene by filamentous fungi capable of cortexolone 11-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, K; Długoński, J

    1999-01-01

    Nine fungal strains showing ability of cortexolone hydroxylation to epicortisol and/or cortisol were screened in this work for anthracene and phenanthrene elimination (250 mg/l). All of the strains (Cylindrocladium simplex IM 2358, C. simplex IM 2358/650, Monosporium olivaceum IM 484, Curvularia lunata IM 2901, C. lunata IM 2901/366, C. tuberculata IM 4417, Cunninghamella elegans IM 1785, C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp, C. elegans IM 1785/10Gi) significantly removed anthracene and phenanthrene. During incubation with anthracene formation of intermediate products was observed. The amount of the main intermediate product, identified as 9, 10-anthraquinone, was not greater than 22.2% of the anthracene introduced to the fungal cultures. C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp was the best degrader of both anthracene and phenanthrene, removing 81.6 and 99.4% of these compounds after 7 days, respectively. Phenanthrene removal by C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp was preceded by PAHs accumulation in mycelium and growth inhibition. Elimination of phenanthrene started after one day of incubation and was related to the fungus growth.

  4. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.

  5. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  6. Comparison of Freshwater Mollusc Assemblages between Dry and Rainy Season in Situ Gede System, Bogor, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priawandiputra, W.; Nasution, D. J.; Prawasti, T. S.

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities, which reduced and damaged natural situ (freshwater ponds), also reduced fauna diversity in its aquatic ecosystem. Freshwater molluscs in the situ, one of the largest numbers of animals group with documented extinction, may also be impacted. The aims of this study were to record and to compare the abundance and species composition of freshwater molluscs between dry and rainy season in three situ. The freshwater molluscs were determined by twelve sampling points in Situ Gede (SG), Situ Panjang (SP) and Situ Burung (SB). Samplings were conducted once during dry season (August 2015) and rainy season (February 2016). Total abundance of molluscs encountered was 4321 individuals, which was comprised of 76 bivalve individuals (1.75 %) and 4245 gastropods individuals (98.44%). The abundance of molluscs were generally higher in rainy season than in dry season in all situ, while species richness showed the contrary. The species composition was significantly different between dry and rainy season in SP and SB but no significant differences was found in SG. From eight dominant species, there were six dominant species such as Filopaludina javanica, Melanoides tuberculata, Thiara scabra, Sermyla requeti, Pila scutata (gastropods) and Pilsbryoconcha exilis (bivalve) which were found in high numbers during dry season while two gastropod species (Pomacea canaliculata and Wattebledia crosseana) was numbered higher in rainy season than dry season.

  7. [DNA marker-assisted selection of medicinal plants (Ⅰ) .Breeding research of disease-resistant cultivars of Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Huang, Wen-Li; Wang, Xiao; Wan, Rui-Han; Wang, Hai; Yan, Zhu-Yun

    2017-01-01

    The study is aimed to estimate the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the main producing areas of Salvia miltiorrhiza.Diversity of AMF was surveyed directly on spores isolated from the field soil, collected from 20 sites of 8 provinces. Identification of the AMF was made by observation of spore morphology. At least 27 recognized AMF species were identified in samples from field soil, belonging to seven genera of AMF-Acaulospora, Glomus, Funneliformis, Ambispora, Rhizophagus, Pacispora, and Claroideoglomus. Acaulospora and Glomus were the dominant genera, respectively including nine and eight species. A. laevis (90%), R.manihotis (80%), A. brieticulata (75%), A. tuberculata (70%) were the dominant species.Colonization rate was determined,colonization was easily found, but the colonization intensities were low, the colonization rate remained at 10.92%-25.93%. The similarity between provinces is generally low, and the similarity coefficients were from 0.20 to 0.57. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Essential oil-mediated glycerosomes increase transdermal paeoniflorin delivery: optimization, characterization, and evaluation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Yongtai; Li, Zhe; Li, Nana; Feng, Nianping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a novel glycerosome carrier containing essential oils was prepared for topical administration of paeoniflorin (PF) to enhance its transdermal drug delivery and improve drug absorption in the synovium. The formulation of glycerosomes was optimized by a uniform design, and the final vehicle was composed of 5% (w/v) phospholipid, 0.6% (w/v) cholesterol, and 10% (v/v) glycerol, with 2% (v/v) Speranskia tuberculata essential oil (STO) as the transdermal enhancer. The in vitro transdermal flux of PF loaded in the STO-glycerosomes was 1.4-fold, 1.6-fold, and 1.7-fold higher than those of glycerosomes, liposomes, and tinctures, respectively. In vivo studies showed that the use of STO-glycerosomes was associated with a 3.1-fold greater accumulation of PF in the synovium than that of common glycerosomes. This finding was confirmed by in vivo imaging studies, which found that the fluorescence intensity of Cy5.5-loaded STO-glycerosomes in mice knee joints was 1.8-fold higher than that of the common glycerosomes 5 h after administration. The glycerosomes mediated by STO exhibited considerable skin permeability as well as improved drug absorption in the synovium, indicating that STO-glycerosomes may be a potential PF transdermal delivery vehicle for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis caused by synovium lesions.

  9. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ontogenetic variability in the feeding behavior of a marine amphipod in response to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Samanta; Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro A

    2016-11-15

    Global stressors like ocean acidification (OA) are expected to influence the quality or palatability of primary producers like algae. Such changes can trigger a response on algal consumers' feeding strategies, and this response may not necessarily be the same for the consumers during the ontogeny. We used a mesocosm's system to expose algae to current and projected OA conditions (390 and 1000ppm, respectively) and then compared the feeding behavior and absorption efficiency of juvenile and adult stages of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Specifically, we measured consumption rates (with and without a choice) and absorption efficiency on algae exposed and not exposed to OA. Our results show that OA affect the amphipod's consumption and feeding preferences, and that these effects were related with the analyzed ontogenetic stage (juveniles versus adults). These results support the existence of an ontogenetic change in the response of this species and others similar marine invertebrates to OA, which highlight the need to incorporate different life stages in the study of OA or others global stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The behavioral energetics of New Zealand's bats: Daily torpor and hibernation, a continuum.

    PubMed

    McNab, Brian K; O'Donnell, Colin

    2018-05-07

    We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily. Both species have highly variable body temperatures and rates of metabolism. They feed on flying insects, which requires them to be torpid in shelters during cold, wet periods. In dry weather Mystacina is active in winter at ambient temperatures as low as -1.0 °C, foraging for terrestrial invertebrates in leaf litter, even in the presence of snow, and consuming fruit, nectar, and pollen from endemic plants that bloom in winter. The behavior of Mystacina expands its presence in a cool, wet, temperate forest in a manner unlike any other bat, another example of the distinctive characteristics of the endemic New Zealand fauna. The use of torpor generally depends on a series of factors, including body mass, ambient temperature, latitude, reproductive cycle, sociality, and fat deposits. These factors result in a diversity of responses that range along a continuum from short-term torpor to hibernation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  13. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range.

  14. [Socio-cultural and ethical factors involved in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in an area of low endemicity].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Margareth Maria Lessa; Barreto, Magali Muniz Gonçalves; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Maione, Vanessa Regal; Rey, Luís; Soares, Marisa da Silveira

    2005-01-01

    Five annual parasitological surveys and one serological survey, respectively based on the Kato-Katz and free sedimentation methods and the Western blot technique, were conducted in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an endemic county for schistosomiasis. Possible influences of the use of these methodologies on social, cultural, and ethical aspects of the study population were also evaluated. Having the opportunity to choose the different techniques was a conclusive issue influencing participation by the population. Prevalence rates of positive results for stool tests were: 11.6% (1995); 8.8% (1996); 12.2% (1998); 5.9% (1999); and 3.2% (2000). In the period during which the serological survey was performed, the use of laboratory testing in association with analysis of clinical data and available data on transmission and treatment generated a diagnostic procedure termed "coproseroepidemiology". This methodology contributed to significant improvements in the accuracy of measurement of local schistosomiasis prevalence, indicating that epidemiological surveillance could help prevent the recurrence of high prevalence rates. The fact that Biomphalaria glabrata was replaced by Melanoides tuberculata in the main transmission focus contributed to a significant decrease in infection rates.

  15. Effects of exposure to gadolinium on the development of geographically and phylogenetically distant sea urchins species.

    PubMed

    Martino, Chiara; Bonaventura, Rosa; Byrne, Maria; Roccheri, Maria; Matranga, Valeria

    2017-07-01

    Gadolinium (Gd), a metal of the lanthanide series used as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging, is released into the aquatic environment. We investigated the effects of Gd on the development of four sea urchin species: two from Europe, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, and two from Australia, Heliocidaris tuberculata and Centrostephanus rodgersii. Exposure to Gd from fertilization resulted in inhibition or alteration of skeleton growth in the plutei. The similar morphological response to Gd in the four species indicates a similar mechanism underlying abnormal skeletogenesis. Sensitivity to Gd greatly varied, with the EC50 ranging from 56 nM to 132 μM across the four species. These different sensitivities highlight the importance of testing toxicity in several species for risk assessment. The strong negative effects of Gd on calcification in plutei, together with the plethora of marine species that have calcifying larvae, indicates that Gd pollution is urgent issue that needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathology and first report of natural eye infection with the trematode Philophthalmus gralli (Digenea, Philophthalmidae) in Tinamus major (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae), Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Diana; Soto, Carmen; Rojas, Alicia

    2013-12-01

    The eye-fluke Philophthalmus gralli (Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899) was found in six birds known as great tinamous (Tinamus major) reared in a wild animal shelter located in Alajuela, Costa Rica. The birds presented conjunctival hyperemia, blepharitis, anorexia and weakness. Some of them suffered from unilateral blindness and ocular loss. After morphometric analysis, the specimens showed characteristics compatible with the digenean trematode P. gralli. The clinical signs of infection were resolved by manual removal of the adults, treatment with praziquantel and relocation into an environment without a natural water source. In order to determine if an ongoing cycle of this pathogen was present in the shelter, the habitat of the birds was inspected for the presence of infected intermediate hosts and contaminated water and objects. It was found that the snails Melanoides tuberculata acted as the intermediate host, and reared the infectious stages toward other animals, as shown by the reproduction of ocular philophthalmiasis in chickens artificially infected with excysted metacercaria. Moreover, three out of every ten snails found in the place were infected with rediae of P. gralli, raising the possibility of the dispersion of the parasite into new environments as well as the imminent zoonotic risk. The finding of P. gralli in Costa Rica is the first official report in Central America. © 2013.

  17. Self-repairing symmetry in jellyfish through mechanically driven reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Michael J.; Basinger, Ty; Yuan, William; Guo, Chin-Lin; Goentoro, Lea

    2015-01-01

    What happens when an animal is injured and loses important structures? Some animals simply heal the wound, whereas others are able to regenerate lost parts. In this study, we report a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair, where moon jellyfish respond to injuries by reorganizing existing parts, and rebuilding essential body symmetry, without regenerating what is lost. Specifically, in response to arm amputation, the young jellyfish of Aurelia aurita rearrange their remaining arms, recenter their manubria, and rebuild their muscular networks, all completed within 12 hours to 4 days. We call this process symmetrization. We find that symmetrization is not driven by external cues, cell proliferation, cell death, and proceeded even when foreign arms were grafted on. Instead, we find that forces generated by the muscular network are essential. Inhibiting pulsation using muscle relaxants completely, and reversibly, blocked symmetrization. Furthermore, we observed that decreasing pulse frequency using muscle relaxants slowed symmetrization, whereas increasing pulse frequency by lowering the magnesium concentration in seawater accelerated symmetrization. A mathematical model that describes the compressive forces from the muscle contraction, within the context of the elastic response from the mesoglea and the ephyra geometry, can recapitulate the recovery of global symmetry. Thus, self-repair in Aurelia proceeds through the reorganization of existing parts, and is driven by forces generated by its own propulsion machinery. We find evidence for symmetrization across species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). PMID:26080418

  18. DNA barcode variability and host plant usage of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunprom, Chonticha; Pramual, Pairot

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the genetic variation in fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand and to test the efficiency of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding region for species-level identification. Twelve fruit fly species were collected from 24 host plant species of 13 families. The number of host plant species for each fruit fly species ranged between 1 and 11, with Bactrocera correcta found in the most diverse host plants. A total of 123 COI sequences were obtained from these fruit fly species. Sequences from the NCBI database were also included, for a total of 17 species analyzed. DNA barcoding identification analysis based on the best close match method revealed a good performance, with 94.4% of specimens correctly identified. However, many specimens (3.6%) had ambiguous identification, mostly due to intra- and interspecific overlap between members of the B. dorsalis complex. A phylogenetic tree based on the mitochondrial barcode sequences indicated that all species, except for the members of the B. dorsalis complex, were monophyletic with strong support. Our work supports recent calls for synonymization of these species. Divergent lineages were observed within B. correcta and B. tuberculata, and this suggested that these species need further taxonomic reexamination.

  19. Cost of resistance to trematodes in freshwater snail populations with low clonal diversity.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Yael; Kosman, Evsey; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2017-12-13

    The persistence of high genetic variability in natural populations garners considerable interest among ecologists and evolutionary biologists. One proposed hypothesis for the maintenance of high levels of genetic diversity relies on frequency-dependent selection imposed by parasites on host populations (Red Queen hypothesis). A complementary hypothesis suggests that a trade-off between fitness costs associated with tolerance to stress factors and fitness costs associated with resistance to parasites is responsible for the maintenance of host genetic diversity. The present study investigated whether host resistance to parasites is traded off with tolerance to environmental stress factors (high/low temperatures, high salinity), by comparing populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata with low vs. high clonal diversity. Since polyclonal populations were found to be more parasitized than populations with low clonal diversity, we expected them to be tolerant to environmental stress factors. We found that clonal diversity explained most of the variation in snail survival under high temperature, thereby suggesting that tolerance to high temperatures of clonally diverse populations is higher than that of populations with low clonal diversity. Our results suggest that resistance to parasites may come at a cost of reduced tolerance to certain environmental stress factors.

  20. Environmental Control of Phase Transition and Polyp Survival of a Massive-Outbreaker Jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Laura; Astorga, Diana; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier

    2010-01-01

    A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore) blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp) and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa). Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records. PMID:21072185

  1. Essential oil-mediated glycerosomes increase transdermal paeoniflorin delivery: optimization, characterization, and evaluation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Yongtai; Li, Zhe; Li, Nana; Feng, Nianping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a novel glycerosome carrier containing essential oils was prepared for topical administration of paeoniflorin (PF) to enhance its transdermal drug delivery and improve drug absorption in the synovium. The formulation of glycerosomes was optimized by a uniform design, and the final vehicle was composed of 5% (w/v) phospholipid, 0.6% (w/v) cholesterol, and 10% (v/v) glycerol, with 2% (v/v) Speranskia tuberculata essential oil (STO) as the transdermal enhancer. The in vitro transdermal flux of PF loaded in the STO-glycerosomes was 1.4-fold, 1.6-fold, and 1.7-fold higher than those of glycerosomes, liposomes, and tinctures, respectively. In vivo studies showed that the use of STO-glycerosomes was associated with a 3.1-fold greater accumulation of PF in the synovium than that of common glycerosomes. This finding was confirmed by in vivo imaging studies, which found that the fluorescence intensity of Cy5.5-loaded STO-glycerosomes in mice knee joints was 1.8-fold higher than that of the common glycerosomes 5 h after administration. The glycerosomes mediated by STO exhibited considerable skin permeability as well as improved drug absorption in the synovium, indicating that STO-glycerosomes may be a potential PF transdermal delivery vehicle for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis caused by synovium lesions. PMID:28503066

  2. Evidence of Cnidarians sensitivity to sound after exposure to low frequency noise underwater sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Fontuño, José Manuel; Durfort, Mercè; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don’t know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web. Here we exposed two species of Mediterranean Scyphozoan medusa, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo to a sweep of low frequency sounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in the statocyst sensory epithelium of both species after exposure to sound, that are consistent with the manifestation of a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species. The presence of acoustic trauma in marine species that are not hearing specialists, like medusa, shows the magnitude of the problem of noise pollution and the complexity of the task to determine threshold values that would help building up regulation to prevent permanent damage of the ecosystems.

  3. Holocene evolution of coastal chalk cliffs in Normandy (NW France) as evidenced by onshore-offshore high resolution geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguet, Timothée; Duperret, Anne; Costa, Stéphane; Regard, Vincent; Maillet, Grégoire

    2017-04-01

    take into account detailed rock lithology and rock resistance, large and small-scale structural deformation and fractures occurrences versus the sea level variations during the Holocene. A numeric watersheds analysis has been performed inland to highlight the morphometric properties and the maturity status of each quaternary valley. They appear to be immature, even if their downstream areas demonstrate slopes varying between 0.5 and 2°. Paleo-rivers stopped to incise the chalk before reaching their equilibrium level base. We thus consider that the equilibrium point where the paleo-rivers and the past sea level were connected is located on the shore platform i.e. today located offshore. Therefore we project offshore the V-shaped valley base level, using Hack's law to estimate the paleo-coastline location. It will be correlated to the sea level fluctuations from the last interglacial period and to the Holocene shoreline recession rates known from the 10Be cosmogenic dating. References DUPERRET Anne (2013) CROCOLIT_LEG1 cruise, RV Haliotis, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/13120080 DUPERRET Anne (2013) CROCOLIT_LEG3 cruise, RV Haliotis, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/13120100 MAILLET Grégoire (2014) SPLASHALIOT-2 cruise, RV Haliotis, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/14011800

  4. Multifunctional layered magnetic composites

    PubMed Central

    Siglreitmeier, Maria; Wu, Baohu; Kollmann, Tina; Neubauer, Martin; Nagy, Gergely; Schwahn, Dietmar; Pipich, Vitaliy; Faivre, Damien; Zahn, Dirk; Fery, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary A fabrication method of a multifunctional hybrid material is achieved by using the insoluble organic nacre matrix of the Haliotis laevigata shell infiltrated with gelatin as a confined reaction environment. Inside this organic scaffold magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are synthesized. The amount of MNPs can be controlled through the synthesis protocol therefore mineral loadings starting from 15 wt % up to 65 wt % can be realized. The demineralized organic nacre matrix is characterized by small-angle and very-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and VSANS) showing an unchanged organic matrix structure after demineralization compared to the original mineralized nacre reference. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of stained samples show the presence of insoluble proteins at the chitin surface but not between the chitin layers. Successful and homogeneous gelatin infiltration in between the chitin layers can be shown. The hybrid material is characterized by TEM and shows a layered structure filled with MNPs with a size of around 10 nm. Magnetic analysis of the material demonstrates superparamagnetic behavior as characteristic for the particle size. Simulation studies show the potential of collagen and chitin to act as nucleators, where there is a slight preference of chitin over collagen as a nucleator for magnetite. Colloidal-probe AFM measurements demonstrate that introduction of a ferrogel into the chitin matrix leads to a certain increase in the stiffness of the composite material. PMID:25671158

  5. CASA in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Gerhard; Bennett, Monique; Bishop, John D D

    2018-04-09

    Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus. A feature common to all these species are the helical tracks, the diameter of which seems to be species specific. Using CASA-Mot, the behaviour of spermatozoa was also studied over time and in the presence of egg water and Ca2+ modulators such as caffeine and procaine hydrochloride. For the first time, we show that hyperactivation can be induced in all species in the presence of egg water (sea water that was mixed with mature eggs and then centrifuged) and/or caffeine, and these hyperactivated sperm tracks were characterised using CASA-Mot. We relate the different patterns of sperm motility and behaviour to reproductive strategies such as broadcast spawning and spermcasting, and briefly review studies using CASA-Mot on other invertebrates.

  6. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of emulsifier production by Curvularia lunata in cadmium, zinc and lead presence.

    PubMed

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Frycie, Aleksandra; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The influence of cadmium, zinc and lead on fungal emulsifier synthesis and on the growth of filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata has been studied. Tolerance to heavy metals established for C. lunata was additionally compared with the sensitivity exhibited by strains of Curvularia tuberculata and Paecilomyces marquandii-fungi which do not secrete compounds of emulsifying activity. Although C. lunata, as the only one out of all studied fungi, exhibited the lowest tolerance to heavy metals when grown on a solid medium (in conditions preventing emulsifier synthesis), it manifested the highest tolerance in liquid culture - in conditions allowing exopolymer production. Cadmium, zinc and lead presented in liquid medium up to a concentration of 15 mM had no negative effect on C. lunata growth and stimulated emulsifier synthesis. In the presence of 15 mM of heavy metals, both the emulsifier and 24-h-old growing mycelium exhibited maximum sorption capacities, which were determined as 18.2 +/- 2.67, 156.1 +/- 10.32 mg g(-1) for Cd2+, 22.2 +/- 3.40, 95.2 +/- 14.21 mg g(-1) for Zn2+ and 51.1 +/- 1.85, 230.0 +/- 28.47 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ respectively. The results obtained by us in this work indicate that the emulsifier acts as a protective compound increasing the ability of C. lunata to survive in heavy metal polluted environment. Enhancement of exopolymer synthesis in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ may also suggest, at least to some extent, a metal-specific nature of emulsifier production in C. lunata. Due to accumulation capability and tolerance to heavy metals, C. lunata mycelium surrounded by the emulsifier could be applied for toxic metal removal.

  8. Extirpation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) following the invasion of dreissenid mussels in an interconnecting river of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Kovalak, William P.; Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Rick D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous (1992-1994) surveys for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) along main channels of the Detroit River showed that unionids had been extirpated from all but four sites in the upper reaches of the river due to impacts of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis). These four sites were surveyed again in 1998 using the same sampling method (timed-random searches) to determine if they may serve as ''refugia'' where unionids and dreissenids co-exist. Two additional sites were sampled using additional methods (excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches) for comparison with unpublished data collected in 1987 and 1990. A total of four individuals of four species (Actinonaias ligamentina, Cyclonaias tuberculata, Lasmigona complanata and Pleurobema sintoxia) were found by timed-random searches at four sites in 1998 compared to 720 individuals of 24 species in 1992 and 39 individuals of 13 species in 1994. Excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches at the two additional sites yielded only one live specimen of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris compared to 288 individuals of 18 species in 1987 and 1990. Results of this study suggest that remaining densities of unionids in channels of the Detroit River are too low to support viable reproducing populations of any species. Therefore, we conclude that unionids have been extirpated from main channels of the Detroit River due to dreissenid infestation. As the Detroit River was one of the first water bodies in North America to be invaded by dreissenids, it is likely that unionids will also be extirpated from many other rivers and lakes across eastern North America over the next few decades. Resource agencies should be encouraged to implement active management programs to protect remaining unionid populations from zebra mussels.

  9. Biogeography of Wood-Boring Crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) Established in European Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe. PMID:25313796

  10. Adding complexity to the complex: new insights into the phylogeny, diversification and origin of parthenogenesis in the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rosa; Almodóvar, Ana; Novo, Marta; Simancas, Bárbara; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2012-08-01

    The importance of the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex lies in the great abundance and wide distribution of the species which exist within it. For more than a century, chaos has surrounded this complex; morphological criteria has failed to solve the taxonomic status of these species. This present body of work aims to study the phylogeny of this complex by increasing the number of samples used in previous molecular works and by including morphologically-similar species that were never studied using molecular tools (A. giardi, Nicodrilus monticola, N. carochensis and N. tetramammalis). Two basal clades were obtained: one formed by A. caliginosa and A. tuberculata and the other by the rest of the species. This second clade was divided into two more: one with Eurosiberian and another with Mediterranean forms. A. caliginosa and A. longa were divided into two paraphyletic groups. Both A. giardi and A. nocturna showed characteristics consistent with monophyletic groups. Each of the two recovered lineages of A. trapezoides were phylogenetically related to different sexual species. While lineage I of A. trapezoides was monophyletic, lineage II resulted to be paraphyletic, as well as the three Nicodrilus 'species'. The diversification of the complex occurred during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene (6.92-11.09 Mya). The parthenogenetic forms within the Mediterranean clade would have diversified before the ones in the Eurosiberian clade (3.13-4.64 Mya and 1.05-3.48 Mya, respectively), thus implying the existence not only of at least two different moments in which parthenogenesis arose within this complex of species, but also of two different and independent evolutionary lines. Neither the 4× rule nor the GMYC method for species delimitation were successful for distinguishing taxonomically-distinct species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Species diversity of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from rice fields in Northeast Thailand, with the description of a new Tanycypris species.

    PubMed

    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip

    2017-12-07

    The species diversity of ostracods in rice fields from Northeast Thailand was studied. Fifty-two samples were collected from 43 rice fields during 2010-2016. This investigation revealed 23 genera and 52 species, including one new to science (Tanycypris eugenkempfi n. sp.) and 21 endemic species: endemic to the Oriental region (14 species), Southeast Asia (two species) and Thailand (five species). In addition, two species that were restricted to rice fields in this study were recognized: Bradleytriebella tuberculata (Hartmann, 1964) and Notodromas sinensis Neale & Zhao, 1991. The most diverse genus was Pseudostrandesia, followed by Strandesia with eight and five species, respectively. The most widely distributed species were Pseudocypretta maculata Klie, 1932 and Strandesia kraepelini (G.W. Müller, 1906) occurring in 48.8 % of the total of surveyed rice fields. The number of species in individual rice fields ranged from none to 18. Most of the samples contained three species, but one rice field showed very high species richness (18 species). Most of the species recorded in this study were also found in several types of water bodies and reported from several zoogeographical regions. The main distinguishing characters between Tanycypris eugenkempfi n. sp. and other Tanycypris species are the more tumid carapace in dorsal view, the distinctly arched dorsal margin of the carapace in lateral view, the presence of a subapical dorsal seta on the first segment of the first antenna, the smooth large bristles on the third endite of the maxillula, the absence of c-seta on the first thoracopod, and the long proximal claw (Gp) of the caudal ramus.

  12. Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. Methodology/Principal Findings The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18–32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. Conclusion/Significance The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism. PMID:22348069

  13. Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I.; Panha, Somsak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypica sp. n., Orthomorpha communis sp. n., Orthomorpha isarankurai sp. n., Orthomorpha picturata sp. n., Orthomorpha similanensis sp. n., Orthomorpha suberecta sp. n., Orthomorpha tuberculifera sp. n.,Orthomorpha subtuberculifera sp. n. and Orthomorpha latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as Orthomorpha elevata sp. n.,Orthomorpha spiniformis sp. n. and Orthomorpha subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species Orthomorpha beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841) is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of Orthomorpha spinala (Attems, 1932), syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: Orthomorpha rotundicollis (Attems, 1937) = Orthomorpha tuberculata (Attems, 1937), syn. n., and Orthomorpha butteli Carl, 1922 = Orthomorpha consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: Orthomorpha setosus (Attems, 1937), the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and Orthomorpha exaratus (Attems, 1953), both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha. PMID:22140329

  14. Ocean acidification induces changes in algal palatability and herbivore feeding behavior and performance.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Benítez, Samanta; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The effects of global stressors on a species may be mediated by the stressors' impact on coexisting taxa. For instance, herbivore-algae interactions may change due to alterations in algal nutritional quality resulting from high CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA). We approached this issue by assessing the indirect effects of OA on the trophic interactions between the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata and the brown alga Durvillaea antarctica, two prominent species of the South-east Pacific coast. We predicted that amphipod feeding behavior and performance (growth rate) will be affected by changes in the palatability of the algae exposed to high levels (1000 ppm) of CO2. We exposed algae to current and predicted (OA) atmospheric CO2 levels and then measured their nutritive quality and amphipod preference in choice trials. We also assessed consumption rates separately in no-choice trials, and measured amphipod absorption efficiency and growth rates. Protein and organic contents of the algae decreased in acidified conditions and amphipods showed low preference for these algae. However, in the no-choice trials we recorded higher grazing rates on algae exposed to OA. Although amphipod absorption efficiency was lower on these algae, growth rates did not differ between treatments, which suggests the occurrence of compensatory feeding. Our results suggest that changes in algal nutritional value in response to OA induce changes in algal palatability and these in turn affect consumers' food preference and performance. Indirect effects of global stressors like OA can be equally or more important than the direct effects predicted in the literature.

  15. Occurrence of a Snail Borne Disease, Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer Itch) in Doon Valley (Uttarakhand), India

    PubMed Central

    JAUHARI, Rakesh Kumar; NONGTHOMBAM, Pemola Devi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background ‘Cercarial dermatitis’ also known as swimmers itch (Skin allergies) is caused by a trematode parasite, Schistosoma which has two hosts - an invertebrate (snail) and a vertebrate (livestock, human being). Although the availability of both vector snails and pathogens at the selected site the Doon Valley in northern India has already been confirmed but there was a hazy picture of the disease, whether it is due to entrance of cercariae or due to wild variety of grass (Parthenium hysterophorus). The present study is an attempt to provide a way forward towards the vector snails and snail borne diseases in the study area. Methods Snail sampling and identification was done by applying standard methods / using Keys & Catalogues. Associated parasites and cercariometry in snails has been worked out by cercarial shedding. Human involvement at zo-onotic level has been performed in collaboration with Health centers and socio- economic aspect of inhabitants of study area. Results The snail diversity encountered 19 species including the vector species such as Indoplanorbis exustus, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Melanoides tuberculata and Lymnaea acuminata. The cercarial diversity comprised Furcocercous, Monostome, Amphistome and liver fluke / Xiphidiocercaria. During the study (2009–2010), 0.173% was found with cercarial dermatitis among human population in the selected area. The symptoms of disease recorded were red spots and swellings on effected parts of skin. Frequent visits of livestock to the water body and presence of vector snails provides a clue in completing the life cycle of the parasite of the family Schistosomatidae. Conclusion Cercarial dermatitis has been considered a potential risk at those places where warm blooded and snail’s hosts share a link with aquatic bodies with particular emphasis to temperature and time of year. PMID:26060739

  16. Growth and reproduction respond differently to climate in three Neotropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Sánchez, Raquel; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Camarero, J Julio

    2017-06-01

    The response of tropical forests to anthropogenic climate change is critically important to future global carbon budgets, yet remains highly uncertain. Here, we investigate how precipitation, temperature, solar radiation and dry- and wet-season lengths are related to annual tree growth, flower production, and fruit production in three moist tropical forest tree species using long-term datasets from tree rings and litter traps in central Panama. We also evaluated how growth, flower, and fruit production were interrelated. We found that growth was positively correlated with wet-season precipitation in all three species: Jacaranda copaia (r = 0.63), Tetragastris panamensis (r = 0.39) and Trichilia tuberculata (r = 0.39). Flowering and fruiting in Jacaranda were negatively related to current-year dry-season rainfall and positively related to prior-year dry-season rainfall. Flowering in Tetragastris was negatively related to current-year annual mean temperature while Trichilia showed no significant relationships of reproduction with climate. Growth was significantly related to reproduction only in Tetragastris, where it was positively related to previous year fruiting. Our results suggest that tree growth in moist tropical forest tree species is generally reduced by drought events such as those associated with strong El Niño events. In contrast, interannual variation in reproduction is not generally associated with growth and has distinct and species-specific climate responses, with positive effects of El Niño events in some species. Understanding these contrasting climate effects on tree growth and reproduction is critical to predicting changes in tropical forest dynamics and species composition under climate change.

  17. A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Worthy, Trevor H; Holzapfel, Avi S; Cooper, Alan

    2012-12-01

    Late Quaternary extinctions and population fragmentations have severely disrupted animal-plant interactions globally. Detection of disrupted interactions often relies on anachronistic plant characteristics, such as spines in the absence of large herbivores or large fruit without dispersers. However, obvious anachronisms are relatively uncommon, and it can be difficult to prove a direct link between the anachronism and a particular faunal taxon. Analysis of coprolites (fossil feces) provides a novel way of exposing lost interactions between animals (depositors) and consumed organisms. We analyzed ancient DNA to show that a coprolite from the South Island of New Zealand was deposited by the rare and threatened kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), a large, nocturnal, flightless parrot. When we analyzed the pollen and spore content of the coprolite, we found pollen from the cryptic root-parasite Dactylanthus taylorii. The relatively high abundance (8.9% of total pollen and spores) of this zoophilous pollen type in the coprolite supports the hypothesis of a former direct feeding interaction between kakapo and D. taylorii. The ranges of both species have contracted substantially since human settlement, and their present distributions no longer overlap. Currently, the lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) is the only known native pollinator of D. taylorii, but our finding raises the possibility that birds, and other small fauna, could have once fed on and pollinated the plant. If confirmed, through experimental work and observations, this finding may inform conservation of the plant. For example, it may be possible to translocate D. taylorii to predator-free offshore islands that lack bats but have thriving populations of endemic nectar-feeding birds. The study of coprolites of rare or extinct taxonomic groups provides a unique way forward to expand existing knowledge of lost plant and animal interactions and to identify pollination and dispersal syndromes. This

  18. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L−1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L−1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L−1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  19. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. PMID:21747742

  20. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of jellyfish collagen for use in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2-10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications.

  1. Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) established in European coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Borges, Luísa M S; Merckelbach, Lucas M; Cragg, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe.

  2. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. The thermal regime and species composition of fish and invertebrates in Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, David; Farag, Aida

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the thermal regime and relative abundance of native and nonnative fish and invertebrates within Kelly Warm Spring and Savage Ditch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Water temperatures within the system remained relatively warm year-round with mean temperatures >20 °C near the spring source and >5 °C approximately 2 km downstream of the source. A total of 7 nonnative species were collected: Convict/Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum), Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus), Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculata), and American bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Nonnative fish (Zebra Cichlids and Green Swordtails), red-rimmed melania snails, and bullfrog tadpoles dominated the upper 2 km of the system. Abundance estimates of the Zebra Cichlid exceeded 12,000 fish/km immediately downstream of the spring source. Relative abundance of native species increased movingdownstream as water temperatures attenuated with distance from the thermally warmed spring source; however, nonnative species were captured 4 km downstream from the spring. Fish diseases were prevalent in both native and nonnative fish from the Kelly Warm Spring pond. Clinostomum marginatum, a trematode parasite, was found in native species samples, and the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum was present in samples from nonnative species. Diphyllobothrium dendriticum is rare in Wyoming. Salmonella spp. were also found in some samples of nonnative species. These bacteria are associated with aquarium fish and aquaculture and are generally not found in the wild.

  4. Revision of the orb-weaving spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 (Araneae, Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Lise, Arno A; Kesster, Cynara C; Da Silva, Estevam L Cruz

    2015-02-25

    The araneid spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 is revised. Five of the seven previously known species, V. arenata (Walckenaer, 1841), V. lampra Soares & Camargo, 1948, V. meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892), V. undecimvariolata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) and V. zebra (Keyserling, 1892), are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, 37 new species of Verrucosa from the Neotropical region are described and illustrated: V. cachimbo n. sp., V. tarapoa n. sp., V. scapofracta n. sp., V. carara n. sp., V. latigastra n. sp., V. guatopo n. sp., V. cuyuni n. sp., V. benavidesae n. sp., V. rancho n. sp., V. excavata n. sp., V. meta n. sp., V. levii n. sp., V. chanchamayo n. sp., V. manauara n. sp., V. brachiscapa n. sp., V. macarena n. sp., V. pedrera n. sp., V. lata n. sp., V. galianoae n. sp., V. suaita n. sp., V. coroico n. sp., V. florezi n. sp., V. hoferi n. sp., V. caninde n. sp., V. opon n. sp., V. silvae n. sp., V. avilesae n. sp., V. tuberculata n. sp., V. alvarengai n. sp., V. apuela n. sp., V. bartica n. sp., V. cajamarca n. sp., V. canje n. sp., V. cuyabenoensis n. sp., V. sergipana n. sp., V. simla n. sp. and V. rhea n. sp. Mahadiva reticulata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 is removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer, 1841) and is recognized as a valid species, Verrucosa reticulata. Araneus cylicophorus Badcock, 1932 is transferred to Verrucosa by Mello-Leitão (1946) removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) and recognized as a valid species. The male of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) is described for the first time. Distributional maps are provided for all species.

  5. Trematode metacercariae of fishes as sentinels for a changing limnological environment.

    PubMed

    Dzikowski, R; Diamant, A; Paperna, I

    2003-07-08

    Trematode metacercaria populations infecting cichlids in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) were used as sentinels for the changing limnological environment. Parasitological data from 0+ cichlid fingerlings (Tilapia zillii, Oreochromis aureus, Sarotherodon galilaeus) were collected from the northwest shore of the lake during 1999 to 2001 and compared with data obtained from 1982 to 1984. The results show that the composition of the metacercarial populations changed significantly between the 2 samplings periods. The total number of metacercarial species found in the Kinneret cichlids was lower in 1999 to 2001 than in 1982 to 1984. Metacercariae transmitted by the snail Bulinus truncatus (Clinostomum tilapiae, Euclinostomum heterostomum, Bolbophorus levantinus and Neascus-type metacercariae--black spot and others) that were commonly found in 1982 to 1984 were absent from the fishes sampled during 1999 to 2001. The other trematode metacercariae (Centrocestus sp. and Haplorchis sp. transmitted by Melanoides tuberculata, Pygidiopsis genata transmitted by Melanopsis costata, as well as Phagicola longa, Strigeidae sp.1, an unidentified metacercaria typically found in the liver, and glochidia) increased in abundance in fishes sampled during 1999 to 2001. The calculated 'true' species richness of the habitat, extrapolated as a function of sampling effort, was significantly lower in the 1999 to 2001 versus 1982 to 1984 samples, while significantly fewer fishes needed to be sampled ('sampling effort') during 1999 to 2001 in order to reach the 'true' species richness. The higher calculated values of species richness and diversity for the 1999 to 2001 samples despite the overall decline in species number is explained by the overall increase in metacercariae prevalence.

  6. Stable Isotope Evidence for Dietary Overlap between Alien and Native Gastropods in Coastal Lakes of Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes) dietary overlap (IDO, %) aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp.), detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60%) between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848), Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841) and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774). However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848), under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed. Conclusion/Significance The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods

  7. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Nelson A F; Perissinotto, Renzo; Appleton, Christopher C

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS). In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH). All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2), displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH) which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology"), which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other parthenogenetic NIS, such as Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

  8. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  9. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  10. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish).

  11. Activities and preliminary results of nearshore benthic habitat mapping in southern California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2000-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports a diversity of marine life that are commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the White Abalone. State and National agencies have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources and require detailed habitat characterization in order to do so. This project will characterize and map the benthic habitat in areas that have been selected because they have been set aside as National Sanctuaries or State Preserves, or are areas of ongoing or planned fish population studies. Various management strategies are being developed to protect marine resources in the Santa Barbara Channel Islands Region. One approach under investigation is to implement no-take marine reserves (Agardy, T., 1997; Bohnsack, 1998; Roberts, 1997). One small reserve presently exists on Anacapa Island and there is a growing momentum to add additional reserves to form a reserve network (Lafferty et al., 2000). Reserves may provide relatively pristine marine communities in a wild state for study and appreciation. In addition, they may buffer some species from over-fishing. A key feature of marine reserve design is to protect a representation of the existing habitats in a region (Roberts, 1997). Unfortunately, the distribution of habitats is not well known in this area since the underwater equivalent of soils and vegetation maps that are widely available for terrestrial systems do not yet exist. Managers need habitat maps to help determine the most appropriate boundaries for reserves in a network in order to meet various criteria and goals (such as habitat representation, reserve size, habitat heterogeneity, reserve spacing, inclusion of sensitive habitats, etc.). Another use for habitat mapping is to better understand the distribution of those habitats that are particularly important to fished species or sensitive

  12. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  13. Predicting the Dispersal Potential of an Invasive Polychaete Pest along a Complex Coastal Biome.

    PubMed

    David, Andrew A; Matthee, Conrad A; Loveday, Benjamin R; Simon, Carol A

    2016-10-01

    Boccardia proboscidea is a recently introduced polychaete in South Africa where it is a notorious pest of commercially reared abalone. Populations were originally restricted to abalone farms but a recent exodus into the wild at some localities has raised conservation concerns due to the species' invasive status in other parts of the world. Here, we assessed the dispersal potential of B. proboscidea by using a population genetic and oceanographic modeling approach. Since the worm is in its incipient stages of a potential invasion, we used the closely related Polydora hoplura as a proxy due its similar reproductive strategy and its status as a pest of commercially reared oysters in the country. Populations of P. hoplura were sampled from seven different localities and a section of the mtDNA gene, Cyt b and the intron ATPSa was amplified. A high resolution model of the coastal waters around southern Africa was constructed using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Larvae were represented by passive drifters that were deployed at specific points along the coast and dispersal was quantified after a 12-month integration period. Our results showed discordance between the genetic and modeling data. There was low genetic structure (Φ = 0.04 for both markers) and no geographic patterning of mtDNA and nDNA haplotypes. However, the dispersal model found limited connectivity around Cape Point-a major phylogeographic barrier on the southern African coast. This discordance was attributed to anthropogenic movement of larvae and adult worms due to vectors such as aquaculture and shipping. As such, we hypothesized that cryptic dispersal could be overestimating genetic connectivity. Though wild populations of B. proboscidea could become isolated due to the Cape Point barrier, anthropogenic movement may play the critical role in facilitating the dispersal and spread of this species on the southern African coast. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  14. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    PubMed

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  16. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christine K.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, James A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery.

  17. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  18. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-298-2182, Gibson Flatiron, Erica Shell Manufacturing, Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.

    1992-02-01

    In response to a request from the Montana State Health Department, an evaluation was undertaken of exposures to wood dust and lacquer vapors at the Gibson Flatiron/Erica Shell Manufacturing Companies (SIC-3931), Bozeman, Montana. Gibson Flatiron manufactured mandolins and banjoes. Erica Shell Manufacturing Company cuts and grinds abalone and other sea shells into small pieces to be used in designs inlayed into mandolins and banjos. Measured wood dust levels ranged from 0.8 to 32mg/cu m with an 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) of 1.2 to 30mg/cu m. Rib construction and assembly, and planing bulk ebony wood had TWA exposures abovemore » the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 5mg/cu m for wood dust. Application of dyes and finishes resulted in low exposures to acetone (67641), toluene (108883), xylene (1330207), and butyl-acetate (123864). No solvent air concentrations were above 10% of their respective PELs. The author concludes that a health hazard existed for exposure to wood dusts. The author recommends the establishment of a respiratory protection program and a hearing conservation program. Emergency egress routes should be marked in the buildings.« less

  19. Anticancer and cancer preventive compounds from edible marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena M M; Kijjoa, Anake

    2017-10-01

    A direct impact of food on health, which demonstrates that dietary habit is one of the most important determinants of chronic diseases such as cancers, has led to an increased interest of the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients or nutraceuticals. Epidemiological studies revealed that the populations of many Asian countries with high consumption of fish and seafood have low prevalence of particular type of cancers such as lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. This observation has led to extensive investigations of the benefits of compounds present in edible marine organisms such as fish, marine invertebrates (mollusks, echinoderms) and marine algae as cancer chemopreventive agents. Interestingly, many of these marine organisms not only constitute as seafood delicacy but also as ingredients used in folk medicine of some East and Southeast Asian countries. The results of the investigations on extracts and compounds from fish (cods, anchovy, eel and also fish protein hydrolysates), mollusks (mussel, oyster, clams and abalone), as well as from sea cucumbers on the in vivo/in vitro anticancer/antitumor activities can, in part, support the health benefits of these edible marine organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An undergraduate laboratory activity on molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Spitznagel, Benjamin; Pritchett, Paige R; Messina, Troy C; Goadrich, Mark; Rodriguez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Vision and Change [AAAS, 2011] outlines a blueprint for modernizing biology education by addressing conceptual understanding of key concepts, such as the relationship between structure and function. The document also highlights skills necessary for student success in 21st century Biology, such as the use of modeling and simulation. Here we describe a laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the dynamic nature of protein structure and function through the use of a modeling technique known as molecular dynamics (MD). The activity takes place over two lab periods that are 3 hr each. The first lab period unpacks the basic approach behind MD simulations, beginning with the kinematic equations that all bioscience students learn in an introductory physics course. During this period students are taught rudimentary programming skills in Python while guided through simple modeling exercises that lead up to the simulation of the motion of a single atom. In the second lab period students extend concepts learned in the first period to develop skills in the use of expert MD software. Here students simulate and analyze changes in protein conformation resulting from temperature change, solvation, and phosphorylation. The article will describe how these activities can be carried out using free software packages, including Abalone and VMD/NAMD. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Positive selection and propeptide repeats promote rapid interspecific divergence of a gastropod sperm protein.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, M E; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D

    2000-03-01

    Male-specific proteins have increasingly been reported as targets of positive selection and are of special interest because of the role they may play in the evolution of reproductive isolation. We report the rapid interspecific divergence of cDNA encoding a major acrosomal protein of un