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Sample records for abalone haliotis tuberculata

  1. De novo assembly and annotation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Harney, Ewan; Dubief, Bruno; Boudry, Pierre; Basuyaux, Olivier; Schilhabel, Markus B; Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Nunes, Flavia L D

    2016-08-01

    The European abalone Haliotis tuberculata is a delicacy and consequently a commercially valuable gastropod species. Aquaculture production and wild populations are subjected to multiple climate-associated stressors and anthropogenic pressures, including rising sea-surface temperatures, ocean acidification and an emerging pathogenic Vibrio infection. Transcript expression data provides a valuable resource for understanding abalone responses to variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. To generate an extensive transcriptome, we performed next-generation sequencing of RNA on larvae exposed to temperature and pH variation and on haemolymph of adults from two wild populations after experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. We obtained more than 1.5 billion raw paired-end reads, which were assembled into 328,519 contigs. Filtration and clustering produced a transcriptome of 41,099 transcripts, of which 10,626 (25.85%) were annotated with Blast hits, and 7380 of these were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in Blast2Go. A differential expression analysis comparing all samples from the two life stages identified 5690 and 10,759 transcripts with significantly higher expression in larvae and adult haemolymph respectively. This is the greatest sequencing effort yet in the Haliotis genus, and provides the first high-throughput transcriptomic resource for H. tuberculata.

  2. Expression of biomineralisation genes in tissues and cultured cells of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew; Gaume, Béatrice; Denis, Françoise; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

    2013-10-01

    Mollusc shell biomineralisation involves a variety of organic macromolecules (matrix proteins and enzymes) that control calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, growth of crystals, the selection of polymorph, and the microstructure of the shell. Since the mantle and the hemocytes play an important role in the control of shell formation, primary cell cultures have been developed to study the expression of three biomineralisation genes recently identified in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: a matrix protein, Lustrin A, and two carbonic anhydrase enzymes. Mantle cells and hemocytes were successfully maintained in primary cultures and were evaluated for their viability and proliferation over time using a semi-automated assay (XTT). PCR and densitometric analysis were used to semi-quantify the gene expression and compare the level of expression in native tissues and cultured cells. The results demonstrated that the three genes of interest were being expressed in abalone tissues, with expression highest in the mantle and much lower in the hemocytes and the gills. Biomineralisation genes were also expressed significantly in mantle cells, confirming that primary cultures of target tissues are suitable models for in vitro investigation of matrix protein secretion.

  3. Ultrastructure, chemistry and mineralogy of the growing shell of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Badou, Aïcha; Gaume, Béatrice; Berland, Sophie; Helléouet, Marie-Noëlle; Milet, Christian; Huchette, Sylvain

    2010-09-01

    An integrated study of shell formation was initiated covering the entire life cycle of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. Shell microstructure, chemistry and mineralogy were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. SEM images of trochophore and veliger larvae showed the different stages of shell growth from the initial shell field to the late calcified protoconch. Cross-sections revealed the microstructural arrangement of biominerals, showing the progressive mineralization of the organic protoconch prior to metamorphosis. To gain more information on mineralogical composition, EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy were performed along the development stages. The results demonstrated that early protoconch was mostly composed of amorphous calcium carbonate, while veliger stages showed a gradually crystallization under the form of aragonite. Post-metamorphic shell contained two distinct parts, the original protoconch supporting the new juvenile shell characterized by a marked sculptural pattern. The shells from post-larval and juvenile abalones were essentially made of aragonite.

  4. Two different and functional nuclear rDNA genes in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: tissue differential expression.

    PubMed

    Van Wormhoudt, Alain; Gaume, Béatrice; Le Bras, Yvan; Roussel, Valérie; Huchette, Sylvain

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences of Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata and H. t. coccinea subtaxa identified two different types of 18S rDNA genes and ITS1 regions. These two different genes were also detected in H. marmorata, H. rugosa and H. diversicolor that are separated from H. tuberculata by 5-65 mya. The mean divergence value between type I and type II sequences ranged from 7.25% for 18S to 80% for ITS1. ITS1 type II is homologous with the ITS1 consensus sequences published for many abalone species, whereas ITS1 type I presented only minor homology with a unique database entry for H. iris ITS1. A phylogenetic analysis makes a clear separation between type I and type II ITS1 sequences and supports grouping H. t. tuberculata, H. t. coccinea and H. marmorata together. The two subtaxa do not show any significant differences between the homologous 18S rDNA sequences. A general structure of the ITS1 transcript was proposed, with four major helices for the two types. The two genes were expressed and, for the first time, a putative differential expression of ITS1 type I was detected in the gills, digestive gland and gonads whereas ITS1 type II was expressed in all tissues.

  5. Characterisation and expression of the biomineralising gene Lustrin A during shell formation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Gaume, B; Denis, F; Van Wormhoudt, A; Huchette, S; Jackson, D J; Avignon, S; Auzoux-Bordenave, S

    2014-03-01

    The molluscan shell is a remarkable product of a highly coordinated biomineralisation process, and is composed of calcium carbonate most commonly in the form of calcite or aragonite. The exceptional mechanical properties of this biomaterial are imparted by the embedded organic matrix which is secreted by the underlying mantle tissue. While many shell-matrix proteins have already been identified within adult molluscan shell, their presence and role in the early developmental stages of larval shell formation are not well understood. In the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, the shell first forms in the early trochophore larva and develops into a mineralised protoconch in the veliger. Following metamorphosis, the juvenile shell rapidly changes as it becomes flattened and develops a more complex crystallographic profile including an external granular layer and an internal nacreous layer. Amongst the matrix proteins involved in abalone shell formation, Lustrin A is thought to participate in the formation of the nacreous layer. Here we have identified a partial cDNA coding for the Lustrin A gene in H. tuberculata and have analysed its spatial and temporal expression during abalone development. RT-PCR experiments indicate that Lustrin A is first expressed in juvenile (post-metamorphosis) stages, suggesting that Lustrin A is a component of the juvenile shell, but not of the larval shell. We also detect Lustrin A mRNAs in non-nacre forming cells at the distal-most edge of the juvenile mantle as well as in the nacre-forming region of the mantle. Lustrin A was also expressed in 7-day-old post-larvae, prior to the formation of nacre. These results suggest that Lustrin A plays multiple roles in the shell-forming process and further highlight the dynamic ontogenic nature of molluscan shell formation.

  6. The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34μM for PCB28 to more than 100μM for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67μM for PCB153 to 89μM for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes.

  7. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  8. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  9. Subunit organization of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 2 (HtH2), and the cDNA sequence encoding its functional units d, e, f, g and h.

    PubMed

    Lieb, B; Altenhein, B; Lehnert, R; Gebauer, W; Markl, J

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a HPLC procedure to isolate the two different hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, PAGE, N-terminal protein sequencing and cDNA sequencing, we have identified eight different 40-60-kDa functional units (FUs) in HtH2, termed HtH2-a to HtH2-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated 400-kDa subunit. From a Haliotis cDNA library, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone which encodes the five C-terminal FUs d, e, f, g and h of HtH2. As shown by multiple sequence alignments, defg of HtH2 correspond structurally to defg from Octopus dofleini hemocyanin. HtH2-e is the first FU of a gastropod hemocyanin to be sequenced. The new Haliotis hemocyanin sequences are compared to their counterparts in Octopus, Helix pomatia and HtH1 (from the latter, the sequences of FU-f, FU-g and FU-h have recently been determined) and discussed in relation to the recent 2.3 A X-ray structure of FU-g from Octopus hemocyanin and the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the Megathura crenulata hemocyanin didecamer from electron micrographs. This data allows, for the first time, an insight into the evolution of the two functionally different hemocyanin isoforms found in marine gastropods. It appears that they evolved several hundred million years ago within the Prosobranchia, after separation of the latter from the branch leading to the Pulmonata. Moreover, as a structural explanation for the inefficiency of the type 1 hemocyanin to form multidecamers in vivo, the additional N-glycosylation sites in HtH1 compared to HtH2 are discussed.

  10. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  11. Habitat of endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Behrens, M.D.; Davis, G.E.; Haaker, P.L.; Kushner, D.J.; Richards, D. V.; Taniguchi, I. K.; Tegner, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys with a submersible at offshore islands and banks in southern California found that white abalone were most abundant at depths between 43 and 60 m. This is deeper than estimates taken when white abalone were more abundant. Densities were highest at sites far from fishing ports. Controlling for depth and site found that white abalone were significantly more abundant in areas with Laminaria farlowii (an alga) but abalone were not associated with areas high in the cover of other algae (Pelagophycus porra or Eisenia arborea) or the amount of sand in the habitat (except that abalone always occurred on rock). Within an area with abalone, the particular rock they occurred on was significantly larger than unoccupied neighboring rocks. Occupied rocks were not significantly different in algal cover or in sea urchin density than unoccupied neighboring rocks. The position of abalone on a rock was nearer to the rock–sand interface than would be expected based on a random distribution. More white abalone were feeding when in association with red urchins, perhaps because both grazers capture drift algae to eat. These data may aid future efforts to locate white abalone brood stock and identify locations for outplanting.

  12. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption.

  13. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone... HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Critical habitat is designated for black abalone as described in this section. The textual descriptions of critical habitat...

  14. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone... HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Critical habitat is designated for black abalone as described in this section. The textual descriptions of critical habitat...

  15. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone... HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Critical habitat is designated for black abalone as described in this section. The textual descriptions of critical habitat...

  16. Genome Sequence of Formosa haliotis Strain MA1, a Brown Alga-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from the Gut of Abalone Haliotis gigantea

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Yukino; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Hideo; Iehata, Shunpei; Mori, Tetsushi; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Formosa haliotis is a brown alga-degrading bacterium isolated from the gut of abalone Haliotis gigantea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium and pointed out possible important features related to alginate degradation. PMID:27856598

  17. Genome Sequence of Arcobacter sp. Strain LA11, Isolated from the Abalone Haliotis discus

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Yukino

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arcobacter sp. strain LA11 was isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus. Here, we present the annotation and analysis of the draft genome of this strain, which is involved in nitrogen metabolism. PMID:28302779

  18. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  19. Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm

  20. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones. PMID:26593905

  1. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  2. Proteomic strategy for identifying mollusc shell proteins using mild chemical degradation and trypsin digestion of insoluble organic shell matrix: a pilot study on Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Benjamin; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Marin, Frédéric; Milet, Christian

    2012-08-01

    A successful strategy for the identification of shell proteins is based on proteomic analyses where soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from organic shell matrix are digested with trypsin with the aim of generating peptides, which are used to identify novel shell proteins contained in databases. However, using trypsin as a sole degradative agent is limited by the enzyme's cleavage specificity and is dependent upon the occurrence of lysine and arginine in the shell protein sequence. To bypass this limitation, we investigated the ability of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a low-specificity chemical degradative agent, to generate clusters of analyzable peptides from organic shell matrix, suitable for database annotation. Acetic acid-insoluble fractions from Haliotis tuberculata shell were processed by trypsin followed by TFA digestion. The hydrolysates were used to annotate an expressed sequence tag library constructed from the mantle tissue of Haliotis asinina, a tropical abalone species. The characterization of sequences with repeat motifs featured in some of the shell matrix proteins benefited from TFA-induced serial cutting, which can result in peptide ladder series. Using the degradative specificities of TFA and trypsin, we were able to identify five novel shell proteins. This pilot study indicates that a mild chemical digestion of organic shell matrix combined with trypsin generates peptides suitable for proteomic analysis for better characterization of mollusc shell matrix proteins.

  3. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  4. Identification and characterization of Vibrio harveyi associated with diseased abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qingru; Shi, Liuyang; Ke, Caihuan; You, Weiwei; Zhao, Jing

    2013-03-26

    Mass mortality of farmed small abalone Haliotis diversicolor occurred in Fujian, China, from 2009 to 2011. Among isolates obtained from moribund abalones, the dominant species AP37 exhibited the strongest virulence. After immersion challenge with 106 CFU ml-1 of AP37, abalone mortalities of 0, 53 and 67% were induced at water temperatures of 20°C, 24°C, and 28°C, respectively. Following intramuscular injection, AP37 showed a low LD50 (median lethal concentration) value of 2.9 × 102 CFU g-1 (colony forming units per gram abalone wet body weight). The LT50 (median lethal time) values were 5.2 h for 1 × 106 CFU abalone-1, 8.4 h for 1 × 105 CFU abalone-1, and 21.5 h for 1 × 104 CFU abalone-1. For further analysis of virulence, AP37 was screened for the production of extracellular factors. The results showed that various factors including presence of flagella and production of extracellular enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase and haemolysin, could be responsible for pathogenesis. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain AP37 showed >98.8% similarity to Vibrio harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens and V. rotiferianus, so it could not be identified by this method. However, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated sequences, including the rpoD, rctB, gyrB, toxR and pyrH genes, identified strain AP37 as V. harveyi. Phenotypic characters of AP37 were identified by API 20E. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, strain AP37 exhibited susceptibility to 7 antibiotics and resistance to 13. This is the first report of a V. harveyi-related species being linked with the mass mortality of adult abalone H. diversicolor in southern China.

  5. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  6. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization.

  7. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone. PMID:26313647

  8. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  9. Gene expression profiling in respond to TBT exposure in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor by tributyltin (TBT) exposure using a cDNA microarray containing 2473 unique transcripts. Totally, 107 up-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated genes were found. For further investigation of candidate genes from microarray data and EST analysis, quantitative real-time PCR was performed at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 192 h TBT exposure. 26 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in different time course, 3 of them were unknown. Some gene homologues like cellulose, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, ferritin subunit 1 and thiolester containing protein II CG7052-PB might be the good biomarker candidate for TBT monitor. The identification of stress response genes and their expression profiles will permit detailed investigation of the defense responses of small abalone genes.

  10. Metabolic responses to dietary cholecalciferol and phosphorus in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ma, Hongming

    2003-10-01

    Metabolic responses of cholecalciferol (VD(3)) and minerals (Ca, P and Mg) in abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to dietary VD(3) and phosphorus (P) were investigated. Based on a 2 x 2 factorial design, four casein-gelatin-based diets were formulated. The basal diet was supplemented with either 0 or 2000 IU VD(3)/kg diet and 0 or 10 g P/kg diet. The abalone was reared in P-free artificial seawater for 55 days. Results showed that dietary VD(3) was hydroxylated to 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] in abalone, and subsequently raised the serum levels of these two VD(3) metabolites. Dietary P deficiency elevated serum 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) level only when the dietary VD(3) supplementation was sufficient. The supplementations of either dietary VD(3) or P significantly increased the levels of P in serum, mantle and hepatopancreas, and only the addition of VD(3) significantly raised the concentrations of Ca in serum and mantle (P<0.05). Interaction between dietary VD(3) and P was only found significant on the concentrations of P and Mg in mantle (P<0.05). The concentrations of Ca, P and Mg in muscle were not significantly influenced by these dietary treatments. Hence, the metabolic responses in serum, muscle, mantle and hepatopancreas of abalone to dietary VD(3) and P were in different manners.

  11. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    PubMed Central

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization. PMID:25669609

  12. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-06-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization.

  13. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues

    PubMed Central

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-01-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level. PMID:20680682

  14. Hyperparasitism by the bacteriophage (Caudovirales) infecting Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales-like prokaryote) parasite of wild abalone Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata from the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Muñoz-Flores, Monserrat; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Hernández Rodriguez, Mónica; Ángel Del Río-Portilla, Miguel; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2016-10-01

    Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage. To date, there is no information on the epizootiology of CXc and its bacteriophage in natural populations of abalone; furthermore, it is unknown if the bacteriophage was also present in CXc infecting blue abalone Haliotis fulgens. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of CXc, as well as to determine the distribution and prevalence of the bacteriophage and to study interactions between host sex and hyperparasitism in blue abalone and yellow abalone. Tissue samples were obtained from seven localities where the commercial capture of wild abalone is carried out. Samplings were conducted throughout the 2012-2013 capture seasons and a total of 182 blue abalone and 170 yellow abalone were obtained. The prevalence and intensity of CXc and the prevalence of the bacteriophage were determined by histology. The identity of CXc was confirmed by PCR, product sequence analysis and in situ hybridization while the identity of the bacteriophage was corroborated by TEM. The prevalence of CXc infected and uninfected by the bacteriophage was 80% in blue abalone and 62% in yellow abalone. Low infection intensities were found in 86% of blue abalone and 82% of yellow abalone. Infection intensity was significantly higher in undifferentiated yellow abalone. The bacteriophage in CXc showed a prevalence of 22% and 31% in blue abalone and yellow abalone respectively. These results show that CXc and

  15. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  16. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  17. Energy metabolism during larval development of green and white abalone, Haliotis fulgens and H. sorenseni.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Manahan, Donal T

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the biochemical and physiological energetics of lecithotrophic development is useful for interpreting patterns of larval development, dispersal potential, and life-history evolution. This study investigated the metabolic rates and use of biochemical reserves in two species of abalone, Haliotis fulgens (the green abalone) and H. sorenseni (the white abalone). Larvae of H. fulgens utilized triacylglycerol as a primary source of endogenous energy reserves for development ( approximately 50% depletion from egg to metamorphic competence). Amounts of phospholipid remained constant, and protein dropped by about 30%. After embryogenesis, larvae of H. fulgens had oxygen consumption rates of 81.7 +/- 5.9 (SE) pmol larva(-1) h(-1) at 15 degrees C through subsequent development. The loss of biochemical reserves fully met the needs of metabolism, as measured by oxygen consumption. Larvae of H. sorenseni were examined during later larval development and were metabolically and biochemically similar to H. fulgens larvae at a comparable stage. Metabolic rates of both species were very similar to previous data for a congener, H. rufescens, suggesting that larval metabolism and energy utilization may be conserved among closely related species that also share similar developmental morphology and feeding modes.

  18. Formosa haliotis sp. nov., a brown-alga-degrading bacterium isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiji; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Mizutani, Yukino; Iehata, Shunpei; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Hideo; Mori, Tetsushi; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Bossier, Peter; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Four brown-alga-degrading, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, gliding and rod-shaped bacteria, designated LMG 28520T, LMG 28521, LMG 28522 and LMG 28523, were isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis gigantea obtained in Japan. The four isolates had identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns and grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 6.0-9.0 and in the presence of 1.0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolates in the genus Formosa with Formosa algae and Formosa arctica as closest neighbours. LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 showed 100 % DNA-DNA relatedness to each other, 16-17 % towards F. algae LMG 28216T and 17-20 % towards F. arctica LMG 28318T; they could be differentiated phenotypically from these established species. The predominant fatty acids of isolates LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 were summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. Isolate LMG 28520T contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the major respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol% for LMG 28520T and 35.5 mol% for LMG 28522. On the basis of their phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, and differential phenotypic properties, the four isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Formosa, for which the name Formosa haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 28520T ( = NBRC 111189T).

  19. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei-Ping, Tan; Kang-Sen, Mai; Wei, Xu

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  20. Cloning and characterization of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) actin gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongming; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Chen, Hong

    2004-10-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3‧ RACE and 5‧ RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3‧ untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5‧ untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin (β-actin) than to human muscle actin.

  1. Characterization of a non-fibrillar-related collagen in the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata and its biological activity on human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Christophe; Serpentini, Antoine; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Renard, Emmanuelle; Galéra, Philippe; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2011-10-01

    In invertebrates, members of the collagen family have been found in various phyla. Surprisingly, in mollusc, little is known about such molecules. In this study, we characterize the full-length abalone type IV collagen and we analysed its biological effects on human fibroblast in order to gain insights about this molecule in molluscs and particularly clues about its roles. We screened a cDNA library of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The expression pattern of the transcript is determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. The close identity between α1(IV) C-terminal domain and the vertebrate homologue led us to produce, purify and test in vitro a recombinant protein corresponding to this region using human dermal fibroblasts cell culture. The biological effects were evaluated on proliferation and on differentiation. We found that the 5,334-bp open reading frame transcript encodes a protein of 1,777 amino acids, including an interrupted 1,502-residue collagenous domain and a 232-residue C-terminal non-collagenous domain. The expression pattern of this transcript is mainly found in the mantle and hemocytes. The recombinant protein corresponding α1(IV) C-terminal domain increased fibroblast proliferation by 69% and doubled collagen synthesis produced in primary cultures. This work provides the first complete primary structure of a mollusc non-fibrillar collagen chain and the biological effects of its C-terminal domain on human cells. In this study, we prove that the NC1 domain from a molluscan collagen can improve human fibroblast proliferation as well as differentiation.

  2. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste

    PubMed Central

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M.; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A.

    2016-01-01

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin. PMID:28042854

  3. Organic interlamellar layers, mesolayers and mineral nanobridges: contribution to strength in abalone (Haliotis rufescence) nacre.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maria I; Meza Martinez, Pedro E; Meyers, Marc A

    2014-05-01

    The contributions of mesolayers, organic interlamellar layers and nanoasperities/mineral bridges to the strength of nacre from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) shell nacre are investigated. Samples were demineralized and deproteinized to separate the organic and mineral components, respectively. Tensile tests were performed on both the isolated organic constituent and the isolated mineral. The strength of the isolated organic component suggests that growth bands play an important role in the mechanical behavior as they are thick regions of protein that are a significant fraction (∼0.4) of the total organic content. The thickness variation of the nacre tablets was measured and found to be a small fraction of the mean tablet thickness (0.568μm); the standard deviation is 26nm, indicating that the wedge mechanism of toughening does not operate in the nacre investigated. Results obtained from the isolated mineral validate the importance of the organic constituent as the mechanical properties decline greatly when the organic component is removed. The results presented herein add to the understanding of the mechanical response of the organic interlayers and growth bands and their effect on the toughness of the abalone nacre.

  4. Effects of chemical cues on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis asinina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Bai, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Low larval survival, poor settlement, and abnormal metamorphosis are major problems in seed production of donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina. We examined the effects of chemical cues including epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and serotonin on larval survival, settlement, and metamorphosis in order to determine the possibility of using these chemicals to induce the problems. The results show that epinephrine could enhance metamorphosis rate at 10-6 mol/L only but higher concentrations (10-3-10-4 mol/L); and nor-epinephrine could inhibit the performance significantly, and serotonin could increase significantly the performance at a wide-range concentration (10-3-10-6 mol/L). Treatment with serotonin at 10-5 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest settlement rate (42.2%) and survival rate (49.3%), while at 10-4 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest metamorphosis rate (38.8%). Therefore, serotonin may be used as a fast metamorphosis inducer in abalone culture.

  5. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST) investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein) protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions. PMID:21050442

  6. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45% 97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  7. Antimicrobial peptide, hdMolluscidin, purified from the gill of the abalone, Haliotis discus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A 4.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Abalone, Haliotis discus, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides revealed that this antimicrobial peptide have high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin and was designated hdMolluscidin. hdMolluscidin is composed of 46 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats like KK or K-R. hdMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 0.8-19.0 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Vibrio parahemolyticus ([MECs]; 1.0-4.0 μg/mL) without hemolytic activity. However, hdMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The secondary structural prediction suggested that hdMolluscidin might not form an ordered or an amphipathic structure. hdMolluscidin did not show membrane permeabilization or leakage ability. The full-length hdMolluscidin cDNA contained 566-bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63-bp, a 3'-UTR of 359-bp, and an open reading frame of 144-bp encoding 47 amino acids (containing Met). cDNA study of hdMolluscidin suggests that it is expressed as a mature peptide. Our results indicate that hdMolluscidin could relate to the innate immune defenses in abalone and it may not act directly on bacterial membrane.

  8. Continuous and simultaneous cultivation of benthic food diatom Nitzschia sp. and abalone Haliotis sieboldii by using deep seawater.

    PubMed

    Fukami; Kawai; Asada; Okabe; Hotta; Moriyama; Doi; Nishijima; Yamaguchi; Taniguchi

    1998-12-01

    By using low-temperature, clean, and nutrient-rich properties of deep seawater (DSW; seawater below the euphotic layer), a continuous and simultaneous cultivation system for a benthic food diatom, Nitzschia sp., and juvenile abalone was established. Cell suspension of Nitzschia sp. was added to a bioreactor made of acrylic pipe (7 cm diameter x 50 cm long) containing short vinyl tubes (2 cm diameter x 2 cm long) as substrata. DSW collected from 320 m depth at Muroto City, in Kochi Prefecture, Japan, was supplied to the reactor and incubated under natural light (ca. 6000 lux) with a continuous DSW flow rate of 40 turnovers per hour. After growing enough benthic diatoms in the reactor, juveniles of abalone, Haliotis sieboldii (shell length ca. 10-20 mm) were put into a reactor, and cultivated simultaneously with food diatoms in the continuous flow system. During the four-month incubation, 7-month-old abalone juveniles with a shell length of 12.4 (average) +/-0.2 (SD) mm were grown to 19.4 (+/-1.7) mm in the reactor. Daily growth rates of abalones were 50-110 µm/day. These results indicate that the continuous cultivation system with DSW supports the growth of juvenile abalone without any supply of seaweed until it grows to release size.

  9. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-03-09

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  10. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-01-01

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone. PMID:28282934

  11. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-03

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition.

  13. Design of an optimum computer vision-based automatic abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) grading algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively.

  14. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  15. Abhisin: a potential antimicrobial peptide derived from histone H2A of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2009-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the immune defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, a histone H2A full-length cDNA was cloned from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. We identified a 40-amino acid AMP designated as abhisin from the N-terminus of the abalone histone H2A sequence. Abhisin shows the characteristic features of AMPs including net positive charge (+13), higher hydrophobic residues (27%) and 2.82 kcal/mol protein binding potential. Abhisin shares 80% amino acid identity with the buforin I peptide that is derived from Asian toad histone H2A. We synthesized the synthetic peptide of abhisin, and characterized its antimicrobial activities. Our results showed the growth inhibition of Gram positive (G+) Listeria monocytogenes, Gram negative (G-) Vibrio ichthyoenteri bacteria, and fungi (yeast) Pityrosporum ovale by abhisin treatment at 250 microg/mL. However, stronger activity was displayed against the G+ than G- bacteria. Additionally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation results confirmed that P. ovale cells were damaged by abhisin treatment. Interestingly, abhisin treatment (50 microg/mL) decreased the viability of THP-1 leukemia cancer cells approximately by 25% but there was no effect on the normal vero cells, suggesting that abhisin has cytotoxicity against cancer cells but not normal cells. Quantitative real time RT-PCR results revealed that histone H2A transcription was significantly induced at 3 h post-infection with bacteria in abalone gills and digestive tract. These results suggest that abhisin is a potential antimicrobial agent, and its precursor histone H2A may be involved in the innate immune defense system in abalone.

  16. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  17. Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

  18. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    PubMed Central

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  19. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone.

  20. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  1. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  2. Detection of QTL for growth rate in the blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra Leach) using selective DNA pooling.

    PubMed

    Baranski, M; Rourke, M; Loughnan, S; Hayes, B; Austin, C; Robinson, N

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify QTL for growth rate in the blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra using selective DNA pooling. Three full-sibling families of H. rubra derived from crosses of wild broodstock were used. DNA was extracted from the largest and smallest 10% of progeny and combined into two pools for each phenotypic tail. The DNA pools were typed with 139 microsatellites, and markers showing significant differences between the peak height ratios of alleles inherited from the parents were individually genotyped and analysed by interval mapping. A strong correlation (r = 0.94, P < 0.001) was found between the t-values from the analysis of pools and the t-values from the analysis of individual genotypes. Based on the interval mapping analysis, QTL were detected on nine linkage groups at a chromosome-wide P < 0.01 and one linkage group at a chromosome-wide P < 0.05. The study demonstrated that selective DNA pooling is efficient and effective as a first-pass screen for the discovery of QTL in an aquaculture species.

  3. Perlinhibin, a Cysteine-, Histidine-, and Arginine-Rich Miniprotein from Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) Nacre, Inhibits In Vitro Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Karlheinz; Siedler, Frank; Treccani, Laura; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2007-01-01

    We have isolated a 4.785 Da protein from the nacreous layer of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (greenlip abalone) shell after demineralization with acetic acid. The sequence of 41 amino acids was determined by Edman degradation supported by mass spectrometry. The most abundant amino acids were cysteine (19.5%), histidine (17%), and arginine (14.6%). The positively charged amino acids were almost counterbalanced by negatively charged ones resulting in a calculated isoelectric point of 7.86. Atomic-force microscopy studies of the interaction of the protein with calcite surfaces in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution or calcium chloride solution showed that the protein bound specifically to calcite steps, inhibiting further crystal growth at these sites in carbonate solution and preventing crystal dissolution when carbonate was substituted with chloride. Therefore this protein was named perlinhibin. X-ray diffraction investigation of the crystal after atomic-force microscopy growth experiments showed that the formation of aragonite was induced on the calcite substrate around holes caused by perlinhibin crystal-growth inhibition. The strong interaction of the protein with calcium carbonate was also shown by vapor diffusion crystallization. In the presence of the protein, the crystal surfaces were covered with holes due to protein binding and local inhibition of crystal growth. In addition to perlinhibin, we isolated and sequenced a perlinhibin-related protein, indicating that perlinhibin may be a member of a family of closely related proteins. PMID:17496038

  4. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Cascading effects from survival to physiological activities, and gene expression of heat shock protein 90 on the abalone Haliotis discus hannai responding to continuous thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kang, Ju-Chan; Kim, Jae Won; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-02-01

    Increasing temperatures can be a significant stressor for aquatic organisms. Abalones, a type of large marine gastropods, are the most commercially important species in aquaculture for Asia. To evaluate the potential ecological risk posed by temperature stress, we measured biological responses such as survival rate, adhesion ability (falling rate), and foot abnormalities in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Additionally, biochemical and molecular responses were evaluated in H. discus hannai exposed to various temperature gradients. The survival rate was reduced in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (more than 26 °C). Increased temperature stress induced a higher falling rate and abnormal foot structure. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (26 and 28 °C). The activities of superoxide dismutase were induced in a time-dependent manner after high temperature stress. Generally, heat shock protein 90 also increased significantly in H. discus hannai exposed to temperature gradients (more than 24 °C) for 12 h. These results provide valuable information regarding stress responses to increased temperatures, in H. discus hannai: adverse biological and molecular outcomes could be utilized as risk assessments and stress monitoring of marine ecosystems under increased water temperatures.

  6. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  7. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  8. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; He, Qingguo; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses, especially thermal stress. Here we examined the response of Hsp70 gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino). For the chronic exposure, abalones were maintained at 8, 12, 20, and 30°C for four months and their mRNA levels were measured. The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30°C-acclimated group, followed by the 8°C-acclimated group and then the 12°C- and 20°C-acclimated groups. After the long-term acclimation, gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8°C and 38°C for 30 min. Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure. The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups. Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions, through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  9. Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822).

    PubMed

    López-Landavery, Edgar A; Portillo-López, Amelia; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2014-10-10

    The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Baja California, México, and despite this, few gene expression studies have been done in tissues such as gill, head and gonad. For this purpose, reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool for gene expression evaluation. For a reliable analysis, however, it is necessary to select and validate housekeeping genes that allow proper transcription quantification. Stability of nine housekeeping genes (ACTB, BGLU, TUBB, CY, GAPDH, HPRTI, RPL5, SDHA and UBC) was evaluated in different tissues of red abalone (gill, head and gonad/digestive gland). Four-fold serial dilutions of cDNA (from 25 ngμL(-1) to 0.39 ngμL(-1)) were used to prepare the standard curve, and it showed gene efficiencies between 0.95 and 0.99, with R(2)=0.99. geNorm and NormFinder analysis showed that RPL5 and CY were the most stable genes considering all tissues, whereas in gill HPRTI and BGLU were most stable. In gonad/digestive gland, RPL5 and TUBB were the most stable genes with geNorm, while SDHA and HPRTI were the best using NormFinder. Similarly, in head the best genes were RPL5 and UBC with geNorm, and GAPDH and CY with NormFinder. The technical variability analysis with RPL5 and abalone gonad/digestive gland tissue indicated a high repeatability with a variation coefficient within groups ≤ 0.56% and between groups ≤ 1.89%. These results will help us for further research in reproduction, thermoregulation and endocrinology in red abalone.

  10. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens.

  11. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  12. Validation of a short-term toxicity test endpoint by comparison with longer-term effects on larval red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, P.T.; Hunt, J.W.; Anderson, B.S.

    1996-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare a short-term 48-h aquatic toxicity test endpoint of abnormal larval shell development with other, more clearly adverse effects. In similar experiments conducted with two different toxicants, zinc sulfate and bleached-kraft mill effluent, red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) embryos were simultaneously exposed to identical dilution series and incubated for three different exposure periods: 48 h, 48 h followed by an 8-d recovery period in clean seawater, and 10 d of continuous exposure. Abnormal larval shell development was assessed in the 48-h short-term tests, and inhibition of metamorphosis was assessed in the exposure-recovery and continuous exposure experiments. For the zinc experiments, the median effective concentration (EC50) values for the 48-h exposure, the exposure-recovery experiment, and the continuous exposure experiment were 40, 34, and 32 {micro}g/L zinc, respectively. For the bleached-kraft mill effluent experiments, the EC50 values were 0.98, 0.76, and 0.69% effluent, respectively. Results indicate that toxicant concentrations causing abnormal larval shell development also inhibit metamorphosis and that larvae exposed to toxicant concentrations which inhibit larval shell development do not recover to metamorphose when transferred to clean seawater. None of the successfully metamorphosed postlarvae had deformed larval shells, indicating that shell deformity precludes survival past the planktonic stage. A longer (15-d) experiment allowed measurement of postlarval shell length in exposed postmetamorphic abalone. Insignificant differences in postlarval shell length indicated that the timing of larval metamorphosis was similar regardless of toxicant exposure and that the effects of the toxicant was to inhibit rather than to delay metamorphosis.

  13. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

    2011-06-01

    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (p<0.05). Excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) significantly increases the Zn content and significantly decreases the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (p<0.05). These findings showed that dietary Zn (33.8 mg/kg) could highly trigger the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone.

  14. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species.

  15. Detection of molecular signatures of selection at microsatellite loci in the South African abalone (Haliotis midae) using a population genomic approach.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Clint; Vervalle, Jessica; Bester-van der Merwe, Aletta E; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2013-06-01

    Identifying genomic regions that may be under selection is important for elucidating the genetic architecture of complex phenotypes underlying adaptation to heterogeneous environments. A population genomic approach, using a classical neutrality test and various Fst-outlier detection methods was employed to evaluate genome-wide polymorphism data in order to identify loci that may be candidates for selection amongst six populations (three cultured and three wild) of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. Approximately 9% of the genome-wide microsatellite markers were putatively subject to directional selection, whilst 6-18% of the genome is thought to be influenced by balancing selection. Genetic diversity estimates for candidate loci under directional selection was significantly reduced in comparison to candidate neutral loci, whilst candidate balancing selection loci demonstrated significantly higher levels of genetic diversity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05). Pairwise Fst estimates based on candidate directional selection loci also demonstrated increased levels of differentiation between study populations. Various candidate loci under selection showed significant inter-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium, suggesting possible gene-networks underling adaptive phenotypes. Furthermore, several loci had significant hits to known genes when performing BLAST searches to NCBI's non-redundant databases, whilst others are known to be derived from expressed sequences even though homology to a known gene could not be established. A number of loci also demonstrated relatively high similarity to transposable elements. The association of these loci to functional and genomically active sequences could in part explain the observed signatures of selection.

  16. Purification and characterization of a novel extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase produced by Bacillus clausii NM-1 isolated from ezo abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Hamada, Naoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2003-01-01

    A novel extracellular alkaline stable beta-1,3-glucanase produced by Bacillus clausii NM-1 isolated from the ezo abalone Haliotis discus hannai was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose FF ion exchange chromatography and Sephacryl S-200HR gel filtration. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 71 kDa from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was very stable at pH 5.3 to 11.5 but unstable at pH 4.0 to 4.5. The optimum temperature and thermostability of the enzyme increased in the presence of CaC1, The enzyme hydrolyzed R-1,3-glucan from marine organisms, but did not show activity against any other beta-1,3-glucans. The major hydrolysis products of beta-1,3-glucan from Laminaria digitata and Eisenia bicyclis were laminaritriose and laminaritetraose, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was similar to that of several beta-1,3-glucanases in the glycoside hydrolase family 16.

  17. Enzymatic properties and the primary structure of a beta-1,3-glucanase from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yuya; Ojima, Takao

    2009-09-01

    A beta-1,3-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) with a molecular mass of 33 kDa was isolated from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatography. This enzyme, named HdLam33 in the present study, degraded laminarin and laminarioligosaccharides to laminaribiose and glucose with the optimal temperature and pH at 50 degrees C and 6.0, respectively. HdLam33 possessed transglycosylation activity, a characteristic property of glucan hydrolases that split glycoside linkage with a retaining manner. By the transglycosylation reaction of HdLam33, the laminaribiose unit in the non-reducing terminus of laminaritriose (donor substrate) was transferred to a free laminaribiose (acceptor substrate) resulting to laminaritetraose and glucose. The resulting laminaritetraose was subsequently hydrolyzed by HdLam33 into 2 mol of glucose and 1 mol of laminaribiose. The primary structure of HdLam33 was analyzed by the cDNA method. The deduced amino-acid sequence of 329 residues corresponding to the catalytic domain of HdLam33 showed 56-61% amino-acid identity with those of other molluscan beta-1,3-glucanases which have been identified as glycoside hydrolase family 16 enzymes.

  18. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    PubMed

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-08-01

    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size.

  19. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  20. A bifunctional invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: genome organization, transcriptional profiling and biological activities of recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Lysozyme is an important enzyme in the innate immune system that plays a vital role in fighting microbial infections. In the current study, we identified, cloned, and characterized a gene that encodes an invertebrate-type lysozyme from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus (abLysI). The full-length cDNA of abLysI consisted of 545 bp with an open reading frame of 393 bp that encodes 131 amino acids. The theoretical molecular mass of mature abLysI was 12.3 kDa with an isoelectric point of 8.03. Conserved features in other homologs, such as catalytic sites for lytic activity (Glu(30) and Asp(41)), isopeptidase activity (His(107)), and ten cysteine residues were identified in abLysI. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that abLysI was organized into four exons interrupted by three introns. Several immune-related transcription factor binding sites were discovered in the putative promoter region. Homology and phylogeny analysis of abLysI depicted high identity and closer proximity, respectively, with an annelid i-type lysozyme from Hirudo medicinalis, and indicated that abLysI is a novel molluscan i-type lysozyme. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that abLysI is mainly transcribed in hepatopancreas followed by mantle. In addition, abLysI mRNA expression was induced following bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) challenges. Recombinantly expressed abLysI [(r)abLysI] demonstrated strong lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, isopeptidase activity, and antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, (r)abLysI showed optimum lytic activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C, while exhibiting optimum isopeptidase activity at pH 7.0. Taken together, these results indicate that abLysI is potentially involved in immune responses of the disk abalone to protect it from invaders.

  1. Differential responses of juvenile and adult South African abalone (Haliotis midae Linnaeus) to low and high oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, Andre; Laas, Anél; Vosloo, Dalene

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates have evolved multiple responses to naturally variable environmental oxygen, all aimed at either maintaining cellular oxygen homeostasis or limiting cellular damage during or after hypoxic or hyperoxic events. We assessed organismal (rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) and cellular (heat shock protein expression, anti-oxidant enzymes) responses of juvenile and adult abalone exposed to low (~83% of saturation), intermediate (~95% of saturation) and high (~115% of saturation) oxygen levels for one month. Using the Comet assay, we measured DNA damage to determine whether the observed trends in the protective responses were sufficient to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Juveniles were unaffected by moderately hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Elevated basal rates of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were sufficient to prevent DNA fragmentation and protein damage. Adults, with their lower basal rate of anti-oxidant enzymes, had increased DNA damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions, indicating that the antioxidant enzymes were unable to prevent oxidative damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. The apparent insensitivity of juvenile abalone to decreased and increased oxygen might be related to their life history and development in algal and diatom biofilms where they are exposed to extreme diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels.

  2. Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Novel Peptides Derived from the Lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji Young; Park, Eun Hee; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Woo-Jin; An, Chul Min; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. The molecular mass of the protein portion was 45.5 kDa, and the predicted isoelectric point of the mature protein was 4.93. Characteristic potential polysaccharide binding motif, glucanase motif, and β-glucan recognition motif were identified in the LGBP of HDH. We used its polysaccharide-binding motif sequence to design two novel antimicrobial peptide analogs (HDH-LGBP-A1 and HDH-LGBP-A2). By substituting a positively charged amino acid and amidation at the C-terminus, the pI and net charge of the HDH-LGBP increased, and the proteins formed an α-helical structure. The HDH-LGBP analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal effective concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 2.2 μg/mL. Additionally, both were toxic against human cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cell lines but not much on human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that HDH-LGBP analogs disturb the cancer cell membrane and cause apoptotic cell death. These results suggest the use of HDH-LGBP analogs as multifunctional drugs. PMID:27983632

  3. Health and survival of red abalone Haliotis rufescens from San Miguel Island, California, USA, in a laboratory simulation of La Niña and El Niño conditions.

    PubMed

    Moore, James D; Marshman, Blythe C; Chun, Calvin S Y

    2011-06-01

    The variability in Southern California's marine climate is dominated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, with cycling between El Niño events (characterized by warm water, low productivity, and frequent storms) and La Niña events (which exhibit the opposite conditions). Relative to the mainland and other Channel Islands, San Miguel Island (SMI) consistently maintains cooler water temperatures and supports significant populations of red abalone Haliotis rufescens, presumably owing to increased food production and diminished expression of the bacterial disease known as withering syndrome. We conducted a laboratory experiment to examine the effects of La Niña and El Niño conditions on the health and survival of red abalone from SMI. Six replicate tanks per treatment, each containing six abalone, were subjected to one of the following three temperature regimes (treatments): Bodega Bay, California ambient (AMB; mean, 11.4 degrees C), SMI La Niña regime (LAN; mean, 13.8 degrees C), and SMI El Niño regime (ELN; mean, 16.5 degrees C). After 328 d, survival in the ELN treatment was significantly lower than in the AMB and LAN groups. A body condition index was significantly lower in the ELN group than in the AMB group, and the LAN group was in between. A visual score of body shrinkage was significantly higher in both the LAN and ELN groups than in the AMB group. Other clinical signs of withering syndrome and the prevalence and infection intensity of the causative agent, Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, increased as temperature increased in the three treatment groups from AMB to LAN to ELN, although the differences were not statistically significant. Generally, we found that increased temperature resulted in elevated disease expression, although less than observed in previous studies that used farmed abalone and higher, less variable temperature regimes. Water temperature modulates the effect of withering syndrome in wild red abalone, and very strong El Ni

  4. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  5. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members are key signaling molecules that transduce cellular responses from the cell membrane to the nucleus upon Janus kinase (JAK) activation. Although seven STAT members have been reported in mammals, very limited information on STAT genes in molluscans is available. In this study, we identified and characterized a STAT paralog that is homologous to STAT5 from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, and designated as AbSTAT5. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for AbSTAT5 (790 amino acids) with other counterparts revealed conserved residues important for functions and typical domain regions, including the N-terminal domain, coiled-coil domain, DNA-binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains as mammalian counterparts. Analysis of STAT phylogeny revealed that AbSTAT5 was clustered with the molluscan subgroup in STAT5 clade with distinct evolution. According to the genomic structure of AbSTAT5, the coding sequence was distributed into 20 exons with 19 introns. Immunologically essential transcription factor-binding sites, such as GATA-1, HNF, SP1, C/EBP, Oct-1, AP1, c-Jun, and Sox-2, were predicted at the 5'-proximal region of AbSTAT5. Expression of AbSTAT5 mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that the highest level of AbSTAT5 transcripts was detected in hemocytes, followed by gill tissues. Temporal expressions of AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and significant elevations indicated immune modulation. These results suggest that AbSTAT5 may be involved in maintaining innate immune responses from developmental to adult stages in

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Shewanella sp. Strain UCD-FRSP16_17 and Nine Vibrio Strains Isolated from Abalone Feces

    PubMed Central

    Vater, Ashley; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Carlin, Dylan A.; Carruthers, Griselda M.; Chac, Adam; Doroud, Ladan; Farris, Samuel J.; Gudzeva, Melanya; Jospin, Guillaume; Kintner, John A.; Knauss, Jonathon P.; Lor, Yi; Pechacek, Randi; Rohner, Eden S.; Simmons, Sierra M. V.; Verescshagina, Mayya; Wirawan, Christian S.; Zagal, Leonel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences for nine strains of Vibrio (V. cyclitrophicus, V. splendidus, V. tasmaniensis, and three unidentified) and one Shewanella strain. Strains were isolated from red (Haliotis rufescens) and white (Haliotis sorenseni) abalone, with and without exposure to “Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis,” the causative agent of abalone withering syndrome. PMID:27635000

  7. Identification of candidate antimicrobial peptides derived from abalone hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Ping; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2015-03-01

    Hemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. In arthropods, hemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. Conversely, no hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptides have been reported for molluscs. The present study describes a putative antimicrobial region, termed haliotisin, located within the linking sequence between the α-helical domain and β-sheet domain of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin functional unit E. A series of synthetic peptides based on overlapping fragments of the haliotisin region were tested for their bactericidal potential. Incubating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of certain haliotisin peptides, notably peptides 3-4-5 (DTFDYKKFGYRYDSLELEGRSISRIDELIQQRQEKDRTFAGFLLKGFGTSAS) led to reductions in microbial growth. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of haliotisin-treated bacteria revealed damages to the microbial cell wall. Data discussed here provides the first evidence to suggest that molluscan hemocyanin may act as a source of anti-infective peptides.

  8. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca.

  9. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2013-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture. PMID:24367359

  10. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2014-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  11. Early differentiating neuron in larval abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) reveals the relationship between ontogenetic torsion and crossing of the pleurovisceral nerve cords.

    PubMed

    Page, Louise R

    2006-01-01

    Crossing of the pleurovisceral nerve cords in gastropods has supported the view that gastropods evolved by 180 degrees rotation between the ventral and dorsal body regions. Indeed, a rotation of this type occurs as a dramatic morphogenetic movement ("ontogenetic torsion") during the development of basal gastropods. According to a long-standing hypothesis, ontogenetic torsion in basal gastropods preserves an ancient developmental aberration that generated the contorted gastropod body plan. It follows from this reasoning that crossing of the pleurovisceral nerve cords during gastropod development should be mechanically coupled to ontogenetic torsion. The predicted mechanical coupling can now be examined because of the discovery of an early differentiating neuron in Haliotis kamtschatkana (Vetigastropoda) that expresses 5-hydroxytryptamine-like immunoreactivity. The neuron appeared to delineate the trajectory of the pleurovisceral nerve cords beginning before ontogenetic torsion. Before torsion, the neuronal soma is embedded in mantle epithelium at the ventral midline and two neurites extend anteriorly toward the apical sensory organ. Contrary to expectation, the two neurites of this cell did not cross-over during ontogenetic torsion because the soma of this mantle neuron shifted in the same direction as the rotating head and foot. Full crossing of the pleurovisceral nerve cords occurred gradually during later development as the mantle cavity deepened and expanded leftward. These results are consistent with a generalization emerging from comparative studies indicating a conserved developmental stage for gastropods in which the mantle cavity is localized to one side, despite a fully "post-torsional" orientation for other body components. Developmental morphology before this stage is much more variable among different gastropod clades.

  12. Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water temperatures. We measured abalone body temperatures in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean temperature and daily temperature variability on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily temperature variability increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water temperatures and was independent of temperature variability. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water temperatures periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.

  13. Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water temperatures. We measured abalone body temperatures in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean temperature and daily temperature variability on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily temperature variability increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water temperatures and was independent of temperature variability. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water temperatures periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.

  14. Dynamics and distribution of black abalone populations at San Nicolas Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Hochberg, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    Dense populations of black abalones (Haliotis cracherodii Leach) were monitored in permanent intertidal plots at nine sites on San Nicolas Island from 1981 through 1990. Densities were essentially constant at all four sites along the north shore of the island throughout the study period. Densities at five sites along the south shore were more variable, possibly reflecting asynchronous variation in recruitment, mortality resulting from wave disturbance, and removal by people. Temporal variation of abalone densities apparently was not influenced by sea otters or abalone withering syndrome during this study. Abalones were strongly aggregated in space. Highest densities occurred in areas of irregular substrata, apparently as a result of preference for crevices and vertical faces. The locations of dense patches were persistent in time.

  15. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  16. Fishing from past to present: continuity and resilience of red abalone fisheries on the Channel Islands, California.

    PubMed

    Braje, Todd J; Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Dayton, Paul K; Hatch, Marco B A

    2009-06-01

    Archaeological data from coastal shell middens provide a window into the structure of ancient marine ecosystems and the nature of human impacts on fisheries that often span millennia. For decades Channel Island archaeologists have studied Middle Holocene shell middens visually dominated by large and often whole shells of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Here we use modern ecological data, historical accounts, commercial red abalone catch records, and zooarchaeological data to examine long-term spatial and temporal variation in the productivity of red abalone fisheries on the Northern Channel Islands, California (USA). Historical patterns of abundance, in which red abalone densities increase from east to west through the islands, extend deep into the Holocene. The correlation of historical and archaeological data argue for long-term spatial continuity in productive red abalone fisheries and a resilience of abalone populations despite dramatic ecological changes and intensive human predation spanning more than 8000 years. Archaeological, historical, and ecological data suggest that California kelp forests and red abalone populations are structured by a complex combination of top-down and bottom-up controls.

  17. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  18. Nacre in Abalone Shell: Organic and Inorganic Components and their effects to the Formation and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Maria Isabel

    Abalone nacre is a natural composite that exhibits exceptional mechanical properties due to its organization that extends to various levels of hierarchy. Most of the toughness has been attributed by nacre's third level of hierarchy which entitles a brick and mortar structure consisting of the CaCO3 tiles and organic interlayers. However, there are other important components that are vital to the structure and strength of red abalone nacre. The process of formation of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre following periods of growth interruption, taking into consideration important environmental factors (access to food and temperature) and to employ high-magnification characterization techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to better understand how the soft tissue (e.g. epithelium and organic membrane) influences the mechanism of growth. The structure-property relationship of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre, focusing in the individual constituents (isolated mineral and isolated organic component) and comparing that to the integrated structure. Mechanical tests such as, tensile tests, microscratch, and nanoindentation is performed on the isolated organic constituent and the isolated mineral of red abalone shell. Specimens are characterized by SEM to verify the toughening and deformation mechanisms. Results obtained from the isolated mineral validate the importance of the organic constituent as the mechanical properties decline greatly as the organic component is removed. This approach forms a general picture of the mechanical response of the organic interlayers and growth bands and their effect on the toughness of the abalone nacre. These results are significant to understand the important characteristics of abalone nacre, such as the structure and mechanical properties, and an attempt to aid in improving the latest attempts to produce novel nacre-inspired materials.

  19. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  20. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  1. Setting realistic recovery targets for two interacting endangered species, sea otter and northern abalone.

    PubMed

    Chadès, Iadine; Curtis, Janelle M R; Martin, Tara G

    2012-12-01

    Failure to account for interactions between endangered species may lead to unexpected population dynamics, inefficient management strategies, waste of scarce resources, and, at worst, increased extinction risk. The importance of species interactions is undisputed, yet recovery targets generally do not account for such interactions. This shortcoming is a consequence of species-centered legislation, but also of uncertainty surrounding the dynamics of species interactions and the complexity of modeling such interactions. The northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and one of its preferred prey, northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), are endangered species for which recovery strategies have been developed without consideration of their strong predator-prey interactions. Using simulation-based optimization procedures from artificial intelligence, namely reinforcement learning and stochastic dynamic programming, we combined sea otter and northern abalone population models with functional-response models and examined how different management actions affect population dynamics and the likelihood of achieving recovery targets for each species through time. Recovery targets for these interacting species were difficult to achieve simultaneously in the absence of management. Although sea otters were predicted to recover, achieving abalone recovery targets failed even when threats to abalone such as predation and poaching were reduced. A management strategy entailing a 50% reduction in the poaching of northern abalone was a minimum requirement to reach short-term recovery goals for northern abalone when sea otters were present. Removing sea otters had a marginally positive effect on the abalone population but only when we assumed a functional response with strong predation pressure. Our optimization method could be applied more generally to any interacting threatened or invasive species for which there are multiple conservation objectives.

  2. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  3. Pyrosequencing of Haliotis diversicolor Transcriptomes: Insights into Early Developmental Molluscan Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zi-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Sen; Ke, Cai-Huan; Zhao, Jing; You, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jie; Dong, Wei-Ting; Chen, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background The abalone Haliotis diversicolor is a good model for study of the settlement and metamorphosis, which are widespread marine ecological phenomena. However, information on the global gene backgrounds and gene expression profiles for the early development of abalones is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, eight non-normalized and multiplex barcode-labeled transcriptomes were sequenced using a 454 GS system to cover the early developmental stages of the abalone H. diversicolor. The assembly generated 35,415 unigenes, of which 7,566 were assigned GO terms. A global gene expression profile containing 636 scaffolds/contigs was constructed and was proven reliable using qPCR evaluation. It indicated that there may be existing dramatic phase transitions. Bioprocesses were proposed, including the ‘lock system’ in mature eggs, the collagen shells of the trochophore larvae and the development of chambered extracellular matrix (ECM) structures within the earliest postlarvae. Conclusion This study globally details the first 454 sequencing data for larval stages of H. diversicolor. A basic analysis of the larval transcriptomes and cluster of the gene expression profile indicates that each stage possesses a batch of specific genes that are indispensable during embryonic development, especially during the two-cell, trochophore and early postlarval stages. These data will provide a fundamental resource for future physiological works on abalones, revealing the mechanisms of settlement and metamorphosis at the molecular level. PMID:23236463

  4. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  5. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Jan E; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J; Swanson, Willie J

    2006-11-14

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins.

  6. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  7. cDNA microarray analysis of disk abalone genes in gills and hemocytes after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2012-06-01

    A disk abalone Haliotis discus discus 4.2 K cDNA microarray was designed by selecting abalone expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Transcriptional profiles in gills and hemocytes were analyzed upon abalone challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in order to select candidates for screening of immune response genes. Among the 4188 genes analyzed, 280 (6.6%) transcripts were changed their expression level in gills and hemocytes against VHSV challenge compared to control animals. Total of 88 and 65 genes were up-regulated in gills and hemocytes, respectively. These genes can be grouped under various immune-functional categories such as transcription factors (Krüppell-like factor; ETS-family transcription factor), inflammatory and apoptosis related genes (TNF superfamily members, Fas ligand), IFN regulatory proteins (IFN-44 like, interferon gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase) and detoxification proteins (glutathione peroxidase). In contrast, 25 and 102 genes were shown down-regulation in gills and hemocytes, respectively. Among the differentially expressed transcripts, considerably higher numbers of ESTs were represented as either hypothetical (unknown) proteins or no GenBank match suggesting those may be novel genes associated with internal defense of abalone.

  8. Molecular genetics to inform spatial management in benthic invertebrate fisheries: a case study using the Australian greenlip abalone.

    PubMed

    Miller, K J; Mundy, C N; Mayfield, S

    2014-10-01

    Hierarchical sampling and subsequent microsatellite genotyping of >2300 Haliotis laevigata (greenlip abalone) from 19 locations distributed across five biogeographic regions have substantially advanced our knowledge of population structure and connectivity in this commercially important species. The study has found key differences in stock structure of H. laevigata compared with the sympatric and congeneric Haliotis rubra (blacklip abalone) and yielded valuable insights into the management of fisheries targeting species characterized by spatial structure at small scales (i.e. S-fisheries). As with H. rubra, H. laevigata comprise a series of metapopulations with strong self-recruitment. However, the spatial extent of H. laevigata metapopulations (reefal areas around 30 km(2) ; distances of up to 135 km are effective barriers to larval dispersal) was substantially greater than that identified for H. rubra (Miller et al. 2009). Differences in the dynamics and scale of population processes, even between congeneric haliotids as made evident in this study, imply that for S-fisheries, it is difficult to generalize about the potential consequences of life history commonalities. Consequently, species-specific management reflective of the population structure of the target species remains particularly important. This will likely require integration of information about stock structure and connectivity with data on life history and population dynamics to determine the necessary input (e.g. number of fishers, fishing effort) and output (e.g. minimum legal size, total allowable catch) controls to underpin their sustainable management.

  9. Identification of genes expressed in juvenile Haliotis rufescens in response to different copper concentrations in the north of Chile under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva-Aciares, Fernando; Zapata, Manuel; Tournois, Jennifer; Moraga, Dario; Riquelme, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This study reports molecular markers potentially associated with resistance or sensitivity to the impact of copper in juvenile red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, in the north of Chile under experimental conditions. Genomic analysis was made applying subtractive hybridization libraries (SSH) to identify genes up-and down regulated during cooper exposure in abalone over periods of 12 and 168 h exposed to 2.5 and 10 μg/L of Cu(+2). Results obtained from the SSH library revealed 368 different sequences regulated by copper, that correspond to eight major physiological functions. The validation of these sequences obtained by SSH as well as their expression kinetics were made by PCR in real time on 14 potential genes regulated by metal stress. This study provides information for the characterization of potential genomic markers that may be used in future environmental monitoring and to investigate new mechanisms of stress to copper in this commercially important marine species.

  10. Microstructure, chemistry, and electronic structure of natural hybrid composites in abalone shell.

    PubMed

    Srot, Vesna; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Salzberger, Ute; Koch, Christoph T; Hahn, Kersten; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structure and chemical composition at the inorganic/inorganic and inorganic/organic interfaces in abalone shell (genus Haliotis) were investigated using advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Electron energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNES) of Ca-M2,3, C-K, Ca-L2,3, O-K and low-loss EEL spectra acquired from aragonite and calcite are distinctly different. When comparing biogenic with inorganic material for aragonite, only minor differences in C-K fine structures could be detected. The crystal structure of the mineral bridges was confirmed by ELNES experiments. ELNES and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) experiments of regular and self-healed interfaces between nacreous aragonite and prismatic calcite reveal relatively rough transitions. In this work, the importance of TEM specimen preparation and specimen damage on structural features is discussed.

  11. Splice Variants of Perlucin from Haliotis laevigata Modulate the Crystallisation of CaCO3

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Sebastian; Grunwald, Ingo; Kelm, Sørge

    2014-01-01

    Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl) playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation. PMID:24824517

  12. [Construction of SSH library from haemocyte of variously colored abalone challenged with bacteria and differential expression analysis of macrophage expressed protein].

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Lin; Xu, Dan-Dan; Qiao, Kun; Cai, Ling; Huang, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Nai; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2008-08-01

    Abalones are considered to be the most precious delicacy from the sea, and become very important commercial seafood in aquaculture worldwide. Variously colored abalone (Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, 1846) has been widely cultured on the southeast coast for more than twenty years. However, abalone culture frequently suffers from bacterial infection and mass mortality of reared abalones causes serious economic losses. Unfortunately, knowledge of the defense mechanism in this animal is still lacking. In this study, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology, a forward SSH library was constructed from haemocytes of H. diversicolor, with the content of 1.37x10(6) pfu and the recombinant rate of 98.18%. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, partial cDNA of macrophage expressed protein (MEP) was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with the size of 1,551 bp, and continuously encoding 517 amino acids. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR results showed that MEP cDNA was distinctly up-regulated in haemocytes of the bacterial-challenged group compared to the unchallenged group. The gene information obtained from this library will provide new insights into the immune mechanism of H. diversicolor and facilitate future study of target genes involved in the response to invading microorganisms.

  13. Detrimental effects of reduced seawater pH on the early development of the Pacific abalone.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaqi; Jiang, Zengjie; Zhang, Jihong; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Du, Meirong; Bian, Dapeng; Fang, Jianguang

    2013-09-15

    The hatching process of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai was prolonged at a pH of 7.6 and pH 7.3, and the embryonic developmental success was reduced. The hatching rate at pH 7.3 was significantly (10.8%) lower than that of the control (pH 8.2). The malformation rates at pH 7.9 and pH 8.2 were less than 20% but were 53.8% and 77.3% at pH 7.6 and pH 7.3, respectively. When newly hatched larvae were incubated for 48 h at pH 7.3, only 2.7% of the larvae settled, while more than 70% of the larvae completed settlement in the other three pH treatments. However, most 24 h old larvae could complete metamorphosis in all four pH treatments. Overall, a 0.3-unit reduction in water pH will produce no negative effect on the early development of the Pacific abalone, but further reduction in pH to the values predicted for seawater by the end of this century will have strong detrimental effects.

  14. Transcriptomic and cellular response to bacterial challenge (pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in farmed juvenile Haliotis rufescens fed with or without probiotic diet.

    PubMed

    Silva-Aciares, Fernando; Moraga, Dario; Auffret, Michel; Tanguy, Arnaud; Riquelme, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The abalone production in Chile has increased considerably in recent years with no sign of tapering off. Open and semi-closed circuits in the marine water zones in the north and south of Chile are the preferred areas of culture. Coastal ecosystems are subjected to a wide variety of contaminants that generate stress that affects populations via their impacts to individuals at both physiological and genetic levels. This work investigated the genomic and cellular response of post-weaning juvenile Haliotis rufescens abalone under hatchery conditions, fed with probiotic diets, and subsequently challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The expression patterns of 16 selected genes associated with different metabolic pathways were analyzed using Real-Time PCR. Gene expression was then compared to immunological response parameters in the abalone and quantification of V. parahaemolyticus during the experimental period. Both transcriptomic and immunological analyses indicated significant alteration of physiological processes in H. rufescens correlated to exposure to the pathogenic bacteria, as well as to probiotic nutrition.

  15. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  16. Acylated pregnane glycosides from Caralluma tuberculata and their antiparasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Harraz, Fathalla M; Al-ansari, Soliman Mohammed Abdullah; El-Mekkawy, Sahar; Ichino, Chikara; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Ishiyama, Aki; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2008-08-01

    Five pregnane glycosides were isolated from Caralluma tuberculata (1-5), in addition to a known one (russelioside E, 6). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the analysis of NMR data and FAB-MS experiments. All the isolated compounds were tested for their antimalarial and antitrypanosomal activities as well as their cytotoxicity against human diploid embryonic cell line (MRC5).

  17. 75 FR 29316 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13599

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni). The permit holder is requesting... oxyrinchus desotoi) sturgeon, totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), and black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii)....

  18. First molluscan transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) member from disk abalone and its expression profiling against immune challenge and tissue injury.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Yeo, Sang-Yeop; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-12-01

    The regulation of transcriptional activation is an essential and critical point in gene expression. In this study, we describe a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) gene from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbAp-1) for the first time in mollusk. It was identified by homology screening of an abalone normalized cDNA library. The cloned AbAp-1 consists of a 945 bp coding region that encodes a putative protein containing 315 amino acids. The AbAp-1 gene is composed of a characteristic Jun transcription factor domain and a highly conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) signature similar to known Ap-1 genes. The AbAp-1 shares 46, 43 and, 40% amino acid identities with fish (Takifugu rubripes), human and insect (Ixodes scapularis) Ap-1, respectively. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that AbAp-1 gene expression is constitutive in all selected tissues. AbAp-1 was upregulated in gills after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) challenge; and, upregulated in hemocytes and gills by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge. Shell damage and tissue injury also increased the transcriptional level of Ap-1 in mantle together with other transcription factors (NF-kB, LITAF) and pro-inflammatory TNF-α. All results considered, identification and gene expression data demonstrate that abalone Ap-1 is an important regulator in innate immune response against bacteria and virus, as well as in the inflammatory response during tissue injury. In addition, stimulation of Ap-1 under different external stimuli could be useful to understand the Ap-1 biology and its downstream target genes, especially in abalone-like mollusks.

  19. [Tapeworm Oochoristica tuberculata (Rudolphi, 1819)--parasite of the lizard Eremias argus Peters, 1869 in Zabaikalie].

    PubMed

    Dugarov, Zh N; Baldanova, D R; Khamnueva, T R

    2012-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of the tapeworm Oochoristica tuberculata from the lizard Eremias argus is given from the northern border of the host areal. The complexes of most stable and most variable characters of this tapeworm are determined. The list of hosts is given for Oochoristica tuberculata.

  20. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  1. The effects of intermittent exposure to low-pH and low-oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low-pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low-pH and/or low-oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low-pH (7.5, total scale) and low-O2 (40% saturation, mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h, twice over a 15-day period, juveniles experienced 5-20% higher mortality in the low-oxygen treatments compared to control conditions. Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low-oxygen and low-pH treatments. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when juveniles were exposed simultaneously to low-pH and low-O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low-oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas pH is a crucial factor for their growth. However, the high individual variation in growth rate under low levels of both pH and oxygen suggests that cryptic phenotypic plasticity may promote resistance to prolonged upwelling conditions by a portion of the population.

  2. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value.

  3. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value. PMID:26880843

  4. Characterization of the adhesive areas in Sepia tuberculata (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Scott, Robyn; Griffiths, Charles; Micossi, Andrea; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Adhesion in cephalopods is either mechanical, involving a reduced-pressure system of the arm and tentacle suckers, or is chemically mediated by special adhesive gland structures (as proposed for Euprymna, Idiosepius, and Nautilus). Four species of Sepia (S. typica, S. papillata, S. pulchra, and S. tuberculata) possess grooved structures on the ventral mantle surface and on the fourth arm pair, which are used to attach mechanically to the substratum. Because these areas are often partly covered with sand or debris, it has been hypothesized that chemical substances were involved in this attachment process. This study provides a histochemical and ultrastructural description of the glandular epithelium in the adhesive area of Sepia tuberculata. Two specific glandular cells (Type 1 and Type 2) are present in the epithelium, which differ clearly in their granule size and cellular structure. The aggregation of both cell types and their simultaneous secretion suggest that the secretions of both cell types work synergistically providing a two-component adhesive system which supports the primarily mechanical sucker adhesion by making the arm surface sticky.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It’s therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection. PMID:27088873

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of EF hand domain-containing calcium-regulatory gene from disk abalone: calcium homeostasis and its role in immunity.

    PubMed

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Se-Jae; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2010-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a calcium-regulatory gene (denoted as Ab-CaReg I) was identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The Ab-CaReg I is composed of 176 amino acids and the calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point were 20 and 4.2, respectively. The sequence homology of Ab-CaReg I was 28-30 and 18-27% of known calmodulin and troponin C, respectively. Four characteristic calcium-binding EF hand motifs with some modifications at conserved positions of known homologous calmodulin genes were observed in the sequence. The tissue-specific transcription analysis and variation of mRNA transcription level of Ab-CaReg I in gills and mantle after animals were immersed in seawater containing 2000 ppm CaCl(2) was quantified by SYBR Green real-time PCR analysis. Transcription variation of Ab-CaReg I in hemocytes and gills followed by bacteria challenge (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) was used to investigate Ab-CaReg I in immune responses. Transcripts of Ab-CaReg I mRNA were mainly detected in hemocytes, mantle, muscle, gills, digestive tract and hepatopancreas with highest expression in hemocytes. The CaCl(2) immersion significantly altered the Ab-CaReg I mRNA transcription level by 3 h, compared to animals in normal seawater (control). The mRNA expression of Ab-CaReg I in gills and hemocytes was upregulated significantly to 11-fold and 4-fold in 3 h compared to control (uninfected), respectively, in bacteria-challenged abalones. The results suggest that Ab-CaReg I could be effectively induced to maintain internal Ca(2+) homeostasis of the animal due to influx of Ca(2+) in the cells by external stimuli such as a high dose of Ca(2+) and pathogens like bacteria.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A, a matrix protein from shell and pearl nacre of Haliotis rufescens.

    PubMed

    Shen, X; Belcher, A M; Hansma, P K; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E

    1997-12-19

    A specialized extracellular matrix of proteins and polysaccharides controls the morphology and packing of calcium carbonate crystals and becomes occluded within the mineralized composite during formation of the molluscan shell and pearl. We have cloned and characterized the cDNA coding for Lustrin A, a newly described matrix protein from the nacreous layer of the shell and pearl produced by the abalone, Haliotis rufescens, a marine gastropod mollusc. The full-length cDNA is 4,439 base pairs (bp) long and contains an open reading frame coding for 1,428 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals a highly modular structure with a high proportion of Ser (16%), Pro (14%), Gly (13%), and Cys (9%). The protein contains ten highly conserved cysteine-rich domains interspersed by eight proline-rich domains; a glycine- and serine-rich domain lies between the two cysteine-rich domains nearest the C terminus, and these are followed by a basic domain and a C-terminal domain that is highly similar to known protease inhibitors. The glycine- and serine-rich domain and at least one of the proline-rich domains show sequence similarity to proteins of two extracellular matrix superfamilies (one of which also is involved in the mineralized matrixes of bone, dentin, and avian eggshell). The arrangement of alternating cysteine-rich domains and proline-rich domains is strikingly similar to that found in frustulins, the proteins that are integral to the silicified cell wall of diatoms. Its modular structure suggests that Lustrin A is a multifunctional protein, whereas the occurrence of related sequences suggest it is a member of a multiprotein family.

  8. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries.

  9. [Analysis study of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kang, Wan-Li; Xin, Shi-Gang; Xing, Wan-Quan

    2009-02-01

    Abalone and sea cucumbers are useful, which is related with trace elements in them. In the present paper, using high-pressure sealed nitrifying pots for digestion of samples, Orthogonal test was applied to the determination of 15 kinds of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber such as Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr, Se, Hg, Cd etc by ICP-AES. The orthogonal table of L16 (4(4)) and experiment programs were designed. More information could be obtained with a small number of experimental times by combining chemistry with mathematical statistics, and the best experimental operation conditions could be chosen by square-error analysis. The method was simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate, but also features multi-element determination at the same time, with little environment pollution. The recovery rate of the method is in the range of 91.0%-110.0%, and relative standard deviations is less than 3.55%. The experimental results showed that both abalone and sea cucumber are of nutritional value of seafood, and are rich in Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr and other kinds of trace elements helpful to the human body. At the same time, because of severe environment pollution, seawater pollution should not be neglected. When seawater was polluted, hazardous substances were deposited in abalone or sea cucumber body with high levels of harmful heavy metals. Therefore, it should be a reminder that people must be careful to eat them.

  10. Antioxidant Activities of Caralluma tuberculata on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Poodineh, Jafar; Khazaei Feizabad, Abdurrashid; Nakhaee, Alireza

    2015-01-25

    Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant effects of Caralluma tuberculata (C. tuberculata) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with an intraperitoneal injection of STZ at dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. Three days after diabetes induction, powdered aerial part of plant at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were gavaged orally for a period of 45 days. The diabetes significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and level of total thiol in liver, kidney, and heart of animals (P < 0.05). In contrast, a significant increase in the levels of protein carbonyl was observed in diabetic rats compared with control animals (P < 0.05). Oral treatment of diabetic rats with C. tuberculata showed ameliorative effects on blood glucose and markers of oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Altered levels of all oxidative stress parameters in tissues of diabetic rats reverted back to those normal animals after the treatment with dose of 200  mg/kg /day of plant materials. It seems that the appropriate dose of C. tuberculata has both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, it can have preventive properties on oxidative stress-induced diabetic complications. Drug Dev Res, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development and characterization of novel EST-SSR markers for Speranskia tuberculata (Euphorbiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi; Ju, Miao-Miao; Ma, Huan-Cheng; Xin, Pei-Yao; He, Cheng-Zhong; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The first set of expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed and characterized for Speranskia tuberculata (Euphorbiaceae), a traditional medicinal plant endemic to northern China, to explore the effects of recent habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: In this study, a total of 18 novel polymorphic microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers were developed for S. tuberculata using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Analysis of 24 individuals of S. tuberculata from four natural populations revealed their robust polymorphic reliability. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 11, while the expected and observed heterozygosity per marker varied from 0.187 to 0.827 and 0.042 to 0.917, respectively. Of these markers, 13 showed good amplification results in the closely related species S. cantonensis. Conclusions: These newly generated SSR markers are expected to provide novel tools for genetic studies of S. tuberculata, which will contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of the species’ wild genetic resources. PMID:27785384

  12. Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-08-01

    Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T)  = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455).

  13. Perlwapin, an Abalone Nacre Protein with Three Four-Disulfide Core (Whey Acidic Protein) Domains, Inhibits the Growth of Calcium Carbonate Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Treccani, Laura; Mann, Karlheinz; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a new protein from the nacreous layer of the shell of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (abalone). Amino acid sequence analysis showed the protein to consist of 134 amino acids and to contain three sequence repeats of ∼40 amino acids which were very similar to the well-known whey acidic protein domains of other proteins. The new protein was therefore named perlwapin. In addition to the major sequence, we identified several minor variants. Atomic force microscopy was used to explore the interaction of perlwapin with calcite crystals. Monomolecular layers of calcite crystals dissolve very slowly in deionized water and recrystallize in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. When perlwapin was dissolved in the supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, growth of the crystal was inhibited immediately. Perlwapin molecules bound tightly to distinct step edges, preventing the crystal layers from growing. Using lower concentrations of perlwapin in a saturated calcium carbonate solution, we could distinguish native, active perlwapin molecules from denaturated ones. These observations showed that perlwapin can act as a growth inhibitor for calcium carbonate crystals in saturated calcium carbonate solution. The function of perlwapin in nacre growth may be to inhibit the growth of certain crystallographic planes in the mineral phase of the polymer/mineral composite nacre. PMID:16861275

  14. The potential significance to human health associated with the establishment of the snail Melanoides tuberculata in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B

    2008-08-22

    The thiarid Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Thiaridae) is considered to be invasive and have become established in numerous countries outside its native range. This species was discovered in the wild for the first time in New Zealand in 2001, when a population was found in a geothermally warmed stream at Golden Springs near Taupo. M. tuberculata is of human health significance as the intermediate host of a number of trematode parasites. Uncertainties hinder an accurate assessment of the risks to human health occasioned by this species in New Zealand, but it is theoretically possible that a number of parasites could become established in this country in association with M. tuberculata. However, their distribution would be potentially limited, as M. tuberculata is unlikely to find suitable habitats in New Zealand outside certain geothermally warmed water habitats.

  15. Assessing Withering Syndrome Resistance in California Black Abalone: Implications for Conservation and Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    black abalone spawning methods; (3) develop and validate a real - time PCR assay for quantification of RLP loads (infection intensity); and (4) examine...Hypothesis 2: Quantitative real - time PCR can be used to quantify loads of the WS rickettsial bacterium (infection intensity) in abalone. Hypothesis 3

  16. Prokaryotic microbiota in the digestive cavity of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Lara, Sara; Urdiain, Mercedes; Mora-Ruiz, Merit; Prieto, Laura; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    The microbiota associated to the gastric cavity of four exemplars of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata has been studied by means of cultured-dependent and -independent methods. The pyrosequencing approach rendered a very reduced diversity of Bacteria with four major groups shared by the four exemplars that made up to 95% of the total diversity. The culturing approach recovered low abundant organisms and some of them also detected by the pyrosequencing approach. The major key organisms were related to the genera Spiroplasma, Thalassospira, Tenacibaculum (from the pyrosequencing data), and Vibrio (from the cultivable fraction). Altogether the results indicate that C. tuberculata harbors an associated microbiota of very reduced diversity. On the other hand, some of the major key players may be potential pathogens and the host may serve as dispersal mechanism.

  17. Therapeutic potential of abalone and status of bioactive molecules: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Suleria, H A R; Masci, P P; Gobe, G C; Osborne, S A

    2017-05-24

    Marine organisms are increasingly being investigated as sources of bioactive molecules with therapeutic applications as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In particular, nutraceuticals are gaining popularity worldwide owing to their therapeutic potential and incorporation in functional foods and dietary supplements. Abalone, a marine gastropod, contains a variety of bioactive compounds with anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities. For thousands of years different cultures have used abalone as a traditional functional food believing consumption provides health benefits. Abalone meat is one of the most precious commodities in Asian markets where it is considered a culinary delicacy. Recent research has revealed that abalone is composed of many vital moieties like polysaccharides, proteins, and fatty acids that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. A review of past and present research is presented with relevance to the therapeutic potential of bioactive molecules from abalone.

  18. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W

    2006-05-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.

  19. Biparental transmission of Verminephrobacter symbionts in the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Paz, Laura-Carlota; Schramm, Andreas; Lund, Marie Braad

    2017-02-23

    Most lumbricid earthworms harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter symbionts in their excretory organs (nephridia). These symbionts are vertically transmitted via the cocoon, where they colonize the embryos. Despite cospeciation for >100 million years with their hosts, Verminephrobacter lack genome reduction and AT bias typical of evolutionary old, vertically transmitted symbionts, caused by recurring bottlenecks. We hypothesized that biparental symbiont transmission into the cocoon enabled genetic mixing and relieved the bottleneck, and tested biparental transmission experimentally for V. aporrectodeae subsp. tuberculata, the specific symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata, for which aposymbiotic worm lines are available. Virgin symbiotic and aposymbiotic adult worms were tagged, mated in pairs, separated before the start of cocoon production, and their offspring assessed for Verminephrobacter. Specific PCR detected the symbionts in 41.5% of 188 juveniles produced by 20 aposymbiotic worms; fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a patchy but successful colonization of their nephridia. Symbionts were present in the mucus but absent in feed, soil, and spermatophora/nephridia of the aposymbiotic partner, suggesting symbiont transfer via mucus during mating. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that genome evolution in Verminephrobacter is distinct from other vertically transmitted symbionts due to genetic mixing during transmission, partially facilitated by biparental transmission.

  20. Transmission efficiency of two flea species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) involved in plague epizootics among prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Aryn P; Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Montenieri, John A; Tripp, Daniel W; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gage, Kenneth L; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-06-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta. We tested the efficiency of O. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit Y. pestis daily from 24 to 96 h postinfection and compared it to previously collected data for O. hirsuta. We found that O. tuberculata cynomuris has over threefold greater transmission efficiency (0.18 infected fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h postinfection) than O. hirsuta (0.05 fleas transmit). Using a simple model of flea-borne transmission, we combine these laboratory measurements with field data on monthly flea loads to compare the seasonal vectorial capacity of these two flea species. Coinciding with seasonal patterns of flea abundance, we find a peak in potential for flea-borne transmission in March, during high O. tuberculata cynomuris abundance, and in September-October when O. hirsuta is common. Our findings may be useful in determining the timing of insecticidal dusting to slow plague transmission in black-tailed prairie dogs.

  1. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  2. Marine tumor vaccine carriers: structure of the molluscan hemocyanins KLH and htH.

    PubMed

    Markl, J; Lieb, B; Gebauer, W; Altenhein, B; Meissner, U; Harris, J R

    2001-10-01

    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a well-established immune stimulant and hapten carrier, and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) is a related product. Biologically, KLH and HtH are blue copper proteins which serve as oxygen carriers in the blood of the keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata and the abalone H. tuberculata, respectively, two marine gastropods. Both hemocyanins occur as two distinct isoforms, termed KLH1 KLH2, HtH1, and HtH2. Each of these molecules is based on a very large polypeptide chain, the subunit (molecular mass ca 400 kDa), which is folded into a series of eight globular functional units (molecular mass ca 50 kDa each). Twenty copies of this subunit form a cylindrical quaternary structure (molecular mass ca 8 MDa). This article reviews the recent data on the biosynthesis, quaternary structure, subunit architecture, amino acid sequence, gene structure, and recombinant production of KLH and HtH.

  3. A new species of Haliotis (Gastropoda) from São Tomé & Príncipe Islands, Gulf of Guinea, with comparisons to other Haliotis found in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Owen, Buzz

    2014-07-16

    The Haliotidae from the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa are reviewed. The distribution of the mainland species Haliotis marmorata Linnaeus, 1758 is confirmed and compared to the insular species from the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe which is described as Haliotis geigeri n. sp. Both species are illustrated and compared to the other known Haliotidae from the eastern Atlantic.

  4. Antihyperglycemic activity of Caralluma tuberculata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam A; Abdallah, Hossam M; Khedr, Alaa; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Shehata, Ibrahim A

    2013-09-01

    The current study aimed at evaluating the potential and mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of the methanolic extract (ME) of Caralluma tuberculata as well as its chloroform (CF), n-butanol (BF) and the remaining water fractions (RFs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity was evaluated through assessing fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin levels, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose utilization by isolated rat psoas muscle, gut glucose absorption and G-6-Pase activity in isolated rat liver microsomes. Both ME and RF showed the highest potency, where ME had superior activity. The mechanism underlying the observed antihyperglycemic activity of ME could be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced skeletal muscle utilization of glucose, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and stimulation of insulin secretion. ME was standardized through LC-MS analysis for its major pregnanes.

  5. Interaction between the intermediate host of Schistosomiasis in Brazil Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae) and a possible competitor Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae): I. Laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Alexandre; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius; Coelho da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres

    2002-04-01

    The biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, is one the accepted options to fight schistosomiasis. One of the most promising candidates to control B. glabrata is the snail Melanoides tuberculata, a potential competitor. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two species are not clear. Our objective is to determine if M. tuberculata indeed compete with B. glabrata, using two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the effect of the presence of M. tuberculata on the fecundity and mortality rates of B. glabrata. In Experiment 2, we tested if there was a direct or indirect interaction between the two species. In Experiment 1, M. tuberculata was eliminated after the peak in reproductive activity of B. glabrata. In Experiment 2, B. glabrata produced more egg masses when raised with M. tuberculata. The conditions leading to this unexpected positive effect of M. tuberculata on the fecundity of B. glabrata need further clarification, but emphasize that detailed studies of the interaction between these species in the conditions of the local environment should be considered.

  6. Acceleration of calcite kinetics by abalone nacre proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G; Qiu, S R; Orme, C A; Morse, D E; De Yoreo, J J

    2005-06-09

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures have long been an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over synthesis of crystalline materials. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineral surfaces. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that bio-organic additives can dramatically alter crystal shapes and growth-rates in vitro. However, previous molecular-scale studies revealing mechanisms of growth modification focused on small molecules such as amino acids or peptides and always observed growth inhibition. In contrast, studies using full proteins were non-quantitative and underlying sources of growth modification were ill-defined. Here we investigate interactions between proteins isolated from abalone shell nacre and growing surfaces of calcite. We find that these proteins significantly accelerate the molecular-scale kinetics and, though much larger than atomic steps, alter growth morphology through step-specific interactions that lower their free energies. We propose that these proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite surfaces.

  7. Did life history evolve in response to parasites in invasive populations of Melanoides tuberculata?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Juan Sebastián; Correa, Ana Cristina; David, Patrice

    2009-09-01

    Enemy release and rapid evolution are often assumed to promote biological invasions. In the parthenogenetic snail Melanoides tuberculata, one invasive strain (MAD) was assumed to benefit from enemy release until a heavily parasitized population was found in Colombia (in the area of introduction). This population is prosperous despite important losses in the reproductive potential due to a high prevalence of a trematode that castrates snails. We studied genetic variation in life-history traits among five populations from the invaded area to test whether life histories had recently evolved in the parasitized population in such a way that snails have more chance to reproduce before being parasitized. We find significant genetic differences among populations, though they are not in the expected direction. Individuals from the parasitized population were smaller at birth, grew slower, and reproduced later and at a bigger size than individuals from the non-parasitized populations. We conclude that the life-history traits of this snail strain did not need to evolve in order to allow population renewal in the invaded area, even in the presence of parasites. This implies that enemy release and/or rapid evolution were not necessary for this strain to invade.

  8. Morphological tricks and blessed genitalia: rectifying the family placement of Fijicolana tuberculata (Opiliones: Laniatores: Zalmoxidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Abel; Sharma, Prashant P; Proud, Daniel N

    2016-01-07

    The type specimens of Fijicolana tuberculata Roewer, 1963 were re-examined and the male genital morphology is illustrated and described for the first time. Despite the presence of several morphological features that are typical of Samoidae, such as the presence of scopulae on legs III and IV, genital morphology unambiguously indicates that this species belongs to the Zalmoxidae rather than to the Samoidae. Fijicolana Roewer, 1963 is newly synonymized with Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886. However, the newly implied combination is preoccupied by Z. tuberculatus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1948 thus the replacement name Zalmoxis roeweri nom. nov. is proposed to avoid secondary homonymy. The definition of Z. roeweri nom. nov. is amended, and the morphology of this species is compared with other representatives of Zalmoxidae and Samoidae. We conclude that the presence of scopulae alone is not a sufficiently diagnostic characteristic for Samoidae and, therefore, correctly placing taxa into families within Samooidea + Zalmoxoidea requires additional morphological evidence (e.g. genital morphology). In light of this result, we point out that the "scopulated" Australasian samoids Badessania metatarsalis Roewer, 1949, Sawaiellus berlandi Roewer, 1949 and Parasamoa gressitti Goodnight & Goodnight, 1957 require re-examination in order to detect potential errors in their family placement.

  9. Extract from the zooxanthellate jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata modulates gap junction intercellular communication in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-05-22

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean "fried egg jellyfish" Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7 and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  10. Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid mitigate nacl stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz

    2014-06-01

    Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure.

  11. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  12. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

  13. The development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Kuo, S T; Renault, T; Chang, P H

    2014-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA. Two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. The method developed was specific for the detection of abalone herpesvirus, without cross-reactions with other tested herpesviruses including ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), European eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus (KHV) and an avian herpesvirus. The LAMP assay was 100 folds more sensitive than a conventional PCR and 10 folds less sensitive than a SYBR Green PCR. These results indicate that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of abalone herpesvirus.

  14. Focal Philophthalmus gralli infection possibly persists in Melanoides tuberculata over two years following the definitive hosts' removal.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr; Rojas, Alicia; Bizos, Jiří; Kocková, Lucie; Malá, Milena; Rojas, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Philophthalmosis is a zoonotic disease associated largely with the spread of the invasive freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata, serving as an intermediate host. Here we examined Philophthalmus gralli focal fenced infection site reported recently as being associated with Tinamus major and M. tuberculata in Alajuela, Costa Rica. Removal of the definitive hosts allowed us to address also the long-term survival strategy of the parasite. Initially, the snail intermediate hosts displayed high prevalence of P. gralli infection across all its age cohorts. Two years following the removal of definitive hosts, the infection rate decreased by one order of magnitude, while the snails aging less than one year displayed zero infection prevalence. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) DNA loci revealed negligible intrasite DNA variability of the specimens obtained at the study site in Costa Rica (but not of those obtained earlier in Peru or New Zealand), supporting strongly the hypothesis on focal origin of the infection. The observed dynamics of infection suggests the explanation for the high variability in P. gralli prevalence in intermediate hosts experienced worldwide. We noticed that the reports claiming >20% prevalence of M. tuberculata infection by P. gralli originated exclusively from foci with known eye infection of the definitive hosts, while the P. gralli infection penetrance <2% is typically associated with sites, where the infection of definitive hosts was not observed, suggesting that the infected definitive hosts were present onsite only in the past, or were present only at a site upstream or downstream of the respective sampling site. Thus, this is the first evidence on the possible persistence of eye-trematode infection site for over two years following the last confirmed outbreak in its adult hosts.

  15. Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae): a study based on development of extractive system and in silico and in vitro properties

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, H.S.; Salgueiro, A.C.F.; Colpo, A.Z.C.; Paula, F.R.; Mendez, A.S.L.; Folmer, V.

    2016-01-01

    Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we aimed to investigate the different extractive techniques on phytochemical parameters, as well as to evaluate the toxicity and antioxidant capacity of S. tuberculata extracts using in silico and in vitro models. Therefore, in order to determine the dry residue content and the main compound 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) concentration, extracts from leaves and roots were prepared testing ethanol and water in different proportions. Extracts were then assessed by Artemia salina lethality test, and toxicity prediction of 20E was estimated. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenger assays, ferric reducing power assay, nitrogen derivative scavenger, deoxyribose degradation, and TBARS assays. HPLC evaluation detected 20E as main compound in leaves and roots. Percolation method showed the highest concentrations of 20E (0.134 and 0.096 mg/mL of extract for leaves and roots, respectively). All crude extracts presented low toxic potential on A. salina (LD50 >1000 µg/mL). The computational evaluation of 20E showed a low toxicity prediction. For in vitro antioxidant tests, hydroethanolic extracts of leaves were most effective compared to roots. In addition, hydroethanolic extracts presented a higher IC50 antioxidant than aqueous extracts. TBARS formation was prevented by leaves hydroethanolic extract from 0.015 and 0.03 mg/mL and for roots from 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL on egg yolk and rat tissue, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that S. tuberculata extracts are a considerable source of ecdysteroids and possesses a significant antioxidant property with low toxic potential. PMID:27409335

  16. Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae): a study based on development of extractive system and in silico and in vitro properties.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, H S; Salgueiro, A C F; Colpo, A Z C; Paula, F R; Mendez, A S L; Folmer, V

    2016-07-11

    Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we aimed to investigate the different extractive techniques on phytochemical parameters, as well as to evaluate the toxicity and antioxidant capacity of S. tuberculata extracts using in silico and in vitro models. Therefore, in order to determine the dry residue content and the main compound 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) concentration, extracts from leaves and roots were prepared testing ethanol and water in different proportions. Extracts were then assessed by Artemia salina lethality test, and toxicity prediction of 20E was estimated. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenger assays, ferric reducing power assay, nitrogen derivative scavenger, deoxyribose degradation, and TBARS assays. HPLC evaluation detected 20E as main compound in leaves and roots. Percolation method showed the highest concentrations of 20E (0.134 and 0.096 mg/mL of extract for leaves and roots, respectively). All crude extracts presented low toxic potential on A. salina (LD50 >1000 µg/mL). The computational evaluation of 20E showed a low toxicity prediction. For in vitro antioxidant tests, hydroethanolic extracts of leaves were most effective compared to roots. In addition, hydroethanolic extracts presented a higher IC50 antioxidant than aqueous extracts. TBARS formation was prevented by leaves hydroethanolic extract from 0.015 and 0.03 mg/mL and for roots from 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL on egg yolk and rat tissue, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that S. tuberculata extracts are a considerable source of ecdysteroids and possesses a significant antioxidant property with low toxic potential.

  17. Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2013-10-01

    Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody.

  18. Variable feeding behavior in Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet 1849): Exploring the relative importance of macroalgal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that

  19. Echolocation call production during aerial and terrestrial locomotion by New Zealand's enigmatic lesser short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Stuart; Riskin, Daniel K; Hermanson, John W

    2010-02-15

    Linkage of echolocation call production with contraction of flight muscles has been suggested to reduce the energetic cost of flight with echolocation, such that the overall cost is approximately equal to that of flight alone. However, the pattern of call production with limb movement in terrestrially agile bats has never been investigated. We used synchronised high-speed video and audio recordings to determine patterns of association between echolocation call production and limb motion by Mystacina tuberculata Gray 1843 as individuals walked and flew, respectively. Results showed that there was no apparent linkage between call production and limb motion when bats walked. When in flight, two calls were produced per wingbeat, late in the downstroke and early in the upstroke. When bats walked, calls were produced at a higher rate, but at a slightly lower intensity, compared with bats in flight. These results suggest that M. tuberculata do not attempt to reduce the cost of terrestrial locomotion and call production through biomechanical linkage. They also suggest that the pattern of linkage seen when bats are in flight is not universal and that energetic savings cannot necessarily be explained by contraction of muscles associated with the downstroke alone.

  20. Antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the methanolic extract of Caralluma tuberculata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Elberry, Ahmed A; Gabr, Salah; Suliaman, Mansour I

    2011-07-01

    The antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the methanolic extract of Caralluma tuberculata were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The antihyperglycaemic activity was assessed by the reduction in fasting blood glucose (54% at 4th week) and the peak of blood glucose at 120?min of an oral glucose tolerance test in diabetic rats. Further, the tested extract also increased plasma insulin by 206.8%. The hypolipidaemic action of the extract was evident by the significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol by 41.5%, 36.7% and 49.1%, respectively, compared to diabetic rat values. Interestingly, the extract increased the cardio-protective lipid HDL-cholesterol by 147.97% as compared to diabetic rat value. The present data suggests that the methanolic extract of C. tuberculata has both antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats that may need further studies to be used in the management of diabetes and associated hyperlipedaemia.

  1. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  2. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  3. Salicylic acid and ascorbic acid retrieve activity of antioxidative enzymes and structure of Caralluma tuberculata calli on PEG stress.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz U; Zia, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Muhammad F

    2017-02-02

    Biochemical adaptations and morphological changes are cellular aptitude originated on biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) induces drought stress in the nutrient solution. In the present investigation, Caralluma tuberculata calli is exposed to PEG and antioxidative molecules. By increasing the level of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and GR), the PEG-stressed calli falls off upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and salicylic acid). Under PEG-stress, several cellular and sub-cellular changes such as alteration in plasma membrane thickness, change in nucleus shape, increase in nucleoli, deformation of thylakoid membranes, and increase in plastoglobuli are observed through electron microscopic images. From our results we conclude that application of PEG (a drought causative agent) leads to an increase in the level of antioxidative enzymes and also deformation of cellular organelles. However, application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid eradicate drought effect induced by PEG.

  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition blocks skeletogenesis and echinochrome production in Paracentrotus lividus and Heliocidaris tuberculata embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Zito, Francesca; Koop, Demian; Byrne, Maria; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of widely distributed metalloenzymes, involved in diverse physiological processes. These enzymes catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate. At least 19 genes encoding for CAs have been identified in the sea urchin genome, with one of these localized to the skeletogenic mesoderm (primary mesenchyme cells, PMCs). We investigated the effects of a specific inhibitor of CA, acetazolamide (AZ), on development of two sea urchin species with contrasting investment in skeleton production, Paracentrotus lividus and Heliocidaris tuberculata, to determine the role of CA on PMC differentiation, skeletogenesis and on non-skeletogenic mesodermal (NSM) cells. Embryos were cultured in the presence of AZ from the blastula stage prior to skeleton formation and development to the larval stage was monitored. At the dose of 8 mmol/L AZ, 98% and 90% of P. lividus and H. tuberculata embryos lacked skeleton, respectively. Nevertheless, an almost normal PMC differentiation was indicated by the expression of msp130, a PMC-specific marker. Strikingly, the AZ-treated embryos also lacked the echinochrome pigment produced by the pigment cells, a subpopulation of NSM cells with immune activities within the larva. Conversely, all ectoderm and endoderm derivatives and other subpopulations of mesoderm developed normally. The inhibitory effects of AZ were completely reversed after removal of the inhibitor from the medium. Our data, together with new information concerning the involvement of CA on skeleton formation, provide evidence for the first time of a possible role of the CAs in larval immune pigment cells.

  5. Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) from Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, R F; Gonçalves, I C B; Miyahira, I C; Pinto, H A; Melo, A L; Santos, S B

    2016-09-05

    Pleurolophocercous cercariae found in the invasive gastropod Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) collected in a stream of the Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were used for experimental infection that enabled the identification of the heterophyid trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924). The parasite has been found in the locality since 2007, after two years of the introduction of M. tuberculata. Recently, from a sample of 483 specimens collected in June 2013, 101 (21%) were found infected with parasite. The potential environmental impacts caused by the parasite occurrence could be underestimated in the country, and actions to monitor and control both the parasite and the mollusk are necessary.

  6. Mox homeobox expression in muscle lineage of the gastropod Haliotis asinina: evidence for a conserved role in bilaterian myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hinman, V F; Degnan, B M

    2002-04-01

    Mox homeobox genes are expressed during early vertebrate somitogenesis. Here we describe the expression of Has-Mox, a Mox gene from the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Has-Moxis expressed in the trochophore larva in paraxial mesodermal bands. During larval development, Has-Mox expression remains restricted to mesodermal cells destined to form adult muscle in the foot. This restricted expression of Has-Mox in Haliotis is similar to that observed for vertebrate Mox genes, suggesting a conserved role in myogenesis in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. In contrast, Mox is not expressed in muscle lineages in the ecdysozoan representatives Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila; the C. elegansgenome has lost Mox altogether. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-002-0223-6.

  7. A Mox homeobox gene in the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens is differentially expressed during larval morphogenesis and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Degnan, B M; Degnan, S M; Fentenany, G; Morse, D E

    1997-07-07

    We have isolated a homeobox-containing cDNA from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens that is most similar to members of the Mox homeobox gene class. The derived Haliotis homeodomain sequence is 85% identical to mouse and frog Mox-2 homeodomains and 88.9% identical to the partial cnidarian cnox5-Hm homeodomain. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA accumulation reveals that this gene, called HruMox, is expressed in the larva, but not in the early embryo. Transcripts are most prevalent during larval morphogenesis from trochophore to veliger. There are also transient increases in transcript prevalence 1 and 3 days after the intitiation of metamorphosis from veliger to juvenile. The identification of a molluscan Mox homeobox gene that is more closely related to vertebrate genes than other protostome (e.g. Drosophila) genes suggests the Mox class of homeobox genes may consist of several different families that have been conserved through evolution.

  8. Chemical induction of feeding in California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus (randall): responses to molecular weight fractions of abalone

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Michel, W.C.; Tyre, J.E.; Case, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Molecular weight fractions of abalone muscle were tested for the ability to induce appetitive feeding and locomotor behavior in the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus. Fractions of <1000, 1000-10,000 and >10,000 daltons were isolated by ultrafiltrations and gel chromatography from a seawater extract of abalone muscle. The two lower-molecular-weight fractions (<1000, 1000-10,000) were the least stimulatory of the three fractions tested, and both were ineffective as feeding stimulants. Solutions combining any two of the three isolated fractions produced behavioral activity equal to that caused by whole extract; thus, no single fraction was essential to the stimulatory capacity of abalone. The >1000-dalton fraction was also highly stimulatory, meaning that large and not small molecules were essential in initiating feeding. Finally, a 75% ethanol-insoluble component of the <10,000 fraction was effective, while the ethanol-soluble portion was not. Since the insoluble material consisted predominantly of peptides and polypeptides, it is probable that these molecules act as principal stimulants in abalone muscle. 37 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  9. Discovery of novel virus sequences in an isolated and threatened bat species, the New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Moore, Nicole E.; Murray, Zak L.; McInnes, Kate; White, Daniel J.; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Bats harbour a diverse array of viruses, including significant human pathogens. Extensive metagenomic studies of material from bats, in particular guano, have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viral taxa that were previously unknown. New Zealand has only two extant indigenous terrestrial mammals, which are both bats, Mystacina tuberculata (the lesser short-tailed bat) and Chalinolobus tuberculatus (the long-tailed bat). Until the human introduction of exotic mammals, these species had been isolated from all other terrestrial mammals for over 1 million years (potentially over 16 million years for M. tuberculata). Four bat guano samples were collected from M. tuberculata roosts on the isolated offshore island of Whenua hou (Codfish Island) in New Zealand. Metagenomic analysis revealed that this species still hosts a plethora of divergent viruses. Whilst the majority of viruses detected were likely to be of dietary origin, some putative vertebrate virus sequences were identified. Papillomavirus, polyomavirus, calicivirus and hepevirus were found in the metagenomic data and subsequently confirmed using independent PCR assays and sequencing. The new hepevirus and calicivirus sequences may represent new genera within these viral families. Our findings may provide an insight into the origins of viral families, given their detection in an isolated host species. PMID:25900137

  10. Mechanical strength of abalone nacre: role of the soft organic layer.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Marc André; Lin, Albert Yu-Min; Chen, Po-Yu; Muyco, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The nacreous portion of the abalone shell is composed of calcium carbonate crystals interleaved with layers of viscoelastic proteins. The resulting structure yields unique mechanical properties. In this study, we focus on the thin viscoelastic layers between the tiles and on their role on the mechanical properties of the shell. Both SEM and AFM show that the thin (approximately 30 nm) organic layer is porous, containing holes with diameter of approximately 50 nm. These holes enable the formation of mineral bridges between adjacent tile layers. The mineral bridges play a pivotal role in growth and ensure the maintenance of the same crystallographic relationship through tile growth in the 'terraced cone' mode. The existence of mineral bridges is consistent with the difference between tensile and compressive strength of the abalone. Mechanical tests with loading applied perpendicular to the plane of the organic layers reveal a tensile strength lower than 10 MPa, whereas the compressive strength is approximately 300-500 MPa. These nanoscale bridges have, by virtue of their dimensions (50 nm diameter x 30 nm length), a strength that reaches their theoretical value. The calculated tensile strength based on the theoretical strength predicts a bridge density of approximately 2.25/microm(2). A major conclusion of this investigation is that the role of the organic layer is primarily to subdivide the CaCO(3) matrix into platelets with thickness of 0.5 microm. Its intrinsic effect in providing a glue between adjacent tiles may not be significant.

  11. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster) and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative) terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus) provides evidence for the existence of a herpesvirus

  12. The Phantom Menace for Patients with Hepatobiliary Diseases: Shewanella haliotis, Often Misidentified as Shewanella algae in Biochemical Tests and MALDI-TOF Analysis.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Hyunwoong; Kim, Sunjoo

    2017-03-24

    Although Shewanella algae has been known to have weak pathogenicity, case reports on infections with this species have been steadily increasing. S. algae and S. haliotis are difficult to distinguish from each other with conventional phenotypic methods. We reviewed the microbiological and clinical features of S. algae and S. haliotis infections at our institute. Bacterial culture and identification reports from patient samples from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed to screen the cases of Shewanella infections. In addition to conventional biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were performed for 19 stored bacterial isolates. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. All isolates were identified as S. algae by using VITEK 2. MALDI-TOF also identified all isolates as S. algae with a 99.9 confidence value. In contrast, 16S rRNA analysis identified 10 isolates as S. algae and 9 isolates as S. haliotis. Both S. algae (60%) and S. haliotis (77%) infections were strongly associated with diseases of the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas. To distinguish between S. algae and S. haliotis, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis seems more accurate than biochemical tests or MALDI-TOF. Patients with underlying diseases in the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas seem to be susceptible to these marine pathogens.

  13. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  14. Developmental expression of Hsp90, Hsp70 and HSF during morphogenesis in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have dual functions, participating in both the stress response and a broad range of developmental processes. At physiological temperatures, it has been demonstrated in deuterostomes (vertebrates) and ecdysozoans (insects) that Hsps are expressed in tissues that are undergoing differentiation and morphogenesis. Here we investigate the developmental expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and their regulatory transcription factor heat shock transcription factor (HSF) in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina, a representative of the 3rd major lineage of bilaterian animals, the Lophotrochozoa. HasHsp70, HasHsp90 and HasHSF are maternally expressed in H. asinina and are progressively restricted to the micromere lineage during cleavage. During larval morphogenesis, they are expressed in unique and overlapping patterns in the prototroch, foot, and mantle. Hsp expression peaked in these tissues during periods of cell differentiation and morphogenesis, returning to lower levels after morphogenesis was complete. These patterns of Hsp and HSF expression in H. asinina are akin to those observed in ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with Hsps being activated in cells and tissues undergoing morphogenesis.

  15. Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, in contrast to non-pathogenic strains, intervenes with the p38 MAPK pathway to avoid an abalone haemocyte immune response.

    PubMed

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Friedman, Carolyn S; Buzin, Florence; Cougard, Bertrand; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone epidemics associated with massive mortalities in France, Japan, and Australia. The aim of this study was the understanding of a possible role of the p38 MAPK in abalone haemocyte responses towards this bacterium. First, the pathogenicity of different V. harveyi strains was compared in both immersion and injection trials, and clear differences were detected. The three strains, ORM4, 04/092, and 05/053, all isolated from moribund abalone, induced up to 80% mortalities in immersion or injection challenges (LD(50) (ORM4) = 2.5 x 10(2) CFU animal(-1)). The two strains, LMG 4044T and LMG 7890 were non-pathogenic towards abalone in immersion trials, and needed very high numbers for killing by intramuscular injections (LD(50) = 8.9 x 10(4) and 1.6 x 10(5) CFU animal(-1), respectively). To start unraveling the mechanism explaining these differences, the p38-MAPK, a keyplayer in antimicrobial immune response, was studied. The non-pathogenic strain, LMG 7890 can be eliminated by abalone haemocytes and induces haemocyte phagocytosis and high ROS production. With different concentrations of a p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, p38 implication was shown. This inhibitor reduced phagocytosis and ROS induction leading to LMG 7890 proliferation. In the case of the pathogenic ORM4 which can not be eliminated by abalone haemocytes, no phagocytosis and ROS production was induced, and a retarded p38 activation was observed. Taken together, our results suggest that p38 MAPK modulation may be one of the ways of virulent V. harveyi to attack its host and escape abalone immune response.

  16. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). BLACK, GREEN, and RED ABALONES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    F, 7AD-A162 638 SPECIES PROFILES LIFE HISTORIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL 1/ REQUIREMENTS OF COASTAL (U) COOPERATIVE INST FOR MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC STUDIES...Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) BLACK, GREEN, AND RED ABALONES by Jerald S. Ault Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies 4600...Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, FL 33149 Project Manager Larry Shanks Project Officer John Parsons National Coastal Ecosystems TeamV U.S. Fish and Wildlife

  17. Neuroprotective effects of Caralluma tuberculata on ameliorating cognitive impairment in a d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zahid; Atlas, Nagina; Nawaz, Waqas

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive deficiency and oxidative stress have been well documented in aging disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Caralluma tuberculata methanolic extract (CTME) on cognitive impairment in mice induced with d-galactose. In this study we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of CTME on cognitive impairment in mice induced with d-galactose by conduction of behavioral and cognitive performance tests. In order to explore the possible role of CTME against d-galactose-induced oxidative damages, various biochemical indicators were assessed. Chronic administration of d-galactose (150mg/kgd, s.c.) for 7 weeks significantly impaired cognitive performance (in step-through passive, active avoidance test, Hole-Board test, Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze) and oxidative defense as compared to the control group. The results revealed that CTME treatment for two weeks (100, 200 and 300mg/kg p.o) significantly ameliorated cognitive performance and oxidative defense. All groups of CTME enhanced the learning and memory ability in step-through passive, active avoidance test, Hole-Board test Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze. Furthermore, high and middle level of CTME (300 and 200mg/kg p.o) significantly increased Total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, neprilysin (NEP), and β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression while Nitric Oxide (NO), Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the level of Aβ1-42 and presenilin 1 (PS1) were decreased. The present study showed that CTME have a significant relieving effect on learning, memory and spontaneous activities in d-galactose-induced mice model, and ameliorates cognitive impairment and biochemical dysfunction in mice.

  18. Immune response of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea tuberculata) following in situ soil exposure to atmospheric deposition from a cement factory.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Richard; Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Sauvé, Sébastien; Flipo, Denis; Fournier, Michel; Trottier, Bertin

    2003-10-01

    In order to reduce their energy costs, many cement plants use fuel product substitutes (old tyres and used oil). The combustion of these products generates a metal increase (e.g. Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in the atmospheric emissions. After their release, these elements are deposited into the environment and could eventually accumulate up to concentrations of concern. At the Saint-Laurent cement factory (Joliette, QC, Canada), maximum deposition of these elements occurs in the direction of prevailing winds (North-East). We evaluated the potential impact of these depositions upon the immune system of three earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea tuberculata) exposed in a natural environment. The exposure sites were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 km downwind from the cement factory, along with an upwind reference site. The immune parameters studied were the cell viability and phagocytic potential of the immune cells (coelomocytes). For both L. terrestris and E. andrei, after 7 d exposure, none of the measured parameters showed significant differences among the sites. On the other hand, for the indigenous worm A. tuberculata, in the most exposed zone (at 0.5 km), we observed an increase in cell viability and phagocytic potential. This increase could possibly be attributed to physicochemical effects such as the alkaline pH of the soil, or alternatively, it could result from beneficial effects induced by an increased calcium supply.

  19. The Effect of Extract/Fractions of Caralluma tuberculata on Blood Glucose Levels and Body Weight in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Rehman, Ali; Akber, Noor Ul; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Murad Ali

    2014-07-01

    Caralluma tuberculata is a cooked food item in Pakistan especially for diabetics. The current study was designed to explore the antidiabetic potential of extract/fractions of Caralluma tuberculata in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and its effect on body weight. The crude extract of the plant provoked 24% and 44% antidiabetic action at 25 and 50 mg/kg OP, respectively, after the 24th day of treatment, which was strongly supported by a positive effect on the body weight of animals. On fractionation, pretreatment of the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated most dominant (25.17% and 34.83%) antidiabetic activity followed by n-hexane (19.33% and 32.76%) and aqueous fractions (16.44% and 22.36%) at 25 and 50 mg/kg OP, respectively, after the 24th day of treatment. The corresponding effect on blood glucose was also observed on body weight of diabetic rabbits. In sum, extract/fractions of the plant showed marked antidiabetic action and thus a provided scientific foundation to the use of the plant as an antidiabetic.

  20. Purification and characterization of amylases from small abalone (Sulculus diversicolor aquatilis).

    PubMed

    Tsao, Ching-Yu; Pan, Yun-Zu; Jiang, Shann-Tzong

    2003-02-12

    Amylases II-1 and II-2 with molecular weights of 55.7 and 65 kDa, respectively, were purified to electrophoretical homogeneity from small abalone (Sulculus diversicolor aquatilis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sepharose CL-6B, CM-Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephacryl S-100 chromatographs. They had optimal temperatures of 45 and 50 degrees C and an optimal pH of 6.0. The purified amylases were stable at pH 5.0-8.0 and 6.0-8.0, respectively. They were completely or partially inhibited by Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), iodoacetamide, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, and N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting the existence of cysteine at their active sites. Digestion tests against various polysaccharides suggested that the purified amylases II-1 and II-2 are neoamylases which can hydrolyze both alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glucosidic bonds. Amylase II-2 might be an exo- and II-1 an endo-/exo-amylase.

  1. The organic interlamellar layer in abalone nacre: Formation and mechanical response.

    PubMed

    López, Maria Isabel; Meyers, Marc André

    2016-01-01

    The interlamellar organic layer plays a key role in establishing the tensile mechanical response of nacre, while changing the compressive response in only a marginal manner. We conduct observations on the epithelial layer of the abalone foot in direct contact with the extrapallial layer where the deposition process takes place and identify cilia, microvilli, and secretory cells which determine the deposition of chitin to form the interlamellar organic layer. On the basis of these observations we propose a mechanism for the deposition of interlamellar organic layers. We show that the fraction of pores, as well as their diameter, grow rapidly as the interlamellar layer is extended uniaxially or biaxially, and compare these calculations with the observed values. In the calculations we assume a Poisson's ratio equal to zero in the plane of the lamellae. This assumption is justified by the thickness of the organic layer (20-50 nm) being equal to twice the diameter of the chitin fibrils; consequently the expansion of the membrane occurs at a constant thickness. As an illustration of this effect, an externally applied strain of 0.5 increases the initial pore diameter (typically equal to 20-50 nm) to a value of ten times (0.2-0.5 μm). These calculations explain the observations of large pores reported in the literature and interpret them as the result of externally applied loads.

  2. Antihyperglycaemic mechanisms of an aceteoside polymer from rose flowers and a polysaccharide-protein complex from abalone mushroom.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Rong; Liu, Zhao-Kun; Liu, Fang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Oral administration of an aceteoside polymer from rose Rosa rugosa (P1-b) and a polysaccharide-peptide complex from abalone mushroom Pleurotus abalonus (LB-1b), both with antioxidant activity, produced antihyperglycaemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The expression of insulin, superoxide dismutase and pancreas duodenum homeobox factor-1 essential for pancreatic islet function as estimated by real-time PCR was augmented. The reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability of the rose constituent was notably stronger than the mushroom constituent. Thus, the two biomolecules protected the pancreas from oxidative stress, elevated pancreatic insulin expression and lowered circulating glucose level.

  3. Parasitic castration by the digenian trematode Allopodocotyle sp. alters gene expression in the brain of the host mollusc Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Rice, Tamika; McGraw, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Reverter, Antonio; Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2006-06-26

    Infection of molluscs by digenean trematode parasites typically results in the repression of reproduction -- the so-called parasitic castration. This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. Here we analyse the expression levels of 10 members of POU, Pax, Sox and Hox transcription factor gene families, along with genes encoding FMRFamide, prohormone convertase and beta-tubulin, in the brain ganglia of actively reproducing (summer), non-reproducing (winter) and infected Haliotis asinina (a vetigastropod mollusc). A number of the regulatory genes are differentially expressed in parasitised H. asinina, but in only a few cases do expression patterns in infected animals match those occurring in animals where reproduction is normally repressed.

  4. Offshore survey provides answers to coastal stability and potential offshore extensions of landslides into Abalone Cove, Palos Verdes peninsula, Calif

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F. ); Slosson, J.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The configuration and stability of the present coast line near Abalone Cove, on the south side of Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is related to the geology, oceanographic conditions, and recent and ancient landslide activity. This case study utilizes offshore high resolution seismic profiles, side-scan sonar, diving, and coring, to relate marine geology to the stability of a coastal region with known active landslides utilizing a desk top computer and off-the-shelf software. Electronic navigation provided precise positioning that when applied to computer generated charts permitted correlation of survey data needed to define the offshore geology and sea floor sediment patterns. A mackintosh desk-top computer and commercially available off-the-shelf software provided the analytical tools for constructing a base chart and a means to superimpose template overlays of topography, isopachs or sediment thickness, bottom roughness and sediment distribution patterns. This composite map of offshore geology and oceanography was then related to an extensive engineering and geological land study of the coastal zone forming Abalone Cove, an area of active landslides. Vibrocoring provided ground sediment data for high resolution seismic traverses. This paper details the systems used, present findings relative to potential landslide movements, coastal erosion and discuss how conclusions were reached to determine whether or not onshore landslide failures extend offshore.

  5. 50 CFR 224.101 - Enumeration of endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from Columbia River tributaries upstream of the Rock Island Dam and downstream of Chief Joseph Dam..., 1979 NA NA. Molluscs Abalone, black Haliotis cracherodii Entire species 74 FR 1937, Jan 14, 2009...

  6. Ecdysteroids in Sida tuberculata R.E. Fries (Malvaceae): chemical composition by LC-ESI-MS and selective anti-Candida krusei activity.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Hemerson Silva; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Camargo, Graziela; Garcia, Cássia V; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Mendez, Andreas S L

    2015-09-01

    Sida tuberculata is found in a region of South America and has traditionally been consumed as an infusion or tea. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of aqueous infusions from leaves and roots were investigated. LC-ESI-MS mass spectra were successfully obtained and used to identify four ecdysteroids: 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-β-D-xylose and a hydroxyecdysterone derivative. The in vitro antifungal activity was studied, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established against Candida krusei isolates. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by the determination of the biofilm removal efficiency in contaminated central venous catheter (CVC) coupons. The preparations exhibited antifungal activity against the species tested, with MICs ranging from 3.90 to 62.50 μg/ml. The infusion removed the C. krusei biofilm after 90 min of exposure. The observed bioactivity and composition of ecdysteroids will contribute to the future development of antifungal substances for clinical use or as food additives.

  7. Purification and characterization of perlucin and perlustrin, two new proteins from the shell of the mollusc Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Weiss, I M; Kaufmann, S; Mann, K; Fritz, M

    2000-01-07

    Two new proteins, named perlucin and perlustrin, with M(r) 17,000 and 13,000, respectively, were isolated from the shell of the mollusc Halotis laevigata (abalone) by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC after demineralization of the shell in 10% acetic acid. The sequence of the first 32 amino acids of perlucin indicated that this protein belonged to a heterogeneous group of proteins consisting of a single C-type lectin domain. Perlucin increased the precipitation of CaCO(3) from a saturated solution, indicating that it may promote the nucleation and/or the growth of CaCO(3) crystals. With pancreatic stone protein (lithostathine) and the eggshell protein ovocleidin 17, this is the third C-type lectin domain protein isolated from CaCO(3) biominerals. This indicates that this type of protein performs an important but at present unrecognized function in biomineralization. Perlustrin was a minor component of the protein mixture and the sequence of the first 33 amino acids indicated a certain similarity to part of the much larger nacre protein lustrin A.

  8. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  9. Isolation and identification of a novel polysaccharide-peptide complex with antioxidant, anti-proliferative and hypoglycaemic activities from the abalone mushroom.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Li, Le; Fang, Jin Cen; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun; Jiang, Yun; Wang, Chang Rong; Zhang, Ni Ye; Wen, Ting Yi; Qu, Li Yuan; Lv, Peng Yun; Zhao, Ruili; Shi, Bin; Wang, Yin Ping; Wang, Xiao Ying; Liu, Fang

    2012-06-01

    A novel antioxidant polysaccharide-peptide complex LB-1b from the fruiting bodies of the edible abalone mushroom (Pleurotus abalonus) was purified and identified. The structural characteristic of LB-1b was identified by FTIR (Fourier-transform IR), 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. LB-1b is a polysaccharide-peptide complex that contains glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galactose in the molar ratio of 22.4:1:1.7:1.6 and the N-terminal sequence of its peptide moiety has also been determined. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of LB-1b, IPKERKEFQQAQHLK, showed some resemblance to antioxidant enzymes. LB-1b exhibited high antioxidant activity in erythrocyte haemolysis in vitro and the anti-proliferative activity towards hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC50 of 24 and 14 μM respectively. LB-1b also demonstrated hypoglycaemic activity in drug-induced diabetic mice and anti-HIV-1 RT (reverse transcriptase) with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM.

  10. Intensive Cultural Resources Survey for the Goleta Flood Protection Program, Santa Barbara County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Seal (Phoco vitulina) and California Sea Lion ( Zalophus californianus ). Black Abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), Purple Olive (Olivella biplicata...Polinices lewisii, Saxidomus a., Mytilus californianus , and Protothaca staminea. A single shark vertebra was also observed. A cluster of five broken...a dense shell midden deposit comprised primarily of Chione s., Tivela stultorum, Protothaca staminea, Saxidomus natalii, and Mytilus californianus

  11. 50 CFR 224.101 - Enumeration of endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... salmon in Columbia River tributaries upstream of the Rock Island Dam and downstream of Chief Joseph Dam... jetty, Washington side) upstream to Chief Joseph Dam in Washington, as well as six artificial... Determinations Citations (s) for Critical Habitat Designations Black abalone Haliotis cracherodii USA, CA....

  12. 50 CFR 224.101 - Enumeration of endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon in Columbia River tributaries upstream of the Rock Island Dam and downstream of Chief Joseph Dam... jetty, Washington side) upstream to Chief Joseph Dam in Washington, as well as six artificial... Citations (s) for Critical Habitat Designations Black abalone Haliotis cracherodii USA, CA. From...

  13. 3D reconstruction of the hemocyanin subunit dimer from the chiton Acanthochiton fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Meissner, Ulrich; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Procedures are presented for the purification of the subunit dimer from Acanthochiton fasicularis hemocyanin. Electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens revealed a uniform population of macromolecules possessing the characteristic "boat shape". A 3D reconstruction from this EM data generated a approximately 3 nm resolution model that correlates well with earlier data of the purported subunit dimer, extracted from the 3D reconstruction of the didecamer of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 1.

  14. Phase transition of aragonite in abalone nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yuanlin; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian

    2013-04-01

    Nacre is composed of about 95 vol.% aragonite and 5 vol.% biopolymer and famous for its "brick and mortar" microstructure. The phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre is lower than the pure aragonite. In situ XRD was used to identify the phase transition temperature from aragonite to calcite in nacre, based on the analysis of TG-DSC of fresh nacre and demineralized nacre. The results indicate that the microstructure and biopolymer are the two main factors that influence the phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre.

  15. Mapping nanomechanical properties of freshly grown, native, interlamellar organic sheets on flat pearl nacre.

    PubMed

    Launspach, Malte; Gries, Katharina I; Heinemann, Fabian; Hübner, Anja; Fritz, Monika; Radmacher, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    We imaged surfaces of freshly grown flat pearl nacre (Haliotis tuberculata) in different stages of growth in seawater using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Characteristic mineral phases of nacre, such as aragonitic stacks of coins, as well as the associated organic sheets, could be detected. Apart from imaging, the acquisition of force volumes on freshly grown organic surface areas on flat pearl nacre was conducted with the AFM. The evaluation of the force volumes with the Hertz-Sneddon model resulted in Young's moduli in the MPa range. The presented values are considerably smaller than values previously determined from macroscopic tensile tests. This might reflect the anisotropy of the organic nacre layers.

  16. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants to the early life stages of two marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.M.; George, S.; Benner, D.; Jacobson, S.; Tjeerdema, R.S. . Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Aquatic Toxicology Program); Sowby, M.L. . Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response)

    1993-10-01

    Acute, flow-through, spiked-exposure toxicity tests were performed on the early life stages of two marine species using two oil dispersants. The species represent two common near-shore marine taxa: molluscs (red abalone, Haliotis rufescens) and crustaceans (kelp forest mysid, Holmesimysis costata). The dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants and solvents. The toxicity data showed that one dispersant, Slik-A-Way, was more toxic than the other, Nokomis[reg sign] 3, to both species. Median-effect concentration estimates for the two dispersants were significantly different between species. Slik-A-Way median-effect concentrations ranged from 16.8 to 23.9 initial ppm for Haliotis and 25.9 to 34.6 initial ppm for Holmesimysis, whereas Nokomis[reg sign] 3 median-effect concentrations ranged from 21.0 to 24.0 initial ppm for Haliotis and from 118.0 to 123.2 initial ppm for Holmesimysis. Differences in toxicity seen in the two dispersants may be due to differences in surfactant formulations.

  17. Predicting the Distribution of Commercially Important Invertebrate Stocks under Future Climate

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Bayden D.; Connell, Sean D.; Mellin, Camille; Brook, Barry W.; Burnell, Owen W.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2012-01-01

    The future management of commercially exploited species is challenging because techniques used to predict the future distribution of stocks under climate change are currently inadequate. We projected the future distribution and abundance of two commercially harvested abalone species (blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra and greenlip abalone, H. laevigata) inhabiting coastal South Australia, using multiple species distribution models (SDM) and for decadal time slices through to 2100. Projections are based on two contrasting global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The SDMs identified August (winter) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as the best descriptor of abundance and forecast that warming of winter temperatures under both scenarios may be beneficial to both species by allowing increased abundance and expansion into previously uninhabited coasts. This range expansion is unlikely to be realised, however, as projected warming of March SST is projected to exceed temperatures which cause up to 10-fold increases in juvenile mortality. By linking fine-resolution forecasts of sea surface temperature under different climate change scenarios to SDMs and physiological experiments, we provide a practical first approximation of the potential impact of climate-induced change on two species of marine invertebrates in the same fishery. PMID:23251326

  18. Volatile oil from Guarea macrophylla ssp. tuberculata: seasonal variation and electroantennographic detection by Hypsipyla grandella.

    PubMed

    Lago, João Henrique G; Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Silva, M Fátima G F; Corrêa, Arlene G; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Roque, Nídia F

    2006-03-01

    GC and GC-MS analyses of the volatile oils from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) collected during three different periods in one year (February, June and October) indicated a seasonal variation in chemical composition. Whilst sesquiterpenes were the predominant class of components present in the leaf oil, a seasonal dependent variation in the degree of oxygenation of these compounds was detected, which seemed to be associated with phenological factors. The leaf oil, and fractions thereof, were subjected to GC coupled with electroantennographic detection employing antennae of females of Hypsipyla grandella, an insect pest that attacks several meliaceous species. Five compounds elicited significant responses and these were identified as ledol, 1-cubenol, guai-6-en-10beta-ol, 1-epi-cubenol, and tau-muurolol. The results suggest that these components could be responsible for the attraction of H. grandella to G. macrophylla.

  19. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-09-15

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  20. Nanoscale Transforming Mineral Phases in Fresh Nacre.

    PubMed

    DeVol, Ross T; Sun, Chang-Yu; Marcus, Matthew A; Coppersmith, Susan N; Myneni, Satish C B; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2015-10-21

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner layer of many mollusk shells, is a biomineral lamellar composite of aragonite (CaCO3) and organic sheets. Biomineralization frequently occurs via transient amorphous precursor phases, crystallizing into the final stable biomineral. In nacre, despite extensive attempts, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors have remained elusive. They were inferred from non-nacre-forming larval shells, or from a residue of amorphous material surrounding mature gastropod nacre tablets, and have only once been observed in bivalve nacre. Here we present the first direct observation of ACC precursors to nacre formation, obtained from the growth front of nacre in gastropod shells from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), using synchrotron spectromicroscopy. Surprisingly, the abalone nacre data show the same ACC phases that are precursors to calcite (CaCO3) formation in sea urchin spicules, and not proto-aragonite or poorly crystalline aragonite (pAra), as expected for aragonitic nacre. In contrast, we find pAra in coral.

  1. Tablet-level origin of toughening in abalone shells and translation to synthetic composite materials.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Juster, Allison L; Latourte, Felix J; Loh, Owen Y; Gregoire, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D

    2011-02-01

    Nacre, the iridescent material in seashells, is one of many natural materials employing hierarchical structures to achieve high strength and toughness from relatively weak constituents. Incorporating these structures into composites is appealing as conventional engineering materials often sacrifice strength to improve toughness. Researchers hypothesize that nacre's toughness originates within its brick-and-mortar-like microstructure. Under loading, bricks slide relative to each other, propagating inelastic deformation over millimeter length scales. This leads to orders-of-magnitude increase in toughness. Here, we use in situ atomic force microscopy fracture experiments and digital image correlation to quantitatively prove that brick morphology (waviness) leads to transverse dilation and subsequent interfacial hardening during sliding, a previously hypothesized dominant toughening mechanism in nacre. By replicating this mechanism in a scaled-up model synthetic material, we find that it indeed leads to major improvements in energy dissipation. Ultimately, lessons from this investigation may be key to realizing the immense potential of widely pursued nanocomposites.

  2. Molecular paleoecology: using gene regulatory analysis to address the origins of complex life cycles in the late Precambrian.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ewan F; Moy, Vanessa N; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C; Morris, Robert L; Peterson, Kevin J

    2007-01-01

    Molecular paleoecology is the application of molecular data to test hypotheses made by paleoecological scenarios. Here, we use gene regulatory analysis to test between two competing paleoecological scenarios put forth to explain the evolution of complex life cycles. The first posits that early bilaterians were holobenthic, and the evolution of macrophagous grazing drove the exploitation of the pelagos by metazoan eggs and embryos, and eventually larvae. The alternative hypothesis predicts that early bilaterians were holopelagic, and new adult stages were added on when these holopelagic forms began to feed on the benthos. The former hypothesis predicts that the larvae of protostomes and deuterostomes are not homologous, with the implication that larval-specific structures, including the apical organ, are the products of convergent evolution, whereas the latter hypothesis predicts homology of larvae, specifically homology of the apical organ. We show that in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the transcription factors NK2.1 and HNF6 are necessary for the correct spatial expression profiles of five different cilia genes. All of these genes are expressed exclusively in the apical plate after the mesenchyme-blastula stage in cells that also express NK2.1 and HNF6. In addition, abrogation of SpNK2.1 results in embryos that lack the apical tuft. However, in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, NK2.1 and HNF6 are not expressed in any cells that also express these same five cilia genes. Nonetheless, like the sea urchin, the gastropod expresses both NK2.1 and FoxA around the stomodeum and foregut, and FoxA around the proctodeum. As we detected no similarity in the development of the apical tuft between the sea urchin and the abalone, these molecular data are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of mobile, macrophagous metazoans drove the evolution of complex life cycles multiple times independently in the late Precambrian.

  3. Comparison of the sensitivity of seven marine and freshwater bioassays as regards antidepressant toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laetitia; Di Poi, Carole; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Benchouala, Amira; Bojic, Clément; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Costil, Katherine; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The hazards linked to pharmaceutical residues like antidepressants are currently a major concern of ecotoxicology because they may have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Our study assesses the ecotoxicity of three antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine) using a battery of marine and freshwater species representing different trophic levels, and compares the bioassay sensitivity levels. We selected the following bioassays: the algal growth inhibition test (Skeletonema marinoi and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the microcrustacean immobilization test (Artemia salina and Daphnia magna), development and adult survival tests on Hydra attenuata, embryotoxicity and metamorphosis tests on Crassostrea gigas, and in vitro assays on primary cultures of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The results showed high inter-species variability in EC50-values ranging from 43 to 15,600 µg/L for fluoxetine, from 67 to 4,400 µg/L for sertraline, and from 4.70 µg/L to more than 100,000 µg/L for clomipramine. Algae (S. marinoi and P. subcapitata) and the embryo-larval stages of the oyster C. gigas were the most sensitive taxa. This raises an issue due to their ecological and/or economic importance. The marine crustacean A. salina was the least sensitive species. This difference in sensitivity between bioassays highlights the importance of using a test battery.

  4. Molecular characterizations of chloramphenicol- and oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in mariculture waters of China.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Zhao, Jingyi; Song, Linsheng; Chen, Mingna; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-07-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the diversity and distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in maricultural environments, multidrug-resistant bacteria were screened for the rearing waters from a mariculture farm of China. Both abalone Haliotis discushannai and turbot Scophthalmus maximus rearing waters were populated with abundant chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria. These bacteria were also multidrug resistant, with Vibriosplendidus and Vibriotasmaniensis being the most predominant species. The chloramphenicol-resistance gene cat II, cat IV or floR could be detected in most of the multidrug-resistant isolates, and the oxytetracycline-resistance gene tet(B), tet(D), tet(E) or tet(M) could also be detected for most of the isolates. Coexistence of chloramphenicol- and oxytetracycline-resistance genes partially explains the molecular mechanism of multidrug resistance in the studied maricultural environments. Comparative studies with different antimicrobial agents as the starting isolation reagents may help detect a wider diversity of the antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes.

  5. High expression of new genes in trochophore enlightening the ontogeny and evolution of trochozoans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Fan, Dingding; Dunwell, Thomas L.; Li, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Animals with trochophore larvae belong to Trochozoa, one of the main branches of Bilateria. In addition to exhibiting spiral cleavage and early cell fate determination, trochozoans typically undergo indirect development, which contributes to the most unique characteristics of their ontogeny. The indirect development of trochozoans has provoked discussion regarding the origin and evolution of marine larvae and is interesting from the perspective of phylogeny-ontogeny correspondence. While these phylo-onto correlations have an hourglass shape in Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, plants and even fungi, they have seldom been studied in Trochozoa, and even Lophotrochozoa. Here, we compared the ontogenetic transcriptomes of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Bivalvia, Mollusca), the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda, Mollusca), and the sand worm Perinereis aibuhitensis (Polychaeta, Annelida) using several complementary phylotranscriptomic methods to examine their evolutionary trajectories. The results revealed the late trochophore stage as the phylotypic phase. However, this basic pattern is accompanied with increased use of new genes in the trochophore stages which marks specific adaptations of the larval body plans. PMID:27698463

  6. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-02-09

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations.

  7. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection. PMID:22855690

  8. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  9. MAD phasing with krypton.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Ellis, P; Kresge, N; Soltis, S M

    2001-02-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of Kr-edge MAD on frozen crystals as a routine method for structure determination are reported. Approximately 50% of protein crystals can be successfully derivatized by pressurization with the noble gases xenon or krypton. While Xe has produced many useful derivatives for MIR phasing over the last several years, the Xe edges (K edge = 34.6 keV, L(I) = 5.5 keV) are not easily accessible for MAD studies. As the Kr K edge (14.3 keV) is accessible on most MAD beamlines, Kr derivatization provides the additional opportunity to conduct a MAD experiment and obtain phases using only a single crystal. This paper describes the phasing of two proteins using Kr MAD: the 17 kDa Fe protein myoglobin (Mb) from sperm whale (Physeter catodon) and an 18 kDa protein (SP18) from green abalone (Haliotis fulgens). Three-wavelength data were collected at SSRL beamline 9-2 from crystals of Mb and SP18 incubated in 2.76 MPa of Kr gas for 2 min, depressurized and then flash-frozen in a stream of nitrogen gas at 100 K. MAD phases were calculated using the program SHARP and the resulting density improved with wARP. The final maps for both Mb and SP18 were of excellent quality.

  10. 78 FR 69033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Pinto Abalone as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... in temperature, from 2 to 24 degrees Celsius, based on laboratory experiments (COSEWIC, 2009). Pinto... in the water column over a 5- to 10-day period (perhaps up to 13 days at cooler temperatures) before... (COSEWIC, 2009). Growth rates can vary depending on food availability, water temperature, and...

  11. Recovery of Coastal Fauna after the 2011 Tsunami in Japan as Determined by Bimonthly Underwater Visual Censuses Conducted over Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Reiji; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yokoyama, Katsuhide; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Massive tsunamis induce catastrophic disturbance in marine ecosystems, yet they can provide unique opportunities to observe the process of regeneration. Here, we report the recovery of fauna after the 2011 tsunami in northeast Japan based on underwater visual censuses performed every two months over five years. Both total fish abundance and species richness increased from the first to the second year after the tsunami followed by stabilization in the following years. Short-lived fish, such as the banded goby Pterogobius elapoides, were relatively abundant in the first two years, whereas long-lived species, such as the black rockfish Sebastes cheni, increased in the latter half of the survey period. Tropical fish species were recorded only in the second and third years after the tsunami. The body size of long-lived fish increased during the survey period resulting in a gradual increase of total fish biomass. The recovery of fish assemblages was slow at one site located in the inner bay, where the impact of the tsunami was the strongest. Apart from fish, blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. occurred only in the first two years after the tsunami, whereas the abundances of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and abalone Haliotis discus hannai increased after the second year. Although we lack quantitative data prior to the tsunami, we conclude that it takes approximately three years for coastal reef fish assemblages to recover from a heavy disturbance such as a tsunami and that the recovery is dependent on species-specific life span and habitat. PMID:27942028

  12. Curve fitting toxicity test data: Which comes first, the dose response or the model?

    SciTech Connect

    Gully, J.; Baird, R.; Bottomley, J.

    1995-12-31

    The probit model frequently does not fit the concentration-response curve of NPDES toxicity test data and non-parametric models must be used instead. The non-parametric models, trimmed Spearman-Karber, IC{sub p}, and linear interpolation, all require a monotonic concentration-response. Any deviation from a monotonic response is smoothed to obtain the desired concentration-response characteristics. Inaccurate point estimates may result from such procedures and can contribute to imprecision in replicate tests. The following study analyzed reference toxicant and effluent data from giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) bioassays using commercially available curve fitting software. The purpose was to search for alternative parametric models which would reduce the use of non-parametric models for point estimate analysis of toxicity data. Two non-linear models, power and logistic dose-response, were selected as possible alternatives to the probit model based upon their toxicological plausibility and ability to model most data sets examined. Unlike non-parametric procedures, these and all parametric models can be statistically evaluated for fit and significance. The use of the power or logistic dose response models increased the percentage of parametric model fits for each protocol and toxicant combination examined. The precision of the selected non-linear models was also compared with the EPA recommended point estimation models at several effect.levels. In general, precision of the alternative models was equal to or better than the traditional methods. Finally, use of the alternative models usually produced more plausible point estimates in data sets where the effects of smoothing and non-parametric modeling made the point estimate results suspect.

  13. Dynamic expression of ancient and novel molluscan shell genes during ecological transitions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Daniel J; Wörheide, Gert; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-01-01

    Background The Mollusca constitute one of the most morphologically and ecologically diverse metazoan phyla, occupying a wide range of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. The evolutionary success of the molluscs can in part be attributed to the evolvability of the external shell. Typically, the shell first forms during embryonic and larval development, changing dramatically in shape, colour and mineralogical composition as development and maturation proceeds. Major developmental transitions in shell morphology often correlate with ecological transitions (e.g. from a planktonic to benthic existence at metamorphosis). While the genes involved in molluscan biomineralisation are beginning to be identified, there is little understanding of how these are developmentally regulated, or if the same genes are operational at different stages of the mollusc's life. Results Here we relate the developmental expression of nine genes in the tissue responsible for shell production – the mantle – to ecological transitions that occur during the lifetime of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina (Vetigastropoda). Four of these genes encode evolutionarily ancient proteins, while four others encode secreted proteins with little or no identity to known proteins. Another gene has been previously described from the mantle of another haliotid vetigastropod. All nine genes display dynamic spatial and temporal expression profiles within the larval shell field and juvenile mantle. Conclusion These expression data reflect the regulatory complexity that underlies molluscan shell construction from larval stages to adulthood, and serves to highlight the different ecological demands placed on each stage. The use of both ancient and novel genes in all stages of shell construction also suggest that a core set of shell-making genes was provided by a shared metazoan ancestor, which has been elaborated upon to produce the range of molluscan shell types we see today. PMID:17845714

  14. Characterization of the pigmented shell-forming proteome of the common grove snail Cepaea nemoralis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With a diversity of pigmented shell morphotypes governed by Mendelian patterns of inheritance, the common grove snail, Cepaea nemoralis, has served as a model for evolutionary biologists and population geneticists for decades. Surprisingly, the molecular mechanisms by which C. nemoralis generates this pigmented shelled diversity, and the degree of evolutionary conservation present between molluscan shell-forming proteomes, remain unknown. Results Here, using next generation sequencing and high throughput proteomics, we identify and characterize the major proteinaceous components of the C. nemoralis shell, the first shell-proteome for a pulmonate mollusc. The recent availability of several marine molluscan shell-proteomes, and the dataset we report here, allow us to identify 59 evolutionarily conserved and novel shell-forming proteins. While the C. nemoralis dataset is dominated by proteins that share little to no similarity with proteins in public databases, almost half of it shares similarity with proteins present in other molluscan shells. In addition, we could not find any indication that a protein (or class of proteins) is directly associated with shell pigmentation in C. nemoralis. This is in contrast to the only other partially characterized molluscan-shell pigmentation mechanism employed by the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Conclusions The unique pulmonate shell-forming proteome that we report here reveals an abundance of both mollusc-specific and pulmonate-specific proteins, suggesting that novel coding sequences, and/or the extensive divergence of these sequences from ancestral sequences, supported the innovation of new shell types within the Conchifera. In addition, we report here the first evidence that molluscs use independently evolved mechanisms to pigment their shells. This proteome provides a solid foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterization of these shell-forming proteins can be conducted. PMID

  15. Model peptide studies of sequence regions in the elastomeric biomineralization protein, Lustrin A. I. The C-domain consensus-PG-, -NVNCT-motif.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wustman, Brandon A; Morse, Daniel; Evans, John Spencer

    2002-05-01

    The lustrin superfamily represents a unique group of biomineralization proteins localized between layered aragonite mineral plates (i.e., nacre layer) in mollusk shell. Recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) pulling studies have demonstrated that the lustrin-containing organic nacre layer in the abalone, Haliotis rufescens, exhibits a typical sawtooth force-extension curve with hysteretic recovery. This force extension behavior is reminiscent of reversible unfolding and refolding in elastomeric proteins such as titin and tenascin. Since secondary structure plays an important role in force-induced protein unfolding and refolding, the question is, What secondary structure(s) exist within the major domains of Lustrin A? Using a model peptide (FPGKNVNCTSGE) representing the 12-residue consensus sequence found near the N-termini of the first eight cysteine-rich domains (C-domains) within the Lustrin A protein, we employed CD, NMR spectroscopy, and simulated annealing/minimization to determine the secondary structure preferences for this sequence. At pH 7.4, we find that the 12-mer sequence adopts a loop conformation, consisting of a "bend" or "turn" involving residues G3-K4 and N7-C8-T9, with extended conformations arising at F1-G3; K4-V6; T9-S10-G11 in the sequence. Minor pH-dependent conformational effects were noted for this peptide; however, there is no evidence for a salt-bridge interaction between the K4 and E12 side chains. The presence of a loop conformation within the highly conserved -PG-, -NVNCT- sequence of C1-C8 domains may have important structural and mechanistic implications for the Lustrin A protein with regard to elastic behavior.

  16. 78 FR 4127 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Basic Requirements for Special Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...), pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), sea turtles (in water), white abalone, black abalone, smalltooth sawfish, largetooth sawfish (imports only), shortnose sturgeon, and Atlantic sturgeon. The information collection may... also includes adding Atlantic sturgeon and largetooth sawfish. NMFS listed Atlantic sturgeon...

  17. 78 FR 70921 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... intertidal monitoring work and searching for black abalone, components of the Sanctuary Ecosystem Assessment... searching for black abalone. NMFS determined that the application was adequate and complete on November 14, 2013. GFNMS proposes to continue rocky intertidal monitoring work and the search for black abalone...

  18. 76 FR 66805 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... for Black Abalone; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 208 / Thursday, October 27, 2011... Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), hereby designate critical habitat for the endangered black abalone...

  19. Studies on culture conditions of benthic diatoms for feeding abalone. II. Effects of salinity, pH, nitrogenous and phosphate nutrients on growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi-Hua; Li, Mei; Wang, Shu-Hong; Ding, Ming-Jin; Li, Ya-Juan; Cheng, Ai-Hua

    1998-03-01

    Effects of salinity, pH, nitrogenous and phosphate nutrients on the growth rate of four species of benthic diatoms were studied by using the method of in situ optical density measurement. The optimal culture conditions for the four species of diatoms are as follows: for Amphora coffeaeformis, s 35; pH 8.5; NO3 --N 1.54, NH4 +-N, 7.0; CO (NH2)2-N, 2.5 (mg/L); PO4 3--P 1.13 (mg/L); for Cocconeis scutellum var parva, s 30; pH 8.5; NO{3/-}-N 3.08, NH{4/+}-N 3.5, CO(NH2)2-N 5.0 (mg/L); pO{4/3-}-P 0.283 (mg/L); for Navicula corymbosa s 25; pH 8.0; NO{3/-}-N 1.54, NH{4/+}-N 3.5 CO(NH2)2-N 5.0 (mg/L); PO{4/3-}-P 0.565 (mg/L); for Navicula mollis. s 25; pH 8.0; NO{3/-}-N 1.54, NH{4/+}-N 1.75, CO(NH2)2-N 1.25 (mg/L); PO{4/3-}-P 0.141 (mg/L).

  20. Dietary change of the rock lobster Jasus lalandii after an ‘invasive’ geographic shift: Effects of size, density and food availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, C. N.; Blamey, L. K.; Atkinson, L. J.; Branch, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    During the 1990s the rock lobster Jasus lalandii shifted its focus of distribution south-eastwards along the coast of South Africa, to establish a dense population in an area where it was previously rare. This coincided with a marked decrease in the sea urchin Parechinus angulosus, a preferred prey item of J. lalandii and a vital source of shelter for juveniles of the abalone Haliotis midae. The range expansion of lobsters has thus economic and ecological ripple effects. We determined the diets of small (50-65 mm carapace length) and large (>69 mm CL) rock lobsters from gut content analyses, and compared them between three 'lobster invaded' sites and three adjacent 'non-invaded' sites where densities are still low. At the non-invaded sites, diets were collectively heterogeneous but the dietary breadth of individual lobsters was narrow (in contradiction to generally accepted ecological theory), and the lobsters fed mainly on large, individual, mobile, high-energy prey such as sea urchins and large winkles. Conversely, at invaded sites where lobster densities were high, they consumed predominantly small, colonial or sessile low-energy prey such as sponges, barnacles and foliar algae, and the diet was significantly more uniform among individuals, but broader within individuals. This was a direct result of the contrasting benthic community structure of the two areas, and consequent prey availability - itself caused by differences in intensity of rock-lobster predation. Cannibalism was unexpectedly greater at non-invaded sites, possibly as a result of lobsters being larger there. The diet of small and large lobsters also differed significantly. Large rock lobsters predominantly consumed large individual prey such as lobsters, urchins and crabs, while small rock lobsters ate mainly colonial, sessile prey such as sponges and barnacles, and small prey such as tiny winkles and crustaceans. Dietary selectivity indices revealed that algae and sponges were negatively selected

  1. The Nanomechanics of Biomineralized Soft-Tissues and Organic Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezares-Chavez, Jiddu

    The research reported on in this dissertation is concerned with the macro-molecular constitution and geometrical organization of the soft-tissue comprising the matrix of the nacreous portion of the shell of Haliotis rufescens, the Red abalone. Nacre is one of literally legions of intricate biomineralized structures that exist in nature and has long served as a paradigm for elegant and optimized structural de-sign. Biomineralization involves, inter alia, the uptake and synthesis of elements and compounds from the environment and their incorporation into highly optimized functional structures. Nacre has a structure described as a brick wall like with a matrix of biopolymer layers that are preformed and serve as a template into which nanocrystalline tiles of CaCO3 precipitate. The matrix, or what are known as inter-lamellar layers, are of particular interest as they impart both toughness and strength to the composite ceramic nacre structure. The work first involved a histochemical mapping of the macromolecular structure of the interlamellar layers; this revealed the locations of proteins and functional molecular groups that serve as nucleation sites for the ceramic tiles. Parallel studies on the nacre of Nautilus pompilius, the Chambered Nautilus, revealed the generality of the findings. Of particular interest was determining both the content and layout of chitin within these layers. In fact it was determined that chitin was organized as mostly unidirectional architecture of fibrils, with a certain fraction of fibrils laying at cross directions. Most remarkably, it was found that the fibrils possessed a very long range connectivity that spanned many tiles. This was determined by systematic atomic force (afm) and analytical optical histochemical microscopy. These findings were further verified by a unique form of mechanical testing whereby tensile testing was conducted on groups of interlamellar layers extracted from nacre. Mechanical testing led to a quantitative

  2. Trophic flows, kelp culture and fisheries in the marine ecosystem of an artificial reef zone in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongxin; Zhang, Xiumei; Lozano-Montes, Hector M.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the ecosystem structure and function of the nearshore reefs in the Lidao coastal ecosystem of northern China, a region of intensive kelp aquaculture, and fisheries enhancements, including the deployment of artificial reefs and release of cultured marine species. An Ecopath model, with 20 functional groups representing 81 species, was developed for a representative area in the region and Ecosim was used to explore two scenarios for alternative fishing practices and surrounding aquaculture activities. The mean trophic levels (TLs) of the functional groups ranged from 1.0 for the primary producers (phytoplankton, benthic algae and seagrass) and detritus to 4.14 for Type III fishes (fishes found in the water column above the artificial reefs, e.g., Scomberomorus niphonius). The mean transfer efficiency through the whole system was 11.7%, and the ecosystem had a relative low maturity, stability and disturbance resistance, indicating that it was at a developing stage. Nearly half of the total system biomass (48.9% of 620.20 t km-2 year-1), excluding detritus, was comprised of benthic finfish and invertebrates. The total yield from all fisheries (86.82 t/km2/year) was dominated by low trophic level herbivorous and detritivorous species, such as the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (TL = 2.1, 46.07%), other echinoderms (sea urchins Asterias amurensis and Strongylocentrotus nudus, TL = 2.1, 34.6%) and abalone Haliotis discus hannai (TL = 2.0, 18.4%), and as a consequence, the mean TL of the catch was low (2.1). The results from the Ecosim simulation of closing all fisheries for 20 years predicted an increase of about 100% in the relative biomass of the main exploited species, A. japonicus and H. discus hannai. The simulated removal of all kelp farms over 10 years resulted in a two fold increase in the relative biomass of Type III fishes and a 120% increase in their main prey (i.e. Small pelagic fish), while the relative biomass of A. japonicus and

  3. 75 FR 59899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone AGENCY...), propose to designate approximately 390 square kilometers of critical habitat for the endangered...

  4. 78 FR 38293 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... (seals and sea lions), sea turtles (in water), white abalone, black abalone, smalltooth sawfish, largetooth sawfish (imports only), shortnose sturgeon, and Atlantic sturgeon. The information collection may... for SR/EN applications. This revision also includes adding Atlantic sturgeon and largetooth...

  5. 75 FR 68377 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... known individuals were identified. The 555 associated funerary objects are 8 obsidian tools, 183 obsidian flakes, 30 chert flakes, 4 basalt flakes, 1 basalt tool, 317 non-human bone fragments, 1 abalone... funerary objects are 20 obsidian tools, 1 chert tool, 3 groundstones, 2 steatite beads, 1 abalone...

  6. 76 FR 20558 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...; February 11, 2008); Beluga whale, Cook Inlet DPS, as endangered (73 FR 62919; October 22, 2008); Black... 6895), to (73 FR 72210). designate critical habitat. Black abalone Haliotiscracherodi January 11, 2008...)'', and ``Steelhead (Puget Sound DPS)''; and under SNAILSfor ``Abalone, black'' to read as set forth...

  7. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  8. 78 FR 21403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... obsidian projectile point, 4 obsidian flakes, 1 basalt flake, 1 ground stone, 1 one bone tool, 2 square cut nails, 1 piece of haliotis shell, and 3 lots of unmodified faunal. ] The age of site Ca-Tuo-328...

  9. 78 FR 50396 - Endangered Species; File No. 17405

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... endangered black abalone, specifically, identifying limitations to their reproduction (focusing on successful... from the wild, nor will animals be returned to the wild under the permit. All animals will come...

  10. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... genus Careproctus) 218 Sturgeon, general 680 Wrymouths 211 Shellfish Abalone, northern (pinto) 860 Clams Arctic surf 812 Cockle 820 Eastern softshell 842 Pacific geoduck 815 Pacific littleneck 840 Pacific...

  11. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... genus Careproctus) 218 Sturgeon, general 680 Wrymouths 211 Shellfish Abalone, northern (pinto) 860 Clams Arctic surf 812 Cockle 820 Eastern softshell 842 Pacific geoduck 815 Pacific littleneck 840 Pacific...

  12. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... genus Careproctus) 218 Sturgeon, general 680 Wrymouths 211 Shellfish Abalone, northern (pinto) 860 Clams Arctic surf 812 Cockle 820 Eastern softshell 842 Pacific geoduck 815 Pacific littleneck 840 Pacific...

  13. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... genus Careproctus) 218 Sturgeon, general 680 Wrymouths 211 Shellfish Abalone, northern (pinto) 860 Clams Arctic surf 812 Cockle 820 Eastern softshell 842 Pacific geoduck 815 Pacific littleneck 840 Pacific...

  14. 40 CFR 408.331 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Abalone Processing... saltwater fish and shellfish, to be processed, in the form in which it is received at the processing plant....

  15. 78 FR 20717 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered, Threatened, and Not Warranted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... whale, Puget Sound rockfish, Pacific herring, and black abalone) to structure the team's thinking and..., temperature, and dissolved oxygen, may pose the greatest ] risk to this species. Estuaries and...

  16. 75 FR 23800 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... or eider down, sea lion whiskers, ermine hide, abalone shell, feathers, and fibers (VMFA accession 55... feathers. The headdress itself is lined with ermine hide, and ermine hide also hangs from the back of...

  17. Environmental Threats to Security, Stability, and U.S. Interests in Southern Africa: Opportunity Knocks - Time for a Comprehensive Region Defense Environmental International Cooperation and Environmental Security Assistance Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    revenues to do clandestine logging and timber export, mainly conducted by Chinese and South African companies with the connivance of corrupt...for their own consumption.”95 The Cape is now being ravaged by a „tik‟ ( methamphetamine ) epidemic which between 2005 and 2007 resulted in a 200...27_shootout_erupts_between_police_and_abalone_poachers, accessed 9 October 2009. 72 Brick, K., E. Muchapondwa and M. Visser. 2009. Abalone Poaching, Methamphetamine Use

  18. Co-option and dissociation in larval origins and evolution: the sea urchin larval gut.

    PubMed

    Love, Alan C; Lee, Abigail E; Andrews, Mary E; Raff, Rudolf A

    2008-01-01

    The origin of marine invertebrate larvae has been an area of controversy in developmental evolution for over a century. Here, we address the question of whether a pelagic "larval" or benthic "adult" morphology originated first in metazoan lineages by testing the hypothesis that particular gene co-option patterns will be associated with the origin of feeding, indirect developing larval forms. Empirical evidence bearing on this hypothesis is derivable from gene expression studies of the sea urchin larval gut of two closely related but differently developing congenerics, Heliocidaris tuberculata (feeding indirect-developing larva) and H. erythrogramma (nonfeeding direct developer), given two subsidiary hypotheses. (1) If larval gut gene expression in H. tuberculata was co-opted from an ancestral adult expression pattern, then the gut expression pattern will remain in adult H. erythrogramma despite its direct development. (2) Genes expressed in the larval gut of H. tuberculata will not have a coordinated expression pattern in H. erythrogramma larvae due to loss of a functional gut. Five structural genes expressed in the invaginating archenteron of H. tuberculata during gastrulation exhibit substantially different expression patterns in H. erythrogramma with only one remaining endoderm specific. Expression of these genes in the adult of H. erythrogramma and larval gut of H. tuberculata, but not in H. erythrogramma larval endoderm, supports the hypothesis that they first played roles in the formation of adult structures and were subsequently recruited into larval ontogeny during the origin and evolution of feeding planktotrophic deuterostome larvae.

  19. Earthworm effects on movement of water and solutes in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Trojan, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus

  20. Army Science Board 1991 Summer Study - Soldier as a System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Joyce Lee Shields President and CEO HAY Systems. Inc. 2000 "M’ Street. Nw Suite 650 Washington, DC 20036 Dr. Crystal C. Campbell Mr. Charles L. Malone...responsibility fox TO&E for their theaters. The DLA policy of stockage which uses "use rate" does not allow for realistic preparedness to meet a rapid...structure of crystal in abalone shells. The abalone’s extremely impact resistant shell has the same che-mical, calcium carbonate , as common chalk, but a

  1. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... and white hair. Four potlatch rings woven of split spruce roots are mounted on the top. The hat... back represents the dorsal fin of the animal. Human hair is used as ornamentation on the fin. The hat... human hair. Designs carved on the sides, some of which are inlaid with abalone shell, represent...

  2. SSC San Diego Command History Calendar Year 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    16 Green Abalone Trial Test Plant...Systems Center San Diego (SSC San Diego), is a full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center serving...34to be the Navy’s full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for command, control and

  3. Biology of Alkylphosphonic Acids. A Review of the Distribution, Metabolism, and Structure of Naturally Occuring Alkylphosphonic Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-22

    been found in an echinoderm (Quin, 1965), a salt water crab (de Koning, 1970), the abalone (de Koning, 1966), the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii...Dearborn, D.G., and Wright, P.1., 1974. Lipophosphonoglycan ofthe plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii: Isolation from whole amoebae and identificato

  4. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  5. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  6. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  7. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  8. 77 FR 50990 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... approaches if pinnipeds are hauled out directly in the study plots or while biologists walk from one location... vicinity of the permanent abalone study plots. Disturbance may result in reactions ranging from an animal... associated with the proposed activity is the quadrat locations being marked with marine epoxy. The...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemosensory Receptors, Signal Transducers, and the Activation of Gene Expression Controlling Establishment of a Marine Symbiosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-31

    filed.. ........... 0oDt . PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS: Publications and Manuscripts: I. Groppe, J. and D.E. Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel...Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel serine protease cDNAs from abalone. (Abstract) Proc. First Intl. Symp. Marine Biotechnology, Tokyo. 6. Roell

  10. Locomotor activity and zonation of upper shore arthropods in a sandy beach of north central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Duarte, C.; Avellanal, M. H.

    2003-10-01

    The tenebrionid beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer, the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet and the oniscid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana are semi-terrestrial burrowing species, which coexist on sandy beaches of north central Chile (28-30°S). During the night, these scavengers emerge to make downshore migrations. Given the similarity in niches of these three species (all are known to include macroalgal detritus in their diet) and their relatively high abundance on that beaches, there is the potential for some degree of interaction, both inter- and intraspecific. Field studies were carried out to examine zonation of these burrowing organisms and eventual time and/or space partitioning of locomotor activity during night hours. Locomotor activity on the beach surface was analyzed over 12 h periods during spring and neap tides of September and December 2000, and March 2001. Scavengers moving over the beach surface were captured using pitfall traps buried with their rims flush with the beach surface along a transect extended from the foot of the dunes to the highest levels reached by the swashes. Every 1 h the captured animals in the traps were collected. Locomotor activity was also studied in the laboratory with chambers equipped with infrared recording systems (actographs). Data downloaded from the actographs were graphed to obtain a display of locomotor activity per 15 min interval during the course of the 7 day experiments. Results show space partitioning of burrowed organisms and time partitioning in the locomotor activity of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata over the beach surface. Circular statistics showed that usually the activity peaks of O. tuberculata were more different from those of P. maculata and T. spinulosus than those of the last two species when compared with each other. Intraspecific differences were also found in the surface locomotor activity, primarily between juveniles and adults of O. tuberculata. Interseasonal

  11. Taxonomy of intertidal cheilostome Bryozoa of Maceió, northeastern Brazil. Part 1: Suborders Inovicellina, Malacostegina and Thalamoporellina.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Almeida, Ana C S; Winston, Judith E

    2016-03-29

    Thirteen cheilostome bryozoan species from intertidal habitats of Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil, are reported here. We describe four new species: Aetea cultrata n. sp., Biflustra marcusi n. sp., Biflustra sphinx n. sp. and Jellyella brasiliensis n. sp. Two other species of Inovicellina, Aetea arcuata Winston & Hayward, 2012, and Aetea curta Jullien, 1888, and four species of Malacostegina, Arbocuspis bellula (Hincks, 1881), Arbocuspis bicornis (Hincks, 1881), Arbocuspis ramosa (Osburn, 1940), and Jellyella tuberculata (Bosc, 1802), are reported on drift algae. Three species of Thalamoporellina are found for the first time in Maceió, Labioporella tuberculata Winston, Vieira & Woollacoot, 2014, Steginoporella           magnilabris (Busk, 1854) and Thalamoporella floridana Osburn, 1940.

  12. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-31

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15.

  13. Toxicity of Mediterranean Scyphomedusae: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Negro, Paola Del; Saul, Ciriaco; Bruno, Cataletto; Maria, Delogu G; Franco, Kokelj

    2016-01-01

    Following in-depth analysis and examination, jellyfish toxins have been found to consist of a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, and other non-proteinaceous components. What remains to be clarified is the specific chemical nature of jellyfish toxins due to their heat lability. This paper reviews current knowledge of the toxic properties of the most common Mediterranean scyphozoans (A. aurita, C. hysoscella, C. tuberculata, P. noctiluca, R. pulmo) and the activity of their venom.

  14. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  15. Antitrypanosomal activity of some pregnane glycosides isolated from Caralluma species.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Shehab, Naglaa G; Ichino, Chikara; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Ishiyama, Aki; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2009-06-01

    Pregnane glycosides previously isolated from genus Caralluma (C. Penicillata, C. tuberculata and C. russelliana) were tested for their antitrypanosomal activity. Penicilloside E showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 1.01 microg/ml) followed by caratuberside C (IC(50) 1.85 microg/ml), which exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI 12.04). It was noticed that acylation is required for the antitrypanosomal activity while glycosylation at C-20 has no significant effect on the activity.

  16. Distribution of Sargassum natans and some of its epibionts in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niermann, U.

    1986-12-01

    Sargassum was collected during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition in Spring 1979. On average, the morphological form type Sargassum natans (I) made up 85 % of the total wet weight of the samples. South of the thermal front, larger amounts of weeds were observed. Here, the bladder size of S. natans (I) was significantly smaller (surface 47±7 mm2) than in the northern part (surface: 64±15 mm2), while phylloids showed no differences. The composition and density of some epibionts were examined. Membranipora tuberculata (Bryozoa), Clytia noliformis (Hydrozoa) and the calcarious algae “ Melobesia sp.” (Rhodophyta) were studied quantitatively according to different features at 17 stations. M. tuberculata was the most abundant epibiont followed by C. noliformis. Compared with these species, " Melobesia sp." occurred in considerably lower quantities. M. tuberculata showed a preference for bladders rather than phylloids; C. noliformis was found more frequently on phylloids than on bladders. " Melobesia sp." did not show any preference. Frequency and abundance of these epibionts were higher north of the thermal front than south of this front. North of the front S. natans (I) was less abundant but bladders were larger.

  17. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  18. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-07-29

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

  19. Oceanic Chemistry and Biology Group (ONR Code 422CB) Program Science Report, FY 81,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    emphasized that an understanding of the chemical oceanographic characteristics of the anti-fouling agent employed is required to prevent degradation...effectiveness of conventionally used toxic heavy metals and halogenated hydrocar- bons, in blocking the fouling sequence in Haliotis larvae. Non-toxic agents ...acridine orange -stained sub-samples. Lyophilized fractions are currently being analyzed for compounds implicated in the dissolution of CaCO 3. Results to

  20. Sediment Quality Characterization Naval Station San Diego

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Neanthes sp. Sediment % Survival ៀ% > 80% S . purpuratus 1 Pore Water % Normal Larval ៀ% > 80% Development Haliotis sp. 1 Subsurface % Normal Shell ៀ...C. gigas survival, R. abronius survival, S . purpuratus development , and P450 induction. Of 16 sur- vival tests with G. japonica, 10 showed effects...showed effects in S . purpuratus development , and one showed no effects. Effects were observed using R. abronius at four sites and no effects were

  1. Crystal lattice tilting in prismatic calcite.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ian C; Metzler, Rebecca A; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Killian, Christopher E; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed the calcitic prismatic layers in Atrina rigida (Ar), Haliotis iris (Hi), Haliotis laevigata (HL), Haliotis rufescens (Hrf), Mytilus californianus (Mc), Pinctada fucata (Pf), Pinctada margaritifera (Pm) shells, and the aragonitic prismatic layer in the Nautilus pompilius (Np) shell. Dramatic structural differences were observed across species, with 100-μm wide single-crystalline prisms in Hi, HL and Hrf, 1-μm wide needle-shaped calcite prisms in Mc, 1-μm wide spherulitic aragonite prisms in Np, 20-μm wide single-crystalline calcite prisms in Ar, and 20-μm wide polycrystalline calcite prisms in Pf and Pm. The calcite prisms in Pf and Pm are subdivided into sub-prismatic domains of orientations, and within each of these domains the calcite crystal lattice tilts gradually over long distances, on the order of 100 μm, with an angle spread of crystal orientation of 10-20°. Furthermore, prisms in Pf and Pm are harder than in any other calcite prisms analyzed, their nanoparticles are smaller, and the angle spread is strongly correlated with hardness in all shells that form calcitic prismatic layers. One can hypothesize a causal relationship of these correlated parameters: greater angle spread may confer greater hardness and resistance to wear, thus providing Pf and Pm with a structural advantage in their environment. This is the first structure-property relationship thus far hypothesized in mollusk shell prisms.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemosensory Receptors, Signal Transducers, and the Activation of Gene Expression Controlling Establishment of a Marine Symbiosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Our most significant advance in this area this year has been in the molecular cloning and analysis of cDNAs corresponding to the novel serine protease...Biological Chemistry (in preparation). 4. Groppe, J. and D.E. Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel serine protease cDNAs from abalone. For: Proc...phycoerythrin gene. (Poster -- d Abstract) Northwest Algal Symposium, Seattle, WA. 8. Groppe, J.C. and D.E. Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel serine

  3. Susceptibility of 7 freshwater gastropod species in Zimbabwe to infection with Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (Cobbold, 1876) Looss, 1896.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Munjere, I F; Takawira, M; Chingwena, G

    2004-12-01

    Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First generation (F-1) of 5 freshwater pulmonate snail species, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Helisoma dyuri and Physa acuta that were bred in the laboratory, and 2 prosobranch snail species, Melanoides tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. that were collected from the field were used in this study. Data pertaining to mortalities and cercariae shedding were recorded throughout the experimental period. The prosobranch snails, M. tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. were susceptible to G. aegyptiacus with a minimum prepatent period of 45 days and 54 days, respectively. Bulinus tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi were susceptible as evidenced by the presence of different generations of rediae and mature cercariae on dissection at 59 days post-infection although attempts to induce the snails to shed from 28 days post-infection did not produce cercariae. Bulinus globosus and Bio. pfeifferi were refractory to infection. The results revealed the ability of G. aegyptiacus to infect M. tuberculata, Cleopatara sp., B. tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi under experimental conditions and this may explain the recorded outbreaks of gastrodiscosis in equine populations in Zimbabwe in the absence of the known intermediate hosts. Bulinus tropicus is considered as the most likely major intermediate host of G. aegyptiacus because of its wide distribution in Zimbabwe and is well adapted to a wide variety of environments.

  4. Early development of congeneric sea urchins (Heliocidaris) with contrasting life history modes in a warming and high CO2 ocean.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Natasha A; Byrne, Maria

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of ocean change stressors - warming and acidification - on marine invertebrate development have emerged as a significant impact of global change. We investigated the response of early development to the larval stage in sympatric, congeneric sea urchins, Heliocidaris tuberculata and Heliocidaris erythrogramma with contrasting modes of development to ocean warming and acidification. Effects of these stressors were assessed by quantifying the percentage of normal development during the first 24 h post fertilization, in cross-factorial experiments that included three temperature treatments (control: 20 °C; +4: 24 °C; +6: 26 °C) and four pHNIST levels (control: 8.2; -0.4: 7.8; -0.6: 7.6; -0.8: 0.4). The experimental treatments were designed in context with present day and near-future (∼2100) conditions for the southeast Australia global warming hotspot. Temperature was the most important factor affecting development of both species causing faster progression through developmental stages as well as a decrease in the percentage of normal development. H. erythrogramma embryos were less tolerant of increased temperature than those of H. tuberculata. Acidification impaired development to the larval stage in H. tuberculata, but this was not the case for H. erythrogramma. Thus, outcomes for the planktonic life phase of the two Heliocidaris species in response to ocean warming and acidification will differ. As shown for these species, single-stressor temperature or acidification studies can be misleading with respect to determining species' vulnerability and responses to global change.

  5. A new species of Mesovelia (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Mesoveliidae) from South America, with identification key and notes on Colombian species.

    PubMed

    Floriano, Carla Fernanda Burguez; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição; Morales, Irina; Molano-Rendón, Fredy

    2016-10-17

    Mesovelia tuberculata sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on material from the Pacific Region of Colombia. It can be recognized by the following characters of the male: mesofemur without a row of spinules; posterior margin of abdominal tergum VIII with a weak notch; abdominal pleuron VIII with an anterodorsal tubercle; abdominal sternum VI with the posteromedian projection rounded and fringed with black spinules; and paramere with margins converging and apex single. In addition, we present data concerning M. zeteki Harris & Drake and M. mulsanti White, and an identification key to species of Mesoveliidae from Colombia.

  6. Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Suzanne J; Weisbecker, Vera; Beck, Robin MD; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Tennyson, Alan JD; Worthy, Trevor H

    2009-01-01

    Background New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a member of the Gondwanan bat superfamily Noctilionoidea. The capacity for true quadrupedal terrestrial locomotion in Mystacina is a secondarily derived condition, reflected in numerous skeletal and muscular specializations absent in other extant bats. The lack of ground-based predatory native NZ mammals has been assumed to have facilitated the evolution of terrestrial locomotion and the unique burrowing behaviour of Mystacina, just as flightlessness has arisen independently many times in island birds. New postcranial remains of an early Miocene mystacinid from continental Australia, Icarops aenae, offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Results Several distinctive derived features of the distal humerus are shared by the extant Mystacina tuberculata and the early Miocene Australian mystacinid Icarops aenae. Study of the myology of M. tuberculata indicates that these features are functionally correlated with terrestrial locomotion in this bat. Their presence in I. aenae suggests that this extinct mystacinid was also adapted for terrestrial locomotion, despite the existence of numerous ground-based mammalian predators in Australia during the early Miocene. Thus, it appears that mystacinids were already terrestrially-adapted prior to their isolation in NZ. In combination with recent molecular divergence dates, the new postcranial material of I. aenae constrains the timing of the evolution of terrestrial locomotion in mystacinids to between 51 and 26 million years ago (Ma). Conclusion Contrary to existing hypotheses, our data suggest that bats are not overwhelmingly absent from the ground

  7. [Ecology of river mollusks of medical and veterinary importance in 3 sites in La Habana province].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Perera, Antonio Alejandro; Gutiérrez Amador, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    An ecological research study was carried out in freshwater mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance, in order to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that affect their dynamics. It was observed that the principal abiotic factors influencing abundance of mollusks were total hardness, salinity, acidity, alkalinity and CO2 concentration. Both aquatic plants and specific relations among mollusk groups were the principal biotic factors that affected the molluskan fauna. Species like Fossaria cubensis and Tarebia granifera appeared affected when the site diversity increased whereas the tiarid Melanoides tuberculata prevailed in almost all the ecosystems.

  8. Tanaidaceans (Crustacea) from the Central Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. I. The genera Collettea, Robustochelia and Tumidochelia

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of are described from the manganese nodule province between the Clarion and the Clipperton Fracture Zone of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean, and collected during the Nodinaut expedition on board the r/v l´Atalante in the summer of 2004. The new species belongs to three genera as: Collettea (Collettea longisetosa), Robustochelia (Robustochelia pacifica), and Tumidochelia (Tumidochelia tuberculata). A key to the genus Tumidochelia is presented and the validity of the genera Robustochelia and Collettea is discussed. PMID:21594100

  9. Molecular evolution of mollusc shell proteins: insights from proteomic analysis of the edible mussel Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Marie, Benjamin; Le Roy, Nathalie; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Marin, Frédéric

    2011-06-01

    Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) that are embedded within calcified layers of mollusc shells are believed to play an essential role in controlling the biomineral synthesis and in increasing its mechanical properties. Among the wide diversity of mollusc shell textures, nacro-prismatic shells represent a tremendous opportunity for the investigation of the SMP evolution. Indeed, nacro-prismatic texture appears early in Cambrian molluscs and is still present in the shell of some bivalves, gastropods, cephalopods and very likely also, of some monoplacophorans. One key question is to know whether these shells are constructed from similar matrix protein assemblages, i.e. whether they share a common origin. Most of the molecular data published so far are restricted to two genera, the bivalve Pinctada and the gastropod Haliotis. The shell protein content of these two genera are clearly different, suggesting independent origins or considerable genetic drift from a common ancestor. In order to describe putatively conserved mollusc shell proteins, here we have investigated the SMP set of a new bivalve model belonging to another genera, the edible mussel Mytilus, using an up-to-date proteomic approach based on the interrogation of more than 70,000 EST sequences, recently available from NCBI public databases. We describe nine novel SMPs, among which three are completely novel, four are homologues of Pinctada SMPs and two are very likely homologues of Haliotis SMPs. This latter result constitutes the first report of conserved SMPs between bivalves and gastropods. More generally, our data suggest that mollusc SMP set may follow a mosaic pattern within the different mollusc models (Mytilus, Pinctada, Haliotis). We discuss the function of such proteins in calcifying matrices, the molecular evolution of SMP genes and the origin of mollusc nacro-prismatic SMPs.

  10. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Abrecht, Mike; Frazer, Bradley H.; Ariosa, Daniel; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2007-06-29

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation's polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers.

  11. Ecotoxicological effect characterisation of widely used organic UV filters.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, D; Sieratowicz, A; Zielke, H; Oetken, M; Hollert, H; Oehlmann, J

    2012-04-01

    Chemical UV filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common UV filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Due to their life habits, these organism are especially affected by lipophilic substances. Additionally, two direct sediment contact assays utilising zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) were conducted. EHMC caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of 0.4 mg/kg (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and 10 mg/kg (Melanoides tuberculata). At high concentrations sublethal effects could be observed for D. rerio after exposure to EHMC (NOEC 100 mg/kg). B-MDM and OCR showed no effects on any of the tested organism.

  12. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.

  13. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  14. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  15. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials.

    PubMed

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-06

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (σth ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre.

  16. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials

    PubMed Central

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (σth ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre. PMID:25551150

  17. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  18. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  19. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  20. Mollusk shell nacre ultrastructure correlates with environmental temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ian C; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2012-05-02

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the tough, iridescent biomineral lining the inner side of some mollusk shells, has alternating biogenic aragonite (calcium carbonate, CaCO(3)) tablet layers and organic sheets. Nacre has been common in the shells of mollusks since the Ordovician (450 million years ago) and is abundant and well-preserved in the fossil record, e.g., in ammonites. Therefore, if any measurable physical aspect of the nacre structure was correlated with environmental temperatures, one could obtain a structural paleothermometer of ancient climates. Using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, Photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (PEEM), and X-ray linear dichroism we acquired polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC) maps of pristine nacre in cross-section. The new PIC-map data reveal that the nacre ultrastructure (nacre tablet width, thickness, and angle spread) is species-specific in at least eight mollusk species from completely different environments: Nautilus pompilius, Haliotis iris, Haliotis rufescens, Bathymodiolus azoricus, Atrina rigida, Lasmigona complanata, Pinctada margaritifera, and Mytilus californianus. Nacre species-specificity is interpreted as a result of adaptation to diverging environments. We found strong correlation between nacre crystal misorientations and environmental temperature, further supported by secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of in situ δ(18)O in the nacre of one shell. This has far-reaching implications: nacre texture may be used as a paleothermometer of ancient climate, spanning 450 million years of Earth's history.

  1. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  2. Proposed dual role of odor in foraging by the California Spiny Lobster, Panulirus interruptus (Randall)

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1983-04-01

    A dual influence of odor on foraging is proposed for Panulirus interruptus, on the basis of laboratory and field tests using abalone muscle effluence as a stimulant. Food search consisted of three major components: detection (increased antennule flicking), locomotion, and non-locomotor probing by pereiopod dactyls. Detection occurred at lower concentrations (10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -10/ g/l) and was initiated before probing and locomotion in laboratory tests. Probing occurred at concentrations greater than or equal to10/sup -6/ g/l and was initiated before locomotion. Locomotion was limited to higher concentrations (greater than or equal to10/sup -4/ g/l) and its induction frequently followed introduction of an effective chemical stimulus by 60 s or longer. The response hierarchy in Panulirus indicates that concentrated chemical stimuli may initiate only local searches for food. Traps were baited with abalone muscle for field experiments. Effective effluent concentrations in immediate trap environments were estimated by a three-dimensional Fickian diffusion model. The minimum concentration attracting lobsters was estimated to be nearly identical to the laboratory-determined threshold for detection, 4-6 log units lower than the threshold for induction of locomotion. Lobsters were captured in traps primarily at night, the period of greatest normal, endogenously initiated activity. Consequently, low concentrations may act by modifying behavior of animals already aroused, rather than by initiating foraging or feeding from the quiescent state.

  3. Bone indentation recovery time correlates with bond reforming time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, James B.; Kindt, Johannes H.; Drake, Barney; Hansma, Helen G.; Morse, Daniel E.; Hansma, Paul K.

    2001-12-01

    Despite centuries of work, dating back to Galileo, the molecular basis of bone's toughness and strength remains largely a mystery. A great deal is known about bone microsctructure and the microcracks that are precursors to its fracture, but little is known about the basic mechanism for dissipating the energy of an impact to keep the bone from fracturing. Bone is a nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite crystals and an organic matrix. Because rigid crystals such as the hydroxyapatite crystals cannot dissipate much energy, the organic matrix, which is mainly collagen, must be involved. A reduction in the number of collagen cross links has been associated with reduced bone strength and collagen is molecularly elongated (`pulled') when bovine tendon is strained. Using an atomic force microscope, a molecular mechanistic origin for the remarkable toughness of another biocomposite material, abalone nacre, has been found. Here we report that bone, like abalone nacre, contains polymers with `sacrificial bonds' that both protect the polymer backbone and dissipate energy. The time needed for these sacrificial bonds to reform after pulling correlates with the time needed for bone to recover its toughness as measured by atomic force microscope indentation testing. We suggest that the sacrificial bonds found within or between collagen molecules may be partially responsible for the toughness of bone.

  4. Probabilistic Gompertz model of irreversible growth.

    PubMed

    Bardos, D C

    2005-05-01

    Characterizing organism growth within populations requires the application of well-studied individual size-at-age models, such as the deterministic Gompertz model, to populations of individuals whose characteristics, corresponding to model parameters, may be highly variable. A natural approach is to assign probability distributions to one or more model parameters. In some contexts, size-at-age data may be absent due to difficulties in ageing individuals, but size-increment data may instead be available (e.g., from tag-recapture experiments). A preliminary transformation to a size-increment model is then required. Gompertz models developed along the above lines have recently been applied to strongly heterogeneous abalone tag-recapture data. Although useful in modelling the early growth stages, these models yield size-increment distributions that allow negative growth, which is inappropriate in the case of mollusc shells and other accumulated biological structures (e.g., vertebrae) where growth is irreversible. Here we develop probabilistic Gompertz models where this difficulty is resolved by conditioning parameter distributions on size, allowing application to irreversible growth data. In the case of abalone growth, introduction of a growth-limiting biological length scale is then shown to yield realistic length-increment distributions.

  5. Antibacterial action of new antibacterial peptides, Nod1 and Nod2, isolated from Nordotis discus discus.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Jin-Young; Lee, Jong-Kook; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung

    2012-07-11

    Abalone is a valuable seafood in the aquaculture industry worldwide as it is rich in protein. However, to date, research on the functional proteins of abalone is lacking. Herein, we report two peptides with antibacterial activity from Nordotis discus discus . The purification of peptides was performed by solvent extraction, ultrafiltration, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the isolated antibacterial peptides, named as Nod1 and Nod2, were identified by Edman degradation and did not show any similarity to other proteins and peptides in databases based on results of BLAST homology analysis. Molecular masses of Nod1 and Nod2 were 6145.06 and 6360.07 Da, respectively, as determined by mass spectrometric analysis. The two peptides displayed pH-dependent antibacterial activity against various bacteria that was more potent at pH 5.4 than pH 7.4, but they did not inhibit fungal growth at either pH levels. Their antibacterial activity was due to membranolytic action, which was assayed by SYTOX-green uptake. In addition, both peptides were virtually noncytolytic for human erythrocytes and mammalian cells.

  6. Shewanella indica sp. nov., isolated from sediment of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pankaj; Pandey, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Kim, Ho Jun; Baik, Keun Sik; Seong, Chi Nam; Patole, Milind Shivaji; Shouche, Yogesh Shreepad

    2011-09-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, catalase- and oxidase-positive bacterium, motile by means of a single polar flagellum and designated strain KJW27(T), was isolated from the marine sediment of Karwar jetty, west coast of India. The strain was β-haemolytic and grew with 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl, at 10-45 °C and at pH 6.5-10, with optimum growth with 2 % (w/v) NaCl, at 37 °C and at pH 7.5. The major fatty acids were iso-C₁₅:₀ (22.2 %), C₁₇:₁ω8c (21 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C₁₆:₁ω7c and/or C₁₆:₁ω6c; 10.2 %), C₁₆:₀ (7.1 %), iso-C₁₃:₀ (5.6 %) and C₁₇:₀ (4.4 %). The DNA G+C content was 51.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences showed that strain KJW27(T) forms a lineage within the genus Shewanella and is closely related to Shewanella algae ATCC 51192(T) (98.8 %), Shewanella haliotis DW01(T) (98.8 %) and Shewanella chilikensis JC5(T) (98.2 %). Sequence identity with other members of this genus ranges from 92.2 to 96.4 %. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain KJW27(T) with S. algae ATCC 51192(T), S. haliotis DW01(T) and S. chilikensis JC5(T) was 52, 44 and 33 %, respectively. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicate that strain KJW27(T) should be distinguished from S. algae ATCC 51192(T), S. haliotis DW01(T) and S. chilikensis JC5(T). On the basis of the data presented in this study, strain KJW27(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Shewanella indica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KJW27(T) ( = KCTC 23171(T)  = BCC 41031(T)  = NCIM 5388(T)).

  7. Trematode Fluke Procerovum varium as Cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Lalan Kumar; Rathinam, Sivakumar R.; Lalitha, Prajna; Kim, Usha R.; Ghatani, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    Trematodes are recognized as a group of emerging parasites in tropical countries. We identified a trematode as a cause of ocular granulomas that developed in children who bathed in ponds or rivers in South India. DNA was isolated from patients’ surgically excised granulomas and from the trematode cercariae (larvae) released by the snail Melanoides tuberculata in water in which the children bathed. Real-time and conventional PCRs were performed that targeted ribosomal DNA regions spanning the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S sequences of this trematode. The PCR-amplified products were subjected to bidirectional sequencing. Analysis of sequences for the granuloma samples and the trematode cercariae showed maximum sequence similarity with Procerovum varium (family Heterophyidae). Our results confirmed the etiology of the ocular infection, implicating snail vectors as environmental risk factors for ocular parasitosis. PMID:26812231

  8. Freshwater mollusks of medical importance in Kalasin Province, northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsomboon, Jaremate; Kerdpuech, Yupa; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2005-05-01

    A snail survey was performed in six districts around irrigation areas of Lampao Dam, in Kalasin Province. The survey caught a total of 5,479 live snails and classed them into five families, 12 genera and 15 species, of which 7 species are suspected of transmitting human parasitic diseases. The seven species were Pila polita, Pomacea canaliculata, Filopaludina (S.) m. martensi, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) siamensis goniomphalos, Melanoides tuberculata, Radix rubiginosa, and Indoplanorbis exustus. Of these, B. (D.) s. goniomphalos and I. exustus were found to harbor emergent cercariae. Only B. (D.) s. goniomphalos hosted several types of cercariae--Opisthorchis viverrini, unidentified species of intestinal flukes, echinostomes, xyphidio and furcocercous cercariae. Indoplanorbis exustus shed only echinostome cercariae. B. (D.) s. goniomphalos showed a rather high natural infection rate with O. viverrini, 1.3% in Yang Talat district, and 0.61% in Kamalasai district, in Kalasin Province.

  9. Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.

    1985-11-01

    The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

  10. Benthic myodocopid Ostracoda (Philomedidae) from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chavtur, Vladimir G; Keyser, Dietmar

    2016-07-25

    This study is based on the material of myodocopid ostracodes of the family Philomedidae collected by the Russian Antarctic Polar Expeditions (1963-2007) and the Germany Expeditions on R/V "Polarstern" (1990-2002) from the continental shelf and upper slope near the Mawson and Davis stations, the Weddell Seas, the region of the South Shetland Islands near the Russian Polar station "Molodezhnaya" and adjacent waters. Eight philomedid species belonging to two genera were identified in these collections. Scleroconcha tuberculata sp. nov. is described and figured as a new species. Additional descriptions and figures for the species S. gallardoi Kornicker, 1971, Philomedes assimilis Brady, 1907, P. charcoti Daday, 1908, P. heptatrix Kornicker, 1975, P. rotunda Skogsberg, 1920, P. orbicularis Brady, 1907 and P. tetrathrix Kornicker, 1975 are given. Keys for all species of the mentioned genera known from the Southern Ocean are presented. A list of sampling stations and species collected is provided in the Appendix 1.

  11. Revision of the Oriental species of Apsilocera Bouček (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with description of twelve new species.

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental species of Apsilocera Bouček, 1956 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised and the limits of the genus are reevaluated. Bulolosa Bouček, 1990 and Kratinka Bouček, 1988 are treated as synonyms of Apsilocera, syn. n. Bulolosa bidens Bouček and Kratinka brevis Bouček are transferred to Apsilocera as A. bidens (Bouček) and A. brevis (Bouček) comb. n., respectively. Twelve new species (all Mitroiu & van Achterberg) are described in Apsilocera: A. acuticristata sp. n., A. bicristata sp. n., A. cornuta sp. n., A. dentata sp. n., A. dupla sp. n., A. elongata sp. n., A. fulvipennis sp. n., A. longicornis sp. n., A. maculata sp. n., A. obtusicristata sp. n., A. palliclava sp. n., and A. tuberculata sp. n. An illustrated key to the females and males of Oriental species is provided.

  12. Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.

    PubMed

    Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

    1979-01-01

    A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.

  13. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

  14. Effects of exposure to gadolinium on the development of geographically and phylogenetically distant sea urchins species.

    PubMed

    Martino, Chiara; Bonaventura, Rosa; Byrne, Maria; Roccheri, Maria; Matranga, Valeria

    2016-06-02

    Gadolinium (Gd), a metal of the lanthanide series used as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging, is released into the aquatic environment. We investigated the effects of Gd on the development of four sea urchin species: two from Europe, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, and two from Australia, Heliocidaris tuberculata and Centrostephanus rodgersii. Exposure to Gd from fertilization resulted in inhibition or alteration of skeleton growth in the plutei. The similar morphological response to Gd in the four species indicates a similar mechanism underlying abnormal skeletogenesis. Sensitivity to Gd greatly varied, with the EC50 ranging from 56 nM to 132 μM across the four species. These different sensitivities highlight the importance of testing toxicity in several species for risk assessment. The strong negative effects of Gd on calcification in plutei, together with the plethora of marine species that have calcifying larvae, indicates that Gd pollution is urgent issue that needs to be addressed.

  15. Review of the genus Cystomutilla André, 1896 (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae: Sphaeropthalminae: Sphaeropthalmini), with description of the new genus Hemutilla gen. nov. and four new species from China.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin-Bin; Lelej, Arkady S; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2014-11-28

    The species of the genus Cystomutilla André, 1896 are reviewed. A new genus Hemutilla Lelej, Tu et Chen, gen. nov. (type species Hemutilla granulata Tu, Lelej et Chen, sp. nov.) and four new species: H. tuberculata Tu, Lelej et Chen, sp. nov. (China: Henan, Shaanxi), H. ferrugineipes Tu, Lelej et Chen, sp. nov. (China: Hunan), H. granulata Tu, Lelej et Chen, sp. nov. (China: Zhejiang), and H. cheni Tu et Lelej, sp. nov. (China: Fujian) are described and illustrated. New combinations are proposed for Hemutilla hoozana (Zavattari, 1913), comb. nov. and H. bifurcata (Chen, 1957), comb. nov. A key to males and females of two species of Cystomutilla André and six species of Hemutilla gen. nov. is given.

  16. Deep-water octocorals (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from Brazil: Family Chrysogorgiidae Verrill, 1883.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Ralf T S; Castro, Clovis B; Pérez, Carlos D

    2015-12-15

    Current knowledge about the Brazilian deep-water octocoral fauna remains scarce, fragmented, and mostly based on unpublished, regional scale surveys. The present work provides the first comprehensive study of the family Chrysogorgidae Verrill, 1883 in Brazil, based on morphological analysis of specimens collected in the last decade and those currently placed in museums. Members of this family are common mainly at great depths and remarkable for the iridescent aspect of their colonies. In Brazil, to the present, only four species were reported: Chrysogorgia elegans (Verrill, 1883), Chrysogorgia multiflora Deichmann, 1936, Stephanogorgia rattoi Castro, Medeiros & Loiola, 2010 and Trichogorgia brasiliensis Castro, Medeiros & Loiola, 2010-the last two are shallow-water species. In this study, three new deep-water species are described, Chrysogorgia tuberculata, Chrysogorgia upsilonia and Radicipes kopelatos, and a new record to Brazil is reported, Chrysogorgia fewkesii Verrill, 1883, as well as latitudinal expansions in distributions of Chrysogorgia elegans and Chrysogorgia multiflora are presented.

  17. Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.

    PubMed

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2007-03-01

    The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively.

  18. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution.

  19. Symmetrization in jellyfish: reorganization to regain function, and not lost parts.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Michael J; Goentoro, Lea

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). We propose reorganization to regain function without recovery of initial morphology as a potentially broad class of self-repair strategy beyond radially symmetrical animals, and discuss the implications of this finding on the evolution of self-repair strategies in animals.

  20. Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.

    PubMed

    Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-12-17

    Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market.

  1. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  2. Flea abundance, diversity, and plague in Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in northern New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Friggens, Megan M; Parmenter, Robert R; Boyden, Michael; Ford, Paulette L; Gage, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Plague, a flea-transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a primary threat to the persistence of prairie dog populations (Cynomys spp.). We conducted a 3-yr survey (2004-2006) of fleas from Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico. Our objectives were to describe flea communities and identify flea and rodent species important to the maintenance of plague. We live-trapped prairie dogs and conducted burrow sweeps at three colonies in spring and summer of each year. One hundred thirty prairie dogs and 51 golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) were captured over 3,640 trap nights and 320 burrows were swabbed for fleas. Five flea species were identified from prairie dogs and ground squirrels and four were identified from burrow samples. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant species found on prairie dogs and in burrows. Oropsylla idahoensis was most common on ground squirrels. Two colonies experienced plague epizootics in fall 2004. Plague-positive fleas were recovered from burrows (O. hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata tuberculata) and a prairie dog (O. hirsuta) in spring 2005 and summer 2006. Three prairie dogs collected in summer 2005 and 2006 had plague antibody. We found a significant surge in flea abundance and prevalence, particularly within burrows, following plague exposure. We noted an increased tendency for flea exchange opportunities in the spring before O. hirsuta reached its peak population. We hypothesize that the role of burrows as a site of flea exchange, particularly between prairie dogs and ground squirrels, may be as important as summer conditions that lead to buildup in O. hirsuta populations for determining plague outbreaks.

  3. Phylogenetic assessment of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Ricoy, Maigualida; Marshall, Jonathon C; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex includes the most abundant earthworms in grasslands and agricultural ecosystems of the Paleartic region. Historically this complex consisted of the following taxa: A. caliginosa s.s.Savigny, 1826, A. trapezoides Dugés (1828), A. tuberculata (Eisen, 1874), and A. nocturna Evans (1946). These four taxa are morphologically very similar and difficult to differentiate because of their morphological variability. Consequently, their taxonomic status and their phylogenetic relationships have been a matter of discussion for more than a century. To study these questions, we sequenced the COII (686 bp), 12S (362 bp), 16S (1200 bp), ND1 (917 bp), and tRNAs(Asn-Asp-Val-Leu-Ala-Ser-Leu) (402 bp) mitochondrial and 28S (809 bp) nuclear gene regions for 85 European earthworms from 27 different localities belonging to the A. caliginosa species complex and four outgroup taxa. DNA sequences were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches of phylogenetic inference. The resulting trees were combined with morphological, ecological, and genomic evidence to test species boundaries (i.e., integrative approach). Our molecular analyses showed that A. caliginosa s.s. and A. tuberculata form a sister clade to A. trapezoides, A. longa, and A. nocturna, which indicates that A. longa is part of the A. caliginosa species complex. We confirm the species status of all these taxa and identify two hitherto unrecognized Aporrectodea species in Corsica (France). Moreover our analyses also showed the presence of highly divergent lineages within A. caliginosa, A. trapezoides, and A. longa, suggesting the existence of cryptic diversity within these taxa.

  4. Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment

    DOE PAGES

    Kanukollu, Saranya; Voget, Sonja; Pohlner, Marion; ...

    2016-03-12

    Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase (mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able to switchmore » from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. Among the ability to convert other sulfur compounds it has the genetic capacity to produce climatically active dimethyl sulfide. Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a flagellum (fla1) and a type IV pilus biogenesis, which is speculated to be a prerequisite for biofilm formation. This is also related to genes responsible for signalling such as N-acyl homoserine lactones, as well as quip-genes responsible for quorum quenching and antibiotic biosynthesis. Pairwise similarities of 16S rRNA genes (98.56 % sequence similarity to the next relative S. haliotis) and the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (21.20 % sequence similarity to S. haliotis) indicated Shimia str. SK013 to be considered as a new species. In conclusion, the genome analysis of Shimia str. SK013 offered first insights into specific physiological and phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of Roseobacter-affiliated bacteria to the benthic environment.« less

  5. Ecological role of purple sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Pearse, John S

    2006-11-10

    Sea urchins are major components of marine communities. Their grazing limits algal biomass, and they are preyed upon by many predators. Purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) are among the best studied species. They live in environments that alternate between two stable states: luxuriant, species-rich kelp forests and sea urchin-dominated "barrens." The transition from one state to the other can be initiated by several factors, including the abundance of algal food, predators, storm intensities, and incidence of disease. Purple sea urchins compete with other grazers, some of which are important fishery resources (such as abalones and red sea urchins), and they are harvested for scientific research. Revelations from their genome will lead to a better understanding of how they maintain their ecological importance, and may in turn enhance their economic potential.

  6. Use of acoustic classification of sidescan sonar data for mapping benthic habitat in the Northern Channel Islands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Highly reflective seafloor features imaged by sidescan sonar in nearshore waters off the Northern Channel Islands (California, USA) have been observed in subsequent submersible dives to be areas of thin sand covering bedrock. Adjacent areas of rocky seafloor, suitable as habitat for endangered species of abalone and rockfish, and encrusting organisms, cannot be differentiated from the areas of thin sand on the basis of acoustic backscatter (i.e. grey level) alone. We found second-order textural analysis of sidescan sonar data useful to differentiate the bottom types where data is not degraded by near-range distortion (caused by slant-range and ground-range corrections), and where data is not degraded by far-range signal attenuation. Hand editing based on submersible observations is necessary to completely convert the sidescan sonar image to a bottom character classification map suitable for habitat mapping.

  7. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. Strong thin coatings, or lamellae, in Brinker's research are formed when objects are dip-coated. Evaporation drives the self-assembly of molecular aggregates (micelles) of surfactant, soluble silica, and organic monomers and their further self-organization into layered organic and inorganic assemblies.

  8. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-07

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.

  9. Hairy suckers: the surface microstructure and its possible functional significance in the Octopus vulgaris sucker

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Summary Octopus suckers are able to attach to any smooth surface and many rough surfaces. Here, we have discovered that the sucker surface, which has been hypothesised to be responsible for sealing the orifice during adhesion, is not smooth as previously assumed, but is completely covered by a dense network of hair-like micro-outgrowths. This finding is particularly important because it provides another demonstration of the role of hair-structures in a sealing mechanism in water, similar to that previously described for clingfish and abalones. Moreover, the discovered hairs may provide an additional adhesive mechanism that works in concert with suction. The discovered surface structures might be potentially interesting for biomimetics of novel technical suction cups with improved adhesion capabilities on non-smooth surfaces. PMID:24991492

  10. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  11. Ancient techniques for new materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Jeffrey Brinker of the University of New Mexico is studying how multiple elements can assemble themselves into a composite material that is clear, tough, and impermeable. His research is based on the model of how an abalone builds the nacre, also called mother-of-pearl, inside its shell. The mollusk layers bricks of calcium carbonate (the main ingredient in classroom chalk) and mortar of biopolymer to form a new material (top and bottom left) that is twice as hard and 1,000 times as tough as either of the original building materials.

  12. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  13. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J; Fantner, G E; Fisher, L W; Hansma, P K

    2008-01-01

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface, and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence. PMID:18843380

  14. Molecular Mechanics of Single Protein Molecules Measured with the Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul K.

    2000-03-01

    After a short history of AFM development in our lab, including recent developments with small cantilevers, this talk will focus on 1) pulling single protein molecules to explore the forces involved in unfolding and 2) watching single protein molecules in action to learn how they function mechanically. 1) Pulling experiments on proteins used as marine adhesives in abalone shells and other biological composite materials reveal modules bound together by sacrificial bonds that are weaker than the backbone bonds in the polypeptide chain.1 These self-healing modules provide effective energy absorption and appear to be a real key to understanding the impressive fracture resistance of biological composite materials. For example, the abalone shell is 3000 times more fracture resistant than a single crystal of calcium carbonate, despite the fact that 97% of the mass of the shell is crystalline calcium carbonate. 2) It is becoming possible, again with AFMs, to learn how some enzymes, nature's nanomachines, do their exquisite materials synthesis and processing. The talk will focus on the chaperonin system of GroEL and GroES that processes incorrectly folded proteins and assists them in refolding correctly. It is becoming possible not only to see single molecule events such as the association and disassociation of the GroEL-Gro-ES complex, but also to measure potential energy functions for the molecules in various conformational states. These new measurements, together with detailed structural measurements from other techniques, give new clues about how these proteins use the energy of ATP to do their work. Since the AFMs of today are very far from fundamental limits, this is only the beginning. 1. B. L. Smith, T. E. Schaffer, M. Viani, J. B. Thompson, N. A. Frederick, J. Kindt, A. Belcher, G. D. Stucky, D. E. Morse and P. K. Hansma, Nature 399, 761 (1999)

  15. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Marcela P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources. PMID:25540651

  16. Association analysis of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Shinya; Koike, Soichi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2009-06-01

    Food allergy patients are known to present with allergic reactions to multiple allergens, but extrapolating these associations is difficult. Data mining, a procedure that analyzes characteristic combinations among large amounts of information, is often used to analyze and predict consumer purchasing behaviour. We applied this technique to the extrapolation of food allergen associations in allergy patients. We sent 1510 families our 'Questionnaire survey for the prevention of food allergies'. Responses noting 6549 allergens came from 878 families with 1383 patients, including 402 with anaphylaxis. Some results of the survey have already been published and here we presented the results of our association analysis of combinations of food allergens. Egg, milk, wheat, peanuts, and buckwheat are the most common food allergens. The most common simultaneous combinations of these allergens were 'egg-milk', 'egg-wheat', and 'milk-wheat'. The occurrence probability of a combination (i.e. one person suffering from a certain allergen also suffers from another) is called 'confidence'. Confidence was higher for 'chicken-egg', 'abalone-salmon eggs', and 'matsutake mushroom-milk'. As well, the combinations of 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', and 'squid-crab' also indicated higher values in a statistical examination of the occurrence probabilities of these allergen combinations (Z-score). From the results of the association analysis, we speculated that some food allergens, such as abalone, orange, salmon, chicken, pork, matsutake mushroom, peach and apple did not independently induce food allergies. We also found that combinations, such as 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', 'squid-crab', 'chicken-beef', and 'salmon-mackerel' had strong associations.

  17. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self

  18. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40

  19. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms.

    PubMed

    Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M

    2013-03-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds

  20. Effects of an aged copper contamination on distribution of earthworms, reproduction and cocoon hatchability.

    PubMed

    Mirmonsef, Hassan; Hornum, Hanne D; Jensen, John; Holmstrup, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Contaminated soil is a problem throughout the industrialized world, and a significant proportion of these sites are polluted with heavy metals such as copper. Ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites requires ecotoxicological studies with spiked soils as well as in-situ ecological observations. Here, we report laboratory and field assessment of copper toxicity for earthworms at a Danish site (Hygum) exclusively contaminated with an increasing gradient in copper from background to highly toxic levels (>1000mgkg(-1) dry soil). More specifically, we report effects on field populations, body contents of copper, hatching of earthworm cocoons and reproduction of the common species Aporrectodea tuberculata. Abundance of earthworms and cocoons decreased significantly from about 400-150m(-2) along the gradient as the soil copper concentration increased from ca. 50 to ca. 1000mgkg(-1). At lower concentrations, the population was dominated by endogeic species, whereas at high concentrations the population was dominated by epigeic species. At high copper contents the internal concentration of copper was in the range 100-160mgkg(-1) dry tissue. Despite the high internal copper contents, hatchability of field collected cocoons was not impaired in any species. The EC50 reproduction value of A. tuberculata was about 220mg copper kg(-1) dry soil in the first two exposure periods, but nearly doubled in the third period suggesting that an acclimation response had occurred. Also in the laboratory reproduction test, cocoon hatchability was not reduced, but rather slightly stimulated by copper. Based on these results we discuss the possibility that acute exposure in laboratory experiments is more detrimental than exposure in a field situation, perhaps because increased tolerance may be acquired through natural selection and genetic adaptation through increased use of defense mechanisms such as metallothioneins. Further, we discuss that the rather high tissue copper level of

  1. Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Kanukollu, Saranya; Voget, Sonja; Pohlner, Marion; Vandieken, Verona; Petersen, Jörn; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans -Peter; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2016-03-12

    Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase (mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able to switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. Among the ability to convert other sulfur compounds it has the genetic capacity to produce climatically active dimethyl sulfide. Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a flagellum (fla1) and a type IV pilus biogenesis, which is speculated to be a prerequisite for biofilm formation. This is also related to genes responsible for signalling such as N-acyl homoserine lactones, as well as quip-genes responsible for quorum quenching and antibiotic biosynthesis. Pairwise similarities of 16S rRNA genes (98.56 % sequence similarity to the next relative S. haliotis) and the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (21.20 % sequence similarity to S. haliotis) indicated Shimia str. SK013 to be considered as a new species. In conclusion, the genome analysis of Shimia str. SK013 offered first insights into specific physiological and phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of Roseobacter-affiliated bacteria to the

  2. Parallel evolution of nacre building gene sets in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daniel J; McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben; Moase, Patrick; Rose, Robert A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Montagnani, Caroline; Joubert, Caroline; Piquemal, David; Degnan, Bernard M

    2010-03-01

    The capacity to biomineralize is closely linked to the rapid expansion of animal life during the early Cambrian, with many skeletonized phyla first appearing in the fossil record at this time. The appearance of disparate molluscan forms during this period leaves open the possibility that shells evolved independently and in parallel in at least some groups. To test this proposition and gain insight into the evolution of structural genes that contribute to shell fabrication, we compared genes expressed in nacre (mother-of-pearl) forming cells in the mantle of the bivalve Pinctada maxima and the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Despite both species having highly lustrous nacre, we find extensive differences in these expressed gene sets. Following the removal of housekeeping genes, less than 10% of all gene clusters are shared between these molluscs, with some being conserved biomineralization genes that are also found in deuterostomes. These differences extend to secreted proteins that may localize to the organic shell matrix, with less than 15% of this secretome being shared. Despite these differences, H. asinina and P. maxima both secrete proteins with repetitive low-complexity domains (RLCDs). Pinctada maxima RLCD proteins-for example, the shematrins-are predominated by silk/fibroin-like domains, which are absent from the H. asinina data set. Comparisons of shematrin genes across three species of Pinctada indicate that this gene family has undergone extensive divergent evolution within pearl oysters. We also detect fundamental bivalve-gastropod differences in extracellular matrix proteins involved in mollusc-shell formation. Pinctada maxima expresses a chitin synthase at high levels and several chitin deacetylation genes, whereas only one protein involved in chitin interactions is present in the H. asinina data set, suggesting that the organic matrix on which calcification proceeds differs fundamentally between these species. Large-scale differences in genes expressed

  3. Ontogenetic variability in the feeding behavior of a marine amphipod in response to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Samanta; Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro A

    2016-11-15

    Global stressors like ocean acidification (OA) are expected to influence the quality or palatability of primary producers like algae. Such changes can trigger a response on algal consumers' feeding strategies, and this response may not necessarily be the same for the consumers during the ontogeny. We used a mesocosm's system to expose algae to current and projected OA conditions (390 and 1000ppm, respectively) and then compared the feeding behavior and absorption efficiency of juvenile and adult stages of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Specifically, we measured consumption rates (with and without a choice) and absorption efficiency on algae exposed and not exposed to OA. Our results show that OA affect the amphipod's consumption and feeding preferences, and that these effects were related with the analyzed ontogenetic stage (juveniles versus adults). These results support the existence of an ontogenetic change in the response of this species and others similar marine invertebrates to OA, which highlight the need to incorporate different life stages in the study of OA or others global stressors.

  4. Pathology and first report of natural eye infection with the trematode Philophthalmus gralli (Digenea, Philophthalmidae) in Tinamus major (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae), Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Diana; Soto, Carmen; Rojas, Alicia

    2013-12-01

    The eye-fluke Philophthalmus gralli (Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899) was found in six birds known as great tinamous (Tinamus major) reared in a wild animal shelter located in Alajuela, Costa Rica. The birds presented conjunctival hyperemia, blepharitis, anorexia and weakness. Some of them suffered from unilateral blindness and ocular loss. After morphometric analysis, the specimens showed characteristics compatible with the digenean trematode P. gralli. The clinical signs of infection were resolved by manual removal of the adults, treatment with praziquantel and relocation into an environment without a natural water source. In order to determine if an ongoing cycle of this pathogen was present in the shelter, the habitat of the birds was inspected for the presence of infected intermediate hosts and contaminated water and objects. It was found that the snails Melanoides tuberculata acted as the intermediate host, and reared the infectious stages toward other animals, as shown by the reproduction of ocular philophthalmiasis in chickens artificially infected with excysted metacercaria. Moreover, three out of every ten snails found in the place were infected with rediae of P. gralli, raising the possibility of the dispersion of the parasite into new environments as well as the imminent zoonotic risk. The finding of P. gralli in Costa Rica is the first official report in Central America.

  5. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  6. Nuclear gene sequences confirm an ancient link between New Zealand's short-tailed bat and South American noctilionoid bats.

    PubMed

    Teeling, Emma C; Madsen, Ole; Murphy, William J; Springer, Mark S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2003-08-01

    Molecular and morphological hypotheses disagree on the phylogenetic position of New Zealand's short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata. Most morphological analyses place Mystacina in the superfamily Vespertilionoidea, whereas molecular studies unite Mystacina with the Neotropical noctilionoids and imply a shared Gondwanan history. To date, competing hypotheses for the placement of Mystacina have not been addressed with a large concatenation of nuclear protein sequences. We investigated this problem using 7.1kb of nuclear sequence data that included segments from five nuclear protein-coding genes for representatives of 14 bat families and six laurasiatherian outgroups. We employed the Thorne/Kishino method of molecular dating, allowing for simultaneous constraints from the fossil record and varying rates of molecular evolution on different branches on the phylogenetic tree, to estimate basal divergence times within key chiropteran clades. Maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian posterior probabilities all provide robust support for the association of Mystacina with the South American noctilionoids. The basal divergence within Chiroptera was estimated at 67mya and the mystacinid/noctilionoid split was calculated at 47mya. Although the mystacinid lineage is too young to have originated in New Zealand before it split from the other Gondwanan landmasses (80mya), the exact geographic origin of these lineages is still uncertain and will not be answered until more fossils are found. It is most probable that Mystacina dispersed from Australia to New Zealand while other noctilionoid bats either remained in or dispersed to South America.

  7. Ecological studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A; Youssef, Ashraf M; Fathi, Adel A

    2007-11-15

    Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.). On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

  8. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

  9. Evidence of Cnidarians sensitivity to sound after exposure to low frequency noise underwater sources.

    PubMed

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Fontuño, José Manuel; Durfort, Mercè; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2016-12-21

    Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don't know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web. Here we exposed two species of Mediterranean Scyphozoan medusa, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo to a sweep of low frequency sounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in the statocyst sensory epithelium of both species after exposure to sound, that are consistent with the manifestation of a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species. The presence of acoustic trauma in marine species that are not hearing specialists, like medusa, shows the magnitude of the problem of noise pollution and the complexity of the task to determine threshold values that would help building up regulation to prevent permanent damage of the ecosystems.

  10. Association of ectomycorrhizal fungi with Picea crassifolia (Pinaceae, Piceoidae) from high-altitude stands in Mount Helan Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y J; Grebenc, T; Wei, J; Zhao, Y L; Yan, W; Wang, L B

    2016-09-02

    We investigated the diversity of ectomycorrhiza associated with the endemic Picea crassifolia in Mount Helan National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. Toward this objective, we conducted morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae in soil cubes taken from pure P. crassifolia stands. Eleven types of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) organisms were separated, briefly described, and identified. Nine morphotypes belonged to the phylum Basidiomycotina [Amphinema byssoides, Cortinarius sp (cf. limonius), Cortinarius vernus, Inocybe cf. nitidiscula, Inocybe sp 1, Sebacina incrustans, Sebacina sp, Suillus luteus, and Piceirhiza tuberculata x Picea crassifolia (comb. Nov.)], and two morphotypes to the phylum Ascomycotina (Cenococcum geophilum and Helvella sp). The diversity of ECM organisms in P. crassifolia was lower than that reported by other studies on spruce or pine forests, or on sporocarp diversity in the high-mountain forests of China. Most of the fungi in the rhizosphere did not correspond to species previously recorded as sporocarps above ground. Here, several new ectomycorrhiza morphotypes are proposed and described. We also confirmed the ectomycorrhizal status of the genus Sebacina (order Sebacinales).

  11. Predicting water toxicity: pairing passive sampling with bioassays on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Melanie; Negri, Andrew; Fabricius, Katharina; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-11-08

    Many coral reefs worldwide occur adjacent to urban or agricultural land which places these ecosystems at threat of exposure to complex mixtures of pollutants. In this study, the pairing of passive sampler extracts with bioassays is proposed as a tool for predicting effects of organic pollutant mixtures on key biota within coral reef ecosystems. Passive samplers, SDB-RPS Empore disks, which sequester a mixture of the contaminants present in the environment, were deployed at three sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Extracts from these samplers were analysed for herbicides and applied to bioassays targeting integral life stages or functions of coral reef biota. Biota included scleractinian coral larvae, sea urchin larvae, a marine diatom and marine bacteria. Photosynthesis in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was inhibited at the sampled environmental concentration while an environmental concentration factor of 15 times inhibited luminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Concentrations of 50 times sampled environmental levels of organic pollutants inhibited >90% of Acropora millepora settlement and 100-fold environmental enrichment inhibited 100% Heliocidaris tuberculata larval development. These results demonstrate the utility of pairing passive sampling with bioassays and reveal that mixtures of organic pollutants in the GBR have the potential to cause detrimental effects to coral reef biota.

  12. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  13. New locality record for Haplorchoides mehrai and possible interactions with Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in cyprinid fishes in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Manpratum, Yupin; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn

    2017-02-01

    Metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic liver fluke, and Haplorchoides sp., a trematode maturing in catfish, are commonly found in cyprinid fish, the second intermediate hosts of both flukes. However, the specific identity of Haplorchoides sp. in Thailand and a precise assessment of the effects of co-infections with O. viverrini have never been clarified. Therefore, we aimed to identify the species of Haplorchoides and to investigate possible interactions of the two trematode species in cyprinid fishes. Based on the morphology and morphometry of the cercaria, metacercaria, and adult stages, the Haplorchoides species found was identified as Haplorchoides mehrai Pande and Shukla 1976. Thailand is formally recorded as a new locality for H. mehrai, where naturally infected hosts include the snail Melanoides tuberculata (first intermediate host), the cyprinid fishes Hampala dispar, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Puntius leiacanthus, Labiobarbus burmanicus, and Cirrhina jullieni (second intermediate hosts), and a catfish, Mystus nemurus (definitive host). The co-infection rates of O. viverrini and H. mehrai were significantly associated with fish species and fish body region (P < 0.001), with an overall significantly higher average intensity of H. mehrai (126.26 metacercariae/fish) than that of O. viverrini (18.02 metacercariae/fish). Further work is required to demonstrate the extent and mechanisms of possible interactions between these trematode species in the fish host. These data may provide a better understanding of O. viverrini transmission dynamics, and help design integrated control interventions.

  14. The first record of Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yousif, F; Ayoub, M; Tadros, M; El Bardicy, S

    2016-09-01

    The life cycle of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) was to be successfully completed in the laboratory in the present study. Hundreds of the thiarid snail, Melanoides tuberculata, were collected from the main water course Mansouriya Canal, Giza Governorate, Egypt. The snails were individually exposed to artificial light to determine possible infection with trematode larvae. Fifteen snails were found infected with opthalmopleurolophocercous cercariae (infection index of 1.97). These opthalmopleurolophocercous cercariae shedded from snails were collected and placed in an aquarium with fish intermediate host, Gambusia affinis, to obtain metacercariae encysted in the gills. The gills with metacercariae were fed to albino rats, Rattus norvegicus, to obtain the adult worms. Adult worms were recovered in the small intestine of rats at 7 days after infection and they were identified as Centrocestus formosanus based on the morphological characteristics and the comparison with the previous descriptions in the literature. They were small, 518 × 324 μm in average size and had characteristic 32 circumoral spines around the oral sucker. The morphological characteristics of the developmental stages, from cercariae to adults, of this heterophyid fluke were given here. Therefore, the presence of this fluke is to be confirmed for the first time in Egypt by the present study.

  15. Studies on the morphology of cercariae obtained from freshwater snails at Erawan Waterfall, Erawan National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ukong, Suluck; Krailas, Duangduen; Dangprasert, Tunyarut; Channgarm, Pasapong

    2007-03-01

    The morphology of cercariae of freshwater snails from Erawan Waterfall, Erawan National Park, Kanchanaburi Province was studied between December 2002 and August 2003. The snail samples were collected by handpicking using a counts per unit of time sampling method. The cercariae, larva stage of a trematode, were investigated using the shedding method where they were categorized into three groups and six species. The first group, Pleurolophocercous cercariae, consists of Haplorchis pumillo (C1) and Stictodora tridactyla (C3). The second group, Furcocercous cercariae, consisted of Mesostephanus appendicalatus (C2), Transversotrema laruei (C6) and Cardicola alseae(C4). The third group, Xiphidio cercariae, has only one species which is Loxogenoides bicolor (C5). Out of 1163 snails, only 62 were found to be infected by cercariae, equivalent to a 5.33% infection rate. The infections grouped by species of the cercariae are as follows: C, 22 (1.9%), C, 29 (2.5%), C2 1 (0.1%), C6 1 (0.1%), C4 6 (0.5%) and C5 3 (0.3%). The freshwater snail samples consist of four species. From a total of 1163 samples, there are 687 Melanoides jugicostis, 91 Tarebia granifera, 296 Thiara scabra and 89 Melanoides tuberculata. Infections were found in 45 (6.5%), 6 (6.6%), 1 (0.3%) and 10 (11.2%), respectively.

  16. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem.

  17. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range.

  18. Environmental Control of Phase Transition and Polyp Survival of a Massive-Outbreaker Jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Laura; Astorga, Diana; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier

    2010-01-01

    A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore) blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp) and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa). Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records. PMID:21072185

  19. Evidence of Cnidarians sensitivity to sound after exposure to low frequency noise underwater sources

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Fontuño, José Manuel; Durfort, Mercè; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don’t know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web. Here we exposed two species of Mediterranean Scyphozoan medusa, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo to a sweep of low frequency sounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in the statocyst sensory epithelium of both species after exposure to sound, that are consistent with the manifestation of a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species. The presence of acoustic trauma in marine species that are not hearing specialists, like medusa, shows the magnitude of the problem of noise pollution and the complexity of the task to determine threshold values that would help building up regulation to prevent permanent damage of the ecosystems. PMID:28000727

  20. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  1. Self-repairing symmetry in jellyfish through mechanically driven reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Michael J.; Basinger, Ty; Yuan, William; Guo, Chin-Lin; Goentoro, Lea

    2015-01-01

    What happens when an animal is injured and loses important structures? Some animals simply heal the wound, whereas others are able to regenerate lost parts. In this study, we report a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair, where moon jellyfish respond to injuries by reorganizing existing parts, and rebuilding essential body symmetry, without regenerating what is lost. Specifically, in response to arm amputation, the young jellyfish of Aurelia aurita rearrange their remaining arms, recenter their manubria, and rebuild their muscular networks, all completed within 12 hours to 4 days. We call this process symmetrization. We find that symmetrization is not driven by external cues, cell proliferation, cell death, and proceeded even when foreign arms were grafted on. Instead, we find that forces generated by the muscular network are essential. Inhibiting pulsation using muscle relaxants completely, and reversibly, blocked symmetrization. Furthermore, we observed that decreasing pulse frequency using muscle relaxants slowed symmetrization, whereas increasing pulse frequency by lowering the magnesium concentration in seawater accelerated symmetrization. A mathematical model that describes the compressive forces from the muscle contraction, within the context of the elastic response from the mesoglea and the ephyra geometry, can recapitulate the recovery of global symmetry. Thus, self-repair in Aurelia proceeds through the reorganization of existing parts, and is driven by forces generated by its own propulsion machinery. We find evidence for symmetrization across species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). PMID:26080418

  2. Environmental control of phase transition and polyp survival of a massive-outbreaker jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Laura; Astorga, Diana; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier

    2010-11-03

    A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore) blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp) and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa). Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records.

  3. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) species using leaf architecture variations and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfei; Jiang, Wu; Ghiassi, M; Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species.

  4. Evidence of Cnidarians sensitivity to sound after exposure to low frequency noise underwater sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Fontuño, José Manuel; Durfort, Mercè; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don’t know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web. Here we exposed two species of Mediterranean Scyphozoan medusa, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo to a sweep of low frequency sounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in the statocyst sensory epithelium of both species after exposure to sound, that are consistent with the manifestation of a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species. The presence of acoustic trauma in marine species that are not hearing specialists, like medusa, shows the magnitude of the problem of noise pollution and the complexity of the task to determine threshold values that would help building up regulation to prevent permanent damage of the ecosystems.

  5. Habitats of Bulinus truncatus and Planorbarius metidjensis, the intermediate hosts of urinary schistosomosis, under a semiarid or an arid climate.

    PubMed

    Yacoubi, B; Zekhnini, A; Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G; Cabaret, J; Moukrim, A

    2007-07-01

    Since Bulinus truncatus and Planorbarius metidjensis are the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium in southwestern Morocco, five rivers were investigated to identify sites colonized by either of both species and determine the characteristics of their habitats via the study of 12 physicochemical parameters in running water. P. metidjensis was observed in the upper valleys of three rivers, whereas B. truncatus was found in sites of lower altitude. A component analysis demonstrated that altitude (from 4 to 1,380 m), water pH (from 5.9 to 9.2), and electric conductivity (from 120 to 6,020 microS/cm) were the main descriptors of environment. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that P. metidjensis was associated to Ancylus fluviatilis, high altitude, and possibly low electric conductivity. B. truncatus was associated to Melanoides tuberculata and was found in lower altitude sites with medium electric conductivity in water. Using logistic regressions, the main characteristics were altitude and dissolved oxygen for B. truncatus, and chlorides and CaCO3 for P. metidjensis. As the habitats of both S. haematobium intermediate hosts differed from each other by altitude and the frequency of snails, which cohabited with them, these findings may be used to detect the presence of either of both intermediate hosts in numerous spring heads which are present on the western slope of the Anti Atlas mountains and the corresponding valleys.

  6. Phylogenetic overview of the genus Genea (Pezizales, Ascomycota) with an emphasis on European taxa.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Pablo; Cabero, Julio; Moreno, Gabriel; Bratek, Zoltán; van Vooren, Nicolas; Kaounas, Vasileios; Konstantinidis, Giorgos; Agnello, Carlo; Merényi, Zsolt; Smith, Matthew E; Vizzini, Alfredo; Trappe, James M

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Genea, with new molecular data from samples collected in several countries in temperate and Mediterranean Europe, as well as North America. Type specimens and authentic material of most species were examined to support identifications. The molecular identity of the most common species in Genea was compared with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), D1-D2 domains of 28S nuc rDNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α ene (TEF1) profiles of 10 recently proposed taxa, G. brunneocarpa, G. compressa, G. dentata, G. fageticola, G. lobulata, G. oxygala, G. pinicola, G. pseudobalsleyi, G. pseudoverrucosa and G. tuberculata, supporting their status as distinct species. Genea mexicana and G. thaxteri on the one hand and G. sphaerica and G. lespiaultii on the other are closely related. Multiple lineages were recorded for G. verrucosa and G. fragrans, but we found no morphological traits to discriminate among them, so we tentatively interpreted them as cryptic species. A key to species of the genus Genea is provided to facilitate identification. We provide macroscopic images of fresh specimens and of representative spores of most species. Finally, we conducted a molecular analysis of the divergence time for Genea and discuss the implications of our results.

  7. Activities and preliminary results of nearshore benthic habitat mapping in southern California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2000-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports a diversity of marine life that are commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the White Abalone. State and National agencies have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources and require detailed habitat characterization in order to do so. This project will characterize and map the benthic habitat in areas that have been selected because they have been set aside as National Sanctuaries or State Preserves, or are areas of ongoing or planned fish population studies. Various management strategies are being developed to protect marine resources in the Santa Barbara Channel Islands Region. One approach under investigation is to implement no-take marine reserves (Agardy, T., 1997; Bohnsack, 1998; Roberts, 1997). One small reserve presently exists on Anacapa Island and there is a growing momentum to add additional reserves to form a reserve network (Lafferty et al., 2000). Reserves may provide relatively pristine marine communities in a wild state for study and appreciation. In addition, they may buffer some species from over-fishing. A key feature of marine reserve design is to protect a representation of the existing habitats in a region (Roberts, 1997). Unfortunately, the distribution of habitats is not well known in this area since the underwater equivalent of soils and vegetation maps that are widely available for terrestrial systems do not yet exist. Managers need habitat maps to help determine the most appropriate boundaries for reserves in a network in order to meet various criteria and goals (such as habitat representation, reserve size, habitat heterogeneity, reserve spacing, inclusion of sensitive habitats, etc.). Another use for habitat mapping is to better understand the distribution of those habitats that are particularly important to fished species or sensitive

  8. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  9. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Solemya velum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and its relationships with Conchifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bivalve mitochondrial genomes exhibit a wide array of uncommon features, like extensive gene rearrangements, large sizes, and unusual ways of inheritance. Species pertaining to the order Solemyida (subclass Opponobranchia) show many peculiar evolutionary adaptations, f.i. extensive symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria. Despite Opponobranchia are central in bivalve phylogeny, being considered the sister group of all Autobranchia, a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced yet. Results In this paper, we characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the Atlantic awning clam Solemya velum: A-T content, gene arrangement and other features are more similar to putative ancestral mollusks than to other bivalves. Two supranumerary open reading frames are present in a large, otherwise unassigned, region, while the origin of replication could be located in a region upstream to the cox3 gene. Conclusions We show that S. velum mitogenome retains most of the ancestral conchiferan features, which is unusual among bivalve mollusks, and we discuss main peculiarities of this first example of an organellar genome coming from the subclass Opponobranchia. Mitochondrial genomes of Solemya (for bivalves) and Haliotis (for gastropods) seem to retain the original condition of mollusks, as most probably exemplified by Katharina. PMID:23777315

  11. Shimia sagamensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Mori, Kozue; Uchida, Hiromi; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    A novel marine bacterial strain designated JAMH 011(T) was isolated from the cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, aerobic chemo-organotrophs and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at temperatures below 31 °C, with the optimum at 25 °C. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was closely affiliated with members of the genus Shimia in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the novel isolate with the type strain of the closest related species, Shimia haliotis WM35(T), was 98.1%. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 57.3 mol%. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JAMH 011(T) and reference strains belonging to the genus Shimia were less than 9.4 ± 0.7%. Based on differences in taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Shimia, for which the name Shimia sagamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JAMH 011(T) ( = JCM 30583(T) = DSM 29734(T)).

  12. Immobilisation and characterisation of the demineralised, fully hydrated organic matrix of nacre--an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Launspach, Malte; Rückmann, Klaudia; Gummich, Meike; Rademaker, Hanna; Doschke, Holger; Radmacher, Manfred; Fritz, Monika

    2012-12-01

    Mimicry of the tough natural composite nacre in future bioengineering requires knowledge of the biomineralisation process. The insoluble organic matrix isolated from the shell of the gastropod Haliotis laevigata was characterised by protein chemistry, topographical and mechanical measurements. Demineralisation of nacre in dilute acetic acid or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid revealed a set of soluble proteins and the insoluble matrix. The insoluble matrix contains a chitin core and firmly attached proteins, which could be removed by sodium dodecyl sulfate and glycerol indicating a hydrophobic interaction. Atomic force microscopy images of the native insoluble matrix showed a filamentous network with pores or holes, where the filaments showed globular attachments of different sizes, possibly the attached protein molecules. During direct observation of protein degradation imaged by atomic force microscopy the insoluble matrix gets smooth and flat indicating the removal of the attached proteins by proteases. We propose a model of protein coated chitin filaments for the insoluble matrix of nacre. Mechanical measurements by force mapping revealed a Young's modulus depending on the hydration state of the organic layers. The fully hydrated organic matrix has an elastic modulus below 1 MPa comparable to some hydrogels.

  13. Age and paleoenvironmental significance of mega-invertebrates from the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills, Fullerton and Buena Park, Orange County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stevens, Dave

    2000-01-01

    The "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills contains an invertebrate fossil as-semblage of 184 taxa from 158 localities. The fauna consists of two annelids, 174 mollusks (80 bivalves, 94 gastropods, and three scaphopods), five arthropods, and three echinoids, along with other minor constituents recognized by not specifically identified during the present study. These fossils are divided into three assemblages; 1) a lower, Pliocene assemblage (which may not differ ecologically from the middle fauna), 2) a middle, cool water assemblage, and 3) an upper, temperate to warm water. These fossils suggest a probably late Pliocene to early Pleistocene age for outcrops of the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills. A fourth assemblage with a limited, restricted marine fauna occurs in the overlying Coyote Hills Formation. The occurrence of Solamen columbianum (Dall) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the "San Pedro" Formation of the Coyote Hills marks its first occurrence as a fossil. The oldest fossil occurrence of the gastropods Tegula pulligo (Gmelin), questionably Haliotis cracherodii Leach, and the crustacean Randallia ornata (Randell) occurs in the "San Pedroï" Formation in the Coyote Hills.

  14. Sequential developmental programmes for retractor muscles of a caenogastropod: reappraisal of evolutionary homologues

    PubMed Central

    Page, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in the development of shell-attached retractor muscles in gastropods are of fundamental importance to theories about the early evolution and subsequent diversification of this molluscan class. Development of the shell-attached retractor muscle (columellar muscle) in a caenogastropod has been studied at the ultrastructural level to test the hypothesis of homology with the post-torsional left retractor muscle (larval velar retractor) in vetigastropod larvae. The vetigastropod muscle has been implicated in the generation of ontogenetic torsion, a morphogenetic twist between body regions that is important to theories about early gastropod evolution. Two shell-attached retractor muscles develop sequentially in the caenogastropod, Polinices lewisii, which is a pattern that has been also identified in previous ultrastructural studies on a vetigastropod and several nudibranch gastropods. The pattern may be a basal and conserved characteristic of gastropods. I found that the first-formed retractor in larvae of P. lewisii is comparable to the larval velar retractor that exists at the time of ontogenetic torsion in the vetigastropod, Haliotis kamtschatkana. However, the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii is derived exclusively from part of the second-formed muscle, which is comparable to the second-formed pedal muscle system in the vetigastropod. I conclude that the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii, is not homologous to the larval velar retractor of the vetigastropod, H. kamtschatkana.

  15. Integrating conjugative elements as vectors of antibiotic, mercury, and quaternary ammonium compound resistance in marine aquaculture environments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2012-05-01

    The presence of SXT/R391-related integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) in bacterial strains isolated from fish obtained from marine aquaculture environments in 2001 to 2010 in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula was studied. ICEs were detected in 12 strains taxonomically related to Vibrio scophthalmi (3 strains), Vibrio splendidus (5 strains), Vibrio alginolyticus (1 strain), Shewanella haliotis (1 strain), and Enterovibrio nigricans (2 strains), broadening the known host range able to harbor SXT/R391-like ICEs. Variable DNA regions, which confer element-specific properties to ICEs of this family, were characterized. One of the ICEs encoded antibiotic resistance functions in variable region III, consisting of a tetracycline resistance locus. Interestingly, hot spot 4 included genes providing resistance to rifampin (ICEVspPor2 and ICEValPor1) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (ICEEniSpa1), and variable region IV included a mercury resistance operon (ICEVspSpa1 and ICEEniSpa1). The S exclusion group was more represented than the R exclusion group, accounting for two-thirds of the total ICEs. Mating experiments allowed ICE mobilization to Escherichia coli strains, showing the corresponding transconjugants' rifampin, mercury, and QAC resistance. These results show the first evidence of ICEs providing rifampin and QAC resistances, suggesting that these mobile genetic elements contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial, heavy metal, and QAC resistance determinants in aquaculture environments.

  16. Developmental expression of COE across the Metazoa supports a conserved role in neuronal cell-type specification and mesodermal development.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daniel J; Meyer, Néva P; Seaver, Elaine; Pang, Kevin; McDougall, Carmel; Moy, Vanessa N; Gordon, Kacy; Degnan, Bernard M; Martindale, Mark Q; Burke, Robert D; Peterson, Kevin J

    2010-12-01

    The transcription factor COE (collier/olfactory-1/early B cell factor) is an unusual basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor as it lacks a basic domain and is maintained as a single copy gene in the genomes of all currently analysed non-vertebrate Metazoan genomes. Given the unique features of the COE gene, its proposed ancestral role in the specification of chemosensory neurons and the wealth of functional data from vertebrates and Drosophila, the evolutionary history of the COE gene can be readily investigated. We have examined the ways in which COE expression has diversified among the Metazoa by analysing its expression from representatives of four disparate invertebrate phyla: Ctenophora (Mnemiopsis leidyi); Mollusca (Haliotis asinina); Annelida (Capitella teleta and Chaetopterus) and Echinodermata (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). In addition, we have studied COE function with knockdown experiments in S. purpuratus, which indicate that COE is likely to be involved in repressing serotonergic cell fate in the apical ganglion of dipleurula larvae. These analyses suggest that COE has played an important role in the evolution of ectodermally derived tissues (likely primarily nervous tissues) and mesodermally derived tissues. Our results provide a broad evolutionary foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterisation and evolution of COE can be investigated.

  17. Gene order in a 10 275 bp fragment of Yarrowia lipolytica, including adjacent YlURA5 and YlSEC65 genes conserved in four yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; Domínguez, A

    2001-06-30

    We have determined the sequence of a 10275 bp DNA segment of Yarrowia lipolytica located on chromosome VI. The sequence contains six complete open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 amino acids and two more partial ORFs at both ends. Two of the ORFs encode for the well-characterized genes YlURA5 (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase) and YlSEC65 (encoding a subunit of the signal recognition particle). These two genes show an identical organization-located on opposite strands and in opposite orientations-in four yeast species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and Y. lipolytica. One ORF and the two partial ORFs code for putative proteins showing significant homology with proteins from other organisms. YlVI-108w (partial) and YlVI-103w show 39% and 54% identity, respectively, with YDR430c and YHR088w from S. cerevisiae. YlVI-102c (partial) shows significant homology with a matrix protein, lustrin A from Haliotis rufescens, and with the PGRS subfamily (Gly-rich proteins) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The three remaining ORFs show weak or non-significant homology with previously sequenced genes. The nucleotide sequence has been submitted to the EMBL database under Accession No. AI006754.

  18. Case of anaphylaxis caused by ingestion of royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Mirei; Aoki, Mikako; Kawana, Seiji

    2008-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe form of allergic disease. Royal jelly is widely consumed in Japan, but a few cases of anaphylaxis caused by royal jelly have been reported. We encountered a 26-year-old Japanese woman who developed anaphylaxis after drinking a beverage of crude royal jelly including honey. She had a history of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy (abalone). Prick tests were performed with the beverage of crude royal jelly including honey and with two other beverages including honey. Only the crude royal jelly beverage showed a positive reaction. An oral challenge test with the crude royal jelly beverage was not performed, but a similar test with a beverage including honey caused no symptoms. A positive response to the beverage of crude royal jelly was not observed in normal volunteers. A positive diagnosis of anaphylaxis due to royal jelly was made based on the positive prick test, systemic clinical symptoms and the negative prick tests in healthy volunteers. Moreover, the patient had no symptoms when taking lemon and orange, which were present as essences in the crude royal jelly beverage, and also had no response to honey after anaphylaxis. Increased consumption of royal jelly in health food supplements may increase the incidence of royal jelly-related allergic reactions. Therefore, royal jelly should be considered as a causative allergen in food-induced anaphylaxis.

  19. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1).

  20. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  1. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  2. Marine Snails and Slugs: a Great Place To Look for Antiviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Vinh T.; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Green, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Molluscs, comprising one of the most successful phyla, lack clear evidence of adaptive immunity and yet thrive in the oceans, which are rich in viruses. There are thought to be nearly 120,000 species of Mollusca, most living in marine habitats. Despite the extraordinary abundance of viruses in oceans, molluscs often have very long life spans (10 to 100 years). Thus, their innate immunity must be highly effective at countering viral infections. Antiviral compounds are a crucial component of molluscan defenses against viruses and have diverse mechanisms of action against a wide variety of viruses, including many that are human pathogens. Antiviral compounds found in abalone, oyster, mussels, and other cultured molluscs are available in large supply, providing good opportunities for future research and development. However, most members of the phylum Mollusca have not been examined for the presence of antiviral compounds. The enormous diversity and adaptations of molluscs imply a potential source of novel antiviral compounds for future drug discovery. PMID:26063420

  3. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christine K; Tinker, Martin T; Estes, James A; Conrad, Patricia A; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Melissa A; Jessup, David A; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2009-02-17

    The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery.

  4. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  5. Kelp forest monitoring 1992 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1992 results of the Channel Islands Natioanl Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random point contacts, fish and video transects, photogrammetric plots, size frequency measurements, artifical recruitment habitats, and species list surveys. Some batheothermograph data was collected. In 1992, nine sites and healthy kelp forests while seven were mostly barren. The seven barren sites consisted of one that was dominated by the aggregated red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one was barren with high sedimentation, one was domainated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and four sites were dominated by purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, three of which had signs of a developing kelp forest. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and a wasting syndrome was observed in sea urchins. Fish recruitment appeared to be late this year. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules (previously named `abalone recruitment modules`) at six of the sites.

  6. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  7. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; Ford, Susan E

    2016-03-05

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance.

  8. Evolution of phosphagen kinase V. cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of two molluscan arginine kinases from the chiton Liolophura japonica and the turbanshell Battilus cornutus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Ban, T; Furukohri, T

    1997-06-20

    The cDNAs of arginine kinases from the chiton Liolophura japonica (Polyplacophora) and the turbanshell Battilus cornutus (Gastropoda) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the complete nucleotide sequences of 1669 and 1624 bp, respectively, were determined. The open reading frame for Liolophura arginine kinase is 1050 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein with 349 amino acid residues, and that for Battilus is 1077 nucleotides and 358 residues. The validity of the cDNA-derived amino acid sequence was supported by chemical sequencing of internal tryptic peptides. The molecular masses were calculated to be 39,057 and 39,795 Da, respectively. The amino acid sequence of Liolophura arginine kinase showed 65-68% identity with those of Battilus and Nordotis (abalone) arginine kinases, and the homology between Battilus and Nordotis was 79%. Molluscan arginine kinases also show lower, but significant homology (38-43%) with rabbit creatine kinase. The sequences of arginine kinases could be used as a molecular clock to elucidate the phylogeny of Mollusca, one of the most diverse animal phyla.

  9. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caswell, M.F.

    1991-03-01

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources.

  10. An undergraduate laboratory activity on molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Spitznagel, Benjamin; Pritchett, Paige R; Messina, Troy C; Goadrich, Mark; Rodriguez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Vision and Change [AAAS, 2011] outlines a blueprint for modernizing biology education by addressing conceptual understanding of key concepts, such as the relationship between structure and function. The document also highlights skills necessary for student success in 21st century Biology, such as the use of modeling and simulation. Here we describe a laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the dynamic nature of protein structure and function through the use of a modeling technique known as molecular dynamics (MD). The activity takes place over two lab periods that are 3 hr each. The first lab period unpacks the basic approach behind MD simulations, beginning with the kinematic equations that all bioscience students learn in an introductory physics course. During this period students are taught rudimentary programming skills in Python while guided through simple modeling exercises that lead up to the simulation of the motion of a single atom. In the second lab period students extend concepts learned in the first period to develop skills in the use of expert MD software. Here students simulate and analyze changes in protein conformation resulting from temperature change, solvation, and phosphorylation. The article will describe how these activities can be carried out using free software packages, including Abalone and VMD/NAMD.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of nutraceuticals from Sasha's Blend in a cartilage explant model of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Wendy; Orth, Michael W; Karrow, Niel A; Maclusky, Neil J; Lindinger, Michael I

    2007-08-01

    New Zealand green lipped mussel (NZGLM), abalone (AB), and shark cartilage (SC) are extensively used for treatment of and/or as preventatives for arthritis, despite a relative paucity of scientific evidence for efficacy. This research integrated a simulated digestion protocol with ultrafiltration and cartilage explants to generate new information on the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties of NZGLM, SC, and AB. Each nutraceutical was artificially digested using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, and the crude digest was ultrafiltered (50 kDa). Each filtrate was applied individually to cartilage explants before the explants were stimulated with IL-1 to induce an acute inflammatory response. Media were collected daily for 48 h and analyzed for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and nitric oxide (NO), and cartilage tissue was differentially stained to determine the relative proportion of live and dead cells. SC and NZGLM significantly inhibited IL-1-induced PGE(2) synthesis and IL-1-induced GAG release, and AB was an effective inhibitor of IL-1-induced NO production. The three test nutraceuticals affect at least three major pathways involved in the catabolic cycle of arthritis and may prove important treatments and/or preventatives for the pain and degradation associated with this condition. The methodology and results describe a useful model for evaluating dietary nutraceuticals in vitro.

  12. Nanoscale structural and functional mapping of nacre by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xilong; Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2013-11-01

    Nacre has received great attention due to its nanoscale hierarchical structure and extraordinary mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the nanoscale piezoelectric properties of nacre have also been investigated but the structure-function relationship has never been addressed. In this work, firstly we realized quantitative nanomechanical mapping of nacre of a green abalone using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM). The modulus of the mineral tablets is determined to be ~80 GPa and that of the organic biopolymer no more than 23 GPa, and the organic-inorganic interface width is determined to be about 34 +/- 9 nm. Then, we conducted both AFAM and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) mapping in the same scanning area to explore the correlations between the nanomechanical and piezoelectric properties. The PFM testing shows that the organic biopolymer exhibits a significantly stronger piezoresponse than the mineral tablets, and they permeate each other, which is very difficult to reproduce in artificial materials. Finally, the phase hysteresis loops and amplitude butterfly loops were also observed using switching spectroscopy PFM, implying that nacre may also be a bio-ferroelectric material. The obtained nanoscale structural and functional properties of nacre could be very helpful in understanding its deformation mechanism and designing biomimetic materials of extraordinary properties.

  13. Acute toxicity of 8 antidepressants: what are their modes of action?

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laetitia; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Lepailleur, Alban; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Currently, the hazard posed by pharmaceutical residues is a major concern of ecotoxicology. Most of the antidepressants belong to a family named the Cationic Amphipathic Drugs known to have specific interactions with cell membranes. The present study assessed the impact of eight antidepressants belonging to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors by the combination of multi-approaches (in vivo, in vitro, in silico) and gives some insights on the mode of action for these molecules. Antidepressants were from the most to the least toxic compound for Daphnia magna: Sertraline (EC50=1.15 mg L(-1))>Clomipramine (2.74 mg L(-1))>Amitriptyline (4.82 mg L(-1))>Fluoxetine (5.91 mg L(-1))>Paroxetine (6.24 mg L(-1))>Mianserine (7.81 mg L(-1))>Citalopram (30.14 mg L(-1)) and Venlafaxine (141.28 mg L(-1)). These acute toxicities were found correlated to Log Kow coefficients (R=0.93, p<0.001) and to cytotoxicity assessed on abalone hemocytes through the neutral red uptake assay (R=0.96, p<0.001). If narcosis as mode of action is typically expected during acute ecotoxicity bioassays, we showed by molecular modeling that particular interactions can exist between antidepressants and phosphatidylcholine, a major component of cell membranes, leading to a more specific mode of action corresponding to a potential acidic hydrolysis of ester functions.

  14. The test skeletal matrix of the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula.

    PubMed

    Kanold, Julia M; Immel, Francoise; Broussard, Cédric; Guichard, Nathalie; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Brümmer, Franz; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    In the field of biomineralization, the past decade has been marked by the increasing use of high throughput techniques, i.e. proteomics, for identifying in one shot the protein content of complex macromolecular mixtures extracted from mineralized tissues. Although crowned with success, this approach has been restricted so far to a limited set of key-organisms, such as the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the pearl oyster or the abalone, leaving in the shadow non-model organisms. As a consequence, it is still unknown to what extent the calcifying repertoire varies, from group to group, at high (phylum, class), median (order, family) or low (genus, species) taxonomic rank. The present paper shows the first biochemical and proteomic characterization of the test matrix of the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Arbacioida). Our work suggests that the skeletal repertoire of A. lixula exhibits some similarities but also several differences with that of the few sea urchin species (S. purpuratus, Paracentrotus lividus), for which molecular data are already available. The differences may be attributable to the taxonomic position of the species considered: A. lixula belongs to an order - Arbacioida - that diverged more than one hundred million years ago from the Camarodonta, which includes the two species S. purpuratus and P. lividus. For the echinoid class, we suggest that large-scale proteomic screening should be performed in order to understand which molecular functions related to calcification are conserved and which ones have been co-opted for biomineralization in particular lineages.

  15. Evidence for the presence of a cellulase gene in the last common ancestor of bilaterian animals.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Nathan; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sugimura, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, the textbook view of cellulose hydrolysis in animals was that gut-resident symbiotic organisms such as bacteria or unicellular eukaryotes are responsible for the cellulases produced. This view has been challenged by the characterization and sequencing of endogenous cellulase genes from some invertebrate animals, including plant-parasitic nematodes, arthropods and a mollusc. Most of these genes are completely unrelated in terms of sequence, and their evolutionary origins remain unclear. In the case of plant-parasitic nematodes, it has been suggested that their ancestor obtained a cellulase gene via horizontal gene transfer from a prokaryote, and similar suggestions have been made about a cellulase gene recently discovered in a sea squirt. To improve understanding about the evolution of animal cellulases, we searched for all known types of these enzymes in GenBank, and performed phylogenetic comparisons. Low phylogenetic resolution was found among most of the sequences examined, however, positional identity in the introns of cellulase genes from a termite, a sea squirt and an abalone provided compelling evidence that a similar gene was present in the last common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes. In a different enzyme family, cellulases from beetles and plant-parasitic nematodes were found to cluster together. This result questions the idea of lateral gene transfer into the ancestors of the latter, although statistical tests did not allow this possibility to be ruled out. Overall, our results suggest that at least one family of endogenous cellulases may be more widespread in animals than previously thought. PMID:12952640

  16. Identification of physicochemical selective pressure on protein encoding nucleotide sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wendy SW; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Background Statistical methods for identifying positively selected sites in protein coding regions are one of the most commonly used tools in evolutionary bioinformatics. However, they have been limited by not taking the physiochemical properties of amino acids into account. Results We develop a new codon-based likelihood model for detecting site-specific selection pressures acting on specific physicochemical properties. Nonsynonymous substitutions are divided into substitutions that differ with respect to the physicochemical properties of interest, and those that do not. The substitution rates of these two types of changes, relative to the synonymous substitution rate, are then described by two parameters, γ and ω respectively. The new model allows us to perform likelihood ratio tests for positive selection acting on specific physicochemical properties of interest. The new method is first used to analyze simulated data and is shown to have good power and accuracy in detecting physicochemical selective pressure. We then re-analyze data from the class-I alleles of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and from the abalone sperm lysine. Conclusion Our new method allows a more flexible framework to identify selection pressure on particular physicochemical properties. PMID:16542458

  17. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christine K.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, James A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery.

  18. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems.

  19. Development of chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) for the intraspecific study of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from different populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gracilaria tenuistipitata is an agarophyte with substantial economic potential because of its high growth rate and tolerance to a wide range of environment factors. This red seaweed is intensively cultured in China for the production of agar and fodder for abalone. Microsatellite markers were developed from the chloroplast genome of G. tenuistipitata var. liui to differentiate G. tenuistipitata obtained from six different localities: four from Peninsular Malaysia, one from Thailand and one from Vietnam. Eighty G. tenuistipitata specimens were analyzed using eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer-pairs that we developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Findings Five mononucleotide primer-pairs and one trinucleotide primer-pair exhibited monomorphic alleles, whereas the other two primer-pairs separated the G. tenuistipitata specimens into two main clades. G. tenuistipitata from Thailand and Vietnam were grouped into one clade, and the populations from Batu Laut, Middle Banks and Kuah (Malaysia) were grouped into another clade. The combined dataset of these two primer-pairs separated G. tenuistipitata obtained from Kelantan, Malaysia from that obtained from other localities. Conclusions Based on the variations in repeated nucleotides of microsatellite markers, our results suggested that the populations of G. tenuistipitata were distributed into two main geographical regions: (i) populations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and (ii) populations facing the South China Sea. The correct identification of G. tenuistipitata strains with traits of high economic potential will be advantageous for the mass cultivation of seaweeds. PMID:24490797

  20. Anticancer and cancer preventive compounds from edible marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena M M; Kijjoa, Anake

    2017-04-06

    A direct impact of food on health, which demonstrates that dietary habit is one of the most important determinants of chronic diseases such as cancers, has led to an increased interest of the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients or nutraceuticals. Epidemiological studies revealed that the populations of many Asian countries with high consumption of fish and seafood have low prevalence of particular type of cancers such as lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. This observation has led to extensive investigations of the benefits of compounds present in edible marine organisms such as fish, marine invertebrates (mollusks, echinoderms) and marine algae as cancer chemopreventive agents. Interestingly, many of these marine organisms not only constitute as seafood delicacy but also as ingredients used in folk medicine of some East and Southeast Asian countries. The results of the investigations on extracts and compounds from fish (cods, anchovy, eel and also fish protein hydrolysates), mollusks (mussel, oyster, clams and abalone), as well as from sea cucumbers on the in vivo/in vitro anticancer/antitumor activities can, in part, support the health benefits of these edible marine organisms.

  1. The bacterial biota on crustose (nonarticulated) coralline algae from Tasmanian waters.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T E; Garland, C D; McMeekin, T A

    1985-09-01

    The bacterial biota associated with the cuticle surface of healthy benthic samples of crustose nonarticulated coralline algae from the east coast of Tasmania (Australia) was examined by bacteriological cultivation and electron microscopy. In 32 samples studied, the viable count on Zobell's marine agar (supplemented with vitamins) was 3.3×10(6) bacteria g(-1) wet wt. (range 2.9×10(4)-2.7×10(7)). Of 732 strains isolated from 16 out of 32 samples and identified to genus level,Moraxella was the predominant genus (66%). In contrast,Moraxella comprised only 11% of 217 strains isolated from benthic seawater samples collected at the same time as coralline algae. In 22 out of 32 algal samples examined by scanning electron microscopy, the total count was 1.6 × 10(7) bacteria g(-1) wet wt. (range 5.1× 10(6)-3.8×107); the major morphotype was cocco-bacilli (80%). Several environmental factors did not significantly influence the viable count or generic distribution, or the total count or morphotypic distribution of bacteria on the cuticle. These factors included geographical site, season, storage of samples in aquarium conditions, and the presence or absence of abalone from shells that the coralline algae encrusted. The microbiota, consisting mostly of the nonmotile bacterial genusMoraxella, appeared to be highly adapted to its calcerous plant host.

  2. The extent of ocean acidification on aragonite saturation state along the Washington-Oregon continental shelf margin in late summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Hales, B. R.; Juranek, L.; Greeley, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Washington-Oregon continental shelf region is exposed to conditions of low aragonite saturation state during the late spring/early summer upwelling season. However, the extent of its evolution in late summer/early fall has been largely unknown. Along this continental margin, ocean acidification, upwelling, biological productivity, and respiration processes in subsurface waters are major contributors to the variability in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and aragonite saturation state. The persistence of water with aragonite saturation state <1 on the continental shelf off Washington and Oregon has been previously identified and could have profound ecological consequences for benthic and pelagic calcifying organisms such as mussels, oysters, abalone, echinoderms, and pteropods. In the late summer of 2012 we studied the extent of acidification conditions employing shipboard cruises and profiling gliders. We conducted several large-scale chemical and hydrographic surveys of the region in order to better understand the interrelationships between these natural and human-induced processes and their effects on aragonite saturation. We will compare the results of these new surveys with our previous work in 2011 and 2007.

  3. Optimal length scales emerging from shear load transfer in natural materials: application to carbon-based nanocomposite design.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoding; Naraghi, Mohammad; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2012-03-27

    Numerous theoretical and experimental studies on various species of natural composites, such as nacre in abalone shells, collagen fibrils in tendon, and spider silk fibers, have been pursued to provide insight into the synthesis of novel bioinspired high-performance composites. However, a direct link between the mechanical properties of the constituents and the various geometric features and hierarchies remains to be fully established. In this paper, we explore a common denominator leading to the outstanding balance between strength and toughness in natural composite materials. We present an analytical model to link the mechanical properties of constituents, their geometric arrangement, and the chemistries used in their lateral interactions. Key critical overlap length scales between adjacent reinforcement constituents, which directly control strength and toughness of composite materials, emerge from the analysis. When these length scales are computed for three natural materials-nacre, collagen molecules, and spider silk fibers-very good agreement is found as compared with experimental measurements. The model was then used to interpret load transfer capabilities in synthetic carbon-based materials through parametrization of in situ SEM shear experiments on overlapping multiwall carbon nanotubes.

  4. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    PubMed

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control.

  5. Long distance kelp rafting impacts seaweed biogeography in the Northeast Pacific: the kelp conveyor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gary W

    2014-12-01

    Routine DNA barcoding of the Haida Gwaii seaweed flora revealed "endemic species" attributed initially to this region's past as a glacial refugium. However, subsequent barcode records from central California rapidly eroded this list leaving species characterized by disjunct distributions (DD) between California and Haida Gwaii. This observation prompted a more detailed look at species for California and British Columbia and revealed that 33 of 180 DNA-barcoded genetic groups in common between these regions (~18%) predominantly displayed DD between California and northern British Columbia. A previous discovery that a red abalone shell found in Haida Gwaii (far north of its range) had a float-bearing kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) holdfast attached to it prompted a closer consideration of the COI-5P barcode data in support of a "kelp conveyor hypothesis." The hypothesis posits that there has been a net migration of Californian species to northern British Columbia the vector being species growing on substrata carried along with kelp rafts on the winter Davidson Current.

  6. Linking calcification by exotic snails to stream inorganic carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Erin R; Hall, Robert O

    2010-05-01

    Biotic calcification is rarely considered in freshwater C budgets, despite calculations suggesting that calcifying animals can alter inorganic C cycling. Most studies that have quantified biocalcification in aquatic ecosystems have not directly linked CO(2) fluxes from biocalcification with whole-ecosystem rates of inorganic C cycling. The freshwater snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has achieved a high abundance and 37.4 g biomass m(-2) after invading Kelly Warm Springs in Grand Teton National Park. This high biomass suggests that introduced populations of Melanoides may alter ecosystem processes. We measured Melanoides growth rates and biomass to calculate the production of biomass, shell mass, and CO(2). We compared Melanoides biomass and inorganic C production with ecosystem C pools and fluxes, as well as with published rates of CO(2) production by other calcifying organisms. Melanoides calcification in Kelly Warm Springs produced 12.1 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1) during summer months. We measured high rates of gross primary productivity and respiration in Kelly Warm Springs (-378 and 533 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1), respectively); CO(2) produced from biocalcification increased net CO(2) production in Kelly Warm Springs from 155 to 167 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1). This rate of CO(2) production via biocalcification is within the published range of calcification by animals. But these CO(2) fluxes are small when compared to ecosystem C fluxes from stream metabolism. The influence of animals is relative to ecosystem processes, and should always be compared with ecosystem fluxes to quantify the importance of a specific animal in its environment.

  7. Ocean acidification induces changes in algal palatability and herbivore feeding behavior and performance.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Benítez, Samanta; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The effects of global stressors on a species may be mediated by the stressors' impact on coexisting taxa. For instance, herbivore-algae interactions may change due to alterations in algal nutritional quality resulting from high CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA). We approached this issue by assessing the indirect effects of OA on the trophic interactions between the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata and the brown alga Durvillaea antarctica, two prominent species of the South-east Pacific coast. We predicted that amphipod feeding behavior and performance (growth rate) will be affected by changes in the palatability of the algae exposed to high levels (1000 ppm) of CO2. We exposed algae to current and predicted (OA) atmospheric CO2 levels and then measured their nutritive quality and amphipod preference in choice trials. We also assessed consumption rates separately in no-choice trials, and measured amphipod absorption efficiency and growth rates. Protein and organic contents of the algae decreased in acidified conditions and amphipods showed low preference for these algae. However, in the no-choice trials we recorded higher grazing rates on algae exposed to OA. Although amphipod absorption efficiency was lower on these algae, growth rates did not differ between treatments, which suggests the occurrence of compensatory feeding. Our results suggest that changes in algal nutritional value in response to OA induce changes in algal palatability and these in turn affect consumers' food preference and performance. Indirect effects of global stressors like OA can be equally or more important than the direct effects predicted in the literature.

  8. Hoverfly (syrphidae) communities respond to varying structural retention after harvesting in canadian peatland black spruce forests.

    PubMed

    Deans, A M; Smith, S M; Malcolm, J R; Crins, W J; Bellocq, M I

    2007-04-01

    Variable retention harvesting (VRH), in which trees are removed at variable intensity and spatial configuration across the landscape, retains greater forest structural heterogeneity than traditional clear-cut harvesting and is being recommended as an alternative for sustainable management of the boreal forest. Little is known about its effects on forest fauna; thus, we studied the influence of one type of VRH (harvesting with advanced regeneration [HARP]) on the Syrphidae (Diptera) community in northern Ontario forests of peatland black spruce (Picea mariana). We examined the effects of varying structural retention (from unharvested through partial retention to clear-cut) on syrphid species richness and abundance, and abundance of functional assemblages. Greater species richness and population abundances were found generally in harvested than in unharvested forests. Overall species richness and the abundance of four species (Platycheirus rosarum, Toxomerus marginatus, Xylota annulifera, and X. tuberculata) and larval predators were all higher in both clear-cut sites and those with structural retention than in unharvested sites. Similarly, overall species richness and the abundance of nine species were higher in clear-cut than in unharvested sites. Species responses are discussed in an ecological context. Differences among the levels of forest retention harvesting were relatively minor compared with those of the clear-cut and unharvested area, suggesting that local habitat characteristics may play a more important role in determining the syrphid community than the landscape configuration. However, a landscape level effect was evident, suggesting that syrphids may be useful in reflecting changes in stand structure at the landscape scale.

  9. The helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some South African nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G; De Vos, V

    1986-06-01

    The helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the Kruger National Park (KNP); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm Riekerts Laager, Transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the Tsitsikama Forest National Park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park (KGNP) were collected, counted and identified. New parasite records are: Agriostomum equidentatum from the gemsbok, Cooperia neitzi from the bushbuck, Cooperia sp. from the gemsbok and the red hartebeest, Cooperia yoshidai from the waterbuck and the tsessebe, Dictyocaulus viviparus from the bushbuck, Haemonchus bedfordi from the waterbuck, Haemonchus contortus from the gemsbok, Haemonchus krugeri from the steenbok from the KNP, Impalaia nudicollis from the gemsbok and the red hartebeest, Impalaia tuberculata from the oribi and the waterbuck, Impalaia spp. from the kudu, Longistrongylus meyeri from the steenbok from Riekerts Laager and the gemsbok, Longistrongylus sabie from the steenbok from the KNP, Longistrongylus schrenki from the tsessebe, Parabronema sp. from the tsessebe and the red hartebeest, Paracooperia serrata from the gemsbok and the steenbok from the KGNP, Pneumostrongylus calcaratus from the bushbuck, Strongyloides sp. from the gemsbok, Trichostrongylus sp. from the gemsbok, the red hartebeest and the steenbok from the KGNP, Trichostrongylus axei from the blue duiker, Trichostrongylus falculatus from the bushbuck and the oribi, Trichostrongylus instabilis from the bushbuck, the steenbok from the KNP and the oribi and Trichostrongylus thomasi from the grey duikers and tsessebe. Host specificity of the parasites was not marked and crossinfestation was common. This was not true for the giraffe, since none of the helminths of these animals were found in the antelope and vice versa.

  10. Studies on the effect of pollution on Lake Manzala ecosystem in Port-Said, Damietta and Dakahlia Governorates Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Gaber, Hanan S; Abdel-Hamid, Hoda; Abu Taleb, Hoda M A

    2015-04-01

    This work studied how pollution impacts the ecosystem of Lake Manzala by determination of physicochemical parameters, studying biodiversity of aquatic plants and macroinvertebrates, and determining bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu, Cd & Zn in some major organisms, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Melanoides tuberculata snails and Oreochromis niloticus fish. The more near to Mediterranean Sea and to the industrial area, Port-Said and Damietta sites showed higher dissolved oxygen and conductivity than Dakahlia sites. Distribution percentage of Eichhornia crassipes is high among Port-Said and Dakahlia sites of 100 and 88%, respectively, while Lemna giba is the most abundant among Damietta sites of 60%. The maximum macroinvertebrate taxa richness was obtained at Gammalya, Dakahlia of 16 species while the maximum abundance was registered at Annanya, Damietta of 591 organisms. Gastropoda are the most distributed organisms in Lake Manzala followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera then shrimps and scud. All the medically important snails, B. alexandrina, B. truncatus and L. natalensis were recorded in Dakahlia, but only B. alexandrina was in Damietta and Port-Said sites. The collected water samples from Damietta sites showed the highest significant Cu & Cd concentration while Port-Said samples showed the highest Pb concentration and Dakahlia showed the highest Zn concentration. The metals concentrations were higher in snail tissue and in fish liver, kidney and most of muscle samples as compared in surface water. The higher metal bioaccumulation was determined in snails collected from sites showed higher water metals concentrations. Fish muscle showed the least residues than liver and kidney for all the measured metals. Pb and Cd were more accumulated in kidneys, Cu was more accumulated in liver and Zn was accumulated in all examined fish parts in descending order as follows Kidney > liver > muscle.

  11. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish).

  12. Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I.; Panha, Somsak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypica sp. n., Orthomorpha communis sp. n., Orthomorpha isarankurai sp. n., Orthomorpha picturata sp. n., Orthomorpha similanensis sp. n., Orthomorpha suberecta sp. n., Orthomorpha tuberculifera sp. n.,Orthomorpha subtuberculifera sp. n. and Orthomorpha latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as Orthomorpha elevata sp. n.,Orthomorpha spiniformis sp. n. and Orthomorpha subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species Orthomorpha beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841) is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of Orthomorpha spinala (Attems, 1932), syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: Orthomorpha rotundicollis (Attems, 1937) = Orthomorpha tuberculata (Attems, 1937), syn. n., and Orthomorpha butteli Carl, 1922 = Orthomorpha consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: Orthomorpha setosus (Attems, 1937), the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and Orthomorpha exaratus (Attems, 1953), both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha. PMID:22140329

  13. Chemical Cues Released by an Alien Invasive Aquatic Gastropod Drive Its Invasion Success

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Jacqueline L.; Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. Methodology/Principal Findings A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. Conclusion/Significance This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera. PMID:23691151

  14. Biogeography of Wood-Boring Crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) Established in European Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe. PMID:25313796

  15. Systematics and molecular phylogeny of the family oscarellidae (homoscleromorpha) with description of two new oscarella species.

    PubMed

    Gazave, Eve; Lavrov, Dennis V; Cabrol, Jory; Renard, Emmanuelle; Rocher, Caroline; Vacelet, Jean; Adamska, Maja; Borchiellini, Carole; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    The family Oscarellidae is one of the two families in the class Homoscleromorpha (phylum Porifera) and is characterized by the absence of a skeleton and the presence of a specific mitochondrial gene, tatC. This family currently encompasses sponges in two genera: Oscarella with 17 described species and Pseudocorticium with one described species. Although sponges in this group are relatively well-studied, phylogenetic relationships among members of Oscarellidae and the validity of genus Pseudocorticium remain open questions. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Oscarellidae using four markers (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, atp6, tatC), and argue that it should become a mono-generic family, with Pseudocorticium being synonymized with Oscarella, and with the transfer of Pseudocorticium jarrei to Oscarella jarrei. We show that the genus Oscarella can be subdivided into four clades, each of which is supported by either a small number of morphological characters or by molecular synapomorphies. In addition, we describe two new species of Oscarella from Norwegian fjords: O. bergenensis sp. nov. and O. nicolae sp. nov., and we compare their morphology, anatomy, and cytology with other species in this genus. Internal anatomical characters are similar in both species, but details of external morphology and particularly of cytological characters provide diagnostic features. Our study also confirms that O. lobularis and O. tuberculata are two distinct polychromic sibling species. This study highlights the difficulties of species identification in skeleton-less sponges and, more generally, in groups where morphological characters are scarce. Adopting a multi-marker approach is thus highly suitable for these groups.

  16. Stable Isotope Evidence for Dietary Overlap between Alien and Native Gastropods in Coastal Lakes of Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes) dietary overlap (IDO, %) aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp.), detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60%) between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848), Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841) and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774). However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848), under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed. Conclusion/Significance The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods

  17. A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Worthy, Trevor H; Holzapfel, Avi S; Cooper, Alan

    2012-12-01

    Late Quaternary extinctions and population fragmentations have severely disrupted animal-plant interactions globally. Detection of disrupted interactions often relies on anachronistic plant characteristics, such as spines in the absence of large herbivores or large fruit without dispersers. However, obvious anachronisms are relatively uncommon, and it can be difficult to prove a direct link between the anachronism and a particular faunal taxon. Analysis of coprolites (fossil feces) provides a novel way of exposing lost interactions between animals (depositors) and consumed organisms. We analyzed ancient DNA to show that a coprolite from the South Island of New Zealand was deposited by the rare and threatened kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), a large, nocturnal, flightless parrot. When we analyzed the pollen and spore content of the coprolite, we found pollen from the cryptic root-parasite Dactylanthus taylorii. The relatively high abundance (8.9% of total pollen and spores) of this zoophilous pollen type in the coprolite supports the hypothesis of a former direct feeding interaction between kakapo and D. taylorii. The ranges of both species have contracted substantially since human settlement, and their present distributions no longer overlap. Currently, the lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) is the only known native pollinator of D. taylorii, but our finding raises the possibility that birds, and other small fauna, could have once fed on and pollinated the plant. If confirmed, through experimental work and observations, this finding may inform conservation of the plant. For example, it may be possible to translocate D. taylorii to predator-free offshore islands that lack bats but have thriving populations of endemic nectar-feeding birds. The study of coprolites of rare or extinct taxonomic groups provides a unique way forward to expand existing knowledge of lost plant and animal interactions and to identify pollination and dispersal syndromes. This

  18. Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. Methodology/Principal Findings The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18–32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. Conclusion/Significance The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism. PMID:22348069

  19. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used.

  20. Systematics and Molecular Phylogeny of the Family Oscarellidae (Homoscleromorpha) with Description of Two New Oscarella Species

    PubMed Central

    Gazave, Eve; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Cabrol, Jory; Renard, Emmanuelle; Rocher, Caroline; Vacelet, Jean; Adamska, Maja; Borchiellini, Carole; Ereskovsky, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    The family Oscarellidae is one of the two families in the class Homoscleromorpha (phylum Porifera) and is characterized by the absence of a skeleton and the presence of a specific mitochondrial gene, tatC. This family currently encompasses sponges in two genera: Oscarella with 17 described species and Pseudocorticium with one described species. Although sponges in this group are relatively well-studied, phylogenetic relationships among members of Oscarellidae and the validity of genus Pseudocorticium remain open questions. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Oscarellidae using four markers (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, atp6, tatC), and argue that it should become a mono-generic family, with Pseudocorticium being synonymized with Oscarella, and with the transfer of Pseudocorticium jarrei to Oscarella jarrei. We show that the genus Oscarella can be subdivided into four clades, each of which is supported by either a small number of morphological characters or by molecular synapomorphies. In addition, we describe two new species of Oscarella from Norwegian fjords: O. bergenensis sp. nov. and O. nicolae sp. nov., and we compare their morphology, anatomy, and cytology with other species in this genus. Internal anatomical characters are similar in both species, but details of external morphology and particularly of cytological characters provide diagnostic features. Our study also confirms that O. lobularis and O. tuberculata are two distinct polychromic sibling species. This study highlights the difficulties of species identification in skeleton-less sponges and, more generally, in groups where morphological characters are scarce. Adopting a multi-marker approach is thus highly suitable for these groups. PMID:23737959

  1. Heavy metal pollution across sites affecting the intestinal helminth communities of the Egyptian lizard, Chalcides ocellatus (Forskal, 1775).

    PubMed

    Soliman, M F M

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of heavy metal pollution across sites and some biological factors on helminth communities infecting the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. The possibility of heavy metal accumulation by such helminths was also investigated. A total of 202 C. ocellatus were collected from three different sites (industrial, rural, and urban systems) in Ismailia governorate, Egypt, during summer 2009. The lizards were classified according to their sex and size and were examined for the intestinal helminths. Heavy metal levels were detected in the intestinal tissue of the lizards and the recovered helminths. Species richness was 6, 5, and 3 in rural, urban, and industrial systems, respectively. Significant site variations regarding infection prevalence, intensity, and abundance were encountered at different levels. Some noticeable effects of the host size were found. The significant differences found between the metal levels of the intestinal tissues and the recovered helminths and the other relations found in this study may be indications for a possible metals accumulation capacity by helminths. The cestode Oochoristica tuberculata could be a promising biomonitor for Cu and Pb, while the intestinal nematodes were less sensitive to the pollution. Differences in the accumulation capacity may be attributed to the intensity of infection, parasite species, and metal. The observed patterns of distribution and occurrence of helminths and the metals accumulation capacity reflect the need for more studies since this study proposes the model intestinal helminth/C. ocellatus as another promising bioindication system in the terrestrial habitat, especially in areas where the lizard C. ocellatus are available.

  2. Taxonomic revision of the spider genera Agyneta and Tennesseellum (Araneae, Linyphiidae) of North America north of Mexico with a study of the embolic division within Micronetinae sensu Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996.

    PubMed

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The genera Agyneta Hull 1911 and Tennesseellum Petrunkevitch 1925 are revised for North America north of Mexico. The synonymy of Meioneta Hull 1920 with Agyneta Hull 1911 proposed by Saaristo 1973 is corroborated. The North American fauna north of Mexico of Agyneta now includes a total of 69 species, of which 31 are new species: A. watertoni n. sp., A. perspicua n. sp., A. aquila n. sp., A. yukona n. sp., A. darrelli n. sp., A. bucklei n. sp., A. erinacea n. sp., A. crawfordi n. sp., A. vinki n. sp., A. panthera n. sp., A. miniata n. sp., A. danielbelangeri n. sp., A. pistrix n. sp., A. flax n. sp., A. barfoot n. sp., A. sandia n. sp., A. spicula n. sp., A. grandcanyon n. sp., A. chiricahua n. sp., A. crista n. sp., A. tuberculata n. sp., A. catalina n. sp., A. ledfordi n. sp., A. platnicki n. sp., A. bronx n. sp., A. paquini n. sp., A. girardi n. sp., A. flibuscrocus n. sp., A. delphina n. sp., A. okefenokee n. sp. and A. issaqueena n. sp. The genus Tennesseellum includes two spe-cies, with one new species, T. gollum n. sp. Ten new synonyms are recognized: Meioneta grayi Barnes 1953 = Anibontes mimus Chamberlin 1924; Meioneta dactylata Chamberlin & Ivie 1944, Meioneta officiosa (Barrows 1940) = Meioneta micaria (Emerton 1882); Meioneta imitata Chamberlin & Ivie 1944 = Meioneta leucophora Chamberlin & Ivie 1944; Meioneta ferosa (Chamberlin & Ivie 1943) = Meioneta fillmorana (Chamberlin 1919); Meioneta fuscipes Chamberlin & Ivie 1944 = Meioneta floridana (Banks 1896); Meioneta alaskensis Holm 1960 = Meioneta maritima (Emerton 1919); Meioneta meridionalis (Crosby & Bishop 1936), Meioneta zebrina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 = Meioneta parva (Banks 1896); Meioneta zygia (Keyserling 1886) = Meioneta fabra (Keyserling 1886). Ten informal species groups are proposed based on the study on the male palpal conformation of the embolus and radical division; these groups are not intened to be phylogenetic hypotheses. The limits and composition of the subfamily Micronetinae sensu

  3. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Nate B; Gullan, Penny J

    2010-09-24

    We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelisgen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis maculata

  4. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L−1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L−1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L−1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  5. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of jellyfish collagen for use in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2-10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications.

  6. Adding complexity to the complex: new insights into the phylogeny, diversification and origin of parthenogenesis in the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rosa; Almodóvar, Ana; Novo, Marta; Simancas, Bárbara; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2012-08-01

    The importance of the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex lies in the great abundance and wide distribution of the species which exist within it. For more than a century, chaos has surrounded this complex; morphological criteria has failed to solve the taxonomic status of these species. This present body of work aims to study the phylogeny of this complex by increasing the number of samples used in previous molecular works and by including morphologically-similar species that were never studied using molecular tools (A. giardi, Nicodrilus monticola, N. carochensis and N. tetramammalis). Two basal clades were obtained: one formed by A. caliginosa and A. tuberculata and the other by the rest of the species. This second clade was divided into two more: one with Eurosiberian and another with Mediterranean forms. A. caliginosa and A. longa were divided into two paraphyletic groups. Both A. giardi and A. nocturna showed characteristics consistent with monophyletic groups. Each of the two recovered lineages of A. trapezoides were phylogenetically related to different sexual species. While lineage I of A. trapezoides was monophyletic, lineage II resulted to be paraphyletic, as well as the three Nicodrilus 'species'. The diversification of the complex occurred during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene (6.92-11.09 Mya). The parthenogenetic forms within the Mediterranean clade would have diversified before the ones in the Eurosiberian clade (3.13-4.64 Mya and 1.05-3.48 Mya, respectively), thus implying the existence not only of at least two different moments in which parthenogenesis arose within this complex of species, but also of two different and independent evolutionary lines. Neither the 4× rule nor the GMYC method for species delimitation were successful for distinguishing taxonomically-distinct species.

  7. Comparative Developmental Transcriptomics Reveals Rewiring of a Highly Conserved Gene Regulatory Network during a Major Life History Switch in the Sea Urchin Genus Heliocidaris

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Jennifer W.; Martik, Megan L.; Byrne, Maria; Raff, Elizabeth C.; Raff, Rudolf A.; McClay, David R.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecologically significant shift in developmental strategy from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) development in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris is one of the most comprehensively studied life history transitions in any animal. Although the evolution of lecithotrophy involved substantial changes to larval development and morphology, it is not known to what extent changes in gene expression underlie the developmental differences between species, nor do we understand how these changes evolved within the context of the well-defined gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying sea urchin development. To address these questions, we used RNA-seq to measure expression dynamics across development in three species: the lecithotroph Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the closely related planktotroph H. tuberculata, and an outgroup planktotroph Lytechinus variegatus. Using well-established statistical methods, we developed a novel framework for identifying, quantifying, and polarizing evolutionary changes in gene expression profiles across the transcriptome and within the GRN. We found that major changes in gene expression profiles were more numerous during the evolution of lecithotrophy than during the persistence of planktotrophy, and that genes with derived expression profiles in the lecithotroph displayed specific characteristics as a group that are consistent with the dramatically altered developmental program in this species. Compared to the transcriptome, changes in gene expression profiles within the GRN were even more pronounced in the lecithotroph. We found evidence for conservation and likely divergence of particular GRN regulatory interactions in the lecithotroph, as well as significant changes in the expression of genes with known roles in larval skeletogenesis. We further use coexpression analysis to identify genes of unknown function that may contribute to both conserved and derived developmental traits between species. Collectively, our results

  8. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species.

  9. Insect Cell Glycosylation and Its Impact on the Functionality of a Recombinant Intracrystalline Nacre Protein, AP24.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric P; Perovic, Iva; Rao, Ashit; Cölfen, Helmut; Evans, John Spencer

    2016-02-23

    The impacts of glycosylation on biomineralization protein function are largely unknown. This is certainly true for the mollusk shell, where glycosylated intracrystalline proteins such as AP24 (Haliotis rufescens) exist but their functions and the role of glycosylation remain elusive. To assess the effect of glycosylation on protein function, we expressed two recombinant variants of AP24: an unglycosylated bacteria-expressed version (rAP24N) and a glycosylated insect cell-expressed version (rAP24G). Our findings indicate that rAP24G is expressed as a single polypeptide containing variations in glycosylation that create microheterogeneity in rAP24G molecular masses. These post-translational modifications incorporate O- and N-glycans and anionic monosialylated and bisialylated, and monosulfated and bisulfated monosaccharides on the protein molecules. AFM and DLS experiments confirm that both rAP24N and rAP24G aggregate to form protein phases, with rAP24N exhibiting a higher degree of aggregation, compared to rAP24G. With regard to functionality, we observe that both recombinant proteins exhibit similar behavior within in vitro calcium carbonate mineralization assays and potentiometric titrations. However, rAP24G modifies crystal growth directions and is a stronger nucleation inhibitor, whereas rAP24N exhibits higher mineral phase stabilization and nanoparticle containment. We believe that the post-translational addition of anionic groups (via sialylation and sulfation), along with modifications to the protein surface topology, may explain the changes in glycosylated rAP24G aggregation and mineralization behavior, relative to rAP24N.

  10. Synergistic Biomineralization Phenomena Created by a Combinatorial Nacre Protein Model System.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric P; Roncal-Herrero, Teresa; Morgan, Tamara; Dunn, Katherine E; Rao, Ashit; Kunitake, Jennie A M R; Lui, Susan; Bilton, Matthew; Estroff, Lara A; Kröger, Roland; Johnson, Steven; Cölfen, Helmut; Evans, John Spencer

    2016-04-26

    In the nacre or aragonite layer of the mollusk shell, proteomes that regulate both the early stages of nucleation and nano-to-mesoscale assembly of nacre tablets from mineral nanoparticle precursors exist. Several approaches have been developed to understand protein-associated mechanisms of nacre formation, yet we still lack insight into how protein ensembles or proteomes manage nucleation and crystal growth. To provide additional insights, we have created a proportionally defined combinatorial model consisting of two nacre-associated proteins, C-RING AP7 (shell nacre, Haliotis rufescens) and pseudo-EF hand PFMG1 (oyster pearl nacre, Pinctada fucata), whose individual in vitro mineralization functionalities are well-documented and distinct from one another. Using scanning electron microscopy, flow cell scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Ca(II) potentiometric titrations, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring quantitative analyses, we find that both nacre proteins are functionally active within the same mineralization environments and, at 1:1 molar ratios, synergistically create calcium carbonate mesoscale structures with ordered intracrystalline nanoporosities, extensively prolong nucleation times, and introduce an additional nucleation event. Further, these two proteins jointly create nanoscale protein aggregates or phases that under mineralization conditions further assemble into protein-mineral polymer-induced liquid precursor-like phases with enhanced ACC stabilization capabilities, and there is evidence of intermolecular interactions between AP7 and PFMG1 under these conditions. Thus, a combinatorial model system consisting of more than one defined biomineralization protein dramatically changes the outcome of the in vitro biomineralization process.

  11. Gastropod ontogenetic torsion: developmental remnants of an ancient evolutionary change in body plan.

    PubMed

    Page, Louise R

    2003-06-15

    A dramatic morphogenetic movement ('ontogenetic torsion') during the development of gastropods has been proposed as a recapitulation of the original developmental departure that established the novel gastropod body plan. Nevertheless, speculative literature about ontogenetic torsion and its evolutionary significance has far outstripped empirical observations and recent results suggest that the developmental process may be somewhat different than the traditional description. I used scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, phalloidin labeling, and histological sections to monitor displacements of five components of the visceropallium with respect to axial coordinates of the cephalopodium in developing embryos of the caenogastropod, Trichotropis cancellata. Embryos of this species achieve a transient stage of anatomical organization that also arises during development of a vetigastropod (Haliotis kamtschatkana), although morphogenetic processes that generate this stage are different in these two species. At the stage of similarity, the embryonic shell has achieved its definitive orientation with respect to the cephalopodium, but the developing mantle cavity, sensory osphradium, and anus are confined to the right side. I also show that this stage of anatomical organization is recognizable during the development of other gastropods, which collectively represent three major gastropod clades. I propose that ontogenetic torsion should be viewed as a conserved stage of anatomical organization during development, rather than a conserved process of 180 degrees rotation between the visceropallium and cephalopodium. The results lead to the suggestion that the mantle cavity of extant gastropods evolved by enlargement of the right side of the mantle cavity in a monoplacophoran-like ancestor. Under this interpretation, there is no need for a hypothetical pre-gastropod with a mantle cavity that was restricted to the posterior end.

  12. Marine Lectins DlFBL and HddSBL Fused with Soluble Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Facilitate Adenovirus Infection in Cancer Cells BUT Have Different Effects on Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bingbing; Mei, Shengsheng; Cui, Lianzhen; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jianhong; Wu, Tao; Li, Gongchu

    2017-01-01

    Cancer development and progression are usually associated with glycosylation change, providing prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets, for various cancers. In this work, Dicentrarchus labrax fucose binding lectin (DlFBL) and Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (HddSBL) were genetically fused with soluble coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (sCAR), and produced through a bacterial expression system. Results showed that recombinant sCAR-DlFBL not only facilitated adenovirus Ad-EGFP infection in K562/ADR and U87MG cells, but also enhanced the cytotoxicity of adenovirus harboring gene encoding Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) or DlFBL (Ad-PPA or Ad-DlFBL) on U87MG cells through inducing apoptosis. Recombinant sCAR-HddSBL facilitated Ad-EGFP infection, but dramatically counteracted the cytotoxicity of both Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL in U87MG cells. Further analysis revealed that sCAR-HddSBL, but not sCAR-DlFBL, significantly upregulated transcription factor E2F1 levels in U87MG cells, which might be responsible for the adverse effect of sCAR-HddSBL on Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL. Taken together, our data suggested that sCAR-DlFBL could be further developed to redirect therapeutic adenoviruses to infect cancer cells such as U87MG, and the sCAR-lectin fusion proteins for adenoviral retargeting should be carefully examined for possible survival signaling induced by lectins, such as HddSBL. PMID:28335432

  13. Fluviicola hefeinensis sp. nov., isolated from the wastewater of a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Gui-Qin; Lau, Ken W K; Li, Shun-Peng; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2014-03-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-orange-pigmented, motile, short rod-shaped, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative bacterium, strain MYL-8(T), was isolated from wastewater of the Jin Tai Chemical Factory in Hefei, China. Strain MYL-8(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, in the absence of NaCl and at pH 7. Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the sole respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The polar lipid profile was composed predominantly of unidentified polar lipids and aminolipids. Minor amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified phospholipids were also detectable. The DNA G+C content of strain MYL-8(T) was 43.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MYL-8(T) showed the highest similarity to that of Fluviicola taffensis RW 262(T) (97.03 %), followed by Wandonia haliotis Haldis-1-1(T) (92.05 %), Lishizhenia caseinilytica UST040201-001(T) (91.43 %) and Lishizhenia tianjinensis JCM 15141(T) (90.61 %). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain MYL-8(T) and F. taffensis RW 262(T) was 21.35±0.90 %. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genomic and phylogenetic data, strain MYL-8(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Fluviicola, for which the name Fluviicola hefeinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MYL-8(T) ( = KACC 16597(T) = CCTCC AB 2013168(T)).

  14. Biorecovery of gold as nanoparticles and its catalytic activities for p-nitrophenol degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nengwu; Cao, Yanlan; Shi, Chaohong; Wu, Pingxiao; Ma, Haiqin

    2016-04-01

    Recovery of gold from aqueous solution using simple and economical methodologies is highly desirable. In this work, recovery of gold as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by Shewanella haliotis with sodium lactate as electron donor was explored. The results showed that the process was affected by the concentration of biomass, sodium lactate, and initial gold ions as well as pH value. Specifically, the presence of sodium lactate determines the formation of nanoparticles, biomass, and AuCl4 (-) concentration mainly affected the size and dispersity of the products, reaction pH greatly affected the recovery efficiency, and morphology of the products in the recovery process. Under appropriate conditions (5.25 g/L biomass, 40 mM sodium lactate, 0.5 mM AuCl4 (-), and pH of 5), the recovery efficiency was almost 99 %, and the recovered AuNPs were mainly spherical with size range of 10-30 nm (~85 %). Meanwhile, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that carboxyl and amine groups might play an important role in the process. In addition, the catalytic activity of the AuNPs recovered under various conditions was testified by analyzing the reduction rate of p-nitrophenol by borohydride. The biorecovered AuNPs exhibited interesting size and shape-dependent catalytic activity, of which the spherical particle with smaller size showed the highest catalytic reduction activity with rate constant of 0.665 min(-1).

  15. IOOS: Aiding Aquaculture Industries and Their Harvest with Near Real-Time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkering, H.; Shandy Buckley; Jan Newton; Julie Thomas

    2011-12-01

    West Coast aquaculture accounts for over 3000 jobs and brings in over 117 million in revenue to mostly small coastal communities. Larvae recruitment and growth in these systems are very susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and acidic waters (low pH). Since 2005, aquaculturists have observed a significant reduction in shellfish larvae production and recruitment. In 2008 and 2009, the Taylor Shellfish Company (Dabob Bay, WA) observed a loss of 80% in their hatchery production. Likewise in 2008, Whiskey Creek Shellfish Company (Netarts Bay, OR) produced only 25% of their normal crop. These businesses and local scientists suspect low pH to be the culprit in the declines. In 2007, the Monterey Abalone Company suffered a 60K loss in their harvest. After contacting local scientists it was determined that the abalone crop died from a harmful algal bloom event. In response, the three West Coast Regional Associations under the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (NANOOS, CeNCOOS and SCCOOS) are working in collaboration with the Ocean Science Trust, Ocean Protection Council, CA Sea Grant, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project to develop an observing and near real-time data delivery network focused on harmful algal blooms, the Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Alert Program and on ocean acidification, the California Current Acidification Network. The above organizations have participated in a number of workshops with members of the aquaculture community helping to design the network. It is clear that a spatial and temporal disconnect between the data needs of both groups exists. Aquaculture experts require daily and hourly data streams in the near-shore environment with a high degree of reliability in the data but not necessarily a high degree of accuracy. Conversely, scientists collect highly accurate data in the continental shelf and oceanic environment and model predictions on decadal scales. The

  16. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  17. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration.

  18. Gastropod arginine kinases from Cellana grata and Aplysia kurodai. Isolation and cDNA-derived amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Inoue, N; Higashi, T; Mizobuchi, R; Sugimura, N; Yokouchi, K; Furukohri, T

    2000-12-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) was isolated from the radular muscle of the gastropod molluscs Cellana grata (subclass Prosobranchia) and Aplysia kurodai (subclass Opisthobranchia), respectively, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and DEAE-ion exchange chromatography. The denatured relative molecular mass values were estimated to be 40 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isolated enzyme from Aplysia gave a Km value of 0.6 mM for arginine and a Vmax value of 13 micromole Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1) for the forward reaction. These values are comparable to other molluscan AKs. The cDNAs encoding Cellana and Aplysia AKs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the nucleotide sequences of 1,608 and 1,239 bp, respectively, were determined. The open reading frame for Cellana AK is 1044 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein with 347 amino acid residues, and that for A. kurodai is 1077 nucleotides and 354 residues. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequences were validated by chemical sequencing of internal lysyl endopeptidase peptides. The amino acid sequences of Cellana and Aplysia AKs showed the highest percent identity (66-73%) with those of the abalone Nordotis and turbanshell Battilus belonging to the same class Gastropoda. These AK sequences still have a strong homology (63-71%) with that of the chiton Liolophura (class Polyplacophora), which is believed to be one of the most primitive molluscs. On the other hand, these AK sequences are less homologous (55-57%) with that of the clam Pseudocardium (class Bivalvia), suggesting that the biological position of the class Polyplacophora should be reconsidered.

  19. [Identification of pearl powder using microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Chao; Yan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Feng; Li, Jun-Fang; Bai, Hua; Xi, Guang-Cheng; Liao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Pearl is a precious ornament and traditional Chinese medicine, which application history in China is more than 2000 years. It is well known that the chemical ingredients of shell and pearl are very similar, which all of them including calcium carbonate and various amino acids. Generally, shell powders also can be used as medicine; however, its medicinal value is much lower than that of pearl powders. Due to the feature similarity between pearl powders and shell powders, the distinguishment of them by detecting chemical composition and morphology is very difficult. It should be noted that shell powders have been often posing as pearl powders in markets, which seriously infringes the interests of consumers. Identification of pearl powder was investigated by microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and pearl powder as well as shell powder was calcined at different temperatures for different time before infrared reflectance spectroscopy analysis. The experimental results indicated that when calcined at 400 °C for 30 minutes under atmospheric pressure, aragonite in pearl powder partly transformed into calcite, while aragonite in shell powder completely transformed into calcite. At the same time, the difference in phase transition between the pearl powders 'and shell powders can be easily detected by using the microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Therefore, based on the difference in their phase transition process, infrared reflectance spectroscopy can be used to identify phase transformation differences between pearl powder and shell powder. It's more meaningfully that the proposed infrared reflectance spec- troscopy method was also investigated for the applicability to other common counterfeits, such as oyster shell powders and abalone shell powders, and the results show that the method can be a simple, efficiently and accurately method for identification of pearl powder.

  20. Interest variability and finding a reliable response level for aquatic bioassays used in compliance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.; Gully, J.; Markle, P.

    1995-12-31

    The issue of uncontrolled interest variability in implementing chronic bioassay test results in compliance settings has been contentious. Since it is desirable that only reliable test data be used in determining compliance, a quantitative measure of reliability is needed. This study utilized reference toxicant data from the TOXIS data base to examine interest precision characteristics for Fathead minnow, Ceriodaphnia, kelp, abalone, and sea urchin protocols. Dispersion of response level (RL) data at 1.5, 10, 15, 25, 40, and 50% effect was examined by lab for each protocol. The 95% Cl band about the mean dose-response curve typically shows greater dispersion at lower doses and effects, with up to 10% effect being included for zero dose of toxicant. On a relative basis (CV), each protocol exhibited high variability at low RL, followed by a flattening of the CV-RL relationship at some characteristic RL. From this point, CV becomes approximately constant, and this point is termed the Reliable Response Level, RLL. For most tests, RRL occurred between 15--40% effect, with 30--40% CV values. Interlab comparisons demonstrated obvious differences in lab performance with any given protocol, suggesting a basis for lab performance goals. Study results indicate that each protocol has an RRL above which the reliability of test data is constant and may be predicted; variability increases markedly below the RRL represents the point where determinate and indeterminate errors are small or controlled, such that test performance is predictable. The RRL/point estimation models allow setting of lab performance criteria, comparison of multiple sample test results, comparisons of lab performance, and setting of toxicity objectives based on test reliability criteria.

  1. Biogeochemical studies of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in research dealing with the biogeochemical behavior of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Studies were planned to elaborate the biokinetic behavior of Tc as TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in selected marine and estuarine organisms and to determine the affinity of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ for different marine sediments under oxygenated conditions. It is concluded that concentration factors for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in bivalve molluscs (oysters and mussels) do not exceed 2 when calculated for whole animals and when uptake is directly from water. Direct uptake from water by limpets (archeogastropod) are very much lower than have been reported for red abalone (archeogastropod). Whole body concentration factors for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, where uptake is directly from labeled seawater, do not exceed 10 at equilibrium. Both the lobster, Homarus gammaris and the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor appear to concentrate Tc efficiently from water labelled intially with TcO/sub 4//sup -/. Both plaice and rays (Raja clavata) fed /sup 95m/Tc labeled Nereis show an initial rapid loss of the isotope for approximately five days. Thereafter, loss is much reduced. Shrimp (Palaemon elegans), Cragnon sp.) and Crab (Cancer pagurus) show concentration factors similar to plaice (C.F. is less than 10). Isopods, however, have concentration factors of only 3 following four weeks exposure to labeled seawater. Uptake of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ by phytoplankton is extremely low, which precludes experiments in which TcO/sub 4//sup -/ labeled phytoplankton can be fed to either bivalve molluscs or microzooplankton. Sediment distribution coefficients for TcO/sub 4//sup -/ are essentially zero and are independent of sediment type in well oxygenated seawater. Experiments to date have shown that it is not possible to make generalizations concerning the bioavailability of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ to marine organisms.

  2. Inertial drives for micro- and nanorobots: two novel mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zesch, Wolfgang; Buechi, Roland; Codourey, Alain; Siegwart, Roland Y.

    1995-12-01

    In micro or nanorobotics, high precision movement in two or more degrees of freedom is one of the main problems. Firstly, the positional precision has to be increased (< 10 nm) as the object sizes decrease. On the other hand, the workspace has to have macroscopic dimensions (1 cm3) to give high maneuverability to the system and to allow suitable handling at the micro/macro-world interface. As basic driving mechanisms for the ETHZ Nanorobot Project, two new piezoelectric devices have been developed. `Abalone' is a 3-dof system that relies on the impact drive principle. The 38 mm X 33 mm X 9 mm slider can be moved to each position and orientation in a horizontal plane within a theoretically infinite workspace. In the stepping mode it achieves a speed of 1 mm/s in translation and 7 deg/s in rotation. Within the actuator's local range of 6 micrometers fine positioning is possible with a resolution better than 10 nm. `NanoCrab' is a bearingless rotational micromotor relying on the stick-slip effect. This 10 mm X 7 mm X 7 mm motor has the advantage of a relatively high torque at low rotational speed and an excellent runout. While the maximum velocity is 60 rpm, it reaches its highest torque of 0.3 mNm at 2 rpm. Another benefit is the powerless holding torque of 0.9 mNm. With a typical step of 0.1 mrad and a local resolution 3 orders of magnitude better than the step angle, NanoCrab can be very precisely adjusted. Design and measurements of the characteristics of these two mechanisms will be presented and compared with the theoretical analysis of inertial drives presented in a companion paper. Finally their integration into the Nanorobot system will be discussed.

  3. Phylogeny of whey acidic protein (WAP) four-disulfide core proteins and their role in lower vertebrates and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J

    2011-10-01

    Proteins containing WAP (whey acidic protein) domains with a characteristic WFDC (WAP four-disulfide core) occur not only in mammals (including marsupials and monotremes) but also in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. In addition, they are present in numerous invertebrates, from cnidarians to urochordates. Many of those from non-mammalian groups are poorly understood with respect to function or phylogeny. Those well characterized so far are waprins from snakes, perlwapins from bivalves and crustins from decapod crustaceans. Waprins are venom proteins with a single WAP domain at the C-terminus. They display antimicrobial, rather than proteinase inhibitory, activities. Perlwapins, in contrast, possess three WAP domains at the C-terminus and are expressed in the shell nacre of abalones. They participate in shell formation by inhibiting the growth of calcium crystals in the shell. The crustin group is the largest of all WFDC-containing proteins in invertebrates with the vast majority being highly expressed in the haemocytes. Most have a single WAP domain at the C-terminus. The presence and type of the domains between the signal sequence and the C-terminus WAP domain separate the different crustin types. Most of the Type I and II crustins are antimicrobial towards Gram-positive bacteria, whereas the Type III crustins tend to display protease inhibition. Expression studies show that at least some crustins have other important biological effects, as levels change with physiological stress, wound repair, tissue regeneration or ecdysis. Thus WAP domains are widely distributed and highly conserved, serving in diverse physiological processes (proteinase inhibition, bacterial killing or inhibition of calcium transport).

  4. Structure and mechanical properties of Saxidomus purpuratus biological shells.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Zhang, G P; Zhu, X F; Li, X W; Meyers, M A

    2011-10-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of Saxidomus purpuratus shells were investigated and correlated with the structure. The shells show a crossed lamellar structure in the inner and middle layers and a fibrous/blocky and porous structure composed of nanoscaled particulates (~100 nm diameter) in the outer layer. It was found that the flexure strength and fracture mode are a function of lamellar organization and orientation. The crossed lamellar structure of this shell is composed of domains of parallel lamellae with approximate thickness of 200-600 nm. These domains have approximate lateral dimensions of 10-70 μm with a minimum of two orientations of lamellae in the inner and middle layers. Neighboring domains are oriented at specific angles and thus the structure forms a crossed lamellar pattern. The microhardness across the thickness was lower in the outer layer because of the porosity and the absence of lamellae. The tensile (from flexure tests) and compressive strengths were analyzed by means of Weibull statistics. The mean tensile (flexure) strength at probability of 50%, 80-105 MPa, is on the same order as the compressive strength (~50-150 MPa) and the Weibull moduli vary from 3.0 to 7.6. These values are significantly lower than abalone nacre, in spite of having the same aragonite structure. The lower strength can be attributed to a smaller fraction of the organic interlayer. The fracture path in the specimens is dominated by the orientation of the domains and proceeds preferentially along lamella boundaries. It also correlates with the color changes in the cross section of the shell. The cracks tend to undergo a considerable change in orientation when the color changes abruptly. The distributions of strengths, cracking paths, and fracture surfaces indicate that the mechanical properties of the shell are anisotropic with a hierarchical nature.

  5. Biodiversity of Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Fabiano L.; Iida, Tetsuya; Swings, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Vibrios are ubiquitous and abundant in the aquatic environment. A high abundance of vibrios is also detected in tissues and/or organs of various marine algae and animals, e.g., abalones, bivalves, corals, fish, shrimp, sponges, squid, and zooplankton. Vibrios harbour a wealth of diverse genomes as revealed by different genomic techniques including amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing, repetetive extragenic palindrome PCR, ribotyping, and whole-genome sequencing. The 74 species of this group are distributed among four different families, i.e., Enterovibrionaceae, Photobacteriaceae, Salinivibrionaceae, and Vibrionaceae. Two new genera, i.e., Enterovibrio norvegicus and Grimontia hollisae, and 20 novel species, i.e., Enterovibrio coralii, Photobacterium eurosenbergii, V. brasiliensis, V. chagasii, V. coralliillyticus, V. crassostreae, V. fortis, V. gallicus, V. hepatarius, V. hispanicus, V. kanaloaei, V. neonatus, V. neptunius, V. pomeroyi, V. pacinii, V. rotiferianus, V. superstes, V. tasmaniensis, V. ezurae, and V. xuii, have been described in the last few years. Comparative genome analyses have already revealed a variety of genomic events, including mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, loss of genes by decay or deletion, and gene acquisitions through duplication or horizontal transfer (e.g., in the acquisition of bacteriophages, pathogenicity islands, and super-integrons), that are probably important driving forces in the evolution and speciation of vibrios. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics through the application of, e.g., microarrays will facilitate the investigation of the gene repertoire at the species level. Based on such new genomic information, the taxonomy and the species concept for vibrios will be reviewed in the next years. PMID:15353563

  6. The weak interfaces within tough natural composites: experiments on three types of nacre.

    PubMed

    Khayer Dastjerdi, Ahmad; Rabiei, Reza; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-03-01

    Mineralization is a typical strategy used in natural materials to achieve high stiffness and hardness for structural functions such as skeletal support, protection or predation. High mineral content generally leads to brittleness, yet natural materials such as bone, mollusk shells or glass sponge achieve relatively high toughness considering the weakness of their constituents through intricate microstructures. In particular, nanometers thick organic interfaces organized in micro-architectures play a key role in providing toughness by various processes including crack deflection, crack bridging or energy dissipation. While these interfaces are critical in these materials, their composition, structure and mechanics is often poorly understood. In this work we focus on nacre, one of the most impressive hard biological materials in terms of toughness. We performed interfacial fracture tests on chevron notched nacre samples from three different species: red abalone, top shell and pearl oyster. We found that the intrinsic toughness of the interfaces is indeed found to be extremely low, in the order of the toughness of the mineral inclusions themselves. Such low toughness is required for the cracks to follow the interfaces, and to deflect and circumvent the mineral tablets. This result highlights the efficacy of toughening mechanisms in natural materials, turning low-toughness inclusions and interfaces into high-performance composites. We found that top shell nacre displayed the highest interfacial toughness, because of higher surface roughness and a more resilient organic material, and also through extrinsic toughening mechanisms including crack deflection, crack bridging and process zone. In the context of biomimetics, the main implication of this finding is that the interface in nacre-like composite does not need to be tough; the extensibility or ductility of the interfaces may be more important than their strength and toughness to produce toughness at the macroscale.

  7. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex—a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5–100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5–500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7–105.3 %, imprecision 1.4–6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5–92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3–47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  8. Quick characterization of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides in 5 shellfishes by oligosaccharide analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Jiaojiao; Ai, Chunqing; Zhang, Bao; Guo, Li; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-11-29

    Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including well-known glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and some non-GAGs exist widely in animal kingdom. Although numerous methods have been established to analyze GAGs, few methods are available for non-GAG UACPs. In the present study, a protocol to identify all kinds of UACPs with repeating disaccharide units of hexosamine and uronic acid was demonstrated, and UACP components in five shellfishes, namely Turritella fortilirata Sowerby (GTF), Batillaria zonalis (GBZ), Nassarius variciferus (GNV), Monodonta labio Linnaeus (GML), and Argopecten irradians Lamarck (BAI) were primarily revealed. After a simple isolation procedure, crude polysaccharides were depolymerized by controlled acid hydrolysis, and then the resulting oligosaccharides were detected by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometer after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labeling. According to chromatograms using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was found in GNV and GML, a non-GAG named abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) with a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA-(1 → 2)-α-Man-(1→ repeating units in GBZ, and both of AGSP and CS in BAI and GTF. Further characterization of tetrasaccharides and sulfated/acetylated disaccharides by HPLC combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer confirmed the structural identification of CS and AGSP, and indicated CS in GTF and BAI was Type C. These results suggest the 5 mollusks as potential resources for CS and AGSP. And the analysis protocol presented in this study was powerful and effective for quick characterization of UACPs including GAGs as well as non-GAGs in complicated matrix.

  9. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  10. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  11. A rapidly evolving secretome builds and patterns a sea shell

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Daniel J; McDougall, Carmel; Green, Kathryn; Simpson, Fiona; Wörheide, Gert; Degnan, Bernard M

    2006-01-01

    Background Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the extracellular production of the shell, directing the ordered biomineralization of CaCO3 and the deposition of architectural and color patterns. The evolutionary origins of the ability to synthesize calcified structures across various metazoan taxa remain obscure, with only a small number of protein families identified from molluskan shells. The recent sequencing of a wide range of metazoan genomes coupled with the analysis of gene expression in non-model animals has allowed us to investigate the evolution and process of biomineralization in gastropod mollusks. Results Here we show that over 25% of the genes expressed in the mantle of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina encode secreted proteins, indicating that hundreds of proteins are likely to be contributing to shell fabrication and patterning. Almost 85% of the secretome encodes novel proteins; remarkably, only 19% of these have identifiable homologues in the full genome of the patellogastropod Lottia scutum. The spatial expression profiles of mantle genes that belong to the secretome is restricted to discrete mantle zones, with each zone responsible for the fabrication of one of the structural layers of the shell. Patterned expression of a subset of genes along the length of the mantle is indicative of roles in shell ornamentation. For example, Has-sometsuke maps precisely to pigmentation patterns in the shell, providing the first case of a gene product to be involved in molluskan shell pigmentation. We also describe the expression of two novel genes involved in nacre (mother of pearl) deposition. Conclusion The unexpected complexity and evolvability of this secretome and the modular design of the molluskan mantle enables diversification of shell strength and

  12. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Charles L; Robinson, Tamara B; Lange, Louise; Mead, Angela

    2010-08-02

    Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of just over 1 million km(2). Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System) data center (which stores data from a wider African region). A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy) and demersal (hake) sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well-conserved coastline

  13. ROS-Dependent Mitochondria Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Antitumor Activity of Pleurotus abalonus Acidic Polysaccharides in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolong; Zhao, Yan; Jiao, Yadong; Shi, Tengrui; Yang, Xingbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A greater reduction in cancer risk associated with mushroom diet rich in fungus polysaccharides is generally accepted. Meanwhile, edible Pleurotus abalonus as a member of Abalone mushroom family is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly prevents cancer occurrence. However, these anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing tumor-inhibitory responses to the promising polysaccharides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties have not yet been elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings We here fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation from the fruiting bodies of P. abalonus into three fractions, namely PAP-1, PAP-2 and PAP-3, and tested these fractions for antiproliferative activity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The largest PAP-3, an acidic polysaccharide fraction with a molecular mass of 3.68×105 Da, was the most active in inhibiting MCF-7 cancer cells with an IC50 of 193 µg/mL. The changes in cell normal morphology were observed by DAPI staining and the PAP-3-induced apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The apoptosis was involved in mitochondria-mediated pathway including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-9/3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, as well as intracellular ROS production. PAP-3 also induced up-regulation of p53, and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The incubation of MCF-7 cells with antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis caused by PAP-3, indicating that intracellular ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the polysaccharides, especially acidic PAP-3, are very important nutritional ingredients responsible for, at least in part, the anticancer health benefits of P. abalonus via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. It is a

  14. Sperm cryopreservation in fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Tiersch, Terrence R; Yang, Huiping; Jenkins, Jill A; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    Initial success in sperm cryopreservation came at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50-plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while despite work in some 200 species with well over 200 published reports, cryopreservation of aquatic species sperm remains essentially a research activity with little commercial application. Most research has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmonids, carps, and catfishes, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a handful of studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes, such as zebrafish, and in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varying levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, the lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models, or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally

  15. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea. Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf). The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens. The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)). Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings

  16. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae)

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsidea keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea serrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsidea truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsidea tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeus mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsidea diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species. PMID:25878535

  17. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  18. Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

    2010-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering