Science.gov

Sample records for abalone visceral extract

  1. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB). Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight) and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining). Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein) from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells. PMID:20961430

  2. Soluble proteins of the nacre of the giant oyster Pinctada maxima and of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: extraction and partial analysis of nacre proteins.

    PubMed

    Bédouet, L; Schuller, M J; Marin, F; Milet, C; Lopez, E; Giraud, M

    2001-03-01

    Several proteins from nacre of the oyster Pinctada maxima and the abalone Haliotis tuberculata were extracted and partly characterized. Proteins dispersed in aragonite were solubilized during demineralization with acetic acid whereas proteins adsorbed on conchiolin were extracted with sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethanol. The matrix of Pinctada maxima nacre is composed of one main protein with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa (p20). This protein was found in the acetic acid soluble fraction of nacre, as well as in the Laemmli-solubilized extract of conchiolin. In addition, the p20 solubilized with acetic acid can form oligomers made of 6 monomers linked together by disulfide bridges. The first N-terminal 21 amino acids of p20 were determined and no homology with known proteins was found. In Haliotis tuberculata nacre, 5 main proteins were solubilized during demineralization and 3 glycoproteins were detected. Stains-all and Alcian blue staining revealed polyanionic proteins in the extracts isolated from Pinctada maxima and Haliotis tuberculata nacre. PMID:11250534

  3. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  4. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    SciTech Connect

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Kimura, Kan ); Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru )

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone (Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  5. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of a GnRH-like peptide in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia of the gastropod Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. Cerebral ganglion extracts showed a similar retention time to lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (which reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of vertebrate GnRH) were detected in the peripheral region of the cerebral ganglion, and they were observed to send fibers into the neuropil. GnRH-like-ir fibers were also detected in the neuropil of the pedal ganglion, the visceral nerve, and the nerve originating from the pedal ganglion. Chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II)-like-ir fibers (which reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II) were also observed in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion. GnRH-like-ir fibers and cGnRH-II-like-ir fibers were distinguishable in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion by double-staining immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides exist in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone. PMID:20695781

  6. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  7. Neurobehavioural effects of professional abalone diving.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, A M; Clarke, B; Edmonds, C

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 33 commercial abalone divers from the Port Lincoln area of South Australia nervous system function was examined using a battery of neurobehavioural tests. Their performance was compared with that of non-diver controls matched for age, sex, education level, job type, language abilities, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. Abalone divers showed significantly poorer vision, learning, and short term memory performance and increased tremor relative to their controls. The reaction time of abalone divers, however, was as fast as or significantly faster than that of controls but their error rates were much higher, indicating that abalone divers were sacrificing speed for accuracy. Despite their apparent risk taking approach to these tests, the performance of abalone divers suggests some impairment of nervous system function. PMID:3620368

  8. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  9. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2014-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  10. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2013-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture. PMID:24367359

  11. Chemical induction of feeding in California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus (randall): responses to molecular weight fractions of abalone

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Michel, W.C.; Tyre, J.E.; Case, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Molecular weight fractions of abalone muscle were tested for the ability to induce appetitive feeding and locomotor behavior in the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus. Fractions of <1000, 1000-10,000 and >10,000 daltons were isolated by ultrafiltrations and gel chromatography from a seawater extract of abalone muscle. The two lower-molecular-weight fractions (<1000, 1000-10,000) were the least stimulatory of the three fractions tested, and both were ineffective as feeding stimulants. Solutions combining any two of the three isolated fractions produced behavioral activity equal to that caused by whole extract; thus, no single fraction was essential to the stimulatory capacity of abalone. The >1000-dalton fraction was also highly stimulatory, meaning that large and not small molecules were essential in initiating feeding. Finally, a 75% ethanol-insoluble component of the <10,000 fraction was effective, while the ethanol-soluble portion was not. Since the insoluble material consisted predominantly of peptides and polypeptides, it is probable that these molecules act as principal stimulants in abalone muscle. 37 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  12. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  13. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2016-03-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value. PMID:26880843

  14. Black soybean extract reduces fatty acid contents in subcutaneous, but not in visceral adipose triglyceride in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Kusunoki, Masataka; Seino, Narumi; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2015-01-01

    It is known that black soybean (BS) extract, rich in polyphenols, has beneficial effects against obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. However, detailed effects of BS on lipid metabolism have not been documented well. In the present study, we compared fatty acid composition in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of high-fat fed (HFF) rats and BS administered HFF rats. Black soybean administration for 6 weeks influenced neither body nor adipose tissue weights, blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, or insulin sensitivity. However, BS reduced several saturated (C14:0 and C16:0), monounsaturated (C14:1n-5 and C18:1n-9) and n-6 polyunsaturated (C18:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6) fatty acid contents in subcutaneous fat without any change in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. No such effect was observed in fatty acid composition in visceral fat. Long-chain fatty acids are involved in regulation of inflammation. Therefore, those reduced fatty acids may be linked to the effects on suppressing inflammation. PMID:25830948

  15. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women. PMID:24319483

  16. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-01

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. PMID:27371902

  17. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  18. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low. PMID:25364931

  19. Identification of the agent causing visceral leishmaniasis in Uzbeki and Tajiki foci by analysing parasite DNA extracted from patients' Giemsa-stained tissue preparations.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Z; Kovalenko, D A; Kuhls, K; Nasyrova, R M; Ponomareva, V I; Fatullaeva, A A; Razakov, S A; Schnur, L F; Schönian, G

    2009-08-01

    Our present study is the first attempt to characterize Leishmania parasites from foci in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). PCR-sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 and multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) were applied to DNA extracted from preparations of Giemsa-stained bone marrow aspirates from 13 cases of VL. L. infantum was shown to cause VL currently occurring in this area. MLMT applying 14 microsatellite markers, previously shown to be polymorphic for strains of the L. donovani complex, revealed that microsatellite profiles of parasites causing human VL in the Namangan and Jizzakh regions in Uzbekistan, and Penjikent region in Tajikistan, basically coincide with those of strains of L. infantum MON-1. Furthermore, these parasites were assigned to a distinct cluster genetically clearly separated from the populations of L. infantum MON-1 from Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The existence of a genetically homogeneous but distinct group of L. infantum MON-1 indicates that the parasites circulating in the Uzbeki and Tajiki foci studied have been restricted there for a long time rather than having been recently introduced from elsewhere by human or animal reservoir migration. PMID:19549349

  20. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  1. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  2. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health. PMID:18666482

  3. Leishmania donovani: assessment of leishmanicidal effects of herbal extracts obtained from plants in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shubhankar K; Bimal, Sanjiva; Narayan, Shyam; Jee, Chandrawati; Bimal, Devla; Das, P; Bimal, Raageeva

    2011-02-01

    One obstacle faced in the effective control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the limited number of available treatment options. Furthermore, control efforts have been hindered further by the emergence of Leishmania resistance to many of the available drugs. In this study, we investigated the anti-leishmanial properties of 30 medicinally important plants from the VL endemic area of Bihar, India and compared them to two available anti-leishmanial drugs (sodium antimony gluconate and amphotericin B) and two plant lectins (phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A) on Leishmania donovani promastigotes in vitro at 24 and 48 h after initiation of culture. We identified eight plant extracts in addition to phytohemagglutinin and amphotericin B that significantly inhibited the growth of promastigotes (p < 0.03). We further studied the minimum effective concentrations as well as the effect on axenic amastigotes viability and the cell cytotoxicity on human peripheral blood of four (Agave americana, Azadirachta indica, Eclipta alba and Piper longum) of the eight plant extracts that induced significant promastigotes killing (p = 0.00098). Effect-based dose finding analysis revealed that the threshold concentration of A. americana required to eliminate L. donovani after 24h was 0.05 mg/ml. A. indica and P. longum plant extracts eliminated L. donovani promastigotes after 48 h at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5mg/ml, respectively. E. alba eliminated the promastigotes at a concentration of 0.5mg/ml within 24h. The axenic amastigote killing response was 1.90-, 2.52- and 1.3-fold higher than the promastigote killing response with A. indica, A. americana and E. alba plant extracts, respectively. A. americana and A. indica, respectively, led to approximate 2.5- and 1.3-fold declines in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity compared with control. E. alba stimulation resulted in an up-regulation of dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.00329). The CSA from P. longum was found to be least cytotoxic

  4. Protective effect of Croton caudatus Geisel leaf extract against experimental visceral leishmaniasis induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dey, Somaditya; Mukherjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Sondipon; Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Ghosh, Joydip; Swapana, Ningombam; Maiti, Swatilekha; Ghorai, Narayan; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Pal, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    In the present state of overwhelming emergence of drug-unresponsive phenotypes of Leishmania donovani and persistent severe toxicity in conventional anti-leishmanial therapy, in search for novel leads, the aim of this study has been fixed to identify the active extract(s) of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook effective against the parasitic protozoans in vitro and in vivo. C. caudatus Geisel. is often used by Chakma and Hmar community, the local tribes of north-east India for medicinal and veterinary purposes. Among the five semi-purified extracts tested, C. caudatus leaves, extracted in hexane and subsequently semi-purified in a column packed with silica gel (70-130 µM; mesh size 60 A°) using ethyl acetate-hexane solvent (9:1), was found to be the most effective growth inhibitor (JDHex) against the Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes. JDHex significantly altered the biochemical parameters (protein, lipid and carbohydrates) in promastigotes followed by the morphological changes, DNA condensation and subsequent apoptosis in L. donovani. In consequent steps, it has been also proved that JDHex reduced the replication of intracellular amastigotes with concomitant release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. Significantly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of JDHex was estimated much lower against the intracellular amastigotes (2.5 µg/mL) in comparison to promastigotes (10 µg/mL). JDHex was also found efficient in reducing parasite burden in spleen and liver when treated in vivo and increased the intracellular IFN-γ and decreased the IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in splenocytes of orally treated animals. The results of this study support the importance in exploration of novel anti-leishmanial leads from C. caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. against the L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) infection. Partial chemical characterization of JDHex revealed the presence of terpenoids. However, the further chemical

  5. Elasticity analyses of size-based red and white abalone matrix models: management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Leaf, Robert T

    2006-02-01

    Prospective elasticity analyses have been used to aid in the management of fished species and the conservation of endangered species. Elasticities were examined for deterministic size-based matrix models of red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, and white abalone, H. sorenseni, to evaluate which size classes influenced population growth (lambda) the most. In the red abalone matrix, growth transitions were determined from a tag recapture study and grouped into nine size classes. In the white abalone matrix, abalone growth was determined from a laboratory study and grouped into five size classes. Survivorship was estimated from tag recapture data for red abalone using a Jolly-Seber model with size as a covariate and used for both red and white abalone. Reproduction estimates for both models used averages of the number of mature eggs produced by female red and white abalone in each size class from four-year reproduction studies. Population growth rate (lambda) was set to 1.0, and the first-year survival (larval survival through to the first size class) was estimated by iteration. Survival elasticities were higher than fecundity elasticities in both the red and white matrix models. The sizes classes with the greatest survival elasticities, and therefore the most influence on population growth in the model, were the sublegal red abalone (150-178 mm) and the largest white abalone size class (140-175 mm). For red abalone, the existing minimum legal size (178 mm) protects the size class the model suggests is critical to population growth. Implementation of education programs for novice divers coupled with renewed enforcement may serve to minimize incidental mortality of the critical size class. For white abalone, conservation efforts directed at restoring adults may have more of an impact on population growth than efforts focusing on juveniles. Our work is an example of how prospective elasticity analyses of size-structured matrix models can be used to quantitatively evaluate

  6. Shell disease: abnormal conchiolin deposit in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Clavier, Jacques; Day, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Shell disease in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata L. is characterized by a conchiolin deposit on the inner surface of the shell. The gross clinical signs appear similar to the Brown Ring Disease (BRD) of clams. BRD has been extensively described in clams and is known to be responsible for severe mortalities and the collapse of the clam aquaculture industry in western France. In the clam, it was found to be caused by the infection of the mantle by Vibrio tapetis. Brown protein deposits have been observed in various abalone species around the world; some of these have been associated with a fungal infection in New Zealand, but the ones described here are similar to bacterial infections observed in clams. Larger animals appeared to be more affected by the disease, and a positive correlation of the number of successive infections found in the shells with the level of infestation of the shell by borers suggests that boring polychaetes and sponges may be vectors of the disease, or that the parasite infestation may increase the susceptibility of the animal to this infection. There is no evidence, however, that this infection causes mortality in abalone. PMID:16610593

  7. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  8. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones. PMID:26593905

  9. Antimicrobial peptide, hdMolluscidin, purified from the gill of the abalone, Haliotis discus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A 4.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Abalone, Haliotis discus, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides revealed that this antimicrobial peptide have high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin and was designated hdMolluscidin. hdMolluscidin is composed of 46 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats like KK or K-R. hdMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 0.8-19.0 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Vibrio parahemolyticus ([MECs]; 1.0-4.0 μg/mL) without hemolytic activity. However, hdMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The secondary structural prediction suggested that hdMolluscidin might not form an ordered or an amphipathic structure. hdMolluscidin did not show membrane permeabilization or leakage ability. The full-length hdMolluscidin cDNA contained 566-bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63-bp, a 3'-UTR of 359-bp, and an open reading frame of 144-bp encoding 47 amino acids (containing Met). cDNA study of hdMolluscidin suggests that it is expressed as a mature peptide. Our results indicate that hdMolluscidin could relate to the innate immune defenses in abalone and it may not act directly on bacterial membrane. PMID:27033467

  10. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Carolyn S.; Wight, Nathan; Crosson, Lisa M.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations. PMID:24672512

  11. Development of a monoclonal antibody detection assay for species-specific identification of abalone.

    PubMed

    Lopata, Andreas L; Luijx, Thomas; Fenemore, Bartha; Sweijd, Neville A; Cook, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Species identification based on biochemical and molecular techniques has a broad range of applications. These include compliance enforcement, the management and conservation of marine organisms, and commercial quality control. Abalone poaching worldwide and illegal trade in abalone products have increased mainly because of the attractive prices obtained and caused a sharp decline in stocks. Alleged poachers have been acquitted because of lack of evidence to correctly identify species. Therefore, a robust method is required that would identify tissue of abalone origin to species level. The aim of this study was to develop immunologic techniques, using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, to identify 10 different abalone species and subspecies from South Africa, the United States, Australia, and Japan. The combination of 3 developed monoclonal antibodies to South African abalone (Haliotis midae) enabled differentiation between most of the 10 species including the subspecies H. diversicolor supertexta and H. diversicolor diversicolor. In a novel approach, using antibodies of patients with allergy to abalone, the differentiation of additional subspecies, H. discus discus and H. discus hannai, was possible. A field-based immunoassay was developed to identify confiscated tissue of abalone origin. PMID:14961238

  12. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  13. Digestive enzymes in juvenile green abalone, Haliotis fulgens, fed natural food.

    PubMed

    García-Carreño, F L; Navarrete del Toro, M A; Serviere-Zaragoza, E

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes responsible for the digestion of food protein by juvenile green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) were studied when fed algae or a sea grass (Phyllospadix torreyi) naturally occurring in the habitat. The effect of food on the composition and activity of the enzymes was also evaluated. Acid, serine proteinases and aminopeptidases, as confirmed by pH profile of activity, specific inhibition and synthetic substrate hydrolysis were found in the digestive organs of juvenile green abalone. Algae and sea grass differentially affected the digestive system in abalone. PMID:12524042

  14. Mass Spectrometry and Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal an Abundant and Rapidly Evolving Abalone Sperm Protein

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Melody R.; McDowall, Margo H.; Stewart, Lia; Ouaddi, Aleena; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Abalone, a broadcast spawning marine mollusk, is an important model for molecular interactions and positive selection in fertilization, but the focus has previously been on only two sperm proteins, lysin and sp18.We used genomic and proteomic techniques to bring new insights to this model by characterizing the testis transcriptome and sperm proteome of the Red abalone Haliotis rufescens. One pair of homologous, testis-specific proteins contains a secretion signal and is small, abundant, and associated with the acrosome. Comparative analysis revealed that homologs are extremely divergent between species, and show strong evidence for positive selection. The acrosomal localization and rapid evolution of these proteins indicates that they play an important role in fertilization, and could be involved in the species-specificity of sperm-egg interactions in abalone. Our genomic and proteomic characterization of abalone fertilization resulted in the identification of interesting, novel peptides that have eluded detection in this important model system for 20 years. PMID:23585193

  15. ASSOCIATION OF PROKARYOTES WITH SYMPTOMATIC APPEARANCE OF WITHERING SYNDROME IN BLACK ABALONE HALIOTIS CRACHERODII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Withering syndrome (WS) is an epizootic fatal wasting disease that is devastating California Channel Island populations of black abalone Haliotis cracherodii. ur studies suggest a strong pathogen-disease association. he pathogen is an intracellular prokaryote that infects epithel...

  16. Dynamics and distribution of black abalone populations at San Nicolas Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    1993-01-01

    Dense populations of black abalones (Haliotis cracherodii Leach) were monitored in permanent intertidal plots at nine sites on San Nicolas Island from 1981 through 1990. Densities were essentially constant at all four sites along the north shore of the island throughout the study period. Densities at five sites along the south shore were more variable, possibly reflecting asynchronous variation in recruitment, mortality resulting from wave disturbance, and removal by people. Temporal variation of abalone densities apparently was not influenced by sea otters or abalone withering syndrome during this study. Abalones were strongly aggregated in space. Highest densities occurred in areas of irregular substrata, apparently as a result of preference for crevices and vertical faces. The locations of dense patches were persistent in time.

  17. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  18. Visceral manifestations of hypochondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Helen; Beighton, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Autopsy of a stillborn neonate with hypochondrogenesis revealed severe cardiac abnormalities and extensive diverticulosis of the proximal region of the small intestine. Visceral ramifications are unusual in hypochondrogenesis; they may reflect heterogeneity of the intramolecular defect in the COL2A1 gene that codes for the achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis spectrum of disorders. PMID:18642028

  19. Identification and characterization of Vibrio harveyi associated with diseased abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qingru; Shi, Liuyang; Ke, Caihuan; You, Weiwei; Zhao, Jing

    2013-03-26

    Mass mortality of farmed small abalone Haliotis diversicolor occurred in Fujian, China, from 2009 to 2011. Among isolates obtained from moribund abalones, the dominant species AP37 exhibited the strongest virulence. After immersion challenge with 106 CFU ml-1 of AP37, abalone mortalities of 0, 53 and 67% were induced at water temperatures of 20°C, 24°C, and 28°C, respectively. Following intramuscular injection, AP37 showed a low LD50 (median lethal concentration) value of 2.9 × 102 CFU g-1 (colony forming units per gram abalone wet body weight). The LT50 (median lethal time) values were 5.2 h for 1 × 106 CFU abalone-1, 8.4 h for 1 × 105 CFU abalone-1, and 21.5 h for 1 × 104 CFU abalone-1. For further analysis of virulence, AP37 was screened for the production of extracellular factors. The results showed that various factors including presence of flagella and production of extracellular enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase and haemolysin, could be responsible for pathogenesis. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain AP37 showed >98.8% similarity to Vibrio harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens and V. rotiferianus, so it could not be identified by this method. However, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated sequences, including the rpoD, rctB, gyrB, toxR and pyrH genes, identified strain AP37 as V. harveyi. Phenotypic characters of AP37 were identified by API 20E. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, strain AP37 exhibited susceptibility to 7 antibiotics and resistance to 13. This is the first report of a V. harveyi-related species being linked with the mass mortality of adult abalone H. diversicolor in southern China. PMID:23548363

  20. Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm

  1. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  2. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  3. The Pharmacology of Visceral Pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony C; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Visceral pain describes pain emanating from the internal thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal organs. Unlike somatic pain, visceral pain is generally vague, poorly localized, and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. While current therapeutics provides some relief from somatic pain, drugs used for treatment of chronic visceral pain are typically less efficacious and limited by multiple adverse side effects. Thus, the treatment of visceral pain represents a major unmet medical need. Further, more basic research into the physiology and pathophysiology of visceral pain is needed to provide novel targets for future drug development. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. However, persistent stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders. We will focus on stress-induced exacerbation of chronic visceral pain and provide supporting evidence that centrally acting drugs targeting the pain and stress-responsive brain regions may represent a valid target for the development of novel and effective therapeutics. PMID:26920016

  4. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  5. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone. PMID:26313647

  6. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations. PMID:27070027

  7. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. PMID:27287112

  8. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  9. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor. PMID:26438131

  10. Characterization of abalone Haliotis tuberculata-Vibrio harveyi interactions in gill primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Delphine; Cudennec, Benoit; Huchette, Sylvain; Djediat, Chakib; Renault, Tristan; Paillard, Christine; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

    2013-10-01

    The decline of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata populations has been associated with various pathogens including bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Following the summer mortality outbreaks reported in France between 1998 and 2000, Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from moribund abalones, allowing in vivo and in vitro studies on the interactions between abalone H. tuberculata and V. harveyi. This work reports the development of primary cell cultures from abalone gill tissue, a target tissue for bacterial colonisation, and their use for in vitro study of host cell-V. harveyi interactions. Gill cells originated from four-day-old explant primary cultures were successfully sub-cultured in multi-well plates and maintained in vitro for up to 24 days. Cytological parameters, cell morphology and viability were monitored over time using flow cytometry analysis and semi-quantitative assay (XTT). Then, gill cell cultures were used to investigate in vitro the interactions with V. harveyi. The effects of two bacterial strains were evaluated on gill cells: a pathogenic bacterial strain ORM4 which is responsible for abalone mortalities and LMG7890 which is a non-pathogenic strain. Cellular responses of gill cells exposed to increasing concentrations of bacteria were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial activity (XTT assay) and phenoloxidase activity, an enzyme which is strongly involved in immune response. The ability of gill cells to phagocyte GFP-tagged V. harveyi was evaluated by flow cytometry and gill cells-V. harveyi interactions were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During phagocytosis process we evidenced that V. harveyi bacteria induced significant changes in gill cells metabolism and immune response. Together, the results showed that primary cell cultures from abalone gills are suitable for in vitro study of host-pathogen interactions, providing complementary assays to in vivo experiments. PMID:23756730

  11. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed nacre from red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-07-01

    In this work, photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy has been utilized to study interfacial interactions of undisturbed nacre and nacre powder from red abalone shell. The spectra of both undisturbed nacre and nacre powder showed characteristic bands of aragonite and proteins. Although nacre powder and undisturbed nacre are chemically identical, PA-FTIR spectrum of undisturbed nacre is found to be significantly different from that of nacre powder. A broad and strong band is observed at around 1485 cm -1 in nacre powder. The intensity of this band is notably reduced in undisturbed nacre. This result is explained on the basis of interfacial interactions between aragonite platelets and acidic proteins. It is also observed that band at around 1788 cm -1 originates from three overlapping bands 1797, 1787 and 1778 cm -1. The band at around 1787 cm -1 is assigned to C dbnd O stretching of carboxylate groups of acidic proteins. The other two bands at 1797 and 1778 cm -1, originate from aragonite and have been assigned to combination bands, ν 3 + ν 4a and ν 3 + ν 4b, respectively. For the study of stratification in undisturbed nacre, PA-FTIR spectra have been collected in step scan mode. The variation in spectra with depth can be attributed to changes in conformation of proteins as well as interfacial interactions.

  12. Acceleration of calcite kinetics by abalone nacre proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G; Qiu, S R; Orme, C A; Morse, D E; De Yoreo, J J

    2005-06-09

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures have long been an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over synthesis of crystalline materials. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineral surfaces. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that bio-organic additives can dramatically alter crystal shapes and growth-rates in vitro. However, previous molecular-scale studies revealing mechanisms of growth modification focused on small molecules such as amino acids or peptides and always observed growth inhibition. In contrast, studies using full proteins were non-quantitative and underlying sources of growth modification were ill-defined. Here we investigate interactions between proteins isolated from abalone shell nacre and growing surfaces of calcite. We find that these proteins significantly accelerate the molecular-scale kinetics and, though much larger than atomic steps, alter growth morphology through step-specific interactions that lower their free energies. We propose that these proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite surfaces.

  13. Vibrio harveyi adheres to and penetrates tissues of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the first hours of contact.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

  14. Vibrio harveyi Adheres to and Penetrates Tissues of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the First Hours of Contact

    PubMed Central

    Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

  15. Passive immune-protection of small abalone against Vibrio alginolyticus infection by anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated feed.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Jer; Wang, Hang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) is a high value-added shellfish. It however has been suffering Vibrio alginolyticus infections, which cause mass death of small abalone and thus great economic losses, particularly in artificial aquaculture. In this study, we attempted to treat small abalone with anti-Vibrio IgY to elicit a passive immunity directly against V. alginolyticus infections. Anti-Vibrio IgY was alginate encapsulated in egg powders as feed, which may avoid antibody inactivation in the gastrointestinal tract of small abalone. The feed was tested for the stability of anti-Vibrio IgY in a gastrointestinal mimic environment. The result showed anti-Vibrio IgY retained activity as high as 90% after 4 h exposure to pancreatic enzymes. Addition of 0, 5 or 10% anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated egg powders into a basal diet to form abalone diet formulae. Small abalones fed with the anti-Vibrio IgY formulae showed a relatively high respiratory burst activity than those without anti-Vibrio IgY treatments. The survival rates of small abalones fed with 5 or 10% anti-Vibrio IgY egg powders were in the range of 65-70% 14 days post-V. alginolyticus challenge (1 x 10⁶ c.f.u.), which was significantly higher than 0% of those fed without anti-Vibrio IgY. The anti-Vibrio IgY-encapsulated formulae were thus concluded to be an effective means to prevent small abalone from V. alginolyticus infection, and may be practical in use in abalone aquaculture. PMID:21300158

  16. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation. PMID:19185778

  17. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain responses. There are critical sensitive periods that can impact visceral pain responses in adulthood. In this review we provide a brief background of the intestinal microbiome and emerging concepts of the bidirectional interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain. We also discuss recent work in animal models, and human clinical trials using prebiotics and probiotics that alter the microbiome with resultant alterations in visceral pain responses. PMID:25829337

  18. Effect of time duration of ruminal urea infusions on ruminal ammonia concentrations and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea-N in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Røjen, B A; Kristensen, N B

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a 6 versus 24h ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in N on ruminal ammonia concentration, arterial urea-N concentration, net portal-drained viscera (PDV) urea-N flux, arterial urea-N extraction across the PDV, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Three Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were randomly allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were ventral ruminal infusion of water for 24h (water INF), 24-h infusion of 15 g of urea/kg of dry matter intake (DMI; 24-h INF), and 6-h infusion of 15 g of urea/kg of DMI (6-h INF). The 6-h INF was initiated 0.5h after the afternoon feeding, and ran until 2230 h. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, and hepatic blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5h after feeding (i.e., 9 to 15.5h after the 6h infusion was terminated). A substantial decrease in DMI for 6-h INF compared with 24-h INF and water INF was observed, and it has to be recognized that DMI may have confounding effects. However, the experimental setting plan was met (i.e., to cause changes in the daily pattern of ruminal ammonia and blood urea-N concentrations). The arterial urea-N concentration for 24-h INF and 6-h INF were greater than the arterial urea-N concentration with water INF throughout the sampling window. However, the arterial urea-N concentration for 6-h INF decreased steadily with sampling time reflecting a carryover effect from the ruminal urea infusion. The ruminal ammonia concentration and net portal flux of ammonia for 6-h INF were not different from water INF; hence, no carryover effect on ruminal ammonia concentration was observed. The portal flux of urea-N was not affected by treatment (i.e., even the combination of low ruminal ammonia and high arterial urea-N concentration with 6-h INF was

  19. Combination of deep sea water and Sesamum indicum leaf extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity through AMPK activation in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, HAIDAN; CHUNG, SUNGHYUN; MA, QIANQIAN; YE, LI; PIAO, GUANGCHUN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of a combination of deep sea water (DSW) and Sesamum indicum leaf extract (SIE) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and investigate its molecular mechanisms in adipose tissue. ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups: HFD control (HFC), DSW and DSW + 125 mg/kg SIE (DSS) groups. The mice in the HFC group had free access to drinking water while those in the DSW and DSS groups had free access to DSW. The mice in the DSS group were treated with SIE once per day for 8 weeks. The mice in all three groups were allowed to freely access a HFD. Compared with the HFC group, the DSS group showed lower body weight gain and serum levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin. Histological analyses of the epididymal white, retroperitoneal white and scapular brown adipose tissue of mice in the DSS group revealed that the adipocytes were markedly decreased in size compared with those in the HFC group. Moreover, DSS significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in mice epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, DSS upregulated the expression levels of lipolysis-associated mRNA, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and energy expenditure-associated mRNA, namely uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) in the epididymal adipose tissues. By contrast, DSS suppressed the expression of the lipogenesis-related gene sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) at the mRNA level. These results suggest that DSS is effective for suppressing body weight gain and enhancing the lipid profile. PMID:26889265

  20. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). 226.221 Section 226.221 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat...

  1. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. PMID:25157803

  2. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangjing; Yang, Zhihui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2008-08-01

    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines’ autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  3. Abalone withering syndrome: distribution, impacts, current diagnostic methods and new findings.

    PubMed

    Crosson, Lisa M; Wight, Nate; VanBlaricom, Glenn R; Kiryu, Ikunari; Moore, James D; Friedman, Carolyn S

    2014-04-01

    Withering syndrome (WS) is a fatal disease of abalone caused by a Rickettsiales-like organism (WS-RLO). The causative agent, 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis', occurs along the eastern Pacific margin of North America in California, USA, and Baja California, Mexico. However, as infected abalones have been transported to Chile, China, Taiwan, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Thailand and Japan, the geographical range of the etiological agent is suspected to be broad, especially where California red abalones Haliotis rufescens are cultured or in areas where native species have been exposed to this species. Susceptibility varies among species, with up to 99% losses of black abalone H. cracherodii in laboratory and field studies in the USA to no losses among the small abalone H. diversicolor supertexta in Thailand. Some populations that have suffered catastrophic losses due to WS have developed resistance to the disease. In addition, a newly identified phage hyperparasite of the WS-RLO may reduce pathogenicity and dampen associated losses. Diagnosis of WS requires the identification of infection with the pathogen (WS-RLO detected via in situ hybridization or histology coupled with PCR and sequence analysis) accompanied by morphological changes that characterize this disease (e.g. pedal and digestive gland atrophy, and digestive gland metaplasia). A quantitative PCR assay was developed and may be useful in quantifying pathogen DNA. Confirmation of infection cannot be done by PCR analysis alone but can be used as a proxy for infection in areas where the agent is established and is recommended for inclusion in health examinations. Avoidance of WS is best accomplished by the establishment of a health history and multiple health examinations prior to movement of animals. PMID:24695239

  4. Surgical removal of visceral adipose tissue: effects on insulin action.

    PubMed

    Gabriely, Ilan; Barzilai, Nir

    2003-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that excess of visceral fat has deleterious effects on insulin action. Mainly, it has been shown to be associated with a decrease in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, which results in a clinical condition also known as insulin resistance. This report describes a novel experimental method that we employed in order to analyze the particular effects of visceral fat on insulin activity. By extracting visceral fat we were able to distinguish the specific role that it plays in insulin action, and to analyze its effects on the gene expression of a variety of fat-derived peptides, which may be considered to be (at least partially) mediators in the development of the metabolic syndrome and possibly diabetes mellitus. PMID:12762966

  5. Species-specific sequences of abalone lysin, the sperm protein that creates a hole in the egg envelope.

    PubMed Central

    Vacquier, V D; Carner, K R; Stout, C D

    1990-01-01

    Abalone eggs are contained within a rigid, elevated vitelline envelope through which the sperm must pass before reaching the egg cell membrane. Abalone spermatozoa possess an acrosomal protein called lysin that creates a hole in the egg vitelline envelope by a nonenzymatic mechanism. Lysins from two species of abalone, termed pink and red, which share the same habitat, exhibit species specificity in the dissolution of isolated egg envelopes. Cloning and sequencing the cDNAs for pink and red abalone lysins reveal transcript lengths of approximately 660 nucleotides. The open reading frames of 465 (pink) and 462 (red) nucleotides show a 13% difference. The 3' untranslated regions before the poly(A) tails are 170 (pink) and 165 (red) nucleotides long and differ from each other by about 7%. The protein sequences show nearly identical signal sequences of 18 amino acids for both lysins. The mature protein is 137 amino acids in the pink abalone and 136 in the red abalone; the two mature lysins differ in 29 of 137 amino acids (21%). The most variable region, which may account for lysin's species specificity, is at the NH2 terminus, where 11 of the 15 amino acids differ between the two species. Predictions of secondary structure indicate that both lysins contain four homologous amphiphilic alpha-helices. Images PMID:2377618

  6. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be

  7. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be

  8. Visceral Pain: The Neurophysiological Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of visceral pain is still less understood compared with that of somatic pain. This is primarily due to the diverse nature of visceral pain compounded by multiple factors such as sexual dimorphism, psychological stress, genetic trait, and the nature of predisposed disease. Due to multiple contributing factors there is an enormous challenge to develop animal models that ideally mimic the exact disease condition. In spite of that, it is well recognized that visceral hypersensitivity can occur due to (1) sensitization of primary sensory afferents innervating the viscera, (2) hyperexcitability of spinal ascending neurons (central sensitization) receiving synaptic input from the viscera, and (3) dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate spinal nociceptive transmission. Depending on the type of stimulus condition, different neural pathways are involved in chronic pain. In early-life psychological stress such as maternal separation, chronic pain occurs later in life due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and significant increase in corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) secretion. In contrast, in early-life inflammatory conditions such as colitis and cystitis, there is dysregulation of the descending opioidergic system that results excessive pain perception (i.e., visceral hyperalgesia). Functional bowel disorders and chronic pelvic pain represent unexplained pain that is not associated with identifiable organic diseases. Often pain overlaps between two organs and approximately 35% of patients with chronic pelvic pain showed significant improvement when treated for functional bowel disorders. Animal studies have documented that two main components such as (1) dichotomy of primary afferent fibers innervating two pelvic organs and (2) common convergence of two afferent fibers onto a spinal dorsal horn are contributing factors for organ-to-organ pain overlap. With reports emerging about the varieties of peptide molecules

  9. Drug-induced visceral angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Thalanayar, Prashanth M.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim; Lubin, Fritz; Karnik, Reena; Bhasin, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Angioedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is due to the accumulation of bradykinin and its metabolites. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce anti-hypertensive effects by blocking the angiotensin II AT1 receptor action; hence bradykinin-related side effects are not expected. However, we notice the occurrence of ARB-induced angioedema as not a very rare side effect. Visceral drug-induced angioedema has been reported with ACEIs, not with ARBs. This underlying review will help educate readers on the pathophysiology and recent guidelines pertaining to ACEI- and ARB-induced visceral angioedema. PMID:25317271

  10. Transcriptome profiles of wild and cultured South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    PubMed

    Picone, Barbara; Rhode, Clint; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the use of pyrosequencing technologies to generate the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from cultured and wild specimens of the South African abalone. The transcriptome data and database described here provide a significant genomic resource for abalone research. The data set annotated 11,240 genes, which matched genes with known functions in other species. A large number of transmembrane protein domains (4087) that may indicate a high portion of undiscovered gene receptors were identified. Further, we detected an interesting set of transcription factors (516) that are valuable candidates for participating in regulatory events in developmental (such as cell proliferation and differentiation) and reproductive processes. PMID:25622884

  11. Visceral Infarction Following Aortic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Willard C.; Nabseth, Donald C.

    1974-01-01

    An experience with aortic surgery is reported which reveals that visceral ischemia is more frequent than expected and significantly contributes to operative mortality. Two of five deaths among 84 patients who had aorto-iliac occlusive disease and four of 40 deaths among 103 aneurysmectomies (both ruptured and elective) were related to visceral ischemia. A review of the literature reveals 99 cases of colonic ischemia in more than 6,100 cases of aortic surgery, an incidence of 1.5%. Only 10 cases of small bowel ischemia were recorded. The present experience with 9 cases of colon ischemia and one of small bowel ischemia is presented particularly with reference to pathophysiology and prevention. It is concluded that patients should be identified by appropriate angiography if considered a risk for visceral infarction, and, if present, visceral arterial reconstruction should be performed in addition to aortic reconstructive surgery. Colon infarction following aortic aneurysmal surgery is directly related to ligation of a patent IMA. Thus re-implantation of the patent IMA should be considered. ImagesFig. 1a. PMID:4277757

  12. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei-Ping, Tan; Kang-Sen, Mai; Wei, Xu

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  13. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  14. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  15. In vitro culture of mantle tissue of the abalone Haliotis varia Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Suja, C P; Dharmaraj, S

    2005-02-01

    The study is aimed at developing a technology for the production of in vitro pearl through tissue culture of mantle of the abalone, Haliotis varia Linnaeus, as the production of free and spherical pearls in vivo is rather difficult in abalones. In the basic study, the cell yield was intensified from the explant after 24h incubation. Among the cells liberated, the granulocytes were dominant over hyalinocytes. The size of granulocytes ranged from 3 to 16 microm and of hyalinocytes from 13 to 18 microm. Fibroblast-like cells appeared in cultures after day 2. Both granulocytes and hyalinocytes developed pseudopodial-like extensions in all directions and formed organic matrix. Granulocytes contained granules in the cytoplasm. Specific granules were responsible for nucleation of crystals. Some crystals exhibited green colour resembling mother of pearl of abalone. scanning electron microscope (SEM) study revealed the oolitic amorphous state and rhombohedral state of crystals. Its analysis through energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDS) indicated the presence of calcium. The rhombohedral crystals under polarized light showed its high birefringence (0.18) and uniaxial optically negative calcite nature with high content of calcium. A mean survival of cells was found to be 102 days in T 25 flasks and 32 days in petri dishes. Growth of cells was studied. Thirty percent of cultures were found to have contaminated during the study. The study provides basic knowledge in the development of a technology for in vitro pearl production. PMID:15695171

  16. Energy metabolism during larval development of green and white abalone, Haliotis fulgens and H. sorenseni.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Manahan, Donal T

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the biochemical and physiological energetics of lecithotrophic development is useful for interpreting patterns of larval development, dispersal potential, and life-history evolution. This study investigated the metabolic rates and use of biochemical reserves in two species of abalone, Haliotis fulgens (the green abalone) and H. sorenseni (the white abalone). Larvae of H. fulgens utilized triacylglycerol as a primary source of endogenous energy reserves for development ( approximately 50% depletion from egg to metamorphic competence). Amounts of phospholipid remained constant, and protein dropped by about 30%. After embryogenesis, larvae of H. fulgens had oxygen consumption rates of 81.7 +/- 5.9 (SE) pmol larva(-1) h(-1) at 15 degrees C through subsequent development. The loss of biochemical reserves fully met the needs of metabolism, as measured by oxygen consumption. Larvae of H. sorenseni were examined during later larval development and were metabolically and biochemically similar to H. fulgens larvae at a comparable stage. Metabolic rates of both species were very similar to previous data for a congener, H. rufescens, suggesting that larval metabolism and energy utilization may be conserved among closely related species that also share similar developmental morphology and feeding modes. PMID:12807704

  17. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  18. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. PMID:25766281

  19. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  20. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  1. Diagnosis of human visceral pentastomiasis.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Büttner, Dietrich W

    2009-01-01

    Visceral pentastomiasis in humans is caused by the larval stages (nymphs) of the arthropod-related tongue worms Linguatula serrata, Armillifer armillatus, A. moniliformis, A. grandis, and Porocephalus crotali. The majority of cases has been reported from Africa, Malaysia, and the Middle East, where visceral pentastomiasis may be an incidental finding in autopsies, and less often from China and Latin America. In Europe and North America, the disease is only rarely encountered in immigrants and long-term travelers, and the parasitic lesions may be confused with malignancies, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Since clinical symptoms are variable and serological tests are not readily available, the diagnosis often relies on histopathological examinations. This laboratory symposium focuses on the diagnosis of this unusual parasitic disease and presents its risk factors and epidemiology. PMID:19238218

  2. Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Robert J.; Coyne, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone. PMID:24466176

  3. Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gradoni, L.; Bryceson, A.; Desjeux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Up-to-date information is given on the epidemiological situation of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in nine Mediterranean countries, and on drug regimens adopted in the management of ZVL patients in each country. Results of experimental and clinical trials on the efficacy and tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B in laboratory animals and in patients with ZVL are presented, as well as conclusions and recommendations on drug regimens to be used in the treatment of ZVL. PMID:7743590

  4. Characterization of the growth-related transcriptome in California red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) through RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    One of the largest detriments in the abalone aquaculture industry is the inherently low growth rate of this marine gastropod. In order to confront this issue, greater molecular knowledge is needed on growth traits. Therefore, transcriptome analyses were performed using RNA-Seq for groups of California red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) cultured under the same conditions, but with high growth rates (HGR) or low growth rates (LGR). De novo assembly generated 44312 contigs used as references for RNA-Seq analysis. Results showed a total of 1437 differentially expressed contigs, among which, 435 were up-regulated in the HGR group and 1002 in LGR individuals. Overall, LGR abalones evidenced a greater number of exclusive transcripts and differentially transcribed genes. These results provide a valuable resource of novel transcripts in this species and further understandings of the molecular bases regulating growth traits in H. rufescens. PMID:26006295

  5. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45% 97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis with Roth spots

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Jagdish; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra; Vats, Pallavi; Pawaria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of infected sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes. The protozoa is obliged intracellularly and causes a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes: VL (‘kala azar’), cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia). Kala azar is the most aggressive form and if untreated causes high mortality. Here, we describe a case of VL that presented to us with high-grade fever and found to have Roth spots that were resolved after 15 days of therapy. PMID:25988048

  7. Isolation and characterization of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from diseased post-larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junpeng; Li, Juan; Thompson, Kim D; Li, Chuanxia; Han, Hongcao

    2007-02-01

    Mass mortality among the post-larvae of cultured abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta has occurred on the south coast of China since 2002. The diseased abalone are generally 10 to 30 days old, and typical signs of the disease include them turning white in colour and falling off the diatom films on which they were cultured. Among sixteen different motile bacteria isolated from the diseased post-larvae, four were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus on the basis of biochemical characteristics when compared with those of a V. parahaemolyticus type strain ATCC 17802(T). Isolate 25, a representative isolate of V. parahaemolyticus recovered from diseased abalone, was virulent for the post-larvae with an LD(50) value of 3.5 x 10(5) CFU (colony forming units)/ml. All moribund post-larvae artificially infected with the bacterium turned white and fell off the diatom films on which they were cultured as seen to occur during natural outbreaks of the disease, and it was possible to recover the bacterium from artificially infected post-larvae. The results of the study indicate that V. parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacterium to abalone post-larvae. PMID:17304623

  8. An AFLP genetic linkage map of pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Yanhong, Xu; Ruihai, Yu; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-07-01

    A genetic linkage map of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) was constructed using AFLP markers based on a two-way pseudo-testeross strategy in a full-sib family. With 33 primer combinations, a total of 455 markers (225 from the female parent and 230 from the male parent) segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphism: heterozygous in one parent and null in the other. The female framework map consisted of 174 markers distributed in 18 linkage groups, equivalent to the H. discus hannai haploid chromosome number, and spanning a total length of 2031.4 cM, with an average interval of 13.0 cM between adjacent markers. The male framework map consisted of 195 markers mapped on 19 linkage groups, spanning a total length of 2273.4 cM, with an average spacing of 12.9 cM between adjacent markers. The estimated coverage for the framework linkage maps was 81.2% for the female and 82.1% for the male, on the basis of two estimates of genome length. Fifty-two markers (11.4%) remained unlinked. The level of segregation distortion observed in this cross was 20.4%. These linkage maps will serve as a starting point for linkage studies in the Pacific abalone with potential application for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.

  9. Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A.; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Davis, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO2 treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6–7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO2, and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species. PMID:21177689

  10. De novo assembly and annotation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Harney, Ewan; Dubief, Bruno; Boudry, Pierre; Basuyaux, Olivier; Schilhabel, Markus B; Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Nunes, Flavia L D

    2016-08-01

    The European abalone Haliotis tuberculata is a delicacy and consequently a commercially valuable gastropod species. Aquaculture production and wild populations are subjected to multiple climate-associated stressors and anthropogenic pressures, including rising sea-surface temperatures, ocean acidification and an emerging pathogenic Vibrio infection. Transcript expression data provides a valuable resource for understanding abalone responses to variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. To generate an extensive transcriptome, we performed next-generation sequencing of RNA on larvae exposed to temperature and pH variation and on haemolymph of adults from two wild populations after experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. We obtained more than 1.5 billion raw paired-end reads, which were assembled into 328,519 contigs. Filtration and clustering produced a transcriptome of 41,099 transcripts, of which 10,626 (25.85%) were annotated with Blast hits, and 7380 of these were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in Blast2Go. A differential expression analysis comparing all samples from the two life stages identified 5690 and 10,759 transcripts with significantly higher expression in larvae and adult haemolymph respectively. This is the greatest sequencing effort yet in the Haliotis genus, and provides the first high-throughput transcriptomic resource for H. tuberculata. PMID:26971316

  11. The abalone egg vitelline envelope receptor for sperm lysin is a giant multivalent molecule

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Willie J.; Vacquier, Victor D.

    1997-01-01

    Abalone sperm lysin is a 16-kDa acrosomal protein, which nonenzymatically and species selectively creates a hole in the egg vitelline envelope (VE) through which the sperm passes to reach the egg cell membrane. The crystal structures of both monomeric and dimeric lysins have been solved and the sequences of lysins from 20 abalone species have been determined. As a first step in understanding the molecular mechanism by which lysin creates a hole in the VE, its VE receptor was isolated. The VE receptor for lysin (VERL) is an unbranched, rod-like molecule with an approximate relative molecular mass of 2 million; half the mass being carbohydrate. Fluorescence polarization studies showed positive cooperativity in the binding of lysin to VERL (EC50 ≈9 nM) and were consistent with the species selectivity of lysin in dissolving VEs. Each molecule of VERL bound between 126 and 142 molecules of monomeric lysin (two independent assays), showing that VERL possesses repetitive lysin-binding motifs. PMID:9192632

  12. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Alex R.; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae – or any feedstock – which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g−1) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g−1 of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

  13. Effects of chemical cues on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis asinina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Bai, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Low larval survival, poor settlement, and abnormal metamorphosis are major problems in seed production of donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina. We examined the effects of chemical cues including epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and serotonin on larval survival, settlement, and metamorphosis in order to determine the possibility of using these chemicals to induce the problems. The results show that epinephrine could enhance metamorphosis rate at 10-6 mol/L only but higher concentrations (10-3-10-4 mol/L); and nor-epinephrine could inhibit the performance significantly, and serotonin could increase significantly the performance at a wide-range concentration (10-3-10-6 mol/L). Treatment with serotonin at 10-5 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest settlement rate (42.2%) and survival rate (49.3%), while at 10-4 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest metamorphosis rate (38.8%). Therefore, serotonin may be used as a fast metamorphosis inducer in abalone culture.

  14. Sequences characterization of microsatellite DNA sequences in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-01-01

    The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using magnetic bead hybridization selection method, and the microsatellite DNA sequences were analyzed in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Three hundred and fifty white colonies were screened using PCR-based technique, and 84 clones were identified to potentially contain microsatellite repeat motif. The 84 clones were sequenced, and 42 microsatellites and 4 minisatellites with a minimum of five repeats were found (13.1% of white colonies screened). Besides the motif of CA contained in the oligoprobe, we also found other 16 types of microsatellite repeats including a dinucleotide repeat, two tetranucleotide repeats, twelve pentanucleotide repeats and a hexanucleotide repeat. According to Weber (1990), the microsatellite sequences obtained could be categorized structurally into perfect repeats (73.3%), imperfect repeats (13.3%), and compound repeats (13.4%). Among the microsatellite repeats, relatively short arrays (<20 repeats) were most abundant, accounting for 75.0%. The largest length of microsatellites was 48 repeats, and the average number of repeats was 13.4. The data on the composition and length distribution of microsatellites obtained in the present study can be useful for choosing the repeat motifs for microsatellite isolation in other abalone species.

  15. Differential gene expression between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots.

    PubMed

    Atzmon, G; Yang, X M; Muzumdar, R; Ma, X H; Gabriely, I; Barzilai, N

    2002-01-01

    Abdominal obesity has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). By surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in a variety of rodent models, we prevented insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, establishing a cause-effect relationship between VF and the metabolic syndrome. To characterize the biological differences between visceral and peripheral fat depots, we obtained perirenal visceral (VF) and subcutaneous (SC) fat from 5 young rats. We extracted mRNA from the fat tissue and performed gene array hybridization using Affymetrix technology with a platform containing 9 000 genes. Out of the 1 660 genes that were expressed in fat tissue, 297 (17.9 %) genes show a two-fold or higher difference in their expression between the two tissues. We present the 20 genes whose expression is higher in VF fat (by 3 - 7 fold) and the 20 genes whose expression is higher in SC fat (by 3 - 150 fold), many of which are predominantly involved in glucose homeostasis, insulin action, and lipid metabolism. We confirmed the findings of gene array expression and quantified the changes in expression in VF of genes involved in insulin resistance (PPARgamma leptin) and its syndrome (angiotensinogen and plasminogen activating inhibitor-1, PAI-1) by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Finally, we demonstrated increased expression of resistin in VF by around 12-fold and adiponectin by around 4-fold, peptides that were not part of the gene expression platform. These results indicate that visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are biologically distinct. PMID:12660871

  16. [Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Petithory, Jean-Claude

    2007-11-30

    The syndrome of visceral larva migrans was described for the first time in 1952 by Beaver. He demonstrated that the presence of nematodes larvae, particularly in the liver, were those of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common racoon ascarid in the U.S.A. can also cause serious diseases in human. Digestive and respiratory clinical symptoms are usually moderate, however severe disease resulting from invasion of the myocardium or the brain has been reported. A blood hypereosinophilia is usually present the first few years after infection. Diagnosis uses serological methods, among them the ELISA test. Ocular larva is also possible with in that case, immunological modifications of the aqueous. Cutaneous larva migrans characterized by a linear, progressing, serpigenous eruption and intense itching is easy to diagnose. Larva migrans is due to dogs, cats and horses helminths. Dogs and cats (referred here as pets) now receive antihelmintitic treatments and parasites are now in decrease. PMID:18326429

  17. Cloning and characterization of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) actin gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongming; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Chen, Hong

    2004-10-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3‧ RACE and 5‧ RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3‧ untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5‧ untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin (β-actin) than to human muscle actin.

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis: a forgotten epidemic.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar) is most endemic in Asia and Africa and commonly affects young children. It is usually caused by Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum that are transmitted by Phlebotomine sand flies. Transmission may be anthroponotic or zoonotic or both, depending on the endemic area. Clinical features include fever, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss and pancytopenia. Younger age, malnutrition and immunosuppression (HIV infection, use of immunosuppressive drugs) are risk factors. Many infections remain asymptomatic. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of the Leishmania parasite in aspirates of lymph node, bone marrow or spleen. Serological tests such as rK39 strip test are widely used but the sensitivity varies. qPCR is useful to detect low numbers of parasites and to monitor treatment. Treatment is with AmBisome monotherapy in most areas but with drug combinations elsewhere. HIV co-infected patients are most difficult to treat and often relapse. Control efforts focus on case finding, availability of diagnostic tools, reservoir control and protection from sand flies (insecticides, bed nets). There is no human vaccine. PMID:26895806

  19. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27352998

  20. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization. PMID:26447358

  1. Novel nervous system mechanisms in visceral pain.

    PubMed

    De Winter, B Y; Deiteren, A; De Man, J G

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important factor underlying abdominal pain in functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and can result from aberrant signaling from the gut to the brain or vice versa. Over the last two decades, research has identified several selective, intertwining pathways that underlie IBS-related visceral nociception, including specific receptors on afferent and efferent nerve fibers such as transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Gil et al. demonstrate that in an animal model with reduced descending inhibitory control, the sympathetic nervous system outflow is enhanced, contributing to visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. They also provide evidence that interfering with the activation of adrenergic receptors on sensory nerves can be an interesting new strategy to treat visceral pain in IBS. This mini-review places these findings in a broader perspective by providing an overview of promising novel mechanisms to alter the nervous control of visceral pain interfering with afferent or efferent neuronal signaling. PMID:26891060

  2. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. PMID:25858230

  3. Dialysis-related amyloidosis: visceral involvement and protein constituents.

    PubMed

    Campistol, J M; Argilés, A

    1996-01-01

    beta 2-M amyloidosis mainly concerns dialysis patients and typically presents with osteoarticular symptoms. In order to precise the incidence and gravity of visceral involvement, subcutaneous abdominal fat aspirates, skin and rectal biopsies, as well as echocardiograms were performed in 26 patients with severe beta 2-M amyloidosis. Visceral amyloidosis was confirmed in 58% and the numbers were even higher when including heart abnormalities suggestive of amyloidosis (81%). Clinical manifestations of visceral involvement were usually not severe and include odynophagia, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, intestinal obstruction, kidney stones, myocardial dysfunction and subcutaneous tumours. The removal and synthesis rates of beta 2-M were assessed during dialysis. Serum 131I-beta 2-M levels decreased by 5-10% with cuprophane and by 40-45% with polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile membranes. These reduction rates were higher than those found with unlabelled beta 2-M suggesting an increased synthesis or release during dialysis. The protein constituents of amyloid deposits were studied. Two different preparative methods to extract the proteins from amyloid deposits were used. TCA precipitation showed the presence of several proteins which were not observed with PBS homogenizing and resuspending in guanidine. The protein constituents of amyloid fibrils were studied by both, two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel) as well as protein sequencing after gel filtration. Similarly, the technical approach used for protein analysis greatly influenced the results. It was observed that 2D-gel displayed the presence of proteins which were missed by the gel filtration technique. Some of the proteins contained in amyloid deposits in addition to beta 2-M, were identified as globin chains, kappa and lambda light chains of immunoglobulins, and alpha 2 macroglobulin. A putative participation of these other protein constituents on the pathogenesis of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis is

  4. Effect of cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration on intracellular ice formation of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) eggs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiang-Yi; Yeh, Yu-Hui Flora; Lee, Po-Ting; Lin, Ta-Te

    2013-08-01

    The intracellular ice formation (IIF) behavior of Haliotis diversicolor (small abalone) eggs is investigated in this study, in relation to controlling the cooling rate and the concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The IIF phenomena are monitored under a self-developed thermoelectric cooling (TEC) cryomicroscope system which can achieve accurate temperature control without the use of liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the isothermal and ramp control is within ±0.5 °C. The IIF results indicate that the IIF of small abalone eggs is well suppressed at cooling rates of 1.5, 3, 7 and 12 °C/min with 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0M DMSO in sea water. As 2.0M DMSO in sea water is the minimum concentration that has sufficient IIF suppression, it is selected as the suspension solution for the cryopreservation of small abalone eggs in order to consider the solution's toxicity effect. Moreover, IIF characteristics of the cumulative probability of IIF temperature distribution are shown to be well fitted by the Weibull probabilistic distribution. According to our IIF results and the Weibull distribution parameters, we conclude that cooling at 1.5 °C/min from 20 to -50 °C with 2.0M DMSO in sea water is more feasible than other combinations of cooling rates and DMSO concentrations in our experiments. Applying this protocol and observing the subsequent osmotic activity, 48.8% of small abalone eggs are osmotically active after thawing. In addition, the higher the cooling rate, the less chance of osmotically active eggs. A separate fertility test experiment, with a cryopreservation protocol of 1.5 °C/min cooling rate and 2.0M DMSO in sea water, achieves a hatching rate of 23.7%. This study is the first to characterize the IIF behavior of small abalone eggs in regard to the cooling rate and the DMSO concentration. The Weibull probabilistic model fitting in this study is an approach that can be applied by other researchers for effective cryopreservation variability estimation and

  5. Centrally acting agents and visceral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2002-07-01

    The evidence relating to the site and mechanism of action of "centrally acting" agents which may affect visceral sensitivity is reviewed. Antidepressant drugs such as amitriptyline as well as the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are thought to act at the level of the CNS. Opiates, including morphine as well as compounds such as trimebutine or fedotozine designed for therapeutic use in irritable bowel syndrome, are effective in reducing visceral nociception. Cytokines in the CNS are known to be involved in the modulation of pain and there is also evidence to suggest that centrally acting cytokines may play a role in the production of visceral hypersensitivity. Consequently, they may provide an interesting target for future research. PMID:12077076

  6. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  7. Imaging brain mechanisms in chronic visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Emeran A; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Hong, Jui-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity, and connectivity, as well as in gray and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data-driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25789437

  8. Imaging Brain Mechanisms in Chronic Visceral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Hong, Jui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity and connectivity, as well as in grey and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25789437

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Duarte, Geraldo; El-Beitune, Patrícia; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Maia, Tamara Lemos

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects. PMID:15460194

  10. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  11. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  12. The organic interlamellar layer in abalone nacre: Formation and mechanical response.

    PubMed

    López, Maria Isabel; Meyers, Marc André

    2016-01-01

    The interlamellar organic layer plays a key role in establishing the tensile mechanical response of nacre, while changing the compressive response in only a marginal manner. We conduct observations on the epithelial layer of the abalone foot in direct contact with the extrapallial layer where the deposition process takes place and identify cilia, microvilli, and secretory cells which determine the deposition of chitin to form the interlamellar organic layer. On the basis of these observations we propose a mechanism for the deposition of interlamellar organic layers. We show that the fraction of pores, as well as their diameter, grow rapidly as the interlamellar layer is extended uniaxially or biaxially, and compare these calculations with the observed values. In the calculations we assume a Poisson's ratio equal to zero in the plane of the lamellae. This assumption is justified by the thickness of the organic layer (20-50 nm) being equal to twice the diameter of the chitin fibrils; consequently the expansion of the membrane occurs at a constant thickness. As an illustration of this effect, an externally applied strain of 0.5 increases the initial pore diameter (typically equal to 20-50 nm) to a value of ten times (0.2-0.5 μm). These calculations explain the observations of large pores reported in the literature and interpret them as the result of externally applied loads. PMID:26478281

  13. Identification and involvement of ferritin in the response to pathogen challenge in the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Jiang, Jingzhe; Gu, Lu; Zhao, Manman; Wang, Ruixuan; Ye, Lingtong; Yao, Tuo; Wang, Jiangyong

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating data has demonstrated that ferritin plays an important role in host defense responses against infection by pathogens in many organisms. In this study, ultracentrifugation was used to isolate ferritin from abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that this ferritin consisted of two subunits (designated as HdFer1 and HdFer2). There are no disulfide bonds between the HdFer1 and HdFer2 subunits; however, these subunits co-assemble to form heteropolymers. A novel ferritin subunit (HdFer2) was cloned from H. diversicolor by 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach. The full-length HdFer2 cDNA sequence consists of 878 bp with an open reading frame of 513 bp that encodes a protein that is 170 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HdFer1 and HdFer2 were transcribed in various tissues, such as the mantle, gill and hepatopancreas, with the highest levels of expression in the hepatopancreas. Following a challenge with the pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, the expression of HdFer1 and HdFer2 were markedly induced at different times. This study has identified a novel ferritin subunit in H. diversicolor which will contribute to further exploration of the role of ferritin in mollusk innate immune defense against invading pathogens. PMID:26875633

  14. Sublethal toxicity of trace metals to larvae of the blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Jacquelle; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2006-05-01

    The availability of literature regarding sublethal and chronic toxicity of heavy metals to early life stages of marine species is restricted to a few species of invertebrate mollusks. The early life stage of abalone, an important gastropod both environmentally and commercially, has been involved in limited research investigating the effects of heavy metal toxicity. Fertilized eggs of Haliotis rubra were exposed to a range of dissolved nominal concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, and zinc in individual solutions for 48 h. After 48 h of exposure, the test was completed by recording survival success and morphological abnormalities of veliger larvae in each heavy metal treatment. The mean 48-h median effective concentrations affecting normal morphological development of veliger larvae determined in this test shows a decreasing order of toxicity of copper (7 mg/L), mercury (21 mg/L), zinc (35 mg/L), iron (4102 mg/L), cadmium (4515 mg/L), and lead (5111 mg/L). PMID:16704070

  15. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A

    2009-03-01

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within ±12° from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate.

  16. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) via EST database mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Aibin; Bao, Zhenmin; Wang, Mingling; Chang, Dan; Yuan, Jian; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Liang, Chengzhu; Hu, Jingjie

    2008-05-01

    The EST database of the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) was mined for developing microsatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more microsatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, cluster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify scorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of H o and H e varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  17. Nanoscale structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shell of abalone Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Taro; Kakisawa, Hideki; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    In the natural world, bottom-up hierarchical construction of complex structures results in materials with remarkable properties. A well known example is the nacre of mollusk shells, commonly called "mother of pearl", whose excellent strength and toughness has been the subject of research for many decades. A significant discovery has been the presence of periodic layers called "growth lines". These are thin distinct layers within the bulk of the shell which form periodically, with their structure affected by environmental changes. Studies of their formation and behavior offer valuable insight into the architecture of seashells. In this work, the structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shells of abalone Haliotis gigantea were investigated using electron microscopy and nanoindentation. Growth lines form directly out of nacre into layers of blocks and irregular particles. In comparison to nacre, they have basic structures, form rapidly, and are harder, which suggest that they serve a protective role during lifecycle transitions. This exemplifies how natural structures are able to closely control growth architecture in order to form different structures for different functions, all from the same base materials. PMID:21232604

  18. Structural changes in a protein fragment from abalone shell during the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Adamiano, Alessio; Bonacchi, Sara; Calonghi, Natalia; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe; Fermani, Simona; Genovese, Damiano; Kralj, Damir; Montalti, Marco; Njegić Džakula, Branka; Prodi, Luca; Sartor, Giorgio

    2012-11-01

    Mineralized tissues grow through biologically controlled processes in which specific macromolecules are involved. Some of these molecules, which are present in very low concentrations and are difficult to localize and characterize, become entrapped inside the mineralized tissue. Herein, a protein fragment, GP, which was obtained by the alkaline digestion of the green sheet of the abalone shell, is used as a probe to study the changes in molecular structure that occur during the precipitation of calcium carbonate. This important goal was achieved by exploiting a fluorescent tag in GP. The experimental results that were obtained by using spectroscopic-, chromatographic-, and microscopic techniques indicate that GP controls the precipitation kinetics and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals, and that it only undergoes structural reorganization when entrapped inside calcium carbonate crystals. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents one of the first studies on the conformational changes of a protein fragment that is involved in biomineralization processes on moving from the solution phase into the mineral phase. PMID:22996327

  19. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, André; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Excess intra-abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, often termed visceral obesity, is part of a phenotype including dysfunctional subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and ectopic triglyceride storage closely related to clustering cardiometabolic risk factors. Hypertriglyceridemia; increased free fatty acid availability; adipose tissue release of proinflammatory cytokines; liver insulin resistance and inflammation; increased liver VLDL synthesis and secretion; reduced clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; presence of small, dense LDL particles; and reduced HDL cholesterol levels are among the many metabolic alterations closely related to this condition. Age, gender, genetics, and ethnicity are broad etiological factors contributing to variation in visceral adipose tissue accumulation. Specific mechanisms responsible for proportionally increased visceral fat storage when facing positive energy balance and weight gain may involve sex hormones, local cortisol production in abdominal adipose tissues, endocannabinoids, growth hormone, and dietary fructose. Physiological characteristics of abdominal adipose tissues such as adipocyte size and number, lipolytic responsiveness, lipid storage capacity, and inflammatory cytokine production are significant correlates and even possible determinants of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with visceral obesity. Thiazolidinediones, estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women, and testosterone replacement in androgen-deficient men have been shown to favorably modulate body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk to various degrees. However, some of these therapies must now be considered in the context of their serious side effects. Lifestyle interventions leading to weight loss generally induce preferential mobilization of visceral fat. In clinical practice, measuring waist circumference in addition to the body mass index could be helpful for the identification and management of a subgroup of overweight or obese

  20. In vivo efficacy of calceolarioside A against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Avijit; Banerjee, Anindita; Ghanta, Srijani; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2008-04-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation has led to the successful isolation of calceolarioside A ( 1) from the methanolic extract of night jasmine leaves. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of compound 1 was determined (IC (50) = 20 microg/mL). Its IN VIVO efficacy was noted at 20 mg/kg body weight when it reduced the hepatic and splenic parasite burden by 79 and 84 %, respectively, in an established model of L. donovani Ag83 infected golden hamster. Furthermore, synergistic potentiations of compound 1 at 20 mg/kg body weight and SAG at 5 mg/kg body weight showed a significant reduction of hepatic and splenic parasite burden. No cytotoxicity was observed against the U937 cell line. This is the first report describing the isolation of compound 1 from N. arbor-tristis L. and the first demonstration of its potent activity against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:18543147

  1. Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

  2. Acute toxicity of nonylphenols and bisphenol A to the embryonic development of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Tam, Nora F Y; Guan, Yuntao; Yasojima, Makoto; Zhou, Jin; Gao, Baoyu

    2011-08-01

    Acute toxic effects and mechanisms of two typical endocrine disrupting chemicals, nonylphenols (NPs) and bisphenol A (BPA), to the embryonic development of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, were investigated by the two-stage embryo toxicity test. The 12-h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) of NPs and BPA to the trochophore development were 1016.22 and 30.72 μg L(-1), respectively, and the respective 96-h EC(50) values based on the completion of metamorphosis (another experimental endpoint) were reduced to 11.65 and 1.02 μg L(-1). Longer exposure time and magnified exposure concentrations in the benthic diatom, that serves as both food source and settlement substrate during the metamorphosis, via bioaccumulation, led to the higher sensitivity of metamorphosis to target EDCs compared with the trochophore development. The hazard concentrations for 5% of the species (HC(5)) could be employed as the safety thresholds for the embryonic development of the abalone. The 12-h HC(5) values of NPs and BPA were 318.68 and 13.93 μg L(-1), respectively, and the respective 96-h HC(5) values were 0.99 and 0.18 μg L(-1), which were at environmentally relevant levels. Results of proteomic responses revealed that NPs and BPA altered various functional proteins in the abalone larvae with slight differences between each chemical and affected various physiological functions, such as energy and substance metabolism, cell signalling, formation of cytoskeleton and cilium, immune and stress responses at the same time, leading to the failure of metamorphosis. PMID:21479784

  3. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113

  4. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Lei K.; Midei, Aimee J.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113

  5. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    PubMed Central

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  6. Breastfeeding and Subsequent Maternal Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Conroy, Molly B.; Tepper, Ping G.; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim C.

    2013-01-01

    Women gain visceral fat during pregnancy. Studies examining the impact of breastfeeding on maternal body composition are inconclusive. We examined the extent to which breastfeeding was associated with visceral adiposity in a sample of US women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 351 women aged 45–58 years, who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and had not used oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy in the 3 months prior to enrollment in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)-Heart Study (2001–2003). History of breastfeeding was self-reported. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. Among premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers, those who never breastfed had 28% greater visceral adiposity (95% confidence interval (CI): 11–49, P = 0.001), 4.7% greater waist-hip ratio (95% CI: 1.9–7.4, P < 0.001), and 6.49 cm greater waist circumference (95% CI: 3.71–9.26, P < 0.001) than mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months in models adjusting for study site; age; parity; years since last birth; socioeconomic, lifestyle, and family history variables; early adult BMI; and current BMI. In comparison to women who were nulliparous, mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months had similar amounts of visceral fat (P > 0.05). In contrast, premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers who had never breastfed had significantly greater visceral adiposity (42% (95% CI: 17–70), P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.15 cm (95% CI: 2.75–9.56), P < 0.001), and waist-hip ratio (3.7% (95% CI: 0.69–6.8), P = 0.02) than nulliparous women. No significant relationships were observed among late peri-menopausal/postmenopausal women. In conclusion, until menopause, mothers who did not breastfeed all of their children for ≥3 months exhibit significantly greater amounts of metabolically active visceral fat than mothers who had breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months. PMID:21720436

  7. [Isolated spontaneous dissection of visceral arteries].

    PubMed

    Corral, M A; Encinas, J; Fernández-Pérez, G C

    2014-01-01

    We present the cases of two men with isolated spontaneous dissection of visceral arteries diagnosed by multidetector CT. In the first patient, dissection of the celiac trunk was associated with periarterial changes. In the second patient, dissection of the superior mesenteric artery was associated with stenosis at the root of the celiac trunk. Both patients presented with acute pain, which was more intense and longer lasting in the first patient. Aortic dissection was suspected clinically in both patients. Both dissections were short and had patent saccular false lumens and reduced caliber of the true lumens. This morphological type is one of the most uncommon within this rare entity. However, in recent years, the number of cases published is rising. This suggests that this entity may have been underdiagnosed before the widespread use of multidetector CT. We discuss the two morphological classifications of dissection of the visceral arteries and the need to adapt therapeutic management to the particular circumstances of each case. PMID:21724211

  8. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Krystal J.; Kedzierski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL. PMID:21912561

  9. American Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Maria de Fatima Facanha Elias; de Alencar, Joaquim Eduardo; Naidu, Talapala G.; de Jesus, Jose Alfredo Lacerda; McAuliffe, Jay F.; Pearson, Richard D.; Evans, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in widely scattered areas of the world. To better characterize the South American form of the disease, the clinical and laboratory manifestations of 29 patients admitted to hospital (18 male and 11 female patients, mean age 4.9 years), were assessed in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil. Fever, weight loss, pronounced splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, relative neutropenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypergammaglobulinemia were found in the majority of patients. Symptoms were often present for two or more months before diagnosis. Secondary infections complicated many cases; there were ten cases of pneumonia and half of the patients had one or more intestinal parasites. The average length of hospital stay was 27 days; all patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). The mortality rate was 3%. American visceral leishmaniasis remains an important disease among children living in endemic areas. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:4024631

  10. Aetiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Ostria, A; Hernandez-Montes, O; Barker, D C

    2000-03-25

    Two children with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), were studied by DNA analysis. DNA from liver biopsy samples from both patients, was amplified by PCR with broad primers specific for the Leishmania subgenus. DNA from the patient from Chiapas was also amplified with primers specific for the Leismania donovani complex and hybridised with a probe specific for L. donovani complex. The second patient, who is the first reported case of visceral leishmaniasis in the Mexican state of Tabasco, where localised cutaneous leishmaniasis and DCL predominate, had a co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The DNA from this patient was not amplified with primers specific for the L. donovani complex, did not hybridise with a probe specific for the L. donovani complex, but did hybridise with kDNA from a Mexican Leishmania mexicana strain used as a probe. We therefore, suggest that members of the L. donovani or L. mexicana complexes cause VL in Mexico. PMID:10708655

  11. American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990-2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1-3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  12. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  13. Visceral larva migrans (toxocariasis) in Toronto.

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, M; Hill, A; Langer, H M; Keystone, J S

    1981-01-01

    A 7-year-old child was admitted to Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children in 1976 with symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with visceral larva migrans, a disease usually caused by Toxocara canis. This prompted a search for other cases seen at the hospital during the period 1952 through 1978. Only 18 cases were discovered that met at least three of six criteria and thus were considered possible or probably cases of the disease. Three possible cases of ocular toxocariasis during the same period were also uncovered. Fever was the commonest presenting symptom. Eosinophilia, leukocytosis and hyperglobulinemia were the most frequent laboratory findings. In view of the small number of cases found in 27 years at this large pediatric hospital with a broad referral base, it is concluded that visceral larva migrans poses little risk to the health of children in the Toronto area. PMID:7459767

  14. Effect of abalone farming on seawater movement and benthic foraminiferal assemblage of Zostera marina in the inner bay of Wando, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Choi, Yang Ho; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Jae Ung

    2016-08-15

    Tidal current survey as well as geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analyses of sediment cores were conducted in an abalone farm and a Zostera bed to understand the degree to which the abalone farm facilities installed along a channel in a shallow sea affect the benthic environment and ecology. In the abalone farm, Ammonia beccarii-Pseudoparrella naraensis-Elphidium somaense-Rosalina globularis-Trochammina hadai and P. naraensis-E. somaense-A. beccarii-T. hadai assemblages appeared owing to an increase in the total nitrogen content from the biodeposits. The Zostera bed consisted of A. beccarii-P. naraensis-Buccella frigida-T. hadai assemblage owing to the gradual expansion of a brackish shallow-water environment by the rapidly decreasing current speed, and it may have flourished. Moreover, the total sulfur, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents in the sediments decreased remarkably more than those of the pre-abalone farming did, caused by the vigorous activity of Zostera marina physiology. PMID:27287862

  15. Regulation of immunity during visceral Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Laforge, Mireille; Silvestre, Ricardo; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular eukaryotes of the genus Leishmania are collectively responsible for a heterogeneous group of diseases known as leishmaniasis. The visceral form of leishmaniasis, caused by L. donovani or L. infantum, is a devastating condition, claiming 20,000 to 40,000 lives annually, with particular incidence in some of the poorest regions of the world. Immunity to Leishmania depends on the development of protective type I immune responses capable of activating infected phagocytes to kill intracellular amastigotes. However, despite the induction of protective responses, disease progresses due to a multitude of factors that impede an optimal response. These include the action of suppressive cytokines, exhaustion of specific T cells, loss of lymphoid tissue architecture and a defective humoral response. We will review how these responses are orchestrated during the course of infection, including both early and chronic stages, focusing on the spleen and the liver, which are the main target organs of visceral Leishmania in the host. A comprehensive understanding of the immune events that occur during visceral Leishmania infection is crucial for the implementation of immunotherapeutic approaches that complement the current anti-Leishmania chemotherapy and the development of effective vaccines to prevent disease. PMID:26932389

  16. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  17. Offshore survey provides answers to coastal stability and potential offshore extensions of landslides into Abalone Cove, Palos Verdes peninsula, Calif

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F. ); Slosson, J.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The configuration and stability of the present coast line near Abalone Cove, on the south side of Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is related to the geology, oceanographic conditions, and recent and ancient landslide activity. This case study utilizes offshore high resolution seismic profiles, side-scan sonar, diving, and coring, to relate marine geology to the stability of a coastal region with known active landslides utilizing a desk top computer and off-the-shelf software. Electronic navigation provided precise positioning that when applied to computer generated charts permitted correlation of survey data needed to define the offshore geology and sea floor sediment patterns. A mackintosh desk-top computer and commercially available off-the-shelf software provided the analytical tools for constructing a base chart and a means to superimpose template overlays of topography, isopachs or sediment thickness, bottom roughness and sediment distribution patterns. This composite map of offshore geology and oceanography was then related to an extensive engineering and geological land study of the coastal zone forming Abalone Cove, an area of active landslides. Vibrocoring provided ground sediment data for high resolution seismic traverses. This paper details the systems used, present findings relative to potential landslide movements, coastal erosion and discuss how conclusions were reached to determine whether or not onshore landslide failures extend offshore.

  18. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    PubMed

    Jalali, M Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  19. Drug Management of Visceral Pain: Concepts from Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar P.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management. PMID:22619712

  20. Visceral fit: While in a visceral state, associated states of the world seem more likely.

    PubMed

    Risen, Jane L; Critcher, Clayton R

    2011-05-01

    We propose that visceral states can influence beliefs through "visceral fit": People will judge states of the world associated with their current visceral experience as more likely. We found that warmth influenced belief in global warming (Studies 1-3) and that thirst impacted forecasts of drought and desertification (Study 5). These effects emerged in a naturalistic setting (Study 1) and in experimental lab settings (Studies 2, 3, and 5). Studies 2-6 distinguished between 3 mechanistic accounts: temperature as information (Studies 2 and 3), conceptual accessibility (Studies 4 and 5), and fluency of simulation (Studies 6a and 6b). Studies 2 and 3 ruled out the temperature as information account. Feeling warm enhanced belief in global warming even when temperature was manipulated in an uninformative indoor setting, when participants' attention was first directed to the indoor temperature, and when participants' belief about the current outdoor temperature was statistically controlled. Studies 4 and 5 ruled out conceptual accessibility as the key mediator: Priming the corresponding concepts did not produce analogous effects on judgment. Studies 6a and 6b used a causal chain design and found support for a "simulational fluency" account. Participants experiencing the visceral state of warmth constructed more fluent mental representations of hot (vs. cold) outdoor images, and those who were led to construe the same hot outdoor images more fluently believed more in global warming. Together, the results suggest that visceral states can influence one's beliefs by making matching states of the world easier to simulate and therefore seem more likely. PMID:21244180

  1. Structure and reaction studies of biological organic and inorganic composite materials: Abalone shells, diatoms, and a unique birch bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaremba, Charlotte Marie

    Biopolymer/calcium carbonate composites grown on inorganic abiotic substrates implanted between the shell and the shell-secreting epithelium of live red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) results in an unusual highly (104)-oriented aggregate of microcrystalline calcite that precedes nacre deposition. Calcite of this orientation has never before been observed in nature. Also with this method, nacre deposition is found to correct for calcite surface roughness and chemically anomalous surfaces. Pole figure X-ray diffraction studies of these "flat pearls" provide comparisons of preferred orientation of the various mineral components of the abalone shell. Complete conversion of the aragonite in abalone nacre to hydroxyapatite in hydrothermal phosphate solution results in an oriented polycrystalline aggregate with ultrastructure preservation and an unexpected preferred orientation different from that of other biominerals and abiogenic CaCO3 samples subjected to this reaction. The new orientation, which increases with reaction time, may result from the organization of the organic matrix in the nacre, which directs the hydrothermal solution through the material. This orientation suggests strongly that the conversion proceeds via a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, rather than by topotaxy, which was previously proposed. In addition to cellulose I, a highly oriented cellulose-II-like polymer was found in the bark of Prunus serrula, an exceptionally strong, tough, and extensible composite film. The cellulose II polymorph, which has not previously been found in nature, may be accordion-folded in the plane of the bark thickness and contribute to the strength and unusual behavior with plasticization of this natural film. The silica frustule of the diatom Skeletonema costatum has a surface area of 135 mm2/g and contains 1.5--2 wt % occluded organic. This organic includes a water-insoluble scaffolding. When treated with organic oxidizers, the chitin secreted by the diatom

  2. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

  3. Endemic transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: an evolving disease.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  5. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  6. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  7. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. PMID:23859879

  8. Biomarkers for visceral hypersensitivity identified by classification of electroencephalographic frequency alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graversen, Carina; Brock, Christina; Mohr Drewes, Asbjørn; Farina, Dario

    2011-10-01

    Abdominal pain is frequently related to visceral hypersensitivity. This is associated with increased neuronal excitability in the central nervous system (CNS), which can be manifested as discrete electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations. In the current placebo-controlled study, visceral hypersensitivity was evoked by chemical irritation of the esophagus with acid and capsaicin perfusion. The resulting hyperexcitability of the CNS was evaluated by evoked brain potentials following painful electrical stimulations of a remote organ—the rectosigmoid colon. Alterations in individual EEG power distributions between baseline and after perfusion were quantified by extracting features from the evoked brain potentials using an optimized discrete wavelet transform. Visceral hypersensitivity was identified as increased EEG power in the delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. By applying a support vector machine in regression mode, the individual baseline corrected alterations after sensitization were discriminated from alterations caused by placebo perfusions. An accuracy of 91.7% was obtained (P < 0.01). The regression value representing the overall alteration of the EEG correlated with the degree of hyperalgesia (P = 0.03). In conclusion, this study showed that classification of EEG can be used to detect biomarkers reflecting central neuronal changes. In the future, this may be used in studies of pain physiology and pharmacological interventions.

  9. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  10. Stress and visceral pain: from animal models to clinical therapies

    PubMed Central

    Larauche, Muriel; Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated stress (psychosocial and physical) as a trigger of first onset or exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms of which visceral pain is an integrant landmark. A number of experimental acute or chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors induce visceral hyperalgesia in rodents although recent evidence also points to stress-related visceral analgesia as established in the somatic pain field. Underlying mechanisms of stress-related visceral hypersensitivity may involve a combination of sensitization of primary afferents, central sensitization in response to input from the viscera and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate spinal nociceptive transmission or analgesic response. Biochemical coding of stress involves the recruitment of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways. Experimental studies established that activation of brain and peripheral CRF receptor subtype 1 plays a primary role in the development of stress-related delayed visceral hyperalgesia while subtype 2 activation induces analgesic response. In line with stress pathways playing a role in IBS, non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment modalities aimed at reducing stress perception using a broad range of evidence-based mind-body interventions and centrally-targeted medications to reduce anxiety impact on brain patterns activated by visceral stimuli and dampen visceral pain. PMID:21575632

  11. Epidemiology of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in Hebron district, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Amro, Ahmad; Azmi, Kifaya; Schönian, Gabriele; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Alsharabati, Mohamed Barakat; Sawalha, Samer; Hamarsheh, Omar; Ereqat, Suhair; Abdeen, Ziad

    2009-07-01

    Seventy-six cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were reported from the Hebron district of the West Bank, Palestine between 1993 and 2007. All cases were in children less than 9 years old (median age 2 years). The average number of cases was 5.06/year and the average annual incidence was 3.02/100000 children. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) PCR-RFLP was performed using DNA extracted from two cultures and 36 archived Giemsa-stained slides from VL patients. Leishmania infantum was revealed as the causative agent of VL in the focus. Isoenzyme analysis identified two isolates as zymodeme MON-1. A serological survey of 455 children screened for serum anti-Leishmania antibodies revealed 8.4% seropositivity. Seropositivity was highest for children in households of previous VL cases [odds ratio (OR) 7.5; 95% CI 3.17-17.61; P<0.001] and among people who had domestic dogs and/or other animals (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.19-4.68; P=0.017). No difference was seen between males and females (P=0.073). A preliminary survey of sand fly distribution showed the abundance of two putative vector species: Phlebotomus syriacus (45%) and Ph. tobbi (10%). The focus of VL in Hebron district was shown to follow the epidemiological pattern of paediatric disease characteristic of the Mediterranean region. PMID:19022464

  12. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  13. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; He, Qingguo; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses, especially thermal stress. Here we examined the response of Hsp70 gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino). For the chronic exposure, abalones were maintained at 8, 12, 20, and 30°C for four months and their mRNA levels were measured. The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30°C-acclimated group, followed by the 8°C-acclimated group and then the 12°C- and 20°C-acclimated groups. After the long-term acclimation, gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8°C and 38°C for 30 min. Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure. The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups. Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions, through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  14. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. PMID:26471583

  15. The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34μM for PCB28 to more than 100μM for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67μM for PCB153 to 89μM for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249

  16. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  17. Liver transplant recipient with concomitant cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Deren; Seçkin, Deniz; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Weina, Peter J; Aydin, Hakan; Ozçay, Figen; Haberal, Mehmet

    2007-03-01

    Diagnosis of leishmaniasis in immunosuppressed patients may be a serious challenge for physicians because of the major clinical and laboratory differences with immunocompetent patients. In immunosuppressed patients, the disease is characterized usually by disseminated visceral involvement, atypical cutaneous lesions and persistent negativity of diagnostic tests. Here, we report an eight-yr-old liver transplant recipient with concomitant cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in whom the cutaneous lesion led to the diagnosis of systemic involvement. PMID:17300508

  18. Estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity following stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Karpowicz, Jane M; Furman, Andrew J; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress. Stress was induced via a forced-swim paradigm. In a separate group of ovariectomized rats, E2 treatment induced visceral hypersensitivity at the 2 days post-stress time point, and this hypersensitivity returned to baseline at the 18 days post-stress time point. Vehicle-treated rats show no hypersensitivity following stress. During the MRI scans, rats were exposed to noxious colorectal distention. Across groups and time points, noxious visceral stimulation led to activations in the insula, anterior cingulate, and left amygdala, parabrachial nuclei, and cerebellum. A group-by-time interaction was seen in the right amygdala, ventral striatum-pallidum, cerebellum, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, and pontine nuclei. Closer inspection of the data revealed that vehicle-treated rats showed consistent activations and deactivations across time, whereas estrogen-treated animals showed minimal deactivation with noxious visceral stimulation. This unexpected finding suggests that E2 may dramatically alter visceral nociceptive processing in the brain following an acute stressor. This study is the first to examine estrogen-stress dependent interactions in response to noxious visceral stimulation using functional MRI. Future studies that include other control

  19. Bone Marrow Negative Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Adolescent Male

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, S; Rana, S; Khan, S; Zeeba, JS; Hassan, MJ; Kapoor, P

    2013-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar is endemic in certain regions of India. In endemic areas, the constellation of fever, progressive weight loss, weakness, pronounced splenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia is highly suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis. Demonstration of the parasite in liver, splenic or bone marrow aspirates is confirmatory. We present a case in which Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies were demonstrated on splenic aspirate. We were unable to demonstrate LD bodies on bone marrow aspiration. PMID:23682278

  20. Visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh, Zahra; Haghighi, Siavosh

    2015-01-01

    Visceral urate deposition (visceral gout) is a common finding during post-mortem examination of poultry. Rare cases of visceral gout may occur in wild birds. A rare case of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) is reported here. In May 2013, carcass of a little bittern was submitted for necropsy to the Clinic of Poultry Diseases (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University) by local authorities of Iran Department of Environment. At necropsy, white chalky deposits were observed on the heart and thoracic air sacs of the bird. To confirm the presence of urates, chalky deposits were collected from pericardium and tested by muerxide test. Heart and kidneys were sampled, preserved in 10% neutral-buffered formalin solution and submitted to laboratory for histopathology. Murexide test was positive for presence of uric acid in chalky deposits collected from pericardium. Light microscopy of affected organs confirmed the condition as visceral urate deposition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern. PMID:26261716

  1. Obesity Takes Its Toll on Visceral Pain: High-Fat Diet Induces Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Visceral Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high-fat diet induces both, peripheral and central alterations in TLR4 expression. Moreover, functional TLR4 is required for the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Recently, central alterations in TLR4 expression have been associated with the modulation of visceral pain. However, it remains unknown whether there is a functional interaction between the role of TLR4 in diet-induced obesity and in visceral pain. In the present study we investigated the impact of long-term exposure to high-fat diet on visceral pain perception and on the levels of TLR4 and Cd11b (a microglial cell marker) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Peripheral alterations in TLR4 were assessed following the stimulation of spleenocytes with the TLR4-agonist LPS. Finally, we evaluated the effect of blocking TLR4 on visceral nociception, by administering TAK-242, a selective TLR4-antagonist. Our results demonstrated that exposure to high-fat diet induced visceral hypersensitivity. In parallel, enhanced TLR4 expression and microglia activation were found in brain areas related to visceral pain, the PFC and the hippocampus. Likewise, peripheral TLR4 activity was increased following long-term exposure to high-fat diet, resulting in an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, TLR4 blockage counteracted the hyperalgesic phenotype present in mice fed on high-fat diet. Our data reveal a role for TLR4 in visceral pain modulation in a model of diet-induced obesity, and point to TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the development of drugs to treat visceral hypersensitivity present in pathologies associated to fat diet consumption. PMID:27159520

  2. Nanomedicines for Therapy of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Want, Muzamil Yaqub; Yadav, Priya; Afrin, Farhat

    2016-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a vector borne infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. VL is endemic in more than 85 countries with an estimated 0.2-0.5 million people at risk, causing high morbidity and mortality across the globe. In the absence of effective vaccines, treatment solely relies on chemotherapy and can be 100% fatal within two years, if left untreated. However, the present chemotherapeutics is limited by toxicity, non-compliance, location of parasites within the lysosomal vacuoles of macrophages, impairing the accession of many potential antileishmanial drugs, prolonged and cumbersome regimen that is unaffordable by rural population with alarming increase in unresponsiveness, complications of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and HIV co-infections. Nanotechnology offers promising approach in the treatment of VL as it reduces toxicity, improves the therapeutic index of drugs, and can selectively deliver the antileishmanial cargos to the intracellular pathogens. In addition, nanoparticles can interact with the host immune system, modulating the immune response in a way that may favor the elimination of the Leishmania parasites. In this review, we give an overview of the strategies and delivery systems employed for the antileishmanial drugs towards the riddance of deadly VL. PMID:27455613

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis: experimental models for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a chronic protozoan infection in humans associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is a haemoflagellate protozoan Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite that resides and multiplies within macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system. Most of the existing anti-leishmanial drugs have serious side effects that limit their clinical application. As an alternate strategy, vaccination is also under experimental and clinical trials. The in vitro evaluation designed to facilitate rapid testing of a large number of drugs has been focussed on the promastigotes milt little attention on the clinically relevant parasite stage, amastigotes. Screening designed to closely reflect the situation in vivo is currently time consuming, laborious, and expensive, since it requires intracellular amastigotes and animal model. The ability to select transgenic Leishmania expressing reporter proteins, such as the green fluorescent proteins (GFP) or the luciferase opened up new possibilities for the development of drug screening models. Many experimental animal models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, but none accurately reproduces what happens in humans. Available in vitro and in vivo methodologies for antileishmanial drug screening and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:21321417

  4. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  5. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B; Huffman, Derek M; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-06-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal affects longevity. We prospectively studied lifespan in three groups of rats: ad libitum-fed (AL-fed), CR (Fed 60% of AL) and a group of AL-fed rats with selective removal of VF at 5 months of age (VF-removed rats). We demonstrate that compared to AL-fed rats, VF-removed rats had a significant increase in mean (p < 0.001) and maximum lifespan (p < 0.04) and significant reduction in the incidence of severe renal disease (p < 0.01). CR rats demonstrated the greatest mean and maximum lifespan (p < 0.001) and the lowest rate of death as compared to AL-fed rats (0.13). Taken together, these observations provide the most direct evidence to date that a reduction in fat mass, specifically VF, may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of CR. PMID:18363902

  6. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Central Asia and Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Darchenkova, N N

    1990-01-01

    At present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. The natural foci of VL are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. In southern areas of the Turkmen SSR the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. The reservoir of pathogen here may be Vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is Phlebotomus turanicus. In Kazakhstan cases of VL are encountered in the thickets of the Syr-Darya floodlands in Kzyl-Orda Province, where the natural reservoir of the pathogen are Canis aureus L. and Vulpes corsac, and the vector is P. smirnovi. Synanthropic foci in Dzhambul and Chimkent, where dogs were most likely the source of the infection and P. longiductus was the vector, are at present inactive. The maps have been plotted where landscape dissemination of mosquitoes (VL vectors) is compared to places of habitation of Canis aureus L. and VL incidence in humans at peaks of the disease endemia. Medical personnel should be on the look-out for VL on the whole territory with VL natural foci. PMID:2146471

  7. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy.

    PubMed

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Diefenbach, Russell J; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G; Cunningham, Anthony L; Dehghani, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  8. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  9. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    PubMed Central

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization. PMID:25669609

  10. Effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) gonad polysaccharides on cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells and its signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Da-Yong; Yang, Jing-Feng; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Ce; Song, Yan-Qing; Yu, Chen-Xu; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-10-20

    Abalone gonad polysaccharide (AGP) -31, -32 and -33 prepared in this study had the molecular weight (MW) of 37.8, 32.2 and 27.5kDa, respectively. They all contained mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, with very similar monosaccharide profile. All the three polysaccharides could significantly increase the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) in STC-1 cells. Among them, AGP-32 showed the strongest effect. However, the low-MW fragments of AGP-32 showed significantly lower activity than AGP-32 itself. It was also found that the inhibitors on calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)⁄calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II, p38- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and an intracellular calcium chelator all inhibited AGP-induced CCK secretion. To conclude, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/CaMK, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and MAPK pathways are all involved in AGP-induced CCK secretion. PMID:27474567

  11. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  12. Sensitivity of PCR and real-time PCR for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis using peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    da Costa Lima, Manoel Sebastião; Zorzenon, Denielly Christina Rodrigues; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Cunha, Rodrigo; Andreotti, Renato; Matos, Maria de Fatima Cepa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of PCR and real-time PCR for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis using peripheral blood samples. Methods DNA extraction was performed using Promega Wizard® Genomic kits. PCR employing RV1/RV2 primers yielded 145-bp amplicons. Real-time PCR was performed with the same primers and SYBR Green ROX Plus mix. These techniques were used to analyze 100 peripheral blood samples from patients with clinical signs of the disease. Results The sensitivity and specificity levels were 91,3%% and 29,6%, respectively, for real-time PCR and 97.78% and 61.82%, respectively, for PCR. Conclusions Real-time PCR proved to be a satisfactory method for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis.

  13. Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1989-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients with 237 hernias of the groin who were at high risk for recurrence after classic hernioplasty were operated upon; the procedure of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (GPRVS) was used. The patients in this series had predominantly recurrent and re-recurrent hernias. However, a few were obese with bilateral primary direct hernias and some had associated connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. GPRVS eliminates hernias of the groin by rendering the peritoneum inextensible by placing, in the preperitoneal space, a large prosthesis that extends far beyond the borders of the myopectineal orifice. The myopectineal orifice is the weak spot at which all hernias of the groin begin and is bounded by the rectus, oblique abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the pectin of the pubis. In bilateral GPRVS, the peritoneum of both groins is reinforced with a single prosthesis inserted in the preperitoneal space through the midline. In unilateral GPRVS, the mesh envelops the peritoneum of a single groin. This simplifies the operation and makes it suitable for surgical centers that perform outpatient operations. The prosthesis with the best physical characteristics for GPRVS is Mersilene (polyester fiber). Unsutured prostheses of polypropylene and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) may not adhere at the far edges, leading to a failure and recurrence. The over-all recurrence rate in this series of problem hernias was 3.7 per cent, which is extremely good. However, the rate becomes outstanding if recurrences resulting from meshes unsuitable for GPRVS are excluded. PMID:2814751

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gartzonika, Constantina; Levidiotou, Stamatina

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a vector-borne systemic disease, with a worldwide distribution causing high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. VL patients may be asymptomatic or they may present symptoms and findings of a systemic infection. The positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis in patients with typical symptoms is usually high, but more often, the signs and symptoms are inconclusive and mistaken with other co-endemic diseases. The fact that HIV co-infections often produce atypical presentations and the heterogeneity of Leishmania species, which is common in many endemic regions, also complicate the diagnosis. Despite that, some of the parasitological methods are still considered to be the reference standard for VL diagnosis due to their specificity. The development of serological and molecular tests has further enhanced the diagnostic approach of VL. Recombinant antigens have improved the performance of serodiagnostic tests, with DAT and the rK39 antigen based immunochromatographic test being the most appropriate methods for the serological diagnosis of VL. Molecular techniques, despite the fact that their implementation is often difficult and infeasible, have become increasingly relevant due to remarkable sensitivity and specificity, and to the variability of tested samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been shown to be superior than conventional PCR for the differentiation between active VL and asymptomatic infections, such as for the detection of VL-HIV coinfection. This review summarizes the available methods with their applications in the diagnosis of VL, and focuses on the recent developments in VL diagnostics. PMID:27004573

  15. Molluscan death effector domain (DED)-containing caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in apoptosis and immune signaling. In this study, we cloned the first death effector domain (DED)-containing molluscan caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), which is named as hdCaspase-8. The full-length hdCaspase was 2855 bp, with a 1908 bp open reading frame encoding 636 amino acids. The hdCaspase-8 had 72 kDa predicted molecular mass with an estimated isoelectric point (PI) of 6.0. The hdCaspase-8 amino acid sequence contained the characteristic feature of an N-terminal two DED, a C-terminal catalytic domain and the caspase family cysteine active site ⁵¹³KPKLFFLQACQG⁵²⁴. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that hdCaspase-8 is more similar to the invertebrate Tubifex tubifex (sludge worm) caspase-8. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that hdCaspase-8 constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissue of unchallenged disk abalone. The basal expression level of hdCaspase-8 in gill tissue was higher than all other tested tissues. The hdCaspase-8 mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes was significantly up-regulated by exposure to bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), as compared to control animals. These results suggest that hdCaspase-8 may be involved in immune response reactions in disk abalone. PMID:21130887

  16. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  17. The effects of intermittent exposure to low-pH and low-oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low-pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low-pH and/or low-oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low-pH (7.5, total scale) and low-O2 (40% saturation, mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h, twice over a 15-day period, juveniles experienced 5-20% higher mortality in the low-oxygen treatments compared to control conditions. Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low-oxygen and low-pH treatments. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when juveniles were exposed simultaneously to low-pH and low-O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low-oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas pH is a crucial factor for their growth. However, the high individual variation in growth rate under low levels of both pH and oxygen suggests that cryptic phenotypic plasticity may promote resistance to prolonged upwelling conditions by a portion of the population.

  18. Evidences for the involvement of an invertebrate goose-type lysozyme in disk abalone immunity: cloning, expression analysis and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Lysozymes are ubiquitously distributed enzymes with hydrolytic activity against bacterial peptidoglycan and function to protect organisms from microbial pathogens. In this study, an invertebrate goose-type lysozyme, designated as abLysG, was identified in the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The full-length cDNA of abLysG was 894 bp in length with an open reading frame of 789 bp encoding a polypeptide of 263 amino acids containing a signal peptide and a characteristic soluble lytic transglycosylase domain. Six cysteine residues and two catalytic residues (Glu(142) and Asp(168)) conserved among molluscs were also identified. The 3D homology structural models of abLysG and hen egg white lysozyme had similar conformations of the active sites involved in the binding of substrate. BAC sequence data revealed that the genomic structure of disk abalone g-type lysozyme comprises 7 exons with 6 intervening introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of abLysG shared 45.2-61.6% similarity with those of other molluscs and vertebrates. The TFSEARCH server predicted a variety of transcription factor-binding sites in the 5'-flanking region of the abLysG gene, some of which are involved in transcriptional regulation of the lysozyme gene. abLysG expression was detected in multiple tissues with the highest expression in mantle. Moreover, qPCR analysis of abLysG mRNA expression demonstrated significant up-regulation in gill in response to infection by live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia) and bacterial mimics (LPS and PGN). Expression of the recombinant disk abalone g-type lysozyme in Escherichia coli BL21, demonstrated its bacteriolytic activity against several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species. Collectively these data suggest that abLysG is an antimicrobial enzyme with a potential role in the disk abalone innate immune system to protect it from bacterial and viral infections. PMID:23973847

  19. Novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2013-12-01

    Leishmaniasis reveals itself in two forms, cutaneous and visceral, but the later exerts serious complications and may lead to death, if untreated. The availability of limited number of antileishmanial chemotherapeutic agents, the high cost of treatment, growing incidences of resistance to first line drugs as well as severe toxicities associated with the drugs complicate the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. To overcome these problems, critical investigation of new therapeutic strategies with potential antileishmanial activity and good tolerability are essential. In this review we explore the different facets of novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with a purpose to summarize all the possible treatment tactics, which will help scientists working in this arena to implement their research in a systematic manner. PMID:23973338

  20. [Visceral larva migrans. A rare cause of eosinophilia in adults].

    PubMed

    Lund-Tønnesen, S

    1996-09-20

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan infection of dogs and cats with a roundworm resembling Ascaris. Man becomes infected by ingesting eggs from the environment. The infection occurs mainly in children. There are two distinct syndromes: visceral larva migrans and ocular toxocariasis. The author describes the case of a 70 year old Norwegian female with visceral larva migrans. One month after a visit to Spain she developed fever, hepatomegaly and marked eosinophilia. Liver biopsy revealed subacute hepatitis with eosinophilic leucocyte infiltration. Toxocara ELISA was strongly positive. Treatment with albendazol 400 mg b.i.d. and prednisone 10 mg daily for three weeks was successful. A clinical relapse after three months was treated in the same way for one month. Prolonged treatment is recommended. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of visceral larva migrans in an adult Norwegian. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. PMID:8928142

  1. Visceral organ cross-sensitization – an integrated perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brumovsky, P.R.; Gebhart, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Viscero-somatic referral and sensitization has been well documented clinically and widely investigated, whereas viscero-visceral referral and sensitization (termed cross-organ sensitization) has only recently received attention as important to visceral disease states. Because second order neurons in the CNS have been extensively shown to receive convergent input from different visceral organs, it has been assumed that cross-organ sensitization arises by the same convergence-projection mechanism as advanced for viscero-somatic referral and sensitization. However, increasing evidence also suggests participation of peripheral mechanisms to explain referral and sensitization. We briefly summarize behavioral, morphological and physiological support of and focus on potential mechanisms underlying cross-organ sensitization. PMID:19679518

  2. Measures to Control Phlebotomus argentipes and Visceral Leishmaniasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, DeAnna C.; Poché, Richard M.; Garlapati, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease that is transmitted via the bite of a female sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. The highest burden of this disease is in northern India. In 2005, India embarked on an initiative with Nepal, Bangladesh, and the World Health Organization to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis by 2015. With the goal of 1 case in 10,000 people still unmet, it is prudent to evaluate the tools that have been used thus far to reduce vector numbers and cases of the disease. Herein, we present a review of studies conducted on vector-control strategies in India to combat visceral leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, environmental modification, and feed-through insecticides. This review suggests that the quality of indoor residual spraying may enhance control measures while a combination of spraying, nets, and feed-through insecticides would best confront the diverse habitats of P. argentipes. PMID:27308270

  3. Glucagon-Induced Vasospasm of Hepatic Artery Branches During Visceral Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dziedzic, T. Scott; Smith, Tony P.

    2008-07-15

    Glucagon is often used in radiology to decrease bowel motility for enhanced imaging, including visceral digital subtraction angiography. We present a case in which branch hepatic artery vasospasm followed the intravenous administration of glucagon during visceral angiography.

  4. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n = 670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n = 50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  5. [Visceral leishmaniasis in children in the province of Florence].

    PubMed

    Calabri, G B; Casini, T; Cristiano, R; Pasquini, E; La Cauza, F; Lippi, A; Grifi, G; Cocchi, P; Calabri, G

    1997-01-01

    Three cases of visceral leishmaniasis are presented: two children who got the disease in Florence and the imported case of a girl coming from Albania with her disease in act. The diagnosis was made showing Leishmania in bone marrow specimen. Therapy with melglumine antimonate was effective and well borne, leading the three children to a complete healing. In the province of Florence visceral leishmaniasis is very rare, but such protozoa and the sand flies are present as shown by the high number of dog with leishmaniasis. PMID:9595582

  6. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26718326

  7. Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-08-01

    Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T)  = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455). PMID:21984666

  8. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens. PMID:25463284

  9. The pathology associated with visceral toxicosis of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC) syndrome was recognized in the late 1990s and recently has been associated with exposure to Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin. Tentative diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and ross findings, and is confirmed by bioassay. In April 2009, channel cat...

  10. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle but to our knowledge no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal and uterine p...

  11. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  12. Obesity reduces methionine sulfoxide reductase activity in visceral adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral obesity is linked to the development of comorbidities including insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of oxidative stress are observed in obese individuals and in animal models of obesity, pointing to a mechanistic role of oxidative stress. A recent genetic study in...

  13. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  14. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  15. Visceral obesity: A new risk factor for stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Akarken, Ilker; Tarhan, Hüseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Çakmak, Özgür; Koç, Gökan; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the relationship between stone disease and the amount of visceral adipose tissue measured with unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: We included 149 patients with complaints of flank pain and kidney stones detected by CT, from August 2012 to April 2013. In addition, as the control group we included 139 healthy individuals, with flank pain within the same time period, with no previous history of urological disease and no current kidney stones identified by CT. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, body mass index, amount of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and serum level of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Results: There were no differences between groups in terms of gender and age (p = 0.27 and 0.06, respectively). Respective measurements for the stone and control groups for body mass index were 29.1 and 27.6 kg/m2; for visceral fat measurement 186.0 and 120.2 cm2; and for subcutaneous fat measurements 275.9 and 261.9 cm2 (p = 0.01; 0.01 and 0.36, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, the following factors were identified as increasing the risk of kidney stone formation: hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.001), and ratio of visceral fat tissue to subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01). Our study has its limitations, including its retrospective nature, its small sample size, possible selection bias, and missing data. The lack of stone composition data is another major limitation of our study. Conclusion: The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue, in addition to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, was identified as an emerging factor in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:26600887

  16. Mechanism of acupuncture regulating visceral sensation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Rong, Peijing; Zhu, Bing; Li, Yuqing; Gao, Xinyan; Ben, Hui; Li, Yanhua; Li, Liang; He, Wei; Liu, Rupeng; Yu, Lingling

    2011-06-01

    Chinese ancient medical scientists have long focused on the internal and external contacts between acupoints on the surface of the body and the viscera. The Miraculous Pivot (it is one of the earliest medical classics in China) stated, "Twelve regular channels belong to the zang-fu organs internally, and connect to the extremities and joints externally." Traditional Chinese medicine considers acupoints as defined areas where the Qi of viscera and meridians are transfused. These include the reaction points of visceral diseases on the body surface as well as the acupuncture trigger points that promote the flow of Qi and blood, and regulate visceral function. Chinese ancient medical scientists classified the specificity of the main acupoints in the body based on the meridian doctrine, which has been instructing clinical application for about 2000 years. Laws on the domino effect of acupoints have mainly focused on conclusions to clinical experiences. Indications of some acupoints exceed the practical paradigm since the excessive extension occurred during theory derivation. The current research direction on acupuncture focuses on three aspects: the effectiveness of acupuncture and moxibustion; the relevances and associations between meridians and viscera; and the physical and chemical properties and relevant physical basis of acupoints. The relevance between meridians and viscera is the central theory in the meridian doctrine, and acupoints are regarded as an important link in the relationship between meridians and viscera. Specific relationships between acupoints and target organs exist. Stimulating different acupoints on the body surface can help deal with different diseases, especially visceral diseases. In addition, acupoints have a dual function of reflecting and treating visceral diseases. There is no systemic research available on acupoint specificity, despite current knowledge and clinical experiences, which results in a weak foundation for acupuncture theory

  17. Ginger and Its Pungent Constituents Non-Competitively Inhibit Serotonin Currents on Visceral Afferent Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun; Kim, Sojin; Park, Cheung-Seog; Park, Yong Seek

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and emesis are a major side effect and obstacle for chemotherapy in cancer patients. Employ of antiemetic drugs help to suppress chemotherapy-induced emesis in some patients but not all patients. Ginger, an herbal medicine, has been traditionally used to treat various kinds of diseases including gastrointestinal symptoms. Ginger is effective in alleviating nausea and emesis, particularly, for cytotoxic chemotherapy drug-induced emesis. Ginger-mediated antiemetic effect has been attributed to its pungent constituents-mediated inhibition of serotonin (5-HT) receptor activity but its cellular mechanism of action is still unclear. Emetogenic chemotherapy drugs increase 5-HT concentration and activate visceral vagal afferent nerve activity. Thus, 5-HT mediated vagal afferent activation is essential to provoke emesis during chemotherapy. In this experiment, water extract of ginger and its three major pungent constituent's effect on 5-HT-evoked responses were tested on acutely dispersed visceral afferent neurons with patch-clamp methods. The ginger extract has similar effects to antiemetic drug ondansetron by blocking 5-HT-evoked responses. Pungent constituents of the ginger, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, and zingerone inhibited 5-HT responses in a dose dependent manner. The order of inhibitory potency for these compounds were [6]-shogaol>[6]-gingerol>zingerone. Unlike well-known competitive 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, all tested ginger constituents acted as non-competitive antagonist. Our results imply that ginger and its pungent constituents exert antiemetic effects by blocking 5-HT-induced emetic signal transmission in vagal afferent neurons. PMID:24757377

  18. Ginger and its pungent constituents non-competitively inhibit serotonin currents on visceral afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun; Kim, Sojin; Park, Cheung-Seog; Park, Yong Seek; Jin, Young-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Nausea and emesis are a major side effect and obstacle for chemotherapy in cancer patients. Employ of antiemetic drugs help to suppress chemotherapy-induced emesis in some patients but not all patients. Ginger, an herbal medicine, has been traditionally used to treat various kinds of diseases including gastrointestinal symptoms. Ginger is effective in alleviating nausea and emesis, particularly, for cytotoxic chemotherapy drug-induced emesis. Ginger-mediated antiemetic effect has been attributed to its pungent constituents-mediated inhibition of serotonin (5-HT) receptor activity but its cellular mechanism of action is still unclear. Emetogenic chemotherapy drugs increase 5-HT concentration and activate visceral vagal afferent nerve activity. Thus, 5-HT mediated vagal afferent activation is essential to provoke emesis during chemotherapy. In this experiment, water extract of ginger and its three major pungent constituent's effect on 5-HT-evoked responses were tested on acutely dispersed visceral afferent neurons with patch-clamp methods. The ginger extract has similar effects to antiemetic drug ondansetron by blocking 5-HT-evoked responses. Pungent constituents of the ginger, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, and zingerone inhibited 5-HT responses in a dose dependent manner. The order of inhibitory potency for these compounds were [6]-shogaol>[6]-gingerol>zingerone. Unlike well-known competitive 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, all tested ginger constituents acted as non-competitive antagonist. Our results imply that ginger and its pungent constituents exert antiemetic effects by blocking 5-HT-induced emetic signal transmission in vagal afferent neurons. PMID:24757377

  19. Molecular insights into a molluscan transferrin homolog identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) evidencing its detectable role in host antibacterial defense.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M L P B; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-11-01

    The basic function of transferrin is to bind iron (III) ions in the medium and to deliver them to the locations where they are required for metabolic processes. It also takes part in the host immune defense mainly via its ability to bind to iron (III) ions. Hence, transferrin is also identified as an important acute-phase protein in host immunity. Abalones are major shellfish aquaculture crops that are susceptible to a range of marine microbial infections. Since transferrin is known to be a major player in innate immunity, in the present study we sought to identify, and molecularly and functionally characterize a transferrin-like gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) named as AbTrf. AbTrf consisted of a 2187-bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a 728 amino acid (aa) protein. The putative amino acid sequence of AbTrf harbored N- and C-terminal transferrin-like domains, active sites for iron binding, and conserved cysteine residues. A constitutive tissue specific AbTrf expression pattern was detected by qPCR in abalones where mantle and muscle showed high AbTrf expression levels. Three immune challenge experiments were conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and LPS as stimuli and, subsequently, AbTrf mRNA expression levels were quantified in gill and hemocytes in a time-course manner. The mRNA expression was greatly induced in both tissues in response to both challenges. Evidencing the functional property of transferrins, recombinant AbTrf N-terminal domain (AbTrf-N) showed dose-dependent iron (III) binding activity detected by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay system. Moreover, recombinant AbTrf-N could significantly inhibit the growth of iron-dependent bacterium, Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner. However, AbTrf-N was unable to show any detectable bacteriostatic activity against iron-independent bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) even at its highest concentration. Collectively, our results suggest that Ab

  20. Uteroplacental Insufficiency Increases Visceral Adiposity and Visceral Adipose PPARγ2 Expression in Male Rat Offspring Prior to the Onset of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Joss-Moore, Lisa A; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S; Moore, Barry; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; McKnight, Robert A; Desai, Mina; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Lane, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes individuals to adult onset metabolic morbidities, including insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. An underlying component of the development of these morbidities is adipose dysfunction; specifically a disproportionately abundant visceral adipose tissue. We hypothesize that IUGR will increase rats visceral adiposity and visceral expression of PPARγ, a key regulator of adipogenesis. To test this hypothesis we employed a well described UPI induced IUGR rat model. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose levels were measured in adolescent control and IUGR rats using MRI. Expression of PPARγ mRNA and protein, as well as PPARγ target genes, was measured in neonatal, adolescent and adult rats. UPI induced IUGR increases the relative amount of visceral adipose tissue in male, but not female, adolescent rats in conjunction with an increase in PPARγ2mRNA and protein in male visceral adipose. Importantly, these effects are seen prior to the onset of overt obesity. We conclude that increased PPARγ2 expression in VAT of IUGR males is associated with increased visceral adiposity. We speculate that the increase in visceral adiposity may contribute to the metabolic morbidities experienced by this population. PMID:20227202

  1. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Jingfeng; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Dayong; Qiao, Weizhou; Zhu, Ce; Liu, Shuyin; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity. PMID:27338320

  2. Transovarian passage, visceral distribution, and pathogenicity of salmonella in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Chiodini, R J

    1982-01-01

    Transovarian passage of salmonella was evaluated in snakes by cesarean delivery and subsequent bacteriological examination of fetuses. In all cases, the same Salmonella serotype was isolated from the feces of gravid females and their fetuses. The visceral distribution of salmonella in normal snakes was found to involve almost all visceral organs. Of nonenteric organs examined, salmonella was recovered most often from the livers and ureters. Experimental infections with Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella arizonae were established by oral, intracardial, and intracoelomic routes. Animals infected orally shed the organism in feces, but did not develop humoral antibodies or any detectable adverse effect. Animals injected by the intracardiac and intracoelomic routes developed antibody titers of 1:256 to the respective salmonella serotypes, but remained normal throughout the experiment. On the basis of results, salmonella was regarded as an opportunistic organism in reptiles. PMID:7044975

  3. Host resistance to visceral leishmaniasis: prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Maran, Naiara; Gomes, Pollyanna Stephanie; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the vector-borne Leishmania donovani and Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi parasites. The disease affects about 12 million humans in more than 90 countries worldwide. If not treated, the visceral form of Leishmania infection is potentially fatal, yielding about 50000 deaths per year. In the vertebrate host, the Leishmania species causing VL spread systematically to propagate in macrophage reservoirs distributed in the tissues of internal organs, primarily the liver, spleen, bone marrow and the lymph nodes. The infection is associated with evolved mechanisms from the parasite to subvert the host immune system in order to establish a persistent infection. Currently, efforts are being deployed to develop new anti-leishmanial therapies in VL combining immunomodulatory treatment regimens that burst the host immune responses together with leishmanicidal drugs that target the parasite growth. Discoveries in this field are discussed in this article. PMID:26934623

  4. Visceral Leishmaniasis with Endobronchial Involvement in an Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kotsifas, Konstantinos; Metaxas, Eugenios; Koutsouvelis, Ioannis; Skoutelis, Athanassios; Kara, Panayiota; Tatsis, George

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement. PMID:21577261

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis with endobronchial involvement in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Kotsifas, Konstantinos; Metaxas, Eugenios; Koutsouvelis, Ioannis; Skoutelis, Athanassios; Kara, Panayiota; Tatsis, George

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement. PMID:21577261

  6. Rapid tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with suspected disease

    PubMed Central

    Boelaert, Marleen; Verdonck, Kristien; Menten, Joris; Sunyoto, Temmy; van Griensven, Johan; Chappuis, Francois; Rijal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in patients with fever and a large spleen relies on showing Leishmania parasites in tissue samples and on serological tests. Parasitological techniques are invasive, require sophisticated laboratories, consume time, or lack accuracy. Recently, rapid diagnostic tests that are easy to perform have become available. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for diagnosing VL in patients with suspected disease presenting at health services in endemic areas. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CIDG SR, CENTRAL, SCI-expanded, Medion, Arif, CCT, and the WHO trials register on 3 December 2013, without applying language or date limits. Selection criteria This review includes original, phase III, diagnostic accuracy studies of rapid tests in patients clinically suspected to have VL. As reference standards, we accepted: (1) direct smear or culture of spleen aspirate; (2) composite reference standard based on one or more of the following: parasitology, serology, or response to treatment; and (3) latent class analysis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed quality of included studies using the QUADAS-2 tool. Discrepancies were resolved by a third author. We carried out a meta-analysis to estimate sensitivity and specificity of rapid tests, using a bivariate normal model with a complementary log-log link function. We analysed each index test separately. As possible sources of heterogeneity, we explored: geographical area, commercial brand of index test, type of reference standard, disease prevalence, study size, and risk of bias (QUADAS-2). We also undertook a sensitivity analysis to assess the influence of imperfect reference standards. Main results Twenty-four studies containing information about five index tests (rK39 immunochromatographic test (ICT), KAtex latex agglutination test in urine, FAST agglutination test, rK26 ICT, and r

  7. First Case of Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania martiniquensis

    PubMed Central

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  8. First case of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis.

    PubMed

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  9. TRPV1 sensitization mediates postinflammatory visceral pain following acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Tamia K; Basso, Lilian; Iftinca, Mircea C; Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Dietrich, Gilles; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Altier, Christophe

    2015-07-15

    Quiescent phases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often accompanied by chronic abdominal pain. Although the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel has been postulated as an important mediator of visceral hypersensitivity, its functional role in postinflammatory pain remains elusive. This study aimed at establishing the role of TRPV1 in the peripheral sensitization underlying chronic visceral pain in the context of colitis. Wild-type and TRPV1-deficient mice were separated into three groups (control, acute colitis, and recovery), and experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Recovery mice showed increased chemically and mechanically evoked visceral hypersensitivity 5 wk post-DSS discontinuation, at which point inflammation had completely resolved. Significant changes in nonevoked pain-related behaviors could also be observed in these animals, indicative of persistent discomfort. These behavioral changes correlated with elevated colonic levels of substance P (SP) and TRPV1 in recovery mice, thus leading to the hypothesis that SP could sensitize TRPV1 function. In vitro experiments revealed that prolonged exposure to SP could indeed sensitize capsaicin-evoked currents in both cultured neurons and TRPV1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, a mechanism that involved TRPV1 ubiquitination and subsequent accumulation at the plasma membrane. Importantly, although TRPV1-deficient animals experienced similar disease severity and pain as wild-type mice in the acute phase of colitis, TRPV1 deletion prevented the development of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity and pain-associated behaviors. Collectively, our results suggest that chronic exposure of colon-innervating primary afferents to SP could sensitize TRPV1 and thus participate in the establishment of persistent abdominal pain following acute inflammation. PMID:26021808

  10. Antiactin and antitubulin antibodies in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Pateraki, E; Portocala, R; Labrousse, H; Guesdon, J L

    1983-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic and often fatal disease, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Both specific and nonspecific antibodies are produced in the course of the disease, and autoantibodies may be involved in pathogenesis. Tubulin and actin have been found to be associated with L. donovani. To learn whether antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in visceral leishmaniasis, we tested sera from 263 infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to the antigens L. donovani, actin, and tubulin. All samples reacted positively with L. donovani, and a high percentage reacted positively with all three antigens. Sera from 202 uninfected dogs were also tested, none reacted with L. donovani antigen, although positive reactions were observed for 8 of the samples with actin or tubulin. It was found that the antibody-antigen reaction occurred at the Fab portion of the immunoglobulin molecule. Competitive enzyme immunoassays showed that the reaction was inhibited if the positive serum was first incubated with L. donovani antigen, actin, or tubulin and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in the sera of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:6642639

  11. Liver morphology and function in visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar).

    PubMed Central

    el Hag, I A; Hashim, F A; el Toum, I A; Homeida, M; el Kalifa, M; el Hassan, A M

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To study the morphology and function of the liver in visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar). METHODS--Percutaneous liver biopsy specimens from 18 patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis were examined under light and electron microscopy before and after treatment with pentovalent antimony. The tissue was also examined for hepatitis B surface and core antigens using immunoperoxidase staining. Liver function was investigated in nine patients before and after treatment. RESULTS--Specimens before treatment showed Kupffer cells and macrophages colonised by leishmania parasites in 40% of cases. A chronic mononuclear cell infiltrate had affected the portal tracts and lobules. Ballooning degeneration of the hepatocytes, fibrosis of the terminal hepatic venules, and pericellular fibrosis were common findings. The fibrosis was related to Ito cells transforming to fibroblast-like cells. None of the patients had hepatitis B infection. All patients had biochemical evidence of liver dysfunction before treatment. Liver function improved after treatment. CONCLUSION--Visceral leishmaniasis causes morphological and functional disturbance in the liver. Focal fibrosis rather than cirrhosis occurs. The exact aetiology of hepatic damage is unclear but may have an immunological basis. Images PMID:8063939

  12. Blood-brain barrier disruption during spontaneous canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, G D; Grano, F G; Silva, J E S; Kremer, B E; Lima, V M F; Machado, G F

    2015-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a complex disease caused by Leishmania infantum, and in dogs, besides the classical symptoms, there are descriptions of inflammatory alterations in the brain. Brain inflammation is a strictly controlled process, and as the brain counts on the efficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we aimed to assess BBB integrity in dogs with spontaneous visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, we evaluated markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in brain tissue related to BBB disruption and brain inflammation. Elevated albumin quota revealed BBB breakdown, corroborated by increased concentrations of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the CSF. In the brain, albumin and IgG staining formed halos around blood vessels, a classical indicator of BBB leakage. Soluble IgG was also detected in the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in these structures, IgG stained random resident cells. IgG(+) cells and Fcγ-RI(+) cells were identified in the choroid plexus, ependyma and perivascular in the brain parenchyma. The data support the occurrence of BBB disruption in dogs with spontaneous visceral leishmaniasis, and IgG as a key molecule that is capable of initiating and/or maintaining the inflammatory stimuli in the nervous milieu and the CSF as an important disseminator of inflammatory stimuli within the CNS. PMID:26434684

  13. [From unexplained fever to visceral leishmaniasis--a case report].

    PubMed

    Marković, Ivan; Gudelj-Gracanin, Ana; Culo, Melanie-Ivana; Stoos-Veić, Tajana; Vicković, Ninoslava; Desnica, Bosko; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a systemic infectious vector-borne disease caused by protozoa Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum that are transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand flies. It occurrs sporadically in endemic areas, including Mediterranean basin. Southern coastal territories of Croatia have been recognized as the foci of the disease. Dogs are the main reservoir of human infection. Clinical features include prolonged fever, malaise, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and inversion of albumin-globulin ratio. If left untreated, the disease causes death in majority of cases. We report a 47-year-old Croatian patient who was admitted to hospital with 2-month history of fever of unknown origin. Based on bone marrow aspirate findings and positive serological tests, the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was established. We also considered secondary hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis in the differential diagnosis. After a 4-week treatment with sodium-stibogluconate clinical remission was achieved as well as complete recovery of hematopoesis. The aim of our case-report is to stress the importance of considering visceral leishmaniasis in patients with longstanding fever in endemic areas. PMID:24720151

  14. Association of resistin with visceral fat and muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Conover, Christine F; Bagby, Gregory J

    2005-10-01

    Maturing Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats develop obesity and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. To investigate the relationship between fat mass and insulin responses, we performed surgical removal of the epididymal and retroperitoneal depots of visceral adipose tissue (VF) or sham surgery (SHAM) in male rats aged 4 months. At sacrifice, 30 days later, the mass of visceral fat was 48% lower (p<0.05) in VF- compared to SHAM, while subcutaneous fat was essentially unchanged. VF- animals displayed increased insulin responses in isolated strips of skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was increased 28% in soleus muscle (p<0.05), with a trend toward a 31% increase in extensor digitorum longus muscle (p=0.058). Glucose tolerance was not significantly affected by surgical fat removal. In VF- animals, serum resistin was reduced 26% (p<0.05) and serum adiponectin was reduced 30% (p<0.05), with trends for reductions in IL-4 (58% reduction, p=0.084) and IL-6 (56% reduction, p=0.123). TNF-alpha, leptin and free fatty acids (NEFAs) were unchanged. We conclude that in maturing S-D rats, increased visceral adiposity leads to an increase in systemic release in resistin and possibly interleukins. Elevation of circulating cytokines may play a role in the development of muscle insulin resistance. PMID:16154759

  15. Evaluation of antileishmanial potential of Tinospora sinensis against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nasib; Kumar, Awanish; Gupta, Prasoon; Chand, Kailash; Samant, Mukesh; Maurya, Rakesh; Dube, Anuradha

    2008-02-01

    The chemotherapeutic interventions against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are limited and facing serious concerns of toxicity, high cost, and emerging drug resistance. There is a greater interest in new drug developments from traditionally used medicinal plants which offers unprecedented diversity in structures and bioactivity. With this rationale, ethanolic extract of Tinospora sinensis Linn and its four fractions were tested in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and in vivo in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters. Ethanolic extract exhibited an appreciable activity against promastigotes (IC(50) 37.6+/-6.2 microg/ml) and intracellular amastigotes (IC(50) 29.8+/-3.4 microg/ml). In hamsters, it resulted in 76.2+/-9.2% inhibition at 500 mg/kg/day x 5 oral dose level. Among fractions, n-butanol imparted highest in vitro and in vivo activities. Ethanolic extract and butanol fraction also enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) release. The results indicate that T. sinensis may provide new lead molecules for the development of alternative drugs against VL. PMID:18080140

  16. First report on the gastropod proapoptotic AIF3 counterpart from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) deciphering its transcriptional modulation by induced pathogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein that is involved in oxidative phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. There are three isozymes of AIF that have been identified to date, designated as AIF1, AIF2, and AIF3; the human AIF3 is also known as an AIF-like protein (AIFL). This study aimed to identify and characterize a homologue of AIF3 from disk abalone (AbAIF3) that belongs to the phylum Mollusca. The open reading frame (ORF) of AbAIF3 is 1749 base pairs (bp) in length and encodes a protein of 583 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 63.14 kDa. Based on our in-silico analysis, the AbAIF3 protein harbored the typical domain architecture as that of the known AIF family proteins, consisting of N-terminal Rieske and pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain. Comparative protein sequence analysis confirmed that AbAIF3 is a homolog of AIF3. Moreover, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that AbAIF3 had a close evolutionary relationship with the molluscan counterparts. Interestingly, AbAIF3 was shown to induce apoptosis in HEK293T cells using transfection assays followed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, we found that AbAIF3 mRNA expression was ubiquitous in physiologically important tissues, and significantly modulated upon experimental immune stimulations in hemocytes. Collectively, our study illustrates the indispensable role of AbAIF3 in inducing apoptosis in disk abalones, which in turn might be involved in hosts' immune defense mechanisms against microbial infections. PMID:26455649

  17. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. PMID:26672903

  18. Two variants of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Whang, Ilson; Won, Seung Hwan; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an essential member of the antioxidant systems of living organisms and may be involved in immune defense against pathogenic invasion. In the current study, two selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (AbSeGPxs) that shared 54.3% identity were identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The open reading frames (ORFs) of AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b coded for 222 and 220 amino acids, respectively, with a characteristic selenocysteine residue encoded by an opal stop codon (TGA). The conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element was predicted in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of both isoforms, and they were found to form two stem-loop structures. Amino acid comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the AbSeGPxs were closely related to those in other mollusk species and were evolutionarily distinct from those of other taxonomic groups. The SYBR Green qPCR was employed in investigating the transcripts of AbSeGPxs. The expression of AbSeGPxs mRNA was examined in different embryonic developmental stages and differential expression patterns for AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b were noted. Meanwhile, the highest expression of AbSeGPxs was detected in the hepatopancreas of healthy adult animals. Next, transcriptional levels were profiled in hemocytes of adults to determine the immune responses of AbSeGPxs to microbial infections. The results revealed the significant up-regulation of AbSeGPx-a in a time-dependent manner after bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infections. Consequently, these findings indicate that AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b might be involved in the embryonic development of disk abalone and the regulation of immune defense system of adult animals. PMID:26025184

  19. Validation of a short-term toxicity test endpoint by comparison with longer-term effects on larval red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, P.T.; Hunt, J.W.; Anderson, B.S.

    1996-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare a short-term 48-h aquatic toxicity test endpoint of abnormal larval shell development with other, more clearly adverse effects. In similar experiments conducted with two different toxicants, zinc sulfate and bleached-kraft mill effluent, red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) embryos were simultaneously exposed to identical dilution series and incubated for three different exposure periods: 48 h, 48 h followed by an 8-d recovery period in clean seawater, and 10 d of continuous exposure. Abnormal larval shell development was assessed in the 48-h short-term tests, and inhibition of metamorphosis was assessed in the exposure-recovery and continuous exposure experiments. For the zinc experiments, the median effective concentration (EC50) values for the 48-h exposure, the exposure-recovery experiment, and the continuous exposure experiment were 40, 34, and 32 {micro}g/L zinc, respectively. For the bleached-kraft mill effluent experiments, the EC50 values were 0.98, 0.76, and 0.69% effluent, respectively. Results indicate that toxicant concentrations causing abnormal larval shell development also inhibit metamorphosis and that larvae exposed to toxicant concentrations which inhibit larval shell development do not recover to metamorphose when transferred to clean seawater. None of the successfully metamorphosed postlarvae had deformed larval shells, indicating that shell deformity precludes survival past the planktonic stage. A longer (15-d) experiment allowed measurement of postlarval shell length in exposed postmetamorphic abalone. Insignificant differences in postlarval shell length indicated that the timing of larval metamorphosis was similar regardless of toxicant exposure and that the effects of the toxicant was to inhibit rather than to delay metamorphosis.

  20. Novel Approaches to Targeting Visceral and Hepatic Adiposities in HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tien, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Visceral and hepatic adiposities have been associated with both cardiovascular and liver disease and are of concern in HIV-infected persons in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). The development of therapeutic targets to reduce visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons has been slow, because of early reports that attributed the excess adiposity to specific antiretroviral drugs. Visceral adiposity was initially thought to occur as part of a protease inhibitor-induced "HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome." Subsequent studies show that visceral adiposity is likely a result of effective ART, recovery of health, and the normal aging process. Visceral adiposity is an established risk factor for hepatic adiposity. Identifying drug targets for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is under active investigation. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the pathogenesis of visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons, current therapeutic strategies, and novel interventions in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. PMID:26493063

  1. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have different origins and evidence supports a mesothelial source

    PubMed Central

    Chau, You-Ying; Bandiera, Roberto; Serrels, Alan; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Qing, Wei; Lee, Martin; Slight, Joan; Thornburn, Anna; Berry, Rachel; McHaffie, Sophie; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Chapuli, Ramon Muñoz; Schedl, Andreas; Hastie, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by the obesity epidemic, there is considerable interest in the developmental origins of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the stem/progenitor cells from which it arises. While increased visceral fat mass is associated with metabolic dysfunction, increased subcutaneous WAT is protective. There are 6 visceral fat depots: perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric and it is a subject of much debate whether these have common developmental origins and whether this differs from subcutaneous WAT. Here we show that all 6 visceral WAT depots receive a significant contribution from cells expressing Wt1 late in gestation. Conversely, no subcutaneous WAT or brown adipose tissue (BAT) arises from Wt1 expressing cells. Postnatally, a subset of visceral WAT continues to arise from Wt1 expressing cells, consistent with the finding that Wt1 marks a proportion of cell populations enriched in WAT progenitors. We show all visceral fat depots have a mesothelial layer like the visceral organs with which they are associated and provide several lines of evidence that Wt1 expressing mesothelium can produce adipocytes. These results: reveal a major ontogenetic difference between visceral and subcutaneous WAT; pinpoint the lateral plate mesoderm as a major source of visceral WAT; support the notion that visceral WAT progenitors are heterogeneous; and suggest that mesothelium is a source of adipocytes. PMID:24609269

  2. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot. PMID:9215270

  3. [Pseudotumoral-like recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in a seven-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, E; Blanchet, C; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Coste, V; Dereure, J; Rodière, M

    2009-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic around Mediterranean and is considered by certain authors as an opportunist disease. We report on the case of a 7-year-old girl treated by anti-TNF for an idiopathic juvenile arthritis which has presented a visceral leishmaniasis. Four years later, she presented a pseudotumoral-like recurrence located in a nasal mucous membrane. Leishmania infantum is classically responsible for visceral leishmaniasis but pure mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has been described. It is, for our knowledge, the first observation of a recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in a mucocutaneous location. Atypical leishmaniasis in the endemic zones can appear in immunodepressed patients and must be evoked when in doubt. PMID:19836676

  4. Cortical processing of visceral and somatic stimulation: differentiating pain intensity from unpleasantness.

    PubMed

    Dunckley, P; Wise, R G; Aziz, Q; Painter, D; Brooks, J; Tracey, I; Chang, L

    2005-01-01

    Visceral and somatic pain perception differs in several aspects: poor localization of visceral pain and the ability of visceral pain to be referred to somatic structures. The perception of pain intensity and affect in visceral and somatic pain syndromes is often different, with visceral pain reported as more unpleasant. To determine whether these behavioral differences are due to differences in the central processing of visceral and somatic pain, non-invasive imaging tools are required to examine the neural correlates of visceral and somatic events when the behavior has been isolated and matched for either unpleasantness or pain intensity. In this study we matched the unpleasantness of somatic and visceral sensations and imaged the neural representation of this perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 healthy right-handed subjects. Each subject received noxious thermal stimuli to the left foot and midline lower back and balloon distension of the rectum while being scanned. Stimuli were matched to the same unpleasantness rating, producing mild-moderate pain intensity for somatic stimuli but an intensity below the pain threshold for the visceral stimuli. Visceral stimuli induced deactivation of the perigenual cingulate bilaterally with a relatively greater activation of the right anterior insula-i.e. regions encoding affect. Somatic pain induced left dorso-lateral pre-frontal cortex and bilateral inferior parietal cortex activation i.e. regions encoding spatial orientation and assessing perceptual valence of the stimulus. We believe that the observed patterns of activation represent the differences in cortical process of interoceptive (visceral) and exteroceptive (somatic) stimuli when matched for unpleasantness. PMID:15896917

  5. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ≤1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  6. Antissaliva Antibodies of Lutzomyia Longipalpis in area of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Thiago Leite; Fernandes, Magda Freitas; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Levay, Ana Paula Silva; Almeida da Cunha, Elenice Brandão; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of antissaliva antibodies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in human hosts living in area of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the Center-West region of Brazil. The presence of antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis exhibited a strong correlation with the protection and development of antibodies against Leishmania sp. Of the 492 children studied, elevated antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis were detected in 38.4% of the participants. There was a higher percentage of positivity (64.7%) among children who exhibited anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies and among those who were positive in the delayed hypersensitivity test (34.8%). PMID:27093167

  7. IMMUNOLOGICAL GOINGS-ON IN VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Chronic, low-grade inflammation of visceral adipose tissue, and systemically, is a critical link between recent strikingly parallel rises in the incidence of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Macrophages have been recognized for some time to be critical participants in obesity-induced inflammation of adipose-tissue. Of late, a score of other cell-types of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system have been suggested to play a positive or negative role in adipose-tissue infiltrates. This piece reviews the existing data on these new participants; discusses experimental uncertainties, inconsistencies and complexities; and puts forward a minimalist synthetic scheme. PMID:23747244

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis with pleural effusion in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Senjuti; Saha, Moutushi; Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Jayati

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is usually characterized by splenomegaly, pallor and fever. Pleural effusion is an uncommon feature of this disease, which is encountered in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of VL with pleural effusion in an immunocompetent patient. Pulmonary symptoms in VL are usually related to bacterial lung infection, vagal nerve compression by splenomegaly, and hypoalbuminaemia with mild pulmonary edema. Our patient presented with cough and chest pain. The clinical features of this case were baffling since they mimicked that of pulmonary tuberculosis. This case report emphasizes the need to recognize the diverse nature of presentation of this curable yet fatal infectious disease. PMID:24669085

  9. Health and survival of red abalone Haliotis rufescens from San Miguel Island, California, USA, in a laboratory simulation of La Niña and El Niño conditions.

    PubMed

    Moore, James D; Marshman, Blythe C; Chun, Calvin S Y

    2011-06-01

    The variability in Southern California's marine climate is dominated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, with cycling between El Niño events (characterized by warm water, low productivity, and frequent storms) and La Niña events (which exhibit the opposite conditions). Relative to the mainland and other Channel Islands, San Miguel Island (SMI) consistently maintains cooler water temperatures and supports significant populations of red abalone Haliotis rufescens, presumably owing to increased food production and diminished expression of the bacterial disease known as withering syndrome. We conducted a laboratory experiment to examine the effects of La Niña and El Niño conditions on the health and survival of red abalone from SMI. Six replicate tanks per treatment, each containing six abalone, were subjected to one of the following three temperature regimes (treatments): Bodega Bay, California ambient (AMB; mean, 11.4 degrees C), SMI La Niña regime (LAN; mean, 13.8 degrees C), and SMI El Niño regime (ELN; mean, 16.5 degrees C). After 328 d, survival in the ELN treatment was significantly lower than in the AMB and LAN groups. A body condition index was significantly lower in the ELN group than in the AMB group, and the LAN group was in between. A visual score of body shrinkage was significantly higher in both the LAN and ELN groups than in the AMB group. Other clinical signs of withering syndrome and the prevalence and infection intensity of the causative agent, Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, increased as temperature increased in the three treatment groups from AMB to LAN to ELN, although the differences were not statistically significant. Generally, we found that increased temperature resulted in elevated disease expression, although less than observed in previous studies that used farmed abalone and higher, less variable temperature regimes. Water temperature modulates the effect of withering syndrome in wild red abalone, and very strong El Ni

  10. Autotomy of the Visceral mass in the feather star Himerometra robustipinna (Crinoidea, Comatulida).

    PubMed

    Bobrovskaya, Nadezhda V; Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-04-01

    The microanatomy of the attachment sites of the visceral mass to the calyx before and after visceral mass autotomy in the feather star Himerometra robustipinna was investigated. At the aboral site, the visceral mass is linked to the calyx by septa of the aboral coelom and is attached to the tegmen at the peripheral site. The connective tissue of the septa and tegmen contains cells resembling typical juxtaligamental cells of echinoderms, nerve cells, and bundles of axons. Visceral mass autotomy in H. robustipinna can be provoked by mechanical action and occurs relatively rapidly. Immediately after the visceral mass is gripped with forceps, the proximal pinnules are lowered and form a dense cluster covering the calyx. If the visceral mass is held for 20-30 s, the proximal pinnules are raised. At this time, the visceral mass has separated from the calyx and can be easily removed. During autotomy, the aboral coelomic septa are broken under the aboral wall of the subintestinal coelom, and the tegmen is ruptured at the interradii along the periphery of the calyx and at the base of the arms. The juxtaligamental cells probably participate in the alteration of the connective tissue and the breakage of the septa and tegmen. The granules of juxtaligamental cells swell, develop an electron-transparent halo, and are released into the extracellular matrix. In general, our results suggest that separation of the visceral mass in H. robustipinna is characterized by all the features of autotomy. PMID:24797090

  11. Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Toward Animal Models of Irritable-Bowel Syndrome and Associated Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Rachel D.; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent. PMID:25762939

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in a patient treated with infliximab followed by fatal consequences.

    PubMed

    Juzlova, Katerina; Votrubova, Jana; Kacerovska, Denisa; Lukas, Milan; Bortlik, Martin; Rohacova, Hana; Nohynkova, Eva; Vojackova, Nadezda; Fialova, Jorga; Hercogova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasitic flagellates of the genus Leishmania. The authors present a case of 44-year-old man with Crohn's disease treated successfully with infliximab. This case report shows rare visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in an immunocompromised patient. Skin manifestations may occur before or after the visceral infection and they are often diverse. PMID:24903470

  13. [Acute pericarditis and tamponade: An unusual revelation of a visceral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Thabouillot, O; Bouvier, F; Lupu, J; Charbonnel, A; Dumitrescu, N; Stefuriac, M; Godreuil, C; Ficko, C; Andriamanantena, D; Flateau, C; Rapp, C; Roche, N C

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a common pulmonary disease, which is still endemic in disadvantaged communities. Pericarditis is a rare but very lethal visceral localization. The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man, without neither medical history nor social risk, who presented a cardiac tamponade as the first and atypic manifestation of a visceral tuberculosis. PMID:26602745

  14. Reducing effect of feeding powdered nacre of Pinctada maxima on the visceral fat of rats.

    PubMed

    Shono, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ichiro; Aoyagi, Eriko; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Momoko; Urata, Mari; Sannomiya, Katsutaka; Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2008-10-01

    An abdominal fat accumulation complicated by high blood triglycerides is regarded as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Feeding powdered nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, resulted in reduced body weight, visceral fat amount, and blood triglyceride level without influencing the food intake, body length, or amount of muscular tissue, suggesting that nacre powder specifically could decrease visceral fat. PMID:18838791

  15. Regulation of PKC Mediated Signaling by Calcium during Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  16. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  17. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Algeria: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998–2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0–4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

  18. Regulation of PKC mediated signaling by calcium during visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  19. Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran. PMID:24808656

  20. Effects of xylitol on metabolic parameters and visceral fat accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Kikuko; Arai, Hidekazu; Uebanso, Takashi; Fukaya, Makiko; Koganei, Megumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Xylitol is widely used as a sweetener in foods and medications. Xylitol ingestion causes a small blood glucose rise, and it is commonly used as an alternative to high-energy supplements in diabetics. In previous studies, a xylitol metabolite, xylulose-5-phosphate, was shown to activate carbohydrate response element binding protein, and to promote lipogenic enzyme gene transcription in vitro; however, the effects of xylitol in vivo are not understood. Here we investigated the effects of dietary xylitol on lipid metabolism and visceral fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 0 g (control), 1.0 g/100 kcal (X1) or 2.0 g/100 kcal (X2) of xylitol. After the 8-week feeding period, visceral fat mass and plasma insulin and lipid concentrations were significantly lower in xylitol-fed rats than those in high-fat diet rats. Gene expression levels of ChREBP and lipogenic enzymes were higher, whereas the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding protein 1c was lower and fatty acid oxidation-related genes were significantly higher in the liver of xylitol-fed rats as compared with high-fat diet rats. In conclusion, intake of xylitol may be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity and metabolic abnormalities in rats with diet-induced obesity. PMID:21765599

  1. Transient receptor potential cation channels in visceral sensory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2014-01-01

    The extensive literature on this subject is in direct contrast to the limited range of clinical uses for ligands of the transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPs) in diseases of the viscera. TRPV1 is the most spectacular example of this imbalance, as it is in other systems, but it is nonetheless the only TRP target that is currently targeted clinically in bladder sensory dysfunction. It is not clear why this discrepancy exists, but a likely answer is in the promiscuity of TRPs as sensors and transducers for environmental mechanical and chemical stimuli. This review first describes the different sensory pathways from the viscera, and on which nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurones within these pathways TRPs are expressed. They not only fulfil roles as both mechano-and chemo-sensors on visceral afferents, but also form an effector mechanism for cell activation after activation of GPCR and cytokine receptors. Their role may be markedly changed in diseased states, including chronic pain and inflammation. Pain presents the most obvious potential for further development of therapeutic interventions targeted at TRPs, but forms of inflammation are emerging as likely to benefit also. However, despite much basic research, we are still at the beginning of exploring such potential in visceral sensory pathways. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24641218

  2. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  3. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:25082945

  4. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Liver Fat Accumulation According to Sex and Visceral Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Yoshiro; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Kubo, Takeshi; Chihara, Yuichi; Harada, Yuka; Murase, Kimihiko; Azuma, Masanori; Hamada, Satoshi; Hitomi, Takefumi; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Chiba, Tsutomu; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and liver fat accumulation have been frequently investigated because both morbidities are common. Visceral fat was reported to be closely related to OSA and liver fat accumulation. Recently, sex differences in the association between OSA and mortality have gained much attention. Objectives To investigate the associations among OSA, liver fat accumulation as determined by computed tomography, and visceral fat area and their sex differences. Methods Studied were 188 males and 62 females who consecutively underwent polysomnography and computed tomography. Results Although the apnea-hypopnea index was positively correlated with liver fat accumulation in the total males, none of the OSA-related factors was independently associated with liver fat accumulation in either the total male or female participants in the multivariate analyses. When performing subanalyses using a specific definition for Japanese of obesity or visceral obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 or visceral fat area ≥100 cm2), in only males without visceral obesity, percent sleep time with oxygen saturation <90%, in addition to BMI, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride values, was independently correlated with liver fat accumulation (R2 = 15.1%, P<0.001). In males, percent sleep time of oxygen saturation <90% was also a determining factor for alanine aminotransferase values regardless of visceral fat area. In contrast, OSA was not associated with liver fat accumulation or alanine aminotransferase values in females whether or not visceral obesity was absent. Conclusions Sex differences in the visceral fat-dependent impact of OSA on liver fat accumulation existed. Although the mechanisms are not known and ethnic differences may exist in addition to the specific criteria of visceral obesity in Japan, the treatment of male patients with OSA might be favorable from the viewpoint of preventing liver fat accumulation and liver

  5. Automated segmentation of cardiac visceral fat in low-dose non-contrast chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiting; Liang, Mingzhu; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac visceral fat was segmented from low-dose non-contrast chest CT images using a fully automated method. Cardiac visceral fat is defined as the fatty tissues surrounding the heart region, enclosed by the lungs and posterior to the sternum. It is measured by constraining the heart region with an Anatomy Label Map that contains robust segmentations of the lungs and other major organs and estimating the fatty tissue within this region. The algorithm was evaluated on 124 low-dose and 223 standard-dose non-contrast chest CT scans from two public datasets. Based on visual inspection, 343 cases had good cardiac visceral fat segmentation. For quantitative evaluation, manual markings of cardiac visceral fat regions were made in 3 image slices for 45 low-dose scans and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was computed. The automated algorithm achieved an average DSC of 0.93. Cardiac visceral fat volume (CVFV), heart region volume (HRV) and their ratio were computed for each case. The correlation between cardiac visceral fat measurement and coronary artery and aortic calcification was also evaluated. Results indicated the automated algorithm for measuring cardiac visceral fat volume may be an alternative method to the traditional manual assessment of thoracic region fat content in the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk.

  6. Roles of prefrontal cortex and paraventricular thalamus in affective and mechanical components of visceral nociception.

    PubMed

    Jurik, Angela; Auffenberg, Eva; Klein, Sabine; Deussing, Jan M; Schmid, Roland M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Thoeringer, Christoph K

    2015-12-01

    Visceral pain represents a major clinical challenge in the management of many gastrointestinal disorders, eg, pancreatitis. However, cerebral neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral nociception are poorly understood. As a representative model of visceral nociception, we applied cerulein hyperstimulation in C57BL6 mice to induce acute pancreatitis and performed a behavioral test battery and c-Fos staining of brains. We observed a specific pain phenotype and a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), the periaqueductal gray, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Using neuronal tracing, we observed projections of the PVT to cortical layers of the mPFC with contacts to inhibitory GABAergic neurons. These inhibitory neurons showed more activation after cerulein treatment suggesting thalamocortical "feedforward inhibition" in visceral nociception. The activity of neurons in pancreatitis-related pain centers was pharmacogenetically modulated by designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs, selectively and cell type specifically expressed in target neurons using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. Pharmacogenetic inhibition of PVT but not periaqueductal gray neurons attenuated visceral pain and induced an activation of the descending inhibitory pain pathway. Activation of glutamatergic principle neurons in the mPFC, but not inhibitory neurons, also reversed visceral nociception. These data reveal novel insights into central pain processing that underlies visceral nociception and may trigger the development of novel, potent centrally acting analgesic drugs. PMID:26262826

  7. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Concepción M.; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Tofe, Inés; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Cañete, Ramón; Gil, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT) is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT) between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples). Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05), 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2), oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1), adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1) and inflammation (ANXA1); by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity. PMID:25856673

  8. Molecular Evaluation of a Case of Visceral Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania tropica in Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    SARKARI, Bahador; BAVARSAD AHMADPOUR, Niloofar; MOSHFE, Abdolali; HAJJARAN, Homa

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) due to Leishmania tropica in a 50-year-old Iranian man lived in a VL-endemic area in southwest of Iran. The patient presented with a 3-month history of fever and splenomegaly. Clinical signs and serological findings were suggestive of VL. Spleen biopsy was taken from the patient and intracellular forms of Leishmania amastigotes was seen in Giemsa stained smears. The patient was treated with pentavalent antimonial compound with complete resolution of his systemic signs and symptoms. DNA was extracted from the microscopic slides of the spleen biopsy and the nagt (N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphate Transferase) gene of Leishmania was PCR-amplified. Sequence analysis of the PCR product demonstrated that the case has 99% identity with those of available sequences of L. tropica. Intra-species variation within isolate was 0–0.1%; whereas, inter-species differences of the isolate with those of L. major and L. infantum was significantly higher. PMID:27095980

  9. Visceral basidiobolomycosis: An overlooked infection in immunocompetent children

    PubMed Central

    Mandhan, Parkash; Hassan, Kamal Osman; Samaan, Sandra Moustafa; Ali, Mansour J

    2015-01-01

    Visceral basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal infection of viscera caused by saprophyte Basidiobolus ranarum. It is very rare in healthy children and poses a diagnostic challenge due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the absence of predisposing factors. We report a case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a 4-year-old healthy girl who presented with a short history of abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum, fever, and weight loss. The diagnosis was based on high eosinophilic count, classical histopathology findings of fungal hyphae (the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon), and positive fungal culture from a tissue biopsy. Fungal infection was successfully eradicated with a combined approach of surgical resection of the infected tissue and a well-monitored course of antifungal therapy. The atypical clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, and the role of surgery in the management of a rare and lethal fungal disease in an immunocompetent child are discussed. PMID:26612126

  10. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gidwani, Kamlesh; Rai, Madhukar; Chakravarty, Jaya; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of the leishmanin skin test (LST) in 50 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), 124 cured VL patients at different time intervals, 125 healthy controls from an endemic region (HEC), and 14 healthy controls from a non-endemic region (NEHC). The leishmanin antigen used was based on Leishmania major and was obtained from the Pasteur Institute (Iran). A positive LST was found in 14.0% of patients with active VL, 40.3% of cured patients, 21.6% of HECs, and 0% in NEHCs. The 14% positivity in patients with active VL conflicts with the widely held opinion that such patients should be negative because of anergy. Also, a lack of sensitivity of the LST was observed in cured VL patients. An LST antigen produced from L. donovani strains from India should be explored. PMID:19346376

  11. Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

    2000-01-01

    The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated. PMID:11132371

  12. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis: Varied Presentation.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Piyush; Kumar, Vivek; Ganguly, Shuvadeep; Sukumar, M; Sharma, Sanchit; Singh, Neha; Vikram, Naval K; Pati, Hara Prasad; Sood, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in many parts of India. Rarely, it may be complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) that has varied presentation and course. We describe two cases of VL complicated by HLH that were markedly different in clinical presentation, course and management. First case presented with Fever of unknown origin whereas second case had fever with severe bleeding manifestations. VL was diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration and serum rk39 immunodiagnostic test respectively in these cases. HLH was diagnosed by HLH 2004 diagnostic criteria. VL was treated by intravenous amphotericin B in both cases. HLH was managed by treating primary disease in the first case whereas steroid was given for management in the second case. High index of suspicion is crucial for early diagnosis of HLH to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27408434

  13. The unwelcome trio: HIV plus cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, C; Tchernev, G; Bevelacqua, V; Lotti, T; Nunnari, G

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) coinfection has emerged as an extremely serious and increasingly frequent health problem in the last decades. Considering the insidious and not typical clinical picture in presence of immunosuppressive conditions, the increasing number of people travelling in endemic zones, the ability to survive, within both human and vector bodies, of the parasite, clinicians and dermatologists as the first line should be aware of these kind of "pathologic alliances," to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment. In this setting, the occurrence of cutaneous lesions can, paradoxically, aid the physician in recognition and approaching the correct staging and management of the two (or three) diseases. Treatment of these unwelcome synergies is a challenge: apart from the recommended anti-retroviral protocols, different anti-leishmanial drugs have been widely used, according with the standard guidelines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with no successful treatment regimen still been established. PMID:26555699

  14. Visceral and presumptive neural baylisascariasis in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Simmons, Heather A; Wallace, Roberta S; Clyde, Victoria L

    2006-12-01

    A 32.5-year-old female hybrid orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) developed hind-limb stiffness that progressed to tetraparesis over 2 wk. Repeated diagnostic evaluations, including serial magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system, revealed nonspecific lesions involving both the deep white and gray matter with an intact blood-brain barrier. Multiple empirical treatments failed to produce improvement and the animal was humanely euthanized. Histology of a granuloma in the ileum contained a nematode parasite, most consistent with Baylisascaris procyonis. Additionally, neuropil vacuolization, rarefaction, astrocytic scarring, and an eosinophilic granuloma and lymphoeosinophilic perivascular cuffing in the brain were suggestive of nematode migration. These findings confirm the presence of visceral larval migrans and support the presence of neural larval migrans. This case report of Baylisascaris procyonis confirms the presentation for the first time in an ape and documents the difficulty in antemortem diagnosis of neural larval migrans. PMID:17315445

  15. Eosinophilic abscesses: a new facet of hepatic visceral larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur; Patidar, Yashwant; Mangla, Vivek; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Sarin, Shiv K

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic visceral larva migrans (VLM) refers to a condition characterized by granulomatous liver lesions containing eosinophils and inflammatory cells associated with migration of second-stage larvae of certain nematodes such as toxocara canis. The typical imaging findings described in the literature include small, ill-defined, oval or elongated, low-attenuating nodules with fuzzy margins, non-spherical shape, and absent or insignificant rim enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scan. The present series in contrast depicts a new imaging manifestation of hepatic VLM presenting as confluent and clustered complex cystic liver lesions. Pre-treatment imaging studies including contrast-enhanced CT/MRI of three patients are presented. One of the patients underwent liver resection while post-treatment follow-up scan at 6 months in the remaining two displayed regression of the lesions with antihelminthic treatment. PMID:22801750

  16. Epidemiology and diagnostics of visceral leishmaniasis in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dakic, Z D; Pelemis, M R; Stevanovic, G D; Poluga, J L; Lavadinovic, L S; Milosevic, I S; Indjic, N K; Ofori-Belic, I V; Pavlovic, M D

    2009-12-01

    A retrospective epidemiological and diagnostic study of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was carried out during the period 2001-2007 and included patients suspected of VL who had been diagnosed at the Parasitological Laboratory at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Belgrade. Diagnosis of VL was confirmed by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM) smears. BM smears from 134 patients were examined; 22 cases of VL were diagnosed, the majority of which involved individuals who had been on holiday at the Montenegrian sea coast. The sensitivity of the initial BM smears was inadequate; this required the application of a serological test, adapted for routine use, for the diagnosis of VL. PMID:19392902

  17. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Norman, Francesca F.; Cruz, Israel; Alvar, Jorge; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%–6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region. PMID:25144380

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis in large Brazilian cities: challenges for control.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this article were to discuss the rapid spread of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas of Brazil and to raise practical questions and perspectives related to control of the disease. Among the proposed methods, the elimination of seropositive dogs is the most controversial and least accepted by society. Its impact on incidence rates varies among studies (positive in some and relatively unimportant in others). Treatment of infected dogs, although widespread in veterinary practice, is based on studies with weak scientific evidence. Insecticide spraying of areas is more acceptable to the population, but is costly and operationally difficult. Intra and inter-urban factors have scarcely been studied and may affect control of the disease. Finally, the article discusses the use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars and vaccines, with high expectations for impact on disease transmission, although no product currently available on the market has been fully evaluated, so that further studies are required. PMID:19082288

  19. Perlwapin, an abalone nacre protein with three four-disulfide core (whey acidic protein) domains, inhibits the growth of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Treccani, Laura; Mann, Karlheinz; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2006-10-01

    We have isolated a new protein from the nacreous layer of the shell of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (abalone). Amino acid sequence analysis showed the protein to consist of 134 amino acids and to contain three sequence repeats of approximately 40 amino acids which were very similar to the well-known whey acidic protein domains of other proteins. The new protein was therefore named perlwapin. In addition to the major sequence, we identified several minor variants. Atomic force microscopy was used to explore the interaction of perlwapin with calcite crystals. Monomolecular layers of calcite crystals dissolve very slowly in deionized water and recrystallize in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. When perlwapin was dissolved in the supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, growth of the crystal was inhibited immediately. Perlwapin molecules bound tightly to distinct step edges, preventing the crystal layers from growing. Using lower concentrations of perlwapin in a saturated calcium carbonate solution, we could distinguish native, active perlwapin molecules from denaturated ones. These observations showed that perlwapin can act as a growth inhibitor for calcium carbonate crystals in saturated calcium carbonate solution. The function of perlwapin in nacre growth may be to inhibit the growth of certain crystallographic planes in the mineral phase of the polymer/mineral composite nacre. PMID:16861275

  20. Perlwapin, an Abalone Nacre Protein with Three Four-Disulfide Core (Whey Acidic Protein) Domains, Inhibits the Growth of Calcium Carbonate Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Treccani, Laura; Mann, Karlheinz; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a new protein from the nacreous layer of the shell of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (abalone). Amino acid sequence analysis showed the protein to consist of 134 amino acids and to contain three sequence repeats of ∼40 amino acids which were very similar to the well-known whey acidic protein domains of other proteins. The new protein was therefore named perlwapin. In addition to the major sequence, we identified several minor variants. Atomic force microscopy was used to explore the interaction of perlwapin with calcite crystals. Monomolecular layers of calcite crystals dissolve very slowly in deionized water and recrystallize in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. When perlwapin was dissolved in the supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, growth of the crystal was inhibited immediately. Perlwapin molecules bound tightly to distinct step edges, preventing the crystal layers from growing. Using lower concentrations of perlwapin in a saturated calcium carbonate solution, we could distinguish native, active perlwapin molecules from denaturated ones. These observations showed that perlwapin can act as a growth inhibitor for calcium carbonate crystals in saturated calcium carbonate solution. The function of perlwapin in nacre growth may be to inhibit the growth of certain crystallographic planes in the mineral phase of the polymer/mineral composite nacre. PMID:16861275

  1. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    PubMed

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-08-01

    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size. PMID:26050219

  2. Structural investigation of a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide from abalone by graded acid hydrolysis followed by PMP-HPLC-MSn and NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-xu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-mei; Song, Shuang; Song, Liang; Fu, Ying-huan; Zhang, Li-peng

    2015-01-30

    A new strategy was applied to elucidate the structure of a polysaccharide from abalone gonad (AGSP). It was hydrolyzed by 0.05 M, 0.2 M, 0.5 M, and 2.0 M TFA at 100 °C for 1 h, sequentially. Every hydrolysate was ultrafiltrated (3000 Da) to collect oligo- and monosaccharides, and the final retentate was further hydrolyzed with 2.0 M TFA at 110 °C and 121 °C for 2 h, respectively. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization followed by HPLC-MSn analysis was applied to detect the sugar residues in these hydrolysates, which allowed proposing their location in the polysaccharide structure. The retentate after 0.5 M TFA hydrolysis was confirmed as the polysaccharide backbone, and it was further analyzed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the structural elucidation of AGSP was accomplished, and it has a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ repeating unit with Fuc, Xyl and Gal in the branch. The analytical strategy demonstrated was useful to characterize the structure of polysaccharides. PMID:25497339

  3. Actibacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, and emended description of the genus Actibacter.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, June-Young; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain, designated strain W113(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate was a Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium producing yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Actibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and it shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Actibacter sediminis (98.8 % similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, at pH 7 and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. Menaquinone-6 was the main respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of the isolate were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.6 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated that the strain shared <18 % genomic relatedness with the most closely related species. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain W113(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actibacter, for which the name Actibacter haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W113(T) ( = KACC 17209(T) = JCM 18868(T)). PMID:25269848

  4. Purification and characterization of a novel extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase produced by Bacillus clausii NM-1 isolated from ezo abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Hamada, Naoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2003-01-01

    A novel extracellular alkaline stable beta-1,3-glucanase produced by Bacillus clausii NM-1 isolated from the ezo abalone Haliotis discus hannai was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose FF ion exchange chromatography and Sephacryl S-200HR gel filtration. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 71 kDa from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was very stable at pH 5.3 to 11.5 but unstable at pH 4.0 to 4.5. The optimum temperature and thermostability of the enzyme increased in the presence of CaC1, The enzyme hydrolyzed R-1,3-glucan from marine organisms, but did not show activity against any other beta-1,3-glucans. The major hydrolysis products of beta-1,3-glucan from Laminaria digitata and Eisenia bicyclis were laminaritriose and laminaritetraose, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was similar to that of several beta-1,3-glucanases in the glycoside hydrolase family 16. PMID:16233365

  5. Surgical removal of visceral fat reverses hepatic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, N; She, L; Liu, B Q; Vuguin, P; Cohen, P; Wang, J; Rossetti, L

    1999-01-01

    We directly examined whether visceral fat (VF) modulates hepatic insulin action by randomizing moderately obese (body wt approximately 400 g) Sprague-Dawley rats to either surgical removal of epididymal and perinephric fat pads (VF-; n = 9) or a sham operation (VF+; n = 11). Three weeks later, total VF was fourfold increased (8.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.3 g, P < 0.001) in the VF+ compared with the VF- group, but whole-body fat mass (determined using 3H2O) was not significantly different. The rates of insulin infusion required to maintain plasma glucose levels and basal hepatic glucose production in the presence of hepatic-pancreatic clamp were markedly decreased in VF- compared with VF+ rats (0.57 +/- 0.02 vs. 1.22 +/- 0.19 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Similarly, plasma insulin levels were more than twofold higher in the VF+ group (P < 0.001). The heightened hepatic insulin sensitivity is supported by the decrease in gene expression of both glucose-6-phosphatase and PEPCK and by physiological hyperinsulinemia in VF- but not VF+ rats. The improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity in VF- rats was also supported by a approximately 70% decrease in the plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, a marker of insulin's transcription regulation in the liver. The removal of VF pads also resulted in marked decreases in the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (by 72%) and leptin (by 60%) in subcutaneous fat. We conclude that visceral fat is a potent modulator of insulin action on hepatic glucose production and gene expression. PMID:9892227

  6. Interventional Radiology in the Management of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms: A Review of Techniques and Embolic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Hosur Ananthashayana; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Garg, Pramod; Srivastava, Deep Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms occur mostly as a result of inflammation and trauma. Owing to high risk of rupture, they require early treatment to prevent lethal complications. Knowledge of the various approaches of embolization of pseudoaneurysms and different embolic materials used in the management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms is essential for successful and safe embolization. We review and illustrate the endovascular, percutaneous and endoscopic ultrasound techniques used in the treatment of visceral artery pseudoaneurysm and briefly discuss the embolic materials and their benefits and risks. PMID:27134524

  7. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  8. Visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related brain changes and ischemic brain damage in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin A; Jeong, Sae Im; Kim, Minsuk; Yoon, Joo Chun; Kim, Hee-Sun; Park, Eun-Mi

    2015-11-01

    Visceral adipose tissue is accumulated with aging. An increase in visceral fat accompanied by low-grade inflammation is associated with several adult-onset diseases. However, the effects of visceral adipose tissue inflammation on the normal and ischemic brains of aged are not clearly defined. To examine the role of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory cytokines in the serum, visceral adipose tissue, and brain as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in aged male mice (20 months) underwent sham or visceral fat removal surgery compared with the young mice (2.5 months). Additionally, ischemic brain injury was compared in young and aged mice with sham and visceral fat removal surgery. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in examined organs were increased in aged mice compared with the young mice, and these levels were reduced in the mice with visceral fat removal. Increased BBB permeability with reduced expression of tight junction proteins in aged sham mice were also decreased in mice with visceral fat removal. After focal ischemic injury, aged mice with visceral fat removal showed a reduction in infarct volumes, BBB permeability, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic brain compared with sham mice, although the neurological outcomes were not significantly improved. In addition, further upregulated visceral adipose tissue inflammation in response to ischemic brain injury was attenuated in mice with visceral fat removal. These results suggest that visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related changes in the brain and contributes to the ischemic brain damage in the aged mice. We suggest that visceral adiposity should be considered as a factor affecting brain health and ischemic brain damage in the aged population. PMID:26184082

  9. Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Travi, Bruno L

    2014-01-01

    In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have typically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management. PMID:24967853

  10. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-08-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  11. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  12. Distinct genetic programs guide Drosophila circular and longitudinal visceral myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The visceral musculature of Drosophila larvae comprises circular visceral muscles tightly interwoven with longitudinal visceral muscles. During myogenesis, the circular muscles arise by one-to-one fusion of a circular visceral founder cell (FC) with a visceral fusion-competent myoblast (FCM) from the trunk visceral mesoderm, and longitudinal muscles arise from FCs of the caudal visceral mesoderm. Longitudinal FCs migrate anteriorly under guidance of fibroblast growth factors during embryogenesis; it is proposed that they fuse with FCMs from the trunk visceral mesoderm to give rise to syncytia containing up to six nuclei. Results Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunochemical analyses, we investigated whether these fusion events during migration use the same molecular repertoire and cellular components as fusion-restricted myogenic adhesive structure (FuRMAS), the adhesive signaling center that mediates myoblast fusion in the somatic mesoderm. Longitudinal muscles were formed by the fusion of one FC with Sns-positive FCMs, and defects in FCM specification led to defects in longitudinal muscle formation. At the fusion sites, Duf/Kirre and the adaptor protein Rols7 accumulated in longitudinal FCs, and Blow and F-actin accumulated in FCMs. The accumulation of these four proteins at the fusion sites argues for FuRMAS-like adhesion and signaling centers. Longitudinal fusion was disturbed in rols and blow single, and scar wip double mutants. Mutants of wasp or its interaction partner wip had no defects in longitudinal fusion. Conclusions Our results indicated that all embryonic fusion events depend on the same cell-adhesion molecules, but that the need for Rols7 and regulators of F-actin distinctly differs. Rols7 was required for longitudinal visceral and somatic myoblast fusion but not for circular visceral fusion. Importantly, longitudinal fusion depended on Kette and SCAR/Wave but was independent of WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation. Thus, the

  13. Arginase Activity in the Blood of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebreal, Teklu; Hailu, Asrat; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Hurissa, Zewdu; Ali, Jemal; Diro, Ermiyas; Sisay, Yifru; Cloke, Tom; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with high mortality. The most important foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are in the Northwest and are predominantly associated with high rates of HIV co-infection. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis patients with HIV results in higher mortality, treatment failure and relapse. We have previously shown that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, was increased in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in HIV seropositive patients; further our results showed that high arginase activity is a marker of disease severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased arginase activities associated with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infections synergize in patients co-infected with both pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection from Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, and recorded and compared their clinical data. Further, we measured the levels of arginase activity in the blood of these patients and identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells. Our results show that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower and the parasite load in the spleen was significantly higher in co-infected patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that arginase activity was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of co-infected patients. Finally, we identified the cells-expressing arginase in the PBMCs as low-density granulocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased arginase might contribute to the poor disease outcome characteristic of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection. PMID:23349999

  14. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas. PMID:17953938

  15. Estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity following stress in rats: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Karpowicz, Jane M; Furman, Andrew J; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; Seminowicz, David A; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress. Stress was induced via a forced-swim paradigm. In a separate group of ovariectomized rats, E2 treatment induced visceral hypersensitivity at the 2 days post-stress time point, and this hypersensitivity returned to baseline at the 18 days post-stress time point. Vehicle-treated rats show no hypersensitivity following stress. During the MRI scans, rats were exposed to noxious colorectal distention. Across groups and time points, noxious visceral stimulation led to activations in the insula, anterior cingulate, and left amygdala, parabrachial nuclei, and cerebellum. A group-by-time interaction was seen in the right amygdala, ventral striatum-pallidum, cerebellum, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, and pontine nuclei. Closer inspection of the data revealed that vehicle-treated rats showed consistent activations and deactivations across time, whereas estrogen-treated animals showed minimal deactivation with noxious visceral stimulation. This unexpected finding suggests that E2 may dramatically alter visceral nociceptive processing in the brain following an acute stressor. This study is the first to examine estrogen-stress dependent interactions in response to noxious visceral stimulation using functional MRI. Future studies that include other control groups

  16. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  17. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  18. Establishment of a concept of visceral fat syndrome and discovery of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Although obesity is a major background of life style-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the extent of whole body fat accumulation does not necessarily the determinant for the occurrence of these diseases. We developed the method for body fat analysis using CT scan and established the concept of visceral fat obesity, in other word metabolic syndrome in which intra-abdominal visceral fat accumulation has an important role in the development of diabetes, lipid disorder, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In order to clarify the mechanism that visceral fat accumulation causes metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, we have analyzed gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. From the analysis, we found that adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue expressed abundantly the genes encoding bioactive substances such as cytokines, growth factors and complements. In addition to known bioactive substances, we found a novel collagen-like protein which we named adiponectin. Adiponectin is present in plasma at a very high concentration and is inversely associated with visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin has anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherogenic properties and recent studies revealed that this protein has an anti-inflammatory and anti-oncogenic function. Therefore hypoadiponectinemia induced by visceral fat accumulation should become a strong risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and also some kinds of cancers. In this review article, I would like to discuss the mechanism of life style-related diseases by focusing on the dysregulation of adiponectin related to obesity, especially visceral obesity. PMID:20154470

  19. Dioscorea batatas Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice by Decreasing Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Hyo-Wook; Lee, Eun-Young; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Yong-Sik; Lee, Byung-Eui; Suk, Jeong Woo; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine whether Dioscorea batatas (DB) extract reduces visceral fat accumulation and obesity-related biomarkers in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and whether genes associated with adipogenesis and inflammation could be modulated by a diet containing DB extract. Material/Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group): normal diet (ND), HFD, 100 mg/kg DB extract-gavage with HFD, and 200 mg/kg DB extract-gavage with HFD. The mice were fed the experimental diets for 14 weeks. At 12 weeks, micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) was performed. Results Supplementation of the diet with DB extract for 14 weeks significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body weight, visceral adipose tissue, plasma lipid levels, and leptins. The area of visceral fat was reduced by DB extract supplementation when examined by micro-CT. Supplementation with DB extract resulted in the downregulation of the adipogenic transcription factor (C/ERBα) and its target gene (CD36) in epididymal adipose tissue, compared to HFD alone. DB extract decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6) in epididymal adipose tissue. Conclusions Our results suggest that DB extract may prevent HFD-induced obesity by downregulating the expression of genes related to adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. PMID:25681821

  20. Rifaximin Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Prevents Stress-Induced Gut Inflammation and Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y.; Owyang, Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. Methods We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Results Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Conclusions Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. PMID:24161699

  1. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  2. Screening Leishmania donovani complex-specific genes required for visceral disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Matlashewski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania protozoan parasites are the causing agent of leishmaniasis. Depending on the infecting species, Leishmania infection can causes a wide variety of diseases such as self-healing cutaneous lesions by L. major and fatal visceral leishmaniasis by L. donovani and L. infantum. Comparison of the visceral disease causing L. infantum genome with cutaneous disease causing L. major and L. braziliensis genomes has identified 25 L. infantum (L. donovani complex) species-specific genes that are absent or pseudogenes in L. major and L. braziliensis. To investigate whether these L. donovani complex species-specific genes are involved in visceral infection, we cloned these genes from L. donovani and introduced them into L. major and then determined whether the transgenic L. major had an increased ability to survive in liver and spleen of BALB/c mice. Several of these L. donovani complex specific genes were found to significantly increase L. major survival in visceral organs in BALB/c mice including the A2 and Ld2834 genes, while down regulation of these genes in L. donovani by either antisense RNA or gene knockout dramatically reduced L. donovani virulence in BALB/c mice. This demonstrated that L. donovani complex species-specific genes play important roles in visceral infection. In this chapter, we describe procedures to screen L. donovani complex specific genes required for visceral infection by cross species transgenic expression, gene deletion targeting and measuring infection levels in mice. PMID:25388124

  3. Visceral adiposity as a target for the management of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), develops due not only to a single cardiovascular risk factor but to a variety of complex factors. The concept of the multiple cardiometabolic risk factor clustering syndrome has been proposed as a highly atherogenic state, independent of hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Body fat distribution, especially visceral fat accumulation, is a major correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities referred to as the metabolic syndrome, with dysfunctional adipocytes and dysregulated production of adipocytokines (hypoadiponectinemia). Medical research has focused on visceral adiposity as an important component of the syndrome in Japanese subjects with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. For the prevention of ACVD at least in Japan, it might be practical to stratify subjects with multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease based on visceral fat accumulation. Visceral fat reduction through health promotion programs using risk factor-oriented approaches may be effective in reducing ACVD events, as well as producing improvement in risks and hypoadiponectinemia. This review article discusses visceral adiposity as a key player in the syndrome. Visceral fat reduction with life-style modification is a potentially useful strategy in the prevention of ACVD in patients with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21612331

  4. Main ion channels and receptors associated with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Rocha, Heraldo Arcela; Dantas, Bruna Priscilla Vasconcelos; Rolim, Thaísa Leite; Costa, Bagnólia Araújo; de Medeiros, Arnaldo Correia

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and alteration of bowel habits. The IBS physiopathology is extremely complex. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in both in vitro and in vivo models of this functional disorder. In order to obtain a general view of the participation of the main ion channels and receptors regarding the visceral hypersensitivity in the IBS and to describe their chemical structure, a literature review was carried out. A bibliographical research in the following electronic databases: Pubmed and Virtual Library in Health (BVS) was fulfilled by using the search terms “ion channels” “or” “receptors” “and” “visceral hypersensitivity” “or” “visceral nociception” “and” “irritable bowel syndrome”. Original and review articles were considered for data acquisition. The activation of the ATP ion-gated channels, voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and calcium (Cav) channels, as well as the activation of protease-activated receptors (PAR2), transient receptor potential vanilloide-1, serotonin, cannabinoids and cholecystokinin are involved in the genesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. The involvement of ion channels and receptors concerning visceral hypersensitivity is noteworthy in IBS models. PMID:24976114

  5. The importance of visceral fat mass in obese pregnant women and relation with pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Balani, Jyoti; Johnson, Antoinette; Shehata, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is a well established risk factor for gestational diabetes but it is not known if the pattern of maternal fat distribution predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance using Inbody 720® in 302 consecutive obese pregnant women attending a weight management clinic. The relation of visceral fat mass and total percentage body fat with the development of gestational diabetes and perinatal outcomes was evaluated. Results Women developing gestational diabetes (Group 1; n = 72) were older, had higher body mass indices and greater central obesity (waist:hip ratio, visceral fat mass) compared with those remaining normoglycaemic. Visceral fat mass, but not percentage body fat, correlated with fasting glucose in all patients (r = 0.2, p < 0.001) and particularly those in Group 1 (r = 0.35, p = 0.002). Visceral fat mass, but not percentage body fat, also correlated strongly with glycaemia, particularly in Group 1 (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Visceral fat mass also showed a weak but significant correlation with baby weight (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Discussion Central obesity, as assessed by early pregnancy waist:hip ratio and particularly by visceral fat mass, is a predictor of gestational diabetes in addition to classical risk factors and may help identify those obese patients at increased risk of complications.

  6. Retinoic Acid Mediates Visceral-Specific Adipogenic Defects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosuke; Sriram, Sandhya; Chan, Xin Hui Derryn; Ong, Wee Kiat; Yeo, Chia Rou; Tan, Betty; Lee, Seung-Ah; Kong, Kien Voon; Hoon, Shawn; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yuen, Jason J; Perumal, Jayakumar; Agrawal, Madhur; Vaz, Candida; So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Blaner, William S; Olivo, Malini; Han, Weiping; Tanavde, Vivek; Toh, Sue-Anne; Sugii, Shigeki

    2016-05-01

    Increased visceral fat, rather than subcutaneous fat, during the onset of obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. The inherent adipogenic properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from visceral depots are compromised compared with those of ASCs from subcutaneous depots, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Using ontological analysis of global gene expression studies, we demonstrate that many genes involved in retinoic acid (RA) synthesis or regulated by RA are differentially expressed in human tissues and ASCs from subcutaneous and visceral fat. The endogenous level of RA is higher in visceral ASCs; this is associated with upregulation of the RA synthesis gene through the visceral-specific developmental factor WT1. Excessive RA-mediated activity impedes the adipogenic capability of ASCs at early but not late stages of adipogenesis, which can be reversed by antagonism of RA receptors or knockdown of WT1. Our results reveal the developmental origin of adipocytic properties and the pathophysiological contributions of visceral fat depots. PMID:26936961

  7. Removal of visceral fat prevents insulin resistance and glucose intolerance of aging: an adipokine-mediated process?

    PubMed

    Gabriely, Ilan; Ma, Xiao Hui; Yang, Xiao Man; Atzmon, Gil; Rajala, Michael W; Berg, Anders H; Scherer, Phillip; Rossetti, Luciano; Barzilai, Nir

    2002-10-01

    Age-dependent changes in insulin action and body fat distribution are risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. To examine whether the accumulation of visceral fat (VF) could play a direct role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we monitored insulin action, glucose tolerance, and the expression of adipo-derived peptides after surgical removal of VF in aging (20-month-old) F344/Brown Norway (FBN) and in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. As expected, peripheral and hepatic insulin action were markedly impaired in aging FBN rats, and extraction of VF (accounting for approximately 18% of their total body fat) was sufficient to restore peripheral and hepatic insulin action to the levels of young rats. When examined at the mechanistic level, removal of VF in ZDF rats prevented the progressive decrease in insulin action and delayed the onset of diabetes, but VF extraction did not alter plasma free fatty acid levels. However, the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and leptin in subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue were markedly decreased after VF removal (by approximately three- and twofold, respectively). Finally, extracted VF retained approximately 15-fold higher resistin mRNA compared with SC fat. Our data suggest that insulin resistance and the development of diabetes can be significantly reduced in aging rats by preventing the age-dependent accumulation of VF. This study documents a cause-and-effect relationship between VF and major components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:12351432

  8. Protective effect of glucan against visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J A; Holbrook, T W; Dougherty, W J

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pre- or posttreatment with glucan, a reticuloendothelial stimulant, on the course of Leishmania donovani infection was assessed in highly susceptible hamsters. Intravenous administration of glucan before or after L. donovani infection significantly suppressed proliferation of amastigote-stage parasites in liver and spleen. Glucan-activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro also significantly reduced multiplication of the intracellular parasite. Ultrastructural studies revealed a well-defined hepatic granulomatous response to glucan, with hypertrophic Kupffer cells and reduced numbers of intracellular parasites compared to the control group. In additional studies, groups of hamsters were immunized by intravenous injections of glucan with Formalin-killed promastigote-stage L. donovani cells and challenged 60 days after the last immunizing injection. This treatment regimen significantly prolonged the mean survival time of those hamsters which died after infection, relative to untreated control groups. Hamsters stimulated with the glucan-killed promastigote preparation also exhibited significant reductions in splenic amastigotes on days 10 and 21 postinfection compared with all other control groups, but on day 35, splenic amastigotes did not differ significantly from those of control animals. Our composite observations provide evidence for glucan-enhanced nonspecific resistance of hamsters to visceral leishmaniasis. Images PMID:7129637

  9. Hexadecylphosphocholine: oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlencord, A; Maniera, T; Eibl, H; Unger, C

    1992-01-01

    Hexadecylphosphocholine (He-PC), a novel phospholipid derivative, was tested against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum, the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis. In vitro, promastigotes were highly susceptible to He-PC; the 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 0.89 and 2.25 micrograms/ml for the different leishmanial strains. In vivo, a marked antileishmanial activity in infected BALB/c mice could be demonstrated after oral administration of He-PC. Whereas parasite suppression and killing in the liver were comparable after 5 days of treatment with He-PC (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight per day administered orally) and sodium stibogluconate (120 mg of pentavalent antimonal agent per kg/day administered subcutaneously), a superior reduction in the parasite load in the spleen and bone marrow was observed after oral treatment with He-PC. After a 4-week treatment period, parasite suppression in the spleen was better than that observed with standard sodium stibogluconate therapy by a factor of more than 600. PMID:1329624

  10. Hemophagocytosis in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Ayako; Omachi, Satoko; Osada, Yasutaka; Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Hemophagocytosis is a phenomenon in which macrophages phagocytose blood cells. There are reports on up-regulated hemophagocytosis in patients with infectious diseases including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, influenza and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, mechanisms of infection-associated hemophagocytosis remained elusive due to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we have established a mouse model of VL with hemophagocytosis. At 24 weeks after infection with 1 x 107 Leishmania donovani promastigotes, BALB/cA mice exhibited splenomegaly with an average tissue weight per body weight of 2.96%. In the tissues, 28.6% of macrophages contained phagocytosed erythrocytes. All of the hemophagocytosing macrophages were parasitized by L. donovani, and higher levels of hemophagocytosis was observed in heavily infected cells. Furthermore, more than half of these hemophagocytes had two or more macrophage-derived nuclei, whereas only 15.0% of splenic macrophages were bi- or multi-nuclear. These results suggest that direct infection by L. donovani causes hyper-activation of host macrophages to engulf blood cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hemophagocytosis in experimental Leishmania infections and may be useful for further understanding of the pathogenesis. PMID:26942577

  11. Domestic animals and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Van der Auwera, Gert; Rijal, Suman; Picado, Albert; Speybroeck, Niko; Khanal, Basudha; De Doncker, Simonne; Das, Murari Lal; Ostyn, Bart; Davies, Clive; Coosemans, Marc; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean Claude

    2010-02-01

    On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007-February 2008), blood was collected from persons, goats, cows, and buffaloes in 1 village. Leishmania infections were determined by using PCR. We found infections among persons (6.1%), cows (5%), buffaloes (4%), and goats (16%). Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system. The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.-positive persons and domestic animals. Classification tree analysis determined that among several possible risk factors for Leishmania infection among persons, proximity of Leishmania spp.-positive goats ranked first. Although our data do not necessarily mean that goats constitute a reservoir host of L. donovani, these observations indicate the need for further investigation of goats' possible role in VL transmission. PMID:20113552

  12. 14-3-3ζ coordinates adipogenesis of visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Gareth E.; Albrecht, Tobias; Piske, Micah; Sarai, Karnjit; Lee, Jason T. C; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Sinha, Sunita; Guthridge, Mark A.; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Lopez, Angel F.; Clee, Susanne M.; Nislow, Corey; Johnson, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The proteins that coordinate complex adipogenic transcriptional networks are poorly understood. 14-3-3ζ is a molecular adaptor protein that regulates insulin signalling and transcription factor networks. Here we report that 14-3-3ζ-knockout mice are strikingly lean from birth with specific reductions in visceral fat depots. Conversely, transgenic 14-3-3ζ overexpression potentiates obesity, without exacerbating metabolic complications. Only the 14-3-3ζ isoform is essential for adipogenesis based on isoform-specific RNAi. Mechanistic studies show that 14-3-3ζ depletion promotes autophagy-dependent degradation of C/EBP-δ, preventing induction of the master adipogenic factors, Pparγ and C/EBP-α. Transcriptomic data indicate that 14-3-3ζ acts upstream of hedgehog signalling-dependent upregulation of Cdkn1b/p27Kip1. Indeed, concomitant knockdown of p27Kip1 or Gli3 rescues the early block in adipogenesis induced by 14-3-3ζ knockdown in vitro. Adipocyte precursors in 14-3-3ζKO embryos also appear to have greater Gli3 and p27Kip1 abundance. Together, our in vivo and in vitro findings demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ is a critical upstream driver of adipogenesis. PMID:26220403

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Santos Silva, André Filipe; Figueiredo Dias, João Paulo Branco Calheiros; Nuak, João Miguel Neves Gonçalves Santos; Rocha Aguiar, Francisca; Araújo Pinto, José António; Sarmento, António Carlos Eugénio Megre

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an infection with an insidious and disabling course caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. In Europe, it is mostly associated with HIV infection. Systemic lupus erythematosus and its treatment are associated with increased risk of infection, neoplastic and concomitant autoimmune disorders. The association of these diseases may go unnoticed. A 60 year-old Caucasian woman with lupus presented with a one-year history of fever, malaise, weakness and weight loss. The highlights on physical examination were pallor, palpable hepatosplenomegaly and low-grade fever. Blood tests showed pancytopenia, hyperproteinemia with hypoalbuminemia and hypergammaglobulinemia; electrophoresis showed a polyclonal gamma curve. Full-body CT scan revealed massive hepatosplenomegaly. Microbiology investigation was negative for the most common pathogens, including tuberculosis. There were no signs of hematologic malignancy in the bone marrow smear. PCR for Leishmania infantum was positive both in blood and bone marrow. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B, and immunosuppression was adjusted. She showed rapid clinical improvement and 6 months later had no signs of disease. The differential diagnosis in a patient with lupus presenting with fever and multisystemic manifestations includes infectious or neoplastic disorders. The patient lived in an endemic area of Leishmania, and typical clinical and analytical changes were all present, making this case highly educational. The case highlights the importance of a patient's epidemiological background and how it can lead to the diagnosis and timely treatment of a rare disease. PMID:26793472

  14. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Hugo D.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behavior. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated) physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviors, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain's representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed. PMID:26379481

  15. Evolutionary genomics of epidemic visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Hideo; Downing, Tim; Van den Broeck, Frederik; Sanders, Mandy J; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Mannaert, An; Vanaerschot, Manu; Berg, Maya; De Muylder, Géraldine; Dumetz, Franck; Cuypers, Bart; Maes, Ilse; Domagalska, Malgorzata; Decuypere, Saskia; Rai, Keshav; Uranw, Surendra; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Khanal, Basudha; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Sharma, Smriti; Stark, Olivia; Schönian, Gabriele; De Koning, Harry P; Settimo, Luca; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Roy, Syamal; Ostyn, Bart; Boelaert, Marleen; Maes, Louis; Berriman, Matthew; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Cotton, James A

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second most deadly vector-borne parasitic disease. A recent epidemic in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) caused up to 80% of global VL and over 30,000 deaths per year. Resistance against antimonial drugs has probably been a contributing factor in the persistence of this epidemic. Here we use whole genome sequences from 204 clinical isolates to track the evolution and epidemiology of L. donovani from the ISC. We identify independent radiations that have emerged since a bottleneck coincident with 1960s DDT spraying campaigns. A genetically distinct population frequently resistant to antimonials has a two base-pair insertion in the aquaglyceroporin gene LdAQP1 that prevents the transport of trivalent antimonials. We find evidence of genetic exchange between ISC populations, and show that the mutation in LdAQP1 has spread by recombination. Our results reveal the complexity of L. donovani evolution in the ISC in response to drug treatment. PMID:27003289

  16. Evolutionary genomics of epidemic visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Hideo; Downing, Tim; Van den Broeck, Frederik; Sanders, Mandy J; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Mannaert, An; Vanaerschot, Manu; Berg, Maya; De Muylder, Géraldine; Dumetz, Franck; Cuypers, Bart; Maes, Ilse; Domagalska, Malgorzata; Decuypere, Saskia; Rai, Keshav; Uranw, Surendra; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Khanal, Basudha; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Sharma, Smriti; Stark, Olivia; Schönian, Gabriele; De Koning, Harry P; Settimo, Luca; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Roy, Syamal; Ostyn, Bart; Boelaert, Marleen; Maes, Louis; Berriman, Matthew; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Cotton, James A

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second most deadly vector-borne parasitic disease. A recent epidemic in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) caused up to 80% of global VL and over 30,000 deaths per year. Resistance against antimonial drugs has probably been a contributing factor in the persistence of this epidemic. Here we use whole genome sequences from 204 clinical isolates to track the evolution and epidemiology of L. donovani from the ISC. We identify independent radiations that have emerged since a bottleneck coincident with 1960s DDT spraying campaigns. A genetically distinct population frequently resistant to antimonials has a two base-pair insertion in the aquaglyceroporin gene LdAQP1 that prevents the transport of trivalent antimonials. We find evidence of genetic exchange between ISC populations, and show that the mutation in LdAQP1 has spread by recombination. Our results reveal the complexity of L. donovani evolution in the ISC in response to drug treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12613.001 PMID:27003289

  17. Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Conway, J M; Yanovski, S Z; Avila, N A; Hubbard, V S

    1995-04-01

    Fat distribution and metabolic variables were studied in 8 black and 10 white age- and weight-matched obese women undergoing a 6-mo weight-reducing regimen. Fat patterning was determined by using anthropometry and computed tomography to quantitate total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at the L2-L3 and L4-L5 levels of the lumbar spine, before, during, and after a modified fast. Black women had smaller depots of VAT than white women at both the L2-L3 (P = 0.004) and L4-L5 (P = 0.054) sites. Differences persisted after an average 17.2-kg weight loss. Although waist-hip ratio was similar in both groups, black women had 23% less VAT than white women (P = 0.007). Black women had significantly lower plasma glucose (P = 0.031) and triglycerides (P = 0.006) with significantly higher plasma high-density-lipoprotein concentrations (P < 0.001). Data from this study suggest that racial differences exist in VAT and metabolic risk factors for obesity-related illness. PMID:7702017

  18. Complete regression of visceral Kaposi's sarcoma after conversion to sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, N; Budruddin, M; Pakkyara, A; Darweesh, A; Nayyer, M; Amitabh, J; Daar, A S

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is much greater in organ transplant recipients than it is in the general population. Its etiology appears to be related to geographic, genetic, and viral factors. Treatment of transplant-related KS has, until now, consisted mainly of reduction of, or withholding of, immunosuppression, often with deleterious effects on both graft and patient survival. In recent years, the immunosuppressive drug, sirolimus, has been demonstrated as possessing anti-neoplastic properties in both in vitro and animal models. In view of these properties and some preliminary clinical experience, we postulated that sirolimus would be beneficial in our patients who developed transplant-related KS. Here, we report the first case of a patient with both cutaneous and visceral KS who was successfully treated in the Middle East by conversion from a cyclosporine-based to a sirolimus-based immunosuppression regimen. The KS regressed completely within a few months after the conversion. The chronologic events and the extensive documentation, which included repeat computed tomography scans, are very suggestive of a selective anti-neoplastic effect of sirolimus. PMID:16417445

  19. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: developments over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Srividya, Gurumurthy; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Singh, Ruchi; Salotra, Poonam

    2012-03-01

    Diagnostic parameters for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani, have been redefined in the last decade with the development of serological and molecular tests, though a definitive diagnosis still banks on the century-old parasitological methods in many areas. Recombinant antigens have improved performance of serodiagnostic methods. Serology-based tests, rk39 antigen dipstick, and direct agglutination test commonly employed in the field are highly sensitive methods, however, fail to distinguish past infections. Molecular approaches have become increasingly relevant due to remarkable sensitivity, specificity, and flexibility in choice of samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a highly sensitive and specific tool used in referral labs for detection/assessment of parasite load in VL patients and subsequently in monitoring treatment response to antileishmanial agents. The method displays potential to provide threshold for distinguishing asymptomatics in endemic areas. Currently, improvement in VL diagnostics is required for successful decentralized (point-of-care) testing in field conditions and to detect VL-HIV co-infection. Techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification offer a reliable molecular diagnostic method for field application. The diagnosis based on bioanalytics/biosensors promise frontiers for point-of-care VL detection after adequate standardization. This review summarizes the recent developments in VL diagnostics, drawing attention towards the need for standardization of the diagnostics across the affected regions. PMID:22065060

  20. Hemophagocytosis in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Ayako; Omachi, Satoko; Osada, Yasutaka; Chambers, James K.; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytosis is a phenomenon in which macrophages phagocytose blood cells. There are reports on up-regulated hemophagocytosis in patients with infectious diseases including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, influenza and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, mechanisms of infection-associated hemophagocytosis remained elusive due to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we have established a mouse model of VL with hemophagocytosis. At 24 weeks after infection with 1 x 107 Leishmania donovani promastigotes, BALB/cA mice exhibited splenomegaly with an average tissue weight per body weight of 2.96%. In the tissues, 28.6% of macrophages contained phagocytosed erythrocytes. All of the hemophagocytosing macrophages were parasitized by L. donovani, and higher levels of hemophagocytosis was observed in heavily infected cells. Furthermore, more than half of these hemophagocytes had two or more macrophage-derived nuclei, whereas only 15.0% of splenic macrophages were bi- or multi-nuclear. These results suggest that direct infection by L. donovani causes hyper-activation of host macrophages to engulf blood cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hemophagocytosis in experimental Leishmania infections and may be useful for further understanding of the pathogenesis. PMID:26942577

  1. Perceptions of the population and health professionals regarding visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Rose Ferraz; da Luz, Zélia Maria Profeta; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias

    2016-02-01

    Based on theoretical qualitative research reference methodology, this study sought to investigate the perception of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by social actors directly involved in the prevention and control of the disease. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with residents, focus groups were staged with 18 health workers in an endemic VL area and depositions were collected, which after being processed by content analysis revealed shortcomings and challenges. The population associated VL with dogs, acknowledged their co-responsibility in tackling the disease and demanded information. Health workers identified environmental sanitation as an essential factor for VL prevention. Among the shortcomings, the lack of information about the disease and culpability of the individual because of non-adherence to prevention measures were observed, especially environmental management. Probably, approaches emphasizing the role of the environment as a health promotion agent and the timely definition of specific environmental measures against VL, constitute a prospect for overcoming these shortcomings. The consensus is that the main challenge for enhancing the prevention and control might be the participatory and dialogical construction of these approaches between health professionals and the population. PMID:26910169

  2. Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  3. Knowing by heart: Visceral feedback shapes recognition memory judgments.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Peter, Erika L; Owais, Sawayra; Köhler, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Although theories of emotion have long noted the importance of afferent feedback from the autonomic nervous system in generating feelings, there is a growing appreciation that this feedback may also play a role in shaping cognitive experiences. At present, little is known about its functional role in memory judgments. In the current study, we examined whether afferent cardiovascular feedback shapes recognition-memory decisions and experiences when previously encountered faces are being discriminated from novel ones. To investigate this possibility, we capitalized on the natural variation in baroreceptor mediated cardiovascular feedback that is associated with the cardiac cycle, synchronizing the brief presentation of memory probes during retrieval with individual heartbeats. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found that faces presented during cardiac systole (i.e., when visceral feedback is maximal) were more likely endorsed as "old" than those presented during cardiac diastole (i.e., when afferent feedback is minimal). This pattern was present for targets and lures, and held for faces with fearful or neutral expressions. Combining this manipulation with a remember/know procedure, Experiment 3 showed that the influence of afferent cardiovascular feedback is specific to trials on which participants report a feeling of familiarity without successful recollection of pertinent contextual detail. By revealing an influence of baroreceptor mediated cardiovascular feedback on familiarity, the current findings identify the functional role of a specific autonomic channel, previously implicated in emotion, in feeling states that pertain to memory experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27019022

  4. Developments in Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Elimination Era

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Om Prakash; Sundar, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most devastating parasitic infection worldwide causing high morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation of VL ranges from asymptomatic or subclinical infection to severe and complicated symptomatic disease. A major challenge in the clinical management of VL is the weakness of health systems in disease endemic regions. People affected by VL mostly present to primary health care centers (PHCs), often late in their therapeutic itinerary. PHC physicians face a major challenge: they do not deal with a single disease issue but with patients presenting with complaints pointing to several diagnostic possibilities. Risk exists when some patients having less clinical manifestations are misdiagnosed. Therefore, field based accurate, sensitive, and cost effective rapid diagnostic tools that can detect disease in its mildest form are essential for effective control and reaching the goal of VL elimination. In this review, we discuss the current status and challenges of various diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of VL and assess their application in resource poor settings. PMID:26843964

  5. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population) has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24829577

  6. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans. PMID:26638186

  7. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. PMID:27150049

  8. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Schjerling, Peter; Qvortrup, Klaus; Støckel, Mikael; Mikines, Kári J; Dela, Flemming

    2010-06-15

    Adipose tissue exerts important endocrine and metabolic functions in health and disease. Yet the bioenergetics of this tissue is not characterized in humans and possible regional differences are not elucidated. Using high resolution respirometry, mitochondrial respiration was quantified in human abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples were permeabilized and respirometric measurements were performed in duplicate at 37 degrees C. Substrates (glutamate (G) + malate (M) + octanoyl carnitine (O) + succinate (S)) were added sequentially to provide electrons to complex I + II. ADP ((D)) for state 3 respiration was added after GM. Uncoupled respiration was measured after addition of FCCP. Visceral fat contained more mitochondria per milligram of tissue than subcutaneous fat, but the cells were smaller. Robust, stable oxygen fluxes were found in both tissues, and coupled state 3 (GMOS(D)) and uncoupled respiration were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in visceral (0.95 +/- 0.05 and 1.15 +/- 0.06 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) compared with subcutaneous (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.98 +/- 0.05 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) adipose tissue. Expressed per mtDNA, visceral adipose tissue had significantly (P < 0.05) lower mitochondrial respiration. Substrate control ratios were higher and uncoupling control ratio lower (P < 0.05) in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that visceral fat is bioenergetically more active and more sensitive to mitochondrial substrate supply than subcutaneous fat. Oxidative phosphorylation has a higher relative activity in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:20421291

  9. Sensory receptors in the visceral pleura: neurochemical coding and live staining in whole mounts.

    PubMed

    Pintelon, Isabel; Brouns, Inge; De Proost, Ian; Van Meir, Frans; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2007-05-01

    Today, diagnosis and treatment of chest pain related to pathologic changes in the visceral pleura are often difficult. Data in the literature on the sensory innervation of the visceral pleura are sparse. The present study aimed at identifying sensory end-organs in the visceral pleura, and at obtaining more information about neurochemical coding. The immunocytochemcial data are mainly based on whole mounts of the visceral pleura of control and vagally denervated rats. It was shown that innervation of the rat visceral pleura is characterized by nerve bundles that enter in the hilus region and gradually split into slender bundles with a few nerve fibers. Separate nerve fibers regularly give rise to characteristic laminar terminals. Because of their unique association with the elastic fibers of the visceral pleura, we decided to refer to them as "visceral pleura receptors" (VPRs). Cryostat sections of rat lungs confirmed a predominant location on mediastinal and interlobar lung surfaces. VPRs can specifically be visualized by protein gene product 9.5 immunostaining, and were shown to express vesicular glutamate transporters, calbindin D28K, Na+/K+-ATPase, and P2X3 ATP-receptors. The sensory nerve fibers giving rise to VPRs appeared to be myelinated and to have a spinal origin. Because several of the investigated proteins have been reported as markers for sensory terminals in other organs, the present study revealed that VPRs display the neurochemical characteristics of mechanosensory and/or nociceptive terminals. The development of a live staining method, using AM1-43, showed that VPRs can be visualized in living tissue, offering an interesting model for future physiologic studies. PMID:17170382

  10. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Want, Muzamil Y.; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml-1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml-1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  11. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative

  12. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  13. [The neuronal organization of the amygdala-visceral reflex arch].

    PubMed

    Baklavadzhian, O G; Avetisian, E A; Bagdasarian, K G; Eganova, V S; Nersesian, L B

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarizes the histomorphic, histochemical, autoradiographic, immune-histochemical and electrophysiological data on the structural-functional organization of the amygdalar complexes. While discussing the problem of neuron organization of the afferent and efferent groups in the amygdala-visceral arch the authors present their data of microelectrophysiological studies of the specific amygdala neuron reactions in response to stimulation of the vagus, ventric, and sciatic nerves, and of the second somatic sensor cortex zone. It was observed that interoceptive impulsation reaching the polysensor neurons of the central, corticomedial, and basolateral groups of the amygdala complex nuclei have no significant qualitative differences. A series of experiments demonstrated that the polysensor convergent amygdala neurons are also polyeffectoral. Comparative studies of the sympathetic discharges in the white connecting branches produced by stimulation of the above nuclear amygdala groups, confirmed absence of a clear topographic localization of the sympatho-activating structures within an amygdala. Comparative exploration of the parasympathetic discharges in the pelvis nerve discovered a discharge of complex configuration in response to simulation of the pelvis nerve nuclei. There was no notable topographic localization of the amygdala parasympathoactivating structures. The system's arterial pressure was studied in response to stimulation of various amygdala structures. Low-frequency stimulation (5 Hertz) of all amygdala structures produces depressor reactions, high-frequency stimulation (100 Hertz) produces pressor reactions. Microelectrophysiological data are provided on the specific reactions of the inspiration and expiration neurons of the bulbar respiratory centre under frequency stimulation of various amygdala structures. The authors have concluded that the bulbar-spinal mechanisms regulating the vegetative functions are implemented by polysensoral

  14. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Bunn, Patrick T; Singh, Neetu; Chauhan, Shashi Bhushan; Sheel, Meru; Amante, Fiona H; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Edwards, Chelsea L; Ng, Susanna S; Best, Shannon E; Haque, Ashraful; Beattie, Lynette; Hafner, Louise M; Sacks, David; Nylen, Susanne; Sundar, Shyam; Engwerda, Christian R

    2016-02-01

    Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR) on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of combining different

  15. Antineoplastic drug, carboplatin, protects mice against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejinder; Makkar, Prerna; Randhawa, Kulbir; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the leishmanicidal effect of two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) of the carboplatin was studied in Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Mice were infected intracardially with promastigotes of L. donovani, and a month after infection, they were treated intraperitoneally with the two doses of the drug (5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for five continuous days. Animals were sacrificed on 1 and 15 posttreatment days. Hepatic parasite load was assessed on Geimsa-stained imprints. Immune responses were studied by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, serum IgG isotype levels (IgG1 and IgG2a) and cytokine levels [γ-interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-2] in spleen cell cultures by ELISA. To study the drug-induced side effects, various haematological (haemoglobin and total leukocyte count), biochemical (liver and kidney function tests) and histological investigations (kidney, liver and spleen) were carried out. The antileishmanial potential of the drug was revealed by significant reduction in the parasite burden. The infected and treated animals were also found to exhibit increased DTH responses, higher IgG2a levels, lower IgG1 levels and greater cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2) concentrations pointing towards the generation of mixed Th1/Th2 response. Liver and kidney function tests and histological studies of kidney, liver and spleen of treated mice revealed no side effects. Carboplatin cures mice of visceral leishmaniasis without causing any serious side effects, and the drug was found be more effective at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight as compared to 5 mg/kg body weight. PMID:22961311

  16. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. Methods From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. Results We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco

  17. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Patrick T.; Singh, Neetu; Chauhan, Shashi Bhushan; Sheel, Meru; Amante, Fiona H.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Ng, Susanna S.; Best, Shannon E.; Haque, Ashraful; Beattie, Lynette; Hafner, Louise M.; Sacks, David; Nylen, Susanne; Sundar, Shyam; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR) on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of combining different

  18. Visceral Leishmaniasis in China: an Endemic Disease under Control.

    PubMed

    Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Ming-Shui; Chen, Yun-Fu; Wang, Jun-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liao, Li-Fu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chow, Larry M C; Chang, Kwang Poo

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania spp. is an important vector-borne and largely zoonotic disease. In China, three epidemiological types of VL have been described: anthroponotic VL (AVL), mountain-type zoonotic VL (MT-ZVL), and desert-type ZVL (DT-ZVL). These are transmitted by four different sand fly species: Phlebotomus chinensis, P. longiductus, P. wui, and P. alexandri. In 1951, a detailed survey of VL showed that it was rampant in the vast rural areas west, northwest, and north of the Yangtze River. Control programs were designed and implemented stringently by the government at all administrative levels, resulting in elimination of the disease from most areas of endemicity, except the western and northwestern regions. The control programs consisted of (i) diagnosis and chemotherapy of patients, (ii) identification, isolation, and disposal of infected dogs, and (iii) residual insecticide indoor spraying for vector control. The success of the control programs is attributable to massive and effective mobilization of the general public and health workers to the cause. Nationally, the annual incidence is now very low, i.e., only 0.03/100,000 according to the available 2011 official record. The overwhelming majority of cases are reported from sites of endemicity in the western and northwestern regions. Here, we describe in some depth and breadth the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease, with particular reference to the control programs. Pertinent information has been assembled from scattered literature of the past decades in different languages that are not readily accessible to the scientific community. The information provided constitutes an integral part of our knowledge on leishmaniasis in the global context and will be of special value to those interested in control programs. PMID:26354822

  19. Visceral Leishmaniasis as a Possible Reason for Pancytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Kira-Lee; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Troeger, Anja; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Oommen, Prasad Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the protozoa, Leishmania, and frequently found in South-Western Asia, Eastern Africa, Brazil, and Mediterranean countries. Leishmania are transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies. After weeks to months, unspecific symptoms may occur, accompanied by more specific findings like pancytopenia and organomegaly. We report two children with pancytopenia and hepato-/splenomegaly: a 1-year-old boy was first diagnosed with an Adenovirus-infection, accompanied by fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly who had spent his summer vacation in Spain and a 3-year-old boy of Macedonian origin who was first diagnosed with a Parvovirus B19-infection again accompanied by splenomegaly and pancytopenia. In both children, leukemia was excluded by an initial bone marrow puncture. As fever was still persistent weeks after the children’s first hospital stay, both children received antibiotics empirically without sustainable effect. While different autoantibodies were present in both children, an immunosuppressive therapy was initiated in the younger boy without therapeutic success. A second bone marrow puncture was performed and Leishmania were finally detected morphologically and proven serologically. After weight-adjusted treatment with liposomal Amphotericin B for 10 days, both children recovered completely without relapse. Aim of this report is to broaden the spectrum of differential diagnoses in children with pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and fever to visceral leishmaniasis particularly when travel history is positive for the Mediterranean area. The infection may mimic more common diseases, such as leukemia, viral infections, or autoimmune diseases, because polyclonal B cell activation and other mechanisms may lead to multiple positive serologic tests. Both cases illustrate typical pitfalls and shall encourage taking Leishmaniasis into diagnostic consideration. PMID:26176005

  20. Polarized M2 macrophages in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Montassier, Hélio José; André, Marcos Rogério; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the skin (nasal surface and ear regions), lymph nodes (popliteal and pre-scapular), spleen and liver of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in order to investigate the relationship between the parasite load measured as DNA copy number of Alpha gene of DNA polymerase of Leishmania infantum by quantitative PCR and the number of M2 macrophages by immunohistochemistry. A set of 29 naturally infected dogs from an endemic area for VL were sampled and another set of six dogs negative for VL and from a non-endemic area were analyzed as the control group (C). The spleen presented the highest number of Leishmania DNA copies, with significant differences between the groups G1 and G2 (with and without skin lesions, respectively). The M2 phenotype immunostaining predominated among the macrophages in granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates of samples from the skin, lymph nodes and spleens examined. The presence of M2 macrophages in dogs from infected group differed significantly from the control group, in all organs analyzed, excepted liver. The highest proportion of M2 macrophages coincided with the highest parasitism loads found in more susceptible organs of VL dogs, even in the skin, considered a more resistant organ, while the liver showed low parasitism load and low immunostaining for M2 macrophages with no significant differences between infected and negative groups. It was concluded that the predominance of M2 phenotype in VL dogs favored the multiplication of Leishmania infantum in organs of dogs that are more susceptible to Leishmania infection, as skin, lymph nodes and spleen. PMID:27514887

  1. Eco-epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; den Boer, Margriet; Aseffa, Abraham; Jorge, Alvar

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is one of the growing public health challenges in Ethiopia with over 3.2 million people at risk and estimated up to 4000 new cases per year. Historically, VL was known as the diseases of the lowlanders; in the lower and upper Kola agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. The 2005-07 out breaks in highlands of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, in the Woina Degas, that affected thousands and claimed the life of hundreds misdiagnosed as drug resistance malaria marked that VL is no more the problem of the lowlanders. The Kola (lower and upper) and the Woina Dega are the most productive agroecological zones, supporting both the ongoing and planned expansions of large or small scale agriculture and/or agriculture based industries. Thus, the (re)emergence of VL is not only a public health and social problem but also have a direct implication on the country's economy and further development. Thus is high time for its control and/or elimination. Yet, the available data seem incomplete to plan for a cost-effective and efficient VL control strategy: there is a need to update data on vector behaviour in specific ecosystems and the roles of domestic animals need to be ascertained. The effectiveness and social acceptability of available vector control tools need be evaluated. There is a need for identifying animal reservoir(s), or establish the absence of zoonosis in Ethiopia. The planning of prevention of (re)emergence and spread of VL to areas adjacent to endemic foci need be supported with information from spatio-temporal mapping. In affected communities, available data showed that their knowledge about VL is generally very low. Thus, well designed studies to identify risk factors, as well as better tools for social mobilization with the understanding of their knowledge, aptitude and practice towards VL are necessary. PMID:26187584

  2. [Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].

    PubMed

    Górski, Stanisław; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers. PMID:19856834

  3. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik

    2004-09-01

    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  4. Development of a Portable Training Tool for Simulating Visceral Angiographic Procedures for Beginners

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji; Osuga, Keigo; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Miura, Hiroshi; Terayama, Koshi; Anai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masahide; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a tool that we developed to simulate performance of visceral angiography to train beginners in the field of splanchnic angiography. Seven residents and two fellows who were rotating within the Division of Interventional Radiology at our institution between June and August 2008 participated in the evaluation of this tool. They had no experience in performing visceral angiography as an operator. Time for selection of arterial branches arising from the celiac axis on the model was measured before and after training. After such training, the participants performed actual visceral angiography as an operator with instructors beside them. Success of the trainees in selecting visceral arterial branches was evaluated in these real-life cases. In the first test using the model, seven of nine trainees (77.8%) succeeded in selecting all required arteries, while the remaining two failed to select all required arteries. After training using the model, all trainees succeeded in selecting all required arteries just before the actual angiographic study. In the actual angiography, the catheter was successfully inserted from the femoral artery and advanced to the superior mesenteric, celiac, splenic, common hepatic, gastroduodenal, and right and left hepatic arteries by all trainees with only two exceptions. In conclusion, this tool is helpful for training beginners in visceral angiographic procedures.

  5. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moshfe, A; Mohebali, M; Afshoun, E; Mousavizadeh, A; Zarei, Z; Abidi, H; Akhoundi, B; Barati, V; Joukar, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad district in southwest of Iran. Methods A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT) in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive. Results Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7%) and female (8.3%) seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1%) was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4%) of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusion It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. PMID:23323094

  6. Role of histaminergic neurons in hypnotic modulation of brain processing of visceral perception.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Hattori, T; Kanazawa, M; Kano, M; Fukudo, S

    2007-10-01

    Modulating visceral sensation of the body is important to the understanding of emotion formation. Molecules that act during hypnosis and modify visceral pain perception are not known. We tested our hypothesis that hypnotic suggestion changes electrophysiological processing of visceroafferent signals in the human brain and that these conditions are in part dependent on histaminergic neurons. Twelve healthy male subjects were studied on two separate days: a day of treatment with histamine H1 receptor antagonist (d-chlorpheniramine 100 microg kg(-1), intravenously) and another day of that with placebo (saline, the same amount) in a randomized order. We recorded cortical evoked potentials to 100 rectal electrical stimuli after neutral, hyperalgesic or analgesic hypnotic suggestions as given to modulate the visceral perception. Analgesic suggestion reduced the amplitude of the deepest positive peak of viscerosensory evoked potential. Administration of histamine H1 antagonist diminished the attenuation of viscerosensory evoked potential by analgesic suggestion. Our results suggest that central pain modulatory system in the brain is activated by hypnotic suggestion and that brain histamine is a mediator in the hypnotic modulation of visceral sensory pathway as well as in the control of consciousness level. These findings lead us to possible new treatment for control of visceral perception. PMID:17883434

  7. Rectal Visceral Sensitivity in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome without Psychiatric Comorbidity Compared with Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Psychiatric comorbidity and visceral hypersensitivity are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without psychiatric disorders. Aim. We wanted to examine rectal visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without comorbid psychiatric disorders, IBS patients with phobic anxiety and healthy volunteers. Methods. A total of thirty-eight female, non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders and eleven female IBS patients with phobic anxiety were compared to nine healthy women using a barostat double random staircase method. The non-psychiatric patients were divided into those with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and those with alternating stool habits. Results. The IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had normal visceral pressure thresholds. However, in the diarrhoea predominant subgroup, the volume discomfort threshold was reduced while it was unchanged in those with alternating stool habits. The phobic IBS patients had similar thresholds to the healthy volunteers. The rectal tone was increased in the non-psychiatric IBS patients with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and in the IBS patients with phobic anxiety. Conclusions. Non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had increased visceral sensitivity regarding volume thresholds but normal pressure thresholds. Our study suggests that the lowered volume threshold was due to increased rectal tone. PMID:19789637

  8. Estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats: can resistance training re-establish angiogenesis in visceral adipose tissue?

    PubMed Central

    do Valle Gomes-Gatto, Camila; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on angiogenesis markers of visceral adipose tissue in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: Adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group): sham-sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-resistance training and ovariectomized resistance training. The rats were allowed to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails and the weights were progressively increased. Sessions were performed three times per week for 10 weeks. Visceral adipose tissue angiogenesis and morphology were analyzed by histology. VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in higher body mass (p=0.0003), adipocyte hypertrophy (p=0.0003), decreased VEGF-A mRNA (p=0.0004) and protein levels (p=0.0009), and decreased micro-vascular density (p=0.0181) in the visceral adipose tissue of the rats. Resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to attenuate the reduced angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of the ovariectomized rats. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study could not ameliorate low angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats.

  9. Associations between prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Loy, See-Ling; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations among prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat among women exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). The study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia, from April 2010 to December 2012. Blood samples were collected in the second and third trimesters from 135 healthy pregnant women who were followed-up at delivery, 2 months, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Maternal hair nicotine and oxidative stress markers during pregnancy were measured. Visceral fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that maternal hair nicotine concentration was associated with increased DNA damage (tail moment: β=0.580, p=0.001) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (β=-12.100; p=0.009) in the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased DNA damage, protein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity in the second trimester were associated with 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum visceral fat. No direct association was found between prenatal hair nicotine level and postpartum visceral fat; however, these results suggest that any relation of SHS to visceral adiposity may be indirect, mediated via enhanced oxidative stress. PMID:24329183

  10. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Conclusion Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure. PMID:27582681

  11. Mechanisms Underlying the Analgesic Effect of Moxibustion on Visceral Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renjia; Zhao, Jimeng; Wu, Luyi; Dou, Chuanzi; Liu, Huirong; Weng, Zhijun; Shi, Yin; Zhou, Cili; Wu, Huangan

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder that causes recurrent abdominal (visceral) pain. Epidemiological data show that the incidence rate of IBS is as high as 25%. Most of the medications may lead to tolerance, addiction and toxic side effects. Moxibustion is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat IBS-like abdominal pain for several thousand years in China. As a mild treatment, moxibustion has been widely applied in clinical treatment of visceral pain in IBS. In recent years, it has played an irreplaceable role in alternative medicine. Extensive clinical studies have demonstrated that moxibustion for treatment of visceral pain is simple, convenient, and inexpensive, and it is being accepted by an increasing number of patients. There have not been many studies investigating the analgesic mechanisms of moxibustion. Studies exploring the analgesic mechanisms have mainly focused on visceral hypersensitivity, brain-gut axis neuroendocrine system, and immune system. This paper reviews the latest developments in moxibustion use for treatment of visceral pain in IBS from these perspectives. It also evaluates potential problems in relevant studies on the mechanisms of moxibustion therapy to promote the application of moxibustion in the treatment of IBS. PMID:25093032

  12. The potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianna; Yang, Hongli; Li, Kun; Lei, Xiaofei; Xu, Changqing

    2016-09-01

    Piezo2 is an important mechano-gated ion channel that is involved in light touch sensitivity and inflammatory allodynia. However, current research has focused on the function of Piezo2 in somatic sensation but not in visceral sensation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Piezo2 in visceral sensation of mechanically innocuous and noxious stimuli under physiological and hyperalgesic conditions using rats as a model organism. Neonatal enema with acetic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of Piezo2-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced Piezo2 expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Piezo2 knock-down in DRG attenuated visceral sensation to innocuous stimuli in control rats and to both innocuous and noxious stimuli in rats with neonatal irritation. Compared with control rats, Piezo2 was not up-regulated in irritated rats at the mRNA or protein levels in thoracolumbar or lumbosacral DRGs, while TRPV1 was up-regulated in lumbosacral DRGs. These data suggest a potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation. PMID:27481627

  13. Utilization of meat industry by products: protein hydrolysate from sheep visceral mass.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, N; Modi, V K; Govindaraju, K; Radha, C; Lalitha, R G

    2007-01-01

    Protein hydrolysate was prepared from pre-treated sheep visceral mass (including stomach, large and small intestines) by enzymatic treatment at 43+/-1 degrees C (at the in situ pH 7.1+/-0.2 of the visceral mass) using fungal protease. The enzyme readily solubilized the proteins of the visceral mass as indicated by the degree of hydrolysis (34%) and nitrogen recovery (>64%). Hydrolysis with an enzyme level of 1% (w/w of total solids) at 43+/-1 degrees C with a pH around 7.0 for 45 min was found to be the optimum condition. The yield of protein hydrolysate was about 6% (w/w). The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate that was very hygroscopic, was comparable to that of casein. PMID:16457999

  14. Making an anti-amastigote vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: rational, update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Paula; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes

    2012-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Latina America, as well as the Mediterranean region of Europe and Asia. We aimed to develop a vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis targeting the intracellular amastigotes, which is the parasite stage that persists throughout infections with Leishmania parasites. With this in mind, we identified an amastigote specific antigen (A2) that contains an immunogenic epitope for CD4+ T helper (Th) cells and multiple repetitive units encoding CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Vaccine formulations containing the recombinant A2 associated with saponin, alum and IL-12 or expressed by attenuated adenovirus were shown to be protective in mice, dogs and nonhuman-primates. We are currently identifying novel amastigote specific immunogenic proteins that could be aggregated to A2 to further improve the level of vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity and protection against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22698479

  15. Neonatal stress from limited bedding elicits visceral hyperalgesia in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yumei; Wang, Zhuo; Mayer, Emeran A; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is a risk factor for developing functional pain disorders. The 'limited bedding' (LB) model elicits psychological stress in the dam and her pups by providing minimal nesting material following delivery. Little is known about the effects of LB on visceral pain. Rats (female, male) were exposed to LB on postnatal days 2-9. Electromyographic visceromotor responses were recorded at the age of 11-12 weeks during titrated colorectal distension. LB exposure resulted in significant visceral hyperalgesia in both sexes. Sex differences were demonstrated only in nonstressed controls, with females showing a greater visceromotor response. Our results prepare the way for use of the LB model in studying the development of visceral pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:25426824

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis with an Unusual Presentation in an HIV Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jawhar, Nazar M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a haemoflagellate protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It has a wide geographical spread. Classic cases are found primarily in children and present with typical features that include fever, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and pancytopenia. The diagnosis is usually achieved by bone marrow smears, culture and serology; however, it can manifest itself atypically, mostly in patients infected with HIV and geriatric immunocompetent patients. We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a 27 year-old HIV-infected male who presented with abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea of four weeks duration associated with nausea and vomiting, but with no typical symptoms or signs of visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established through the identification of the Leishmania organism in duodenal and colonic biopsies and confirmed by subsequent bone marrow smears. PMID:21969901

  17. Visceral Leishmaniasis with an Unusual Presentation in an HIV Positive Patient.

    PubMed

    Jawhar, Nazar M T

    2011-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a haemoflagellate protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It has a wide geographical spread. Classic cases are found primarily in children and present with typical features that include fever, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and pancytopenia. The diagnosis is usually achieved by bone marrow smears, culture and serology; however, it can manifest itself atypically, mostly in patients infected with HIV and geriatric immunocompetent patients. We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a 27 year-old HIV-infected male who presented with abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea of four weeks duration associated with nausea and vomiting, but with no typical symptoms or signs of visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established through the identification of the Leishmania organism in duodenal and colonic biopsies and confirmed by subsequent bone marrow smears. PMID:21969901

  18. Stromal Cells Derived from Visceral and Obese Adipose Tissue Promote Growth of Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Nowicka, Aleksandra; Solley, Travis N.; Wei, Caimiao; Parikh, Aaroh; Court, Laurence; Burks, Jared K.; Andreeff, Michael; Woodward, Wendy A.; Dadbin, Ali; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Lu, Karen H.; Klopp, Ann H.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, and in particular visceral obesity, has been associated with an increased risk of developing cancers as well as higher rates of mortality following diagnosis. The impact of obesity on adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC), which contribute to the formation of tumor stroma, is unknown. Here we hypothesized that visceral source and diet-induced obesity (DIO) changes the ASC phenotype, contributing to the tumor promoting effects of obesity. We found that ASC isolated from subcutaneous (SC-ASC) and visceral (V-ASC) white adipose tissue(WAT) of lean(Le) and obese(Ob) mice exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers expression, and had comparable effects on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration. Obese and visceral derived ASC proliferated slower and exhibited impaired differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro as compared to ASC derived from subcutaneous WAT of lean mice. Intraperitoneal co-injection of ovarian cancer cells with obese or visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased growth of intraperitoneal ID8 tumors as compared to controls. Obese and V-ASC increased stromal infiltration of inflammatory cells, including CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. Obese and visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased expression of chemotactic factors IL-6, MIP-2, and MCP-1 when cultured with tumor cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that obese and V-ASC have a unique phenotype, with more limited proliferation and differentiation capacity but enhanced expression of chemotactic factors in response to malignant cells which support infiltration of inflammatory cells and support tumor growth and dissemination. PMID:26317219

  19. Chromosome localization analysis of genes strongly expressed in human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Sheng; Song, Huai-Dong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Hu, Ren-Ming; Han, Ze-Guang; Chen, Jia-Lun

    2002-06-01

    To understand fully the physiologic functions of visceral adipose tissue and to provide a basis for the identification of novel genes related to obesity and insulin resistance, the gene expression profiling of human visceral adipose tissue was established by using cDNA array. The characterization and chromosome localization of 400 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue were analyzed by searching PubMed, UniGene, the Human Genome Draft Database, and Location Data Base. Two hundred eighty-nine clones were classified into known genes among the 400 ESTs strongly expressed in the tissue. Among them, <20% have been previously reported to be expressed in adipose tissue. The chromosome localization of 389 ESTs strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue showed that their relative abundance was significantly increased on chromosomes 1, 16, 19, 20, and 22 compared with the expected distribution of the same number of random genes. The intrachromosome distribution of the genes strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue was concentrated in certain regions, such as 1p36.2-1p36.3, 6p21.3-6p22.1, 19p13.3 and 19q13.1. Among them, the region of 1p36.2-1p36.3 appeared to be specific for visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, some genes playing an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin signal transduction and adipocyte differentiation, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors; CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteina; and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 2 (p85beta), were also localized in the concentrated regions, which may provide clues to identifying novel genes closely related to adipocyte function with potential pathophysiologic implications. PMID:12166625

  20. The effects of gabapentin in two animal models of co-morbid anxiety and visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    O' Mahony, Siobhain M; Coelho, Anne-Marie; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Lee, Kevin; Winchester, Wendy; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2011-09-30

    Visceral hypersensitivity and an increased response to stress are two of the main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Thus efforts to develop animal models of irritable bowel syndrome have centred on both of these parameters. The anticonvulsant gabapentin, which is widely used as an analgesic agent, also reduces anxiety. No data exists to our knowledge of the effects of gabapentin in animal models of co-morbid exaggerated stress response and visceral pain. Our aim was to assess the effect of gabapentin on stress and visceral hypersensitivity in two different animal models of irritable bowel syndrome. The animal models employed were the genetically susceptible Wistar Kyoto rat and the neonatally stressed maternal separation model. These animals were subjected to the open field paradigm to assess stress-induced defecation rates and colorectal distension to assess the level of visceral sensitivity. Gabapentin (30 mg/kg) prevented the stress-induced increase in faecal pellet output in the maternally separated rat, but not the Wistar Kyoto animals. On the other hand gabapentin (30 mg/kg) reduced the number of pain behaviours in response to colorectal distension in both models. These results show that whilst both models have similar responses to gabapentin in terms of visceral pain they differ in terms of their physiological response to stress. This indicates that the origin of anxiety and perhaps then visceral hypersensitivity differs in these models. Overall, these data suggest that gabapentin may be a useful treatment in disorders of co-morbid pain and an overactive stress system such as irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:21645509

  1. Amelioration of diet-induced diabetes mellitus by removal of visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Pitombo, Cid; Araújo, Eliana P; De Souza, Cláudio T; Pareja, José C; Geloneze, Bruno; Velloso, Lício A

    2006-12-01

    The effect of visceral fat removal upon glucose homeostasis, insulin signal transduction, and serum adipokine levels in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes mellitus (DIO) was evaluated. Swiss mice were initially divided into two groups fed with regular rodent chow or with chow containing 24 g% saturated fat (DIO). DIO mice became obese and overtly diabetic after 8 weeks. DIO mice were then divided into three groups: control, sham, and visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat removal. All groups were submitted to evaluation of basal glucose and insulin levels and i.p. insulin tolerance test. Insulin signal transduction in muscle was evaluated by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot, and serum adipokine levels were determined by ELISA. DIO mice became diabetic (228 versus 115 mg/dl), hyperinsulinemic (7.59 versus 3.15 ng/ml) and insulin resistant (K(itt) 2.88 versus 4.97%/min) as compared with control. Visceral fat removal partially reverted all parameters (147 mg/dl glucose; 3.82 ng/ml insulin; and 4.20%/min K(itt)). In addition, visceral fat removal completely reversed the impairment of insulin signal transduction through insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2 and Akt in muscle. Finally, serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 were significantly increased, while adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in DIO mice. After visceral fat removal the levels of adipokines returned to near control levels. The present study shows that removal of visceral fat improves insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes mellitus and these metabolic and molecular outcomes are accompanied by the restoration of adipokine levels. PMID:17170226

  2. EXPRESS: Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane M; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stressinduced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  3. Identification of a novel peptide ligand targeting visceral adipose tissue via transdermal route by in vivo phage display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Hong Shin; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Bae; Cho, Chong Su; Kang, Sang Kee; Choi, Yun Jaie

    2011-11-01

    To find novel peptide ligands targeting visceral adipose tissue (visceral fat) via transdermal route, in vivo phage display screening was conducted by dermal administration of a phage-peptide library to rats and a peptide sequence, CGLHPAFQC (designated as TDA1), was identified as a targeting ligand to visceral adipose tissue through the consecutive transdermal biopannings. Adipocyte-specific affinity and transdermal activity of the TDA1 were validated in vitro and targeting ability of the dermally administered TDA1 to visceral adipose tissue was also confirmed in vivo. TDA1 was effectively translocated into systemic circulation after dermal administration and selectively targeted visceral adipose tissue without any preference to other organs tested. Fluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that the TDA1 could be specifically localized in the hair follicles of the skin, as well as in the visceral adipose tissue. Thus, we inferred that dermally administered TDA1 would first access systemic circulation via hair follicles as its transdermal route and then could target visceral fat effectively. The overall results suggest that the TDA1 peptide could be potentially applied as a homing moiety for delivery of anti-obesity therapeutics to visceral fat through the convenient transdermal pathway. PMID:21999821

  4. Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  5. Analysis of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat After Gastric Balloon Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gustavo L.; de Melo, Rayssa A. B.; de Moura, Fernanda M.; Leite, Ana Paula D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This project is a continuation of a larger project entitled “Treatment with intragastric balloon (IGB) in patients with overweight and obesity in Recife” developed by Professor Dr. Gustavo Lopes de Carvalho. It is a project studying the effectiveness of treatment with IGB evaluating the loss of weight and body mass index and its impact on blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. It also assesses the lifestyle of patients studying whether treatment with IGB interferes in smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and physical exercises performed by patients. The present study added a larger project, the separate evaluation of the different types of abdominal fat—visceral fat and subcutaneous cell tissue fat — and was conducted to discover which of the 2 types of fat undergoes the greater reduction after IGB treatment. To measure these 2 types of fat, we used the ultrasonography technique, because it has been shown to be accurate and noninvasive. Methods: Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of IGB treatment. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 20 to 61 years, with 60% being 40 years of age or older. The majority (72%) were women. All variables (weight, body mass index [BMI], VF, and SCTF) showed a significant reduction (P < .05) in mean values after treatment. The difference was highest in the SCTF (17.5%) and ranged from an 11.4% to an 11.6% reduction in all other variables. The average loss of SCTF was highest among the patients who had lost up to 10.0% of their initial weight (19.2% for the ≤10.0% group vs 15.9% for the >10.0% group); however, the difference was not significant (P = .66). The average loss of VF was higher in the subgroup of patients who had lost >10.0% of their initial weight (16.2% vs 6.3%; P = .003). The Pearson correlation between the reductions in SCTF vs VF was negative, low, and nonsignificant (−0.17; P = .41). Conclusions: After 6

  6. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  7. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Marchant-Forde, J N; Weary, D M

    2015-08-01

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle, but to our knowledge, no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal palpation, with and without uterine palpation, in healthy cows and in cows diagnosed with metritis. A total of 49 Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation parity of 2.8±1.8) were subjected to systematic health checks every 3 d after parturition for 21 d, scoring for vaginal discharge (0 to 4); 13 cows showed a discharge score ≥2 during at least 1 health check and were classified as metritic, whereas 29 cows were classified as healthy and showed no sign of this or any other disease (including mastitis and lameness). Back arch and heart rate variability before examination and during palpation were recorded using video and heart rate monitors. Back arch (cm(2)) on the day of diagnosis was greater in metritic versus healthy cows (1,034±72 vs. 612±48cm(2)), and greater during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (869±45 vs. 777±45cm(2)). Heart rate frequency domain analysis showed that the low-frequency portion was higher in cows with metritis versus healthy cows (16.5±1.2 vs. 12.9±1.0). Time domain analysis showed that the standard deviation between normal to normal interbeat intervals and the root mean square of successive differences both decreased during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.5±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1, respectively). Together, these results indicate that the inflammation associated with metritis is painful, and that the pain response can be detected during rectal palpation with and without uterine palpation. Rectal palpation with uterine palpation appears to be more aversive than rectal palpation without uterine palpation

  8. Glycosylation of Erythrocyte Spectrin and Its Modification in Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sajal; Dutta, Devawati; Ghoshal, Angana; Mukhopadhyay, Sumi; Saha, Bibhuti; Sundar, Shyam; Jarmalavicius, Saulius; Forgber, Michael; Mandal, Chhabinath; Walden, Peter; Mandal, Chitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a lectin, Achatinin-H, having preferential specificity for glycoproteins with terminal 9-O-acetyl sialic acid derivatives linked in α2-6 linkages to subterminal N-acetylgalactosamine, eight distinct disease-associated 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins was purified from erythrocytes of visceral leishmaniaisis (VL) patients (RBCVL). Analyses of tryptic fragments by mass spectrometry led to the identification of two high-molecular weight 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins as human erythrocytic α- and β-spectrin. Total spectrin purified from erythrocytes of VL patients (spectrinVL) was reactive with Achatinin-H. Interestingly, along with two high molecular weight bands corresponding to α- and β-spectrin another low molecular weight 60 kDa band was observed. Total spectrin was also purified from normal human erythrocytes (spectrinN) and insignificant binding with Achatinin-H was demonstrated. Additionally, this 60 kDa fragment was totally absent in spectrinN. Although the presence of both N- and O-glycosylations was found both in spectrinN and spectrinVL, enhanced sialylation was predominantly induced in spectrinVL. Sialic acids accounted for approximately 1.25 kDa mass of the 60 kDa polypeptide. The demonstration of a few identified sialylated tryptic fragments of α- and β-spectrinVL confirmed the presence of terminal sialic acids. Molecular modelling studies of spectrin suggest that a sugar moiety can fit into the potential glycosylation sites. Interestingly, highly sialylated spectrinVL showed decreased binding with spectrin-depleted inside-out membrane vesicles of normal erythrocytes compared to spectrinN suggesting functional abnormality. Taken together this is the first report of glycosylated eythrocytic spectrin in normal erythrocytes and its enhanced sialylation in RBCVL. The enhanced sialylation of this cytoskeleton protein is possibly related to the fragmentation of spectrinVL as evidenced by the presence of an additional 60 kDa fragment, absent in

  9. Pathology and pathogenesis of disseminated visceral coccidiosis in cranes.

    PubMed

    Novilla, Meliton N; Carpenter, James W

    2004-06-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp. was recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the late 1970s. While most avian species of Eimeria inhabit the intestinal tract of its host, the crane eimerians, Eimeria reichenowi and Eimeria gruis, invade and multiply systemically and complete their development in both digestive and respiratory tracts. In DVC, cranes, especially chicks, may succumb to acute infections resulting in hepatitis, bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, splenitis, and enteritis. Cranes may also develop chronic, subclinical infections characterized by granulomatous nodules in various organs and tissues. This paper reviews the pathology and pathogenicity of natural and experimental DVC in sandhill and whooping cranes. Naturally infected birds appeared clinically normal, but progressive weakness, emaciation, greenish diarrhea, and recumbency before death were observed in birds administered doses > or = 10 x 10(3) sporulated oocysts per os. At necropsy, naturally infected birds had nodules in the mucosa of the oral cavity and the esophagus, and in thoracic and abdominal viscera. Experimentally infected birds necropsied less than 7 days after infection (a.i.) had no gross lesions. Birds examined later had hepatosplenomegaly, liver mottling, lung congestion and consolidation with frothy fluid in airways, and turgid intestinal tracts with hyperemic mucosa. From 28 days a.i., grossly visible granulomatous nodules were seen in the esophagus, heart, liver, cloaca, and eyelids. By light microscopy, the basic host response was a granulomatous inflammation with non-suppurative vasculitis affecting many organs and tissues. With time, multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells, many laden with asexual coccidial stages, increased in size and number. Widespread merogony resulted in morbidity and death, particularly in birds administered 20 x 10(3) sporulated oocysts

  10. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius mediate the acupuncture analgesia in visceral pain rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Gao, Xin-Yan; Li, Liang; Ben, Hui; Qin, Qing-Guang; Zhao, Yu-Xue; Zhu, Bing

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the role of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons in electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia in colorectal distension (CRD) rats. NTS neurons responding to both CRD test and EA conditioning stimulations were considered somato-visceral convergent neurons. The neuronal activities evoked by graded CRD showed multiple firing patterns indicating multisynaptic connections. Some of the CRD excitatory neurons were inhibited by EA and vice versa. There was no discrepancy among different acupoints in inducing the changes of unit discharges. Conclusively, EA could regulate CRD related neurons in the NTS through polysynaptic cross-talk mechanism, which mediates EA analgesia on visceral pain in anesthetized rats. PMID:25204607

  11. Desvenlafaxine succinate ameliorates visceral hypersensitivity but delays solid gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Lei, Yong; Li, Shiying; Song, Gengqing; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-08-15

    Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DVS on visceral hypersensitivity and solid gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastric hyperalgesia. Twenty-eight gastric hyperalgesia rats and 20 control rats were used. Visceral sensitivity during gastric distention (GD) was assessed by recording of electromyogram (EMG) at pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg. DVS with doses of 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg were administrated by gavage, 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.3 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously, and 5-HT2A antagonist (ketanserin, 1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally. The level of norepinephrine in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 1) visceral hypersensitivity induced by acetic acid was validated. 2) DVS dose-dependently reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the gastric hypersensitivity rats. The EMG (% of baseline value without GD) during GD at 60 and 80 mmHg with DVS at a dose of 30 mg/kg were 119.4 ± 2.3% (vs. saline 150.9 ± 2.7%, P < 0.001) and 128.2 ± 3.2% (vs. saline 171.1 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg. DVS at a dose of 1 mg/kg reduced visceral hypersensitivity only during GD at 60 mmHg. 3) Neither WAY-100635 nor ketanserin blocked the effect of DVS on visceral sensitivity. 4) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma NE level (P = 0.012 vs. saline). 5) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly delayed solid gastric emptying (P < 0.05 vs. saline). We conclude that DVS reduces visceral sensitivity in a rodent model of visceral hypersensitivity and delays solid gastric emptying. Caution should be made when DVS is used for treating patients. PMID:23764892

  12. Familial visceral myopathy diagnosed by exome sequencing of a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Holla, Oystein L; Bock, Gunter; Busk, Oyvind L; Isfoss, Björn Logi

    2014-06-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of bowel dysmotility presented with abdominal distension and peritonitis. Family history included premature deaths with intestinal symptomatology, suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance. Computed tomography showed a distended small bowel. Symptoms were alleviated by enterocutaneous stomas. Initial ileal biopsy suggested neuropathy; however, exome sequencing revealed an Arg148Ser mutation in the enteric smooth muscle actin gamma 2 (ACTG2) gene. Histological reassessment showed abnormal muscularis propria and smooth muscle actin, with the same findings in sibling, confirming familial visceral myopathy. Thus, noninvasive genomic analysis can provide early and specific diagnosis of familial visceral myopathy, which may help to avoid inappropriate surgery. PMID:24777424

  13. Evaluation of two recombinant Leishmania proteins identified by an immunoproteomic approach as tools for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral and human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Garde, Esther; de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Lopes, Eliane Gonçalves Paiva; Borges, Luiz Felipe Nunes Menezes; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira

    2016-01-15

    Serological diagnostic tests for canine and human leishmaniasis present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. Recently, an immunoproteomic approach performed with Leishmania infantum proteins identified new parasite antigens. In the present study, the diagnostic properties of two of these proteins, cytochrome c oxidase and IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor, were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral (CVL) and human tegumentary (HTL) leishmaniasis. For the CVL diagnosis, sera samples from non-infected dogs living in an endemic or non-endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from asymptomatic or symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, from Leish-Tec(®)-vaccinated dogs, and sera from animals experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or Ehrlichia canis were used. For the HTL diagnosis, sera from non-infected subjects living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from active cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis patients, as well as those from T. cruzi-infected patients were employed. ELISA assays using the recombinant proteins showed both sensitivity and specificity values of 100% for the serodiagnosis of both forms of disease, with high positive and negative predictive values, showing better diagnostic properties than the parasite recombinant A2 protein or a soluble Leishmania antigen extract. In this context, the two new recombinant proteins could be considered to be used in the serodiagnosis of CVL and HTL. PMID:26790739

  14. Different anti-adipogenic effects of bio-compounds on primary visceral pre-adipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Colitti, Monica; Stefanon, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Several natural compounds exhibit strong capacity for decreasing triglyceride accumulation, enhancing lipolysis and inducing apoptosis. The present study reports the anti-adipogenic effects of Silybum marianum (SL), Citrus aurantium (CA), Taraxacum officinale (TO), resveratrol (RE), Curcuma longa (CU), caffeine (CF), oleuropein (OL) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in reducing differentiation and increasing lipolysis and apoptosis. Analyses were performed on human primary visceral pre-adipocytes after 10 (P10) and 20 (P20) days of treatment during differentiation and on mature adipocytes after 7 days of treatment (A7). The percentage of apoptosis induced by TO extract in P10 and P20 cells was significantly higher than that induced by all other compounds and in CTRL cells. Triglyceride accumulation was significantly lower in cells treated with DHA, CF, RE in comparison to cells treated with OL and in CTRL cells. Treatments with CF, DHA and OL significantly incremented lipolysis in P20 cells in comparison to other compounds and in CTRL cells. On the contrary, the treatment of A7 cells with OL, CA and TO compounds significantly increased cell lipolysis. The addition of CF in differentiating P20 pre-adipocytes significantly increased the expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA2, GATA3, WNT1, WNT3A, SFRP5, and DLK1. Genes involved in promoting adipogenesis such as CCND1, CEBPB and SREBF1 were significantly down-regulated by the treatment. The screening of bioactive compounds for anti-adipogenic effects showed that in differentiating cells TO extract was the most effective in inducing apoptosis and CF and DHA extracts were more efficient in inhibition of differentiation and in induction of cell lipolysis. PMID:27540349

  15. Different anti-adipogenic effects of bio-compounds on primary visceral pre-adipocytes and adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Colitti, Monica; Stefanon, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Several natural compounds exhibit strong capacity for decreasing triglyceride accumulation, enhancing lipolysis and inducing apoptosis. The present study reports the anti-adipogenic effects of Silybum marianum (SL), Citrus aurantium (CA), Taraxacum officinale (TO), resveratrol (RE), Curcuma longa (CU), caffeine (CF), oleuropein (OL) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in reducing differentiation and increasing lipolysis and apoptosis. Analyses were performed on human primary visceral pre-adipocytes after 10 (P10) and 20 (P20) days of treatment during differentiation and on mature adipocytes after 7 days of treatment (A7). The percentage of apoptosis induced by TO extract in P10 and P20 cells was significantly higher than that induced by all other compounds and in CTRL cells. Triglyceride accumulation was significantly lower in cells treated with DHA, CF, RE in comparison to cells treated with OL and in CTRL cells. Treatments with CF, DHA and OL significantly incremented lipolysis in P20 cells in comparison to other compounds and in CTRL cells. On the contrary, the treatment of A7 cells with OL, CA and TO compounds significantly increased cell lipolysis. The addition of CF in differentiating P20 pre-adipocytes significantly increased the expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA2, GATA3, WNT1, WNT3A, SFRP5, and DLK1. Genes involved in promoting adipogenesis such as CCND1, CEBPB and SREBF1 were significantly down-regulated by the treatment. The screening of bioactive compounds for anti-adipogenic effects showed that in differentiating cells TO extract was the most effective in inducing apoptosis and CF and DHA extracts were more efficient in inhibition of differentiation and in induction of cell lipolysis. PMID:27540349

  16. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Developing in Miltefosine-Treated Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya

    2013-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an unusual dermatosis occurring following an attack of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). There are only few reports of PKDL after successful treatment with miltefosine. We report two cases of PKDL that developed after successful treatment of VL with miltefosine. PMID:23723490

  17. Plasmid-based gene transfer ameliorates visceral storage in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Katsuyama, Kayoko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Kosaka, Kenji; Aoki, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Shoji

    2003-03-01

    Sandhoff disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder with visceral involvement caused by mutations in the HEXB gene coding for the beta subunit of the lysosomal hexosaminidases A and B. HEXB mutations result in the accumulation of undegraded substrates such as GM2 and GA2 in lysosomes. We evaluated the efficacy of cationic liposome-mediated plasmid gene therapy using the Sandhoff disease mouse, an animal model of a human lysosomal storage disease. The mice received a single intravenous injection of two plasmids, encoding the human alpha and beta subunits of hexosaminidase cDNAs. As a result, 10-35% of normal levels of hexosaminidase expression, theoretically therapeutic levels, were achieved in most visceral organs, but not in the brain, 3 days after injection with decreased levels by day 7. Histochemical staining confirmed widespread enzyme activity in visceral organs. Both GA2 and GM2 were reduced by almost 10% and 50%, respectively, on day 3, and by 60% and 70% on day 7 compared with untreated age-matched Sandhoff disease mice. Consistent with the biochemical results, a reduction in GM2 was observed in liver cells histologically as well. These initial findings support further development of the plasmid gene therapy against lysosomal diseases with visceral pathology. PMID:12682727

  18. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  19. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE VISCERAL ENDODERM CELL LINES DERIVED FROM IN VIVO 11-DAY BLASTOCYSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two porcine cell lines of yolk-sac visceral endoderm, designated PE-1 and PE-2, were derived from in vivo 11-day porcine blastocysts that were either ovoid (PE-1) or at the early tubular stage of elongation (PE-2). Primary and secondary culture of cell lines was done on STO feeder cells. The PE-1 ...

  20. Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity measurements in adults: Influence of measurement site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess abdominal adiposity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Computed tomography can be used to examine the visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) components of abdominal adiposity, but it is unresolved whether single-slice or multi-slice protocols are needed. Nine computed tomograp...

  1. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  2. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice. PMID:26923434

  3. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  4. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  5. Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control.

    PubMed

    Penaforte, Klauber Menezes; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Teixeira-Neto, Rafael Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Renata Aparecida Nascimento; de Oliveira, Robson Bruniera; Schettini, Dante Alighieri; da Silva, Eduardo Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Identification of factors associated with Leishmania infection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755) were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103) were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103) presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with visceral leishmaniasis. With weak associations, purebred, shorthaired, over 5 years of age, male and large dogs were more prone to infection. The latter two variables formed the final regression model and the association with dog size was statistically significant. The control strategies developed presented limitations and a great number of seronegative dogs was culled. The data presented contribute towards better understanding of the dynamics of infection in canine visceral leishmaniasis and indicate that actions aimed towards adequate implementation of Visceral Leishmaniasis control program in Brazilian endemic areas should be prioritized. PMID:24473887

  6. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  7. Effect of preemptive ketamine administration on postoperative visceral pain after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Qi; Jia, Dong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    The pain following gynecological laparoscopic surgery is less intense than that following open surgery; however, patients often experience visceral pain after the former surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of preemptive ketamine on visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received placebo. Group 2 was intravenously injected with preincisional saline and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. Group 3 was intravenously injected with preincisional ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. A standard anesthetic was used for all patients, and meperidine was used for postoperative analgesia. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for incisional and visceral pain at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, cumulative analgesic consumption and time until first analgesic medication request, and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. The VAS scores of visceral pain in group 3 were significantly lower than those in group 2 and group 1 at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). At 2 h and 6 h, the VAS scores of incisional pain did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3, but they were significantly lower than those in group 1 (P<0.01). Groups 1 and 2 did not show any differences in visceral pain scores at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively. Moreover, the three groups showed no statistically significant differences in visceral and incisional pain scores at 12 h and 24 h postoperatively. The consumption of analgesics was significantly greater in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3, and the time to first request for analgesics was significantly longer in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, with no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3. However, the three groups showed no significant difference

  8. Interleukin-1β sensitizes abdominal visceral afferents of cats to ischaemia and histamine

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    1999-01-01

    Activation of abdominal splanchnic visceral afferents during mesenteric ischaemia induces visceral pain and evokes excitatory cardiovascular responses. Previous studies have shown that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration is increased locally in tissues during ischaemia and reperfusion. Local administration of IL-1β sensitizes somatic afferents to mechanical, thermal and chemical stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-1β stimulates or sensitizes splanchnic visceral afferents to ischaemia and to the action of chemical stimuli such as histamine. The concentration of IL-1β in mesenteric lymph and portal venous plasma in anaesthetized cats was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before, during and after 10 min of abdominal ischaemia. The level of IL-1β was significantly increased during ischaemia in lymph, but not in plasma. Discharge activity of single-unit abdominal visceral C fibre afferents was measured from the right thoracic sympathetic chain. Ischaemically sensitive C fibre afferents were identified according to their response to 5–10 min of abdominal ischaemia. Intra-arterial (i.a.) injection of a high dose of IL-1β (500 ng kg−1), but not of a lower dose (i.e. 15, 50 or 150 ng kg−1), stimulated most (six of seven) abdominal visceral afferents. IL-1β (15 ng kg−1, i.a.) significantly enhanced the increased activity of 11 of 13 C fibre afferents during 10 min of ischaemia. Conversely, an IL-1 type I receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, 1·5 μg kg−1, i.a.) significantly attenuated the increased activity in six of seven other C fibre afferents during ischaemia. IL-1β (15 ng kg−1, i.a.) significantly augmented the responses of 13 of 16 ischaemically sensitive abdominal afferents to histamine (5–10 μg kg−1, i.a.). Conversely, IL-1ra (1·5 μg kg−1, i.a.) significantly attenuated the responses of five of six other C fibre afferents to histamine. These data strongly suggest that stimulation of IL-1 type I receptors by IL-1

  9. Mimotope-Based Vaccines of Leishmania infantum Antigens and Their Protective Efficacy against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Pereira, Nathália Cristina de Jesus; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Lage, Paula Sousa; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Ribeiro, Tatiana Gomes; Melo, Maria Norma; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of cost-effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high-priority. The present study has used the phage display technology to identify new immunogens, which were evaluated as vaccines in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Epitope-based immunogens, represented by phage-fused peptides that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens, were selected according to their affinity to antibodies from asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dogs' sera. Methodology/Main Findings Twenty phage clones were selected after three selection cycles, and were evaluated by means of in vitro assays of the immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive and chronically infected with L. infantum BALB/c mice. Clones that were able to induce specific Th1 immune response, represented by high levels of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-4 were selected, and based on their selectivity and specificity, two clones, namely B10 and C01, were further employed in the vaccination protocols. BALB/c mice vaccinated with clones plus saponin showed both a high and specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with individual clones or L. infantum extracts. Additionally, these animals, when compared to control groups (saline, saponin, wild-type phage plus saponin, or non-relevant phage clone plus saponin), showed significant reductions in the parasite burden in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and paws' draining lymph nodes. Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ, mainly by CD8+ T cells, against parasite proteins. These animals also presented decreased parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, and increased levels of parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. Conclusions/Significance This study describes two phage clones that mimic L. infantum antigens, which were directly used as immunogens in vaccines and presented Th1-type immune responses, and that significantly reduced the parasite burden. This

  10. Hypoxia Promotes the Inflammatory Response and Stemness Features in Visceral Fat Stem Cells From Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Petrangeli, Elisa; Coroniti, Giuseppe; Brini, Anna T; de Girolamo, Laura; Stanco, Deborah; Niada, Stefania; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Morgante, Emanuela; Lubrano, Carla; Russo, Matteo A; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is a salient feature of obesity and many associated disorders. This condition frequently occurs in central obesity and is connected to alterations of the visceral adipose tissue (AT) microenvironment. Understanding how obesity is related to inflammation may allow the development of therapeutics aimed at improving metabolic parameters in obese patients. To achieve this aim, we compared the features of two subpopulations of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral AT of obese patients with the features of two subpopulations of ASC from the same isolation sites of non-obese individuals. In particular, the behavior of ASC of obese versus non-obese subjects during hypoxia, which occurs in obese AT and is an inducer of the inflammatory response, was evaluated. Obesity deeply influenced ASC from visceral AT (obV-ASC); these cells appeared to exhibit clearly distinguishable morphology and ultrastructure as well as reduced proliferation, clonogenicity and expression of stemness, differentiation and inflammation-related genes. These cells also exhibited a deregulated response to hypoxia, which induced strong tissue-specific NF-kB activation and an NF-kB-mediated increase in inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Moreover, obV-ASC, which showed a less stem-like phenotype, recovered stemness features after hypoxia. Our findings demonstrated the peculiar behavior of obV-ASC, their influence on the obese visceral AT microenvironment and the therapeutic potential of NF-kB inhibitors. These novel findings suggest that the deregulated hyper-responsiveness to hypoxic stimulus of ASC from visceral AT of obese subjects may contribute via paracrine mechanisms to low-grade chronic inflammation, which has been implicated in obesity-related morbidity. PMID:26224080

  11. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  12. Clinical significance of visceral adiposity assessed by computed tomography: A Japanese perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Miwa; Kishida, Ken; Nakamura, Tadashi; Yoshizumi, Tohru; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, rather than total amount of fat, is linked to obesity-related disorders. Visceral adiposity is an important component of obesity-related disorders in Japanese individuals with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. In 1983, our group reported techniques for body fat analysis using computed tomography (CT) and established the concept of visceral fat obesity in which intra-abdominal fat accumulation is an important factor in the development of obesity-related complications, such as diabetes, lipid disorders, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Our group also established ideal imaging conditions for determining abdominal fat area at the umbilical level CT scan. Visceral fat area (VFA) measured in a single slice at L4 level correlated significantly with the total abdominal visceral fat volume measured on multislice CT scan. In a large-scale study of a Japanese population, the mean number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia) was greater than 1.0 at 100 cm2 of VFA, irrespective of gender, age and body mass index. Our group also demonstrated that reduction of visceral fat accumulation subsequent to voluntary lifestyle modification, “Hokenshido”, correlated with a decrease in the number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors. It is important to select the most appropriate subjects from the general population (e.g., non-obese subjects with a cluster of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome) that are most suitable for body weight reduction, with the goal of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25071881

  13. Regional Differences in the Cellular Immune Response to Experimental Cutaneous or Visceral Infection with Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Peter C.; Yang, Yan-Zhu; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Weiguo

    1998-01-01

    Infection with the protozoan Leishmania donovani can cause serious visceral disease or subclinical infection in humans. To better understand the pathogenesis of this dichotomy, we have investigated the host cellular immune response to cutaneous or visceral infection in a murine model. Mice infected in the skin developed no detectable visceral parasitism, whereas intravenous inoculation resulted in hepatosplenomegaly and an increasing visceral parasite burden. Spleen cells from mice with locally controlled cutaneous infection showed strong parasite-specific proliferative and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, but spleen cells from systemically infected mice were unresponsive to parasite antigens. The in situ expression of IFN-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs was determined in the spleen, draining lymph node (LN), and cutaneous site of inoculation. There was considerably greater expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 p40 mRNAs in the LN draining a locally controlled cutaneous infection than in the spleen following systemic infection. Similarly, there was a high level of IFN-γ production by LN cells following subcutaneous infection but no IFN-γ production by spleen cells following systemic infection. Splenic IL-4 expression was transiently increased early after systemic infection, but splenic IL-10 transcripts increased throughout the course of visceral infection. IL-4 and IL-10 mRNAs were also increased in the LN following cutaneous infection. iNOS mRNA was detected earlier in the LN draining a cutaneous site of infection compared to the spleen following systemic challenge. Thus, locally controlled cutaneous infection was associated with antigen-specific spleen cell responsiveness and markedly increased levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and iNOS mRNA in the draining LN. Progressive splenic parasitism was associated with an early IL-4 response, markedly increased IL-10 but minimal IL-12 expression, and delayed expression of i

  14. Analgesic effect of minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N

    2014-03-15

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  15. Are visceral proteins valid markers for nutritional status in the burn intensive care unit?

    PubMed

    Shields, Beth A; Pidcoke, Heather F; Chung, Kevin K; Wade, Charles E; Martini, Wenjun Z; Renz, Evan M; Wolf, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether visceral protein levels increase under positive nitrogen balance during times of decrease in acute-phase reactant levels in patients with burn injury. This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional study approved by the local institutional review board. A total of 10 subjects between the ages of 18 and 72 with ≥ 20% total body surface area burn were enrolled over a 14-month period. Data were collected for five subjects (average age of 28 ± 8 years and total body surface area burn of 69 ± 15%) who met the inclusion criteria. Changes in visceral protein levels were examined along with nitrogen balance and acute-phase reactants when the subjects were on enteral nutrition, and the proteins were not examined during times of acute kidney injury. Descriptive statistics were performed, and linear regression was used to analyze the association of visceral proteins and nitrogen balance during times that acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing. The subjects received an average of 3044 ± 1613 kcal/day (39 ± 20 kcal/kg), meeting 72% of caloric goals and achieving positive nitrogen balance during 68% of the 40 weekly measurements, with 174 ± 85 g of protein intake per day (2.2 ± 1.1 g/kg). There was a weak relationship between nitrogen balance and changes in visceral protein levels during times that the acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing (P > .05). Visceral proteins were found to be poor markers of nutritional status. This study is unique because the subjects were able to achieve positive nitrogen balance despite severe burns. PMID:25055006

  16. Evaluation of the Accuracy of Anthropometric Clinical Indicators of Visceral Fat in Adults and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; de Oliveira, Carolina Cunha; Eickemberg, Michaela; Moreira, Pricilla de Almeida; Sampaio, Lílian Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is associated with higher occurrence of cardiovascular events. There are few studies about the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators, using Computed Tomography (CT) as the gold standard. We aimed to determine the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators for discrimination of visceral obesity. Methods Cross-sectional study with 191 adults and elderly of both sexes. Variables: area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) identified by CT, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Conicity index (C index), Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP) and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI). ROC analyzes. Results There were a strong correlation between adiposity indicators and VAT area. Higher accuracy of C index and WHtR (AUC≥0.81) than the LAP and the VAI was observed. The higher AUC of LAP and VAI were observed among elderly with areas of 0.88 (CI: 0.766–0.944) and 0.83 (CI: 0.705–0.955) in men and 0.80 (CI: 0.672–0.930) and 0.71 (CI: 0.566–0.856) in women, respectively. The cutoffs of C index were 1.30 in elderly, in both sexes, with sensitivity ≥92%, the LAP ranged from 26.4 to 37.4 in men and from 40.6 to 44.0 in women and the VAI was 1.24 to 1.45 (sens≥76.9%) in men and 1.46 to 1.84 in women. Conclusion Both the anthropometric indicators, C Index and WHtR, as well as LAP and VAI had high accuracy in visceral obesity discrimination. So, they are effective in cardiovascular risk assessment and in the follow-up for individual and collective clinical practice. PMID:25078454

  17. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5 min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60 min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  18. Visceral hypersensitive rats share common dysbiosis features with irritable bowel syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ming; Li, Xia; Long, Xin; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Cong, Ying-Zi; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate gut microbial dysbiosis in two visceral hypersensitive models in comparison with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and to explore the extent to which these models capture the dysbiosis of IBS patients. METHODS: Visceral hypersensitivity was developed using the maternal separation (MS) rat model and post-inflammatory rat model. The visceral sensitivity of the model groups and control group was evaluated using the abdominal withdraw reflex score and electromyography in response to graded colorectal distention. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene from fecal samples was pyrosequenced and analyzed. The correlation between dysbiosis in the microbiota and visceral hypersensitivity was calculated. Positive findings were compared to sequencing data from a published human IBS cohort. RESULTS: Dysbiosis triggered by neonatal maternal separation was lasting but not static. Both MS and post-inflammatory rat fecal microbiota deviated from that of the control rats to an extent that was larger than the co-housing effect. Two short chain fatty acid producing genera, Fusobacterium and Clostridium XI, were shared by the human IBS cohort and by the maternal separation rats and post-inflammatory rats, respectively, to different extents. Fusobacterium was significantly increased in the MS group, and its abundance positively correlated with the degree of visceral hypersensitivity. Porphyromonadaceae was a protective biomarker for both the rat control group and healthy human controls. CONCLUSION: The dysbiosis MS rat model and the post-inflammatory rat model captured some of the dysbiosis features of IBS patients. Fusobacterium, Clostridium XI and Porphyromonadaceae were identified as targets for future mechanistic research. PMID:27298564

  19. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis of sera from visceral leishmaniasis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by Lesihmania donovani complex and transmitted by the bite of the phlebotomine sand fly. It is an endemic disease in many developing countries with more than 90% of the cases occurring in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. The disease is fatal if untreated. The disease is conventionally diagnosed by demonstrating the intracellular parasite in bone marrow or splenic aspirates. This study was carried out to discover differentially expressed proteins which could be potential biomarkers. Methods Sera from six visceral leishmaniasis patients and six healthy controls were depleted of high abundant proteins by immunodepletion. The depleted sera were compared by 2-D Difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Differentially expressed proteins were identified the by tandem mass spectrometry. Three of the identified proteins were further validated by western blotting. Results This is the first report of serum proteomics study using quantitative Difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) in visceral leishmaniasis. We identified alpha-1-acidglycoprotein and C1 inhibitor as up regulated and transthyretin, retinol binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I as down regulated proteins in visceral leishmaniasis sera in comparison with healthy controls. Western blot validation of C1 inhibitor, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A-I in a larger cohort (n = 29) confirmed significant difference in the expression levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, DIGE based proteomic analysis showed that several proteins are differentially expressed in the sera of visceral leishmaniasis. The five proteins identified here have potential, either independently or in combination, as prognostic biomarkers. PMID:21906353

  20. Strain-dependent variations in visceral sensitivity: relationship to stress, anxiety and spinal glutamate transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Moloney, R D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-04-01

    Responses to painful stimuli differ between populations, ethnic groups, sexes and even among individuals of a family. However, data regarding visceral pain are still lacking. Thus, we investigated differences in visceral nociception across inbred and outbred mouse strains using colorectal distension. Anxiety and depression-like behaviour were assessed using the open field and forced swim test as well as the corticosterone stress response. Possible mechanistic targets [excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5HT1A receptor] were also assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Adult, male, inbred and outbred mouse strains were used in all assays (inbred strains; CBA/J Hsd, C3H/HeNHsd, BALB/c OlaHsd, C57 BL/6JOlaHsd, DBA/2J RccHsd, CAST/EiJ, SM/J, A/J OlaHsd, 129P2/OlaHsd, FVB/NHan Hsd and outbred strains: Swiss Webster, CD-1). mRNA expression levels of EAAT-1, BDNF and 5HT1A receptor (HTR1A) were quantified in the lumbosacral spinal cord, amygdala and hippocampus. A significant effect of strain was found in visceral sensitivity, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Strain differences were also seen in both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels. CBA/J mice consistently exhibited heightened visceral sensitivity, anxiety behaviour and depression-like behaviour which were associated with decreased spinal EAAT-1 and hippocampal BDNF and HTR1A. Our results show the CBA/J mouse strain as a novel mouse model to unravel the complex mechanisms of brain-gut axis disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, in particular the underlying mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity, for which there is great need. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of genotype and the consequences for future development of transgenic strains in pain research. PMID:25851919

  1. Dietary Stearic Acid Leads to a Reduction of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Gene P.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  2. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming-Che; Zhao, Xiangmin; Siegal, Gene P; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  3. Visceral adipose tissue area as an independent risk factor for elevated liver enzyme in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Kwark, Min Sun; Kim, Won; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Chronic elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are associated with body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated liver enzyme levels and the visceral tissue area in subjects with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).An observational cohort study was conducted with subjects undergoing general health examinations. To evaluate the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area, a computed tomography scan was performed. NAFLD was diagnosed if a person demonstrated fatty liver on ultrasonography without a history of significant alcohol consumption or chronic liver disease. Abnormal liver enzyme levels were based on ALT elevations according to the updated Asian definition.Of the 5100 subjects, 3712 (72.8%) met the inclusion criteria, and NAFLD was found in 1185 subjects. Elevated ALT values were positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue area. These relationships were attenuated, although they remained significant in a dose-dependent manner, after adjusting for multiple liver injury risk factors. In addition, when body mass index and subcutaneous and visceral tissue areas were finally considered in combination, only visceral adipose tissue remained independently associated with elevated ALT levels in the ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD group (P for trend <0.001 for men and women).Elevated ALT levels were independently and dose-dependently associated with visceral fat accumulation in the healthy general population, especially in ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD patients. These results reemphasize the importance of visceral fat in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25738475

  4. Three novel C1q domain containing proteins from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus: Genomic organization and analysis of the transcriptional changes in response to bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Jayasinghe, J D H E; Godahewa, G I; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-09-01

    The globular C1q (gC1q) domain containing proteins, commonly referred as C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins, are an essential family of proteins involved in various innate immune responses. In this study, three novel C1qDC proteins were identified from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) transcriptome database and designated as AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3. The cDNA sequences of AbC1qDC1, AbC1qDC2, and AbC1qDC3 consisted of 807, 1305, and 660 bp open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 269, 435, and 220 amino acids (aa), respectively. Putative signal peptides and the N-terminal gC1q domain were identified in all three AbC1qDC proteins. An additional predicted motif region, known as the coiled coil region (CCR), was identified next to the signal sequence of AbC1qDC2. The genomic organization of the AbC1qDCs was determined using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. It was found that the CDS of AbC1qDC1 was distributed among three exons, while the CDSs of AbC1qDC2 and AbC1qDC3 were distributed between two exons. Sequence analysis indicated that the AbC1qDC proteins shared <40% identity with other counterparts from different species. According to the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, the proteins were grouped within an invertebrate group with high evolutionary distances, which suggests that they are new members of the C1qDC family. Higher expression of AbC1qDC1 and AbC1qDC2 was detected in hepatopancreas, muscle, and mantle tissues compare to the other tissues analyzed, using reverse transcription, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green, whereas AbC1qDC3 was predominantly expressed in gill tissues, followed by muscles and the hepatopancreas. The temporal expression of AbC1qDC transcripts in gills after bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and lipopolysaccharide stimulation indicated that AbC1qDCs can be strongly induced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species with different

  5. Impact of Non-Pulmonary Visceral Metastases in the Prognosis and Practice of Metastatic Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Lorena; Martignano, Filippo; Gallà, Valentina; Maugeri, Antonio; Schepisi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Non-pulmonary visceral metastases, in bones, brain and liver, represent nearly the 10% of metastatic sites of advanced germ cell tumors and are associated with poor prognosis. This review article summarizes major evidences on the impact of different visceral sites on the prognosis, treatment and clinical outcome of patients with germ cell tumors. The clinic-biological mechanisms by which these metastatic sites are associated with poor clinical outcome remain unclear. The multimodality treatment showed a potential better survival, in particular in patients with relapsed disease. Patients with advanced germ cell tumors with visceral metastases should be referred to centers with high expertise in the clinical management of such disease. PMID:27471579

  6. Impact of Non-Pulmonary Visceral Metastases in the Prognosis and Practice of Metastatic Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Lorena; Martignano, Filippo; Gallà, Valentina; Maugeri, Antonio; Schepisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-15

    Non-pulmonary visceral metastases, in bones, brain and liver, represent nearly the 10% of metastatic sites of advanced germ cell tumors and are associated with poor prognosis. This review article summarizes major evidences on the impact of different visceral sites on the prognosis, treatment and clinical outcome of patients with germ cell tumors. The clinic-biological mechanisms by which these metastatic sites are associated with poor clinical outcome remain unclear. The multimodality treatment showed a potential better survival, in particular in patients with relapsed disease. Patients with advanced germ cell tumors with visceral metastases should be referred to centers with high expertise in the clinical management of such disease. PMID:27471579

  7. High performance liquid chromatography: Tandem mass spectrometric determination of cisplatin levels in different visceral pleura layers of rats

    PubMed Central

    XIA, HUI; ZHANG, WEN; LI, YINGJIE; YU, CHANGHAI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the concentration of cisplatin in different layers of the visceral pleura in rats, following drug administration. In this study, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was established to investigate the disposition of cisplatin in different layers of the visceral pleura in rats. Methodological data, including specificity, linearity, accuracy, recovery, precision and lower limits of quantification, confirmed that this novel method may be used to efficiently quantify the cisplatin concentrations in visceral pleura of rats following administration of the drug. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the desired drug concentration was not achieved in the outer or inner elastic layers of the visceral pleura following injection with cisplatin through various administration methods. PMID:26137076

  8. Decreased miR-199 augments visceral pain in patients with IBS through translational upregulation of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Yang, Liuqing; Larson, Scott; Basra, Sapreet; Merwat, Shehzad; Tan, Alai; Croce, Carlo; Verne, G Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome IBS not only have abdominal pain but also may suffer from visceral hypersensitivity and heighted visceral nociception. Moreover, IBS has few effective therapeutic agents and mechanisms of disease are unclear. Our goals were to (i) identify microRNA (miRNA) expression, signalling and targets in human colon (controls; patients with IBS); (ii) verify in vitro, IBS-associated changes in miRNAs, especially miR-199, which is complementary to the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) gene; and (iii) determine whether modulating the expression of miRNAs in vivo, especially miR-199, reverses associated changes and pathological hallmarks of visceral hypersensitivity via TRPV1 signalling. Design We evaluated 45 patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and 40 controls with (1) visceral pain severity score and (2) colonoscopy with biopsies. miRNA expression was evaluated in human colon following miRNA array analysis. Luciferase assays were done to confirm relationships between miR-199 and TRPV1 expression. A rat model of visceral hypersensitivity was used to study miR-199 and its target gene (TRPV1) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and colon in vivo. Results Gut miR-199a/b expression in IBS-D was significantly decreased, which correlated directly with both increased visceral pain scores and TRPV1 expression. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a by intraperitoneal injection of lenti-miR-199a precursors decreased visceral hypersensitivity via diminished TRPV1 signalling. Conclusions Decreased colonic miR-199a/b correlates with visceral pain in patients with IBS-D. Similarly, reduced miR-199a expression in rat DRG and colon tissue is associated with heightened visceral hypersensitivity. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a decreases visceral pain via inhibition of TRPV1 signalling. Thus, miR-199 precursors may be promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment in patients with visceral pain. PMID

  9. The effect of chemically induced colitis, psychological stress and their combination on visceral pain in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Deiteren, Annemie; Vermeulen, Wim; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2014-09-01

    Visceral sensitivity is of pathophysiological importance in abdominal pain disorders and can be modulated by inflammation and stress. However, it is unclear whether inflammation and stress alter visceral perception independently of each other or in conjunction through neuroendocrine interactions. Therefore, we compared the short- and long-term effects of experimental colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS), alone or in combination, on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and colonoscopically confirmed. During WAS, rats were placed on a platform surrounded by water for 1 h. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying the visceromotor responses (VMRs) to colorectal distension. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was determined by measuring serum corticosterone in a separate protocol. TNBS instillation resulted in overt colitis, associated with significant visceral hypersensitivity during the acute inflammatory phase (3 days post-TNBS; n = 8/group); after colitis had subsided (28 days post-TNBS), hypersensitivity was resolved (n = 4-8/group). Single WAS was associated with increased VMRs of a magnitude comparable to acute TNBS-induced hypersensitivity (n = 8/group). However, after repetitive WAS no significant hypersensitivity was present (n = 8/group). No additive effect of colitis and stress was seen on visceral pain perception (n = 6-8/group). Corticosterone levels were only increased in acute TNBS-colitis, acute WAS and their combination. To conclude, both colitis and stress successfully induced short-term visceral hypersensitivity and activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but long-term effects were absent. In addition, our current findings do not support an additive effect of colitis and stress on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. PMID:25089934

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a traveler returning from a pilgrimage to the Camino de Santiago.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Emily R; Shamasunder, Sriram; Cascino, Thomas; White, Kristie L; Katrak, Shereen; Bern, Caryn; Schwartz, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old American traveler who presented with 3 weeks of fatigue, fevers, chills, and pancytopenia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis (HLH) and bone marrow biopsy revealed amastigotes consistent with visceral leishmaniasis. The range of endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission now extends into northern Spain and travelers to this region should use personal protective measures against sand fly exposure. PMID:25145768

  11. Telehealth: a perspective approach for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) control in India.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kesari, Shreekant; Chatterjee, Nandini; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2012-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar, is a vector borne disease caused by the protozoan parasite, L. donovani. Poor and neglected populations in Indian sub-continent are particularly affected by this disease. Due to the diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis, treatment, or control will be suitable for all. Control measures through case findings, treatment, and vector control are seldom used, even where they could be useful. Modern tools like telehealth, using space technology, have now come in handy to address issues of disease surveillance, control checking, and evaluation. The present study focuses on telehealth as a current vector control strategy, perspectives on diagnosis, treatment, and control of visceral leishmaniasis as these deserve more attention and research. PMID:23265372

  12. Endovascular Embolization of Visceral Artery Aneurysms with Ethylene-vinyl Alcohol (Onyx): A Case Series

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M.J.; Lehmann, E.D.; Bottomley, J.; Kessel, D.O.; Nicholson, A.A.; McPherson, S.J.; Morgan, R.A.; Belli, A.-M.

    2006-12-15

    We report the application of the liquid embolic agent ethylene-vinyl alcohol (Onyx; MicroTherapeutics, Irvine, CA, USA) in the management of visceral artery aneurysms. The technique and indications for using Onyx are discussed with emphasis on the management of wide-necked aneurysms and maintenance of patency of the parent vessel. None of the cases was considered suitable for stent-grafting or embolization with conventional agents. Two aneurysms of the renal artery bifurcation and one aneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery were treated. Following treatment there was complete exclusion of all aneurysms. There was no evidence of end-organ infarction. Follow-up with intervals up to 6 months has shown sustained aneurysm exclusion. Onyx is known to be effective in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Our experience demonstrates the efficacy and applicability of the use of Onyx in the treatment of complex visceral artery aneurysms.

  13. Telehealth: a perspective approach for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kesari, Shreekant; Chatterjee, Nandini; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar, is a vector borne disease caused by the protozoan parasite, L. donovani. Poor and neglected populations in Indian sub-continent are particularly affected by this disease. Due to the diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis, treatment, or control will be suitable for all. Control measures through case findings, treatment, and vector control are seldom used, even where they could be useful. Modern tools like telehealth, using space technology, have now come in handy to address issues of disease surveillance, control checking, and evaluation. The present study focuses on telehealth as a current vector control strategy, perspectives on diagnosis, treatment, and control of visceral leishmaniasis as these deserve more attention and research. PMID:23265372

  14. Seroepidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis in south and southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, A; Berhe, N; Sisay, Z; Abraham, I; Medhin, G

    1996-01-01

    Sero-epidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis were carried out in eight localities of South and Southwest Ethiopia between the July 1989 and June 1992. A total number of 4870 subjects comprising semi-pastoral nomads, peasants and farm labourers were included in the study. Areas of high and low leishmanin skin test positivity were identified, with rates varying from 1.0-80.5%. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine prevalence of antileishmanial antibodies. The rates varied from 1.8% to 27.8%. Age and sex related serological and leishmanin skin test profiles are described. Correlation analysis of serological and leishmanin skin test was made for data in each locality. The relationships between seroprevalence, leishmanin skin test rates and prevalence of active visceral leishmaniasis and the implications on degrees of endemicity and patterns of transmission are discussed. PMID:8674496

  15. Recombinant K28 antigen in ELISA in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Venturin, G L; Bragato, J P; Silva, K L O; de Lima, V M F

    2015-12-01

    Crude total antigen (CTA) from Leishmania infantum and recombinant antigen K39 (rK39) and recombinant antigen K28 (rK28) were compared using an ELISA for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL). Forty-two blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic area and 80 blood samples from an endemic area for dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), confirmed with positive parasitological tests for Leishmania spp., were used in an ELISA. The parasitological diagnosis was chosen as a gold standard. The ELISA with rK28 antigen showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%, high agreement with CTA and rK39, indicating that the rK28 antigen is useful for ELISA serological diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26408410

  16. Using a 3D Culture System to Differentiate Visceral Adipocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Emont, Margo P; Yu, Hui; Jun, Heejin; Hong, Xiaowei; Maganti, Nenita; Stegemann, Jan P; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    It has long been recognized that body fat distribution and regional adiposity play a major role in the control of metabolic homeostasis. However, the ability to study and compare the cell autonomous regulation and response of adipocytes from different fat depots has been hampered by the difficulty of inducing preadipocytes isolated from the visceral depot to differentiate into mature adipocytes in culture. Here, we present an easily created 3-dimensional (3D) culture system that can be used to differentiate preadipocytes from the visceral depot as robustly as those from the sc depot. The cells differentiated in these 3D collagen gels are mature adipocytes that retain depot-specific characteristics, as determined by imaging, gene expression, and functional assays. This 3D culture system therefore allows for study of the development and function of adipocytes from both depots in vitro and may ultimately lead to a greater understanding of site-specific functional differences of adipose tissues to metabolic dysregulation. PMID:26425808

  17. Visceral Pseudoaneurysm Embolisation Using 'Ping-Pong' Technique: Importance of Dual Arterial Catheterisation to Prevent Rupture.

    PubMed

    Burrows, V; Zayyan, K S; Harding, J

    2015-01-01

    Supracolic peri-pancreatic visceral pseudoaneurysms combine the challenges of difficult location for open surgical repair with unpredictable risk of fatal exsanguination. Endovascular embolisation is a well-established method of safely decompressing these lesions using a variety of thrombogenic agents. A single catheter technique is commonly employed to achieve this outcome. However, there is also a risk of iatrogenic rupture during these procedures as a result of occlusion of one vessel allowing pressure to rise through any other vessel(s). Thus a thorough understanding of the flow dynamics prior to and during occlusion is essential for safe decompression. We report the adaptation of dual arterial catheter technique in treating these lesions in an 80-year old man with a large, leaking peripancreatic visceral pseudo-aneurysm. Our technique of alternating between intervention and observation of effect allows greater control of the potentially unpredictable haemodynamic situation. PMID:26158256

  18. Possible implication of the genetic composition of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) populations in the epidemiology of the visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Leonardo de Souza; Falqueto, Aloisio; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Grimaldi, Gabriel Júnior; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2011-09-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Several studies have indicated that the Lu. longipalpis population structure is complex. It has been suggested that genetic divergence caused by genetic drift, selection, or both may affect the vectorial capacity of Lu. longipalpis. However, it remains unclear whether genetic differences among Lu. longipalpis populations are directly implicated in the transmission features of visceral leishmaniasis. We evaluated the genetic composition and the patterns of genetic differentiation among Lu. longipalpis populations collected from regions with different patterns of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis by analyzing the sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, we investigated the temporal distribution of haplotypes and compared our results with those obtained in a previous study. Our data indicate that there are differences in the haplotype composition and that there has been significant differentiation between the analyzed populations. Our results reveal that measures used to control visceral leishmaniasis might have influenced the genetic composition of the vector population. This finding raises important questions concerning the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, because these differences in the genetic structures among populations of Lu. longipalpis may have implications with respect to their efficiency as vectors for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:21936320

  19. The visceral fat compartment is independently associated with changes in urine constituent excretion in a stone forming population.

    PubMed

    Fram, Ethan B; Agalliu, Ilir; DiVito, Joseph; Hoenig, David M; Stern, Joshua M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the independent effect of visceral fat on urine constituent excretion in a stone forming population. Using a database of 382 kidney stone patients with available visceral fat quantification, we created multiple linear regression models predicting changes in urinary solutes based on visceral fat area and body mass-index, divided by gender. Chi-square tests were used to compare stone composition by body mass-index and visceral fat area. Visceral fat predicts increases in urinary creatinine, sodium, and volume in men, but only urinary phosphate in women. In women, total body mass-index does not appear to modify this effect, but in men it is more pronounced in overweight patients for creatinine and volume only. Elevated visceral fat is associated with increased probability of uric acid stone composition. Different fat compartments likely effect urine composition in different ways. This effect appears to be different in men and women. Understanding and quantifying the effects of different fat compartments is probably important to understanding the metabolism of urolithiasis. PMID:25903669

  20. Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hwa; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study determined which obesity measurement correlates the best with diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 1603 subjects (611 men, 992 women; age 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist-thigh ratio, and visceral fat were used as measures of obesity. Visceral fat was acquired using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were defined using the criteria in the American Diabetes Association 2015 guidelines. Results After adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors, participants with a visceral fat mass in the upper 10th percentile had a higher odds ratio (OR) for diabetes and prediabetes than the upper 10th percentile of other adiposity indices [men, OR=15.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.4–39.2; women, OR=6.9, 95% CI=3.5–13.7]. Visceral fat mass also had the highest area under the curve with diabetes and prediabetes in both men (0.69, 95% CI=0.64–0.73) and women (0.70, 95% CI=0.67–0.74) compared to other anthropometric measurements of obesity. Conclusion Visceral fat mass measured using DXA is an indicator of diabetes or prediabetes, due to its ability to differentiate between abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat. PMID:26996568

  1. Descending influence from the nucleus locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus on visceral nociceptive transmission in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, M; Wang, D; Tamaki, J; Inoue, T

    2010-02-17

    Visceral nociceptive signals are the subject of descending modulation from the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus (LC/SC). We have recently found dorsal horn neurons whose visceral nociceptive responses are not inhibited by the descending LC/SC system (LC/SC-unaffected neurons) in the rat. The aim of the present study was to estimate a possible role of LC/SC-unaffected neurons for pain processing and pain-related responses. We focused on the fact that nociceptive signals from a visceral organ produce not only visceral pain but also visceromotor reflexes (muscular defense). Different effects of LC/SC stimulation can be expected between visceral pain and visceromotor reflexes. To accomplish our objective, the descending colon was electrically stimulated, and both the evoked discharge (ED) in the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus and the electromyogram (EMG) of the abdominal muscle were simultaneously recorded under halothane anesthesia. The ED recorded from the VPL was completely inhibited with the increase of LC/SC stimulus intensity, while the EMG of the abdominal muscle still remained even after the ED disappeared. This result suggests that the minimum visceromotor reflex responses are maintained by the presence of LC/SC-unaffected neurons, which play the important role of protecting the visceral organs. Considering a role of muscular defense, the presence of the LC/SC-unaffected neurons may be advantageous for the individual under an abnormal pain state, such as inflammation. PMID:19958815

  2. biniou (FoxF), a central component in a regulatory network controlling visceral mesoderm development and midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zaffran, Stephane; Küchler, Axel; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiang; Frasch, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    The subdivision of the lateral mesoderm into a visceral (splanchnic) and a somatic layer is a crucial event during early mesoderm development in both arthropod and vertebrate embryos. In Drosophila, this subdivision leads to the differential development of gut musculature versus body wall musculature. Here we report that biniou, the sole Drosophila representative of the FoxF subfamily of forkhead domain genes, has a key role in the development of the visceral mesoderm and the derived gut musculature. biniou expression is activated in the trunk visceral mesoderm primordia downstream of dpp, tinman, and bagpipe and is maintained in all types of developing gut muscles. We show that biniou activity is essential for maintaining the distinction between splanchnic and somatic mesoderm and for differentiation of the splanchnic mesoderm into midgut musculature. biniou is required not only for the activation of differentiation genes that are expressed ubiquitously in the trunk visceral mesoderm but also for the expression of dpp in parasegment 7, which governs proper midgut morphogenesis. Activation of dpp is mediated by specific Biniou binding sites in a dpp enhancer element, which suggests that Biniou serves as a tissue-specific cofactor of homeotic gene products in visceral mesoderm patterning. Based upon these and other data, we propose that the splanchnic mesoderm layers in Drosophila and vertebrate embryos are homologous structures whose development into gut musculature and other visceral organs is critically dependent on FoxF genes. PMID:11691840

  3. Early-life stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and anxiety behavior is reversed by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Moloney, R D; Stilling, R M; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-12-01

    Stressful life events, especially in childhood, can have detrimental effects on health and are associated with a host of psychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early-life stress can be recapitulated in animals using the maternal separation (MS) model, exhibiting many key phenotypic outcomes including visceral hypersensitivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The molecular mechanisms of MS are unclear, but recent studies point to a role for epigenetics. Histone acetylation is a key epigenetic mark that is altered in numerous stress-related disease states. Here, we investigated the role of histone acetylation in early-life stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Interestingly, increased number of pain behaviors and reduced threshold of visceral sensation were associated with alterations in histone acetylation in the lumbosacral spinal cord, a key region in visceral pain processing. Moreover, we also investigated whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), could reverse early-life stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and stress-induced fecal pellet output in the MS model. Significantly, SAHA reversed both of these parameters. Taken together, these data describe, for the first time, a key role of histone acetylation in the pathophysiology of early-life stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a well-established model of IBS. These findings will inform new research aimed at the development of novel pharmaceutical approaches targeting the epigenetic machinery for novel anti-IBS drugs. PMID:26403543

  4. Hippocampal microglial activation and glucocorticoid receptor down-regulation precipitate visceral hypersensitivity induced by colorectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Zhao, Bing-Xue; Hua, Rong; Kang, Jie; Shao, Bo-Ming; Carbonaro, Theresa M; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is a common characteristic in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other disorders with visceral pain. Although the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity remains speculative due to the absence of pathological changes, the long-lasting sensitization in neuronal circuitry induced by early life stress may play a critical role beyond the digestive system even after complete resolution of the initiating event. The hippocampus integrates multiple sources of afferent inputs and sculpts integrated autonomic outputs for pain and analgesia regulation. Here, we examined the hippocampal mechanism in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity with a rat model induced by neonatal and adult colorectal distensions (CRDs). Neither neonatal nor adult CRD evoked behavioral abnormalities in adulthood; however, adult re-exposure to CRD induced persistent visceral hypersensitivity, depression-like behaviors, and spatial learning impairment in rats that experienced neonatal CRD. Rats that experienced neonatal and adult CRDs presented a decrease in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunofluorescence staining and protein expression, and increases in hippocampal microglial activation and cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) accumulation. The decrease in hippocampal GR expression and increase in hippocampal IL-1β and TNF-α accumulation could be prevented by hippocampal local infusion of minocycline, a microglial inhibitor. These results suggest that neonatal CRD can increase the vulnerability of hippocampal microglia, and adult CRD challenge facilitates the hippocampal cytokine release from the sensitized microglia, which down-regulates hippocampal GR protein expression and, subsequently, precipitates visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26656865

  5. [Hepatic steatosis, visceral fat and metabolic alterations in apparently healthy overweight/obese individuals].

    PubMed

    Ryder, Elena; Mijac, Volga; Fernández, Erika; Palazzi, Nora; Morales, María Carolina; Connell, Lissette; Parra, Agner; Romero, Marlon; Fernández, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Clinical observation indicates that many obese individuals do not display important metabolic alterations. Consequently, the objective of this study was to establish whether simple obesity, non concurrent with other important risk factors, was associated with metabolic alterations; or if the phenomenon known as "obesity paradox" was present. A clinical history, measurements of anthropometric and metabolic parameters and estimation of hepatic steatosis and visceral fat, were determined in 30, apparently healthy, individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela, between 20 and 59 years of age and a body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m2, and compared to a lean control group of 11 individuals with BMI less than 25 kg/m2. The study demonstrated that only one third of overweight/obese individuals (OW/OB), with high body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), presented elevated values of insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Nevertheless, the presence of hepatic steatosis was elevated in the OW/OB group (91%) vs. 9% in the control group. The visceral fat in the lean control group was associated with both, WC and glycemia; however, it was not related to the BMI or insulin, HOMA-IR and HDLc. The visceral fat in the OW/OB group, although elevated in relation to the lean group, revealed a loss of these associations. In the OW/OB it was the BMI that was associated with insulin and HOMA-IR. The results emphasize the importance of investigating for the presence of hepatic steatosis, rather than visceral fat, in individuals with OW/OB, to identify subjects with high cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24758097

  6. Altered Insula Activity during Visceral Interoception in Weight-Restored Patients with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kara L; Moseman, Scott E; Avery, Jason A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Zucker, Nancy L; Simmons, W Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a devastating psychiatric illness that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Aberrant visceral interoceptive processing within the insula has been hypothesized to be an important mechanism in AN's pathophysiology due to the theoretical link between interoception and emotional experience. We therefore utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether altered insula functioning underlies visceral interoception in AN. Fifteen females with restricting-type AN and 15 healthy control females underwent fMRI while performing an interoceptive attention task during which they focused on sensations in their heart, stomach, and bladder. Participants also performed an anxious rumination task while in the scanner. AN participants were weight-restored and free of psychotropic medications. Two distinct regions of the insula-anterior insula and dorsal mid-insula-exhibited a significant (p<0.05) interaction between group and interoceptive modality. The post hoc analyses revealed that in the dorsal mid-insula the interaction was driven by group differences during stomach interoception (p=0.002, Bonferroni corrected), whereas in the anterior insula the interaction was driven by group differences during heart interoception (p=0.03, Bonferroni corrected). In addition, individuals with AN displayed increased activation during anxious rumination in the dorsal mid-insula, and activation in this region during stomach interoception was correlated with measures of anxiety and psychopathology. This relationship between altered visceral interoception and clinical symptoms in AN suggests an important mechanism for the disorder. Additional research is needed to examine whether interventions targeting visceral interoception may increase the efficacy of treatments for AN. PMID:26084229

  7. Sex differences in the activation of the spinoparabrachial circuit by visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anne Z; Suckow, Shelby K; Johns, Malcolm; Traub, Richard J

    2009-05-25

    Women are more sensitive to most noxious visceral stimuli, both in terms of intensity and frequency. The spinoparabrachial (spino-PBn) pathway is an essential neural circuit for the central relay of viscerosensitive information, but studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological characteristics of this pathway have only been conducted in males. Sex differences in the anatomical and/or physiological organization of the spino-PBn may contribute to the sexually dimorphic incidence rate for visceral pain syndromes. Retrograde labeling and colorectal distention (CRD) induced Fos expression was used to delineate the spino-PBn circuit in male and cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats. The ability of morphine to suppress CRD evoked responses was also examined. Neurons retrogradely labeled from the PBn were localized primarily within the superficial dorsal horn and sacral parasympathetic nucleus of the L5-S1 spinal cord. While no sex differences were noted in either the distribution of spino-PBn neurons or in CRD-induced Fos expression, significantly greater Fos expression was noted specifically in spino-PBn neurons in males compared to females. Morphine selectively attenuated Fos expression in spino-PBn neurons in males, but not females. Subsequent anatomical studies showed significantly reduced mu opioid receptor protein levels and radioligand binding within the PBn of females in comparison to males. Together, these data indicate that there are profound sex differences in how a noxious visceral stimulus and opiates engage the spino-PBn pathway, which may account for the observed clinical differences in visceral pain sensitivity and morphine antinociception. PMID:19275905

  8. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

  9. Reactive oxygen species mediate visceral pain-related amygdala plasticity and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guangchen; Li, Zhen; Neugebauer, Volker

    2015-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an important contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to pain and neuropsychiatric disorders, but their role in pain-related plasticity in the brain is largely unknown. Neuroplasticity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) correlates positively with pain behaviors in different models. Little is known, however, about mechanisms of visceral pain-related amygdala changes. The electrophysiological and behavioral studies reported here addressed the role of ROS in the CeA in a visceral pain model induced by intracolonic zymosan. Vocalizations to colorectal distension and anxiety-like behavior increased after intracolonic zymosan and were inhibited by intra-CeA application of a ROS scavenger (tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic). Tempol also induced a place preference in zymosan-treated rats but not in controls. Single-unit recordings of CeA neurons in anesthetized rats showed increases of background activity and responses to visceral stimuli after intracolonic zymosan. Intra-CeA application of tempol inhibited the increased activity but had no effect under normal conditions. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of CeA neurons in brain slices from zymosan-treated rats showed that tempol decreased neuronal excitability and excitatory synaptic transmission of presumed nociceptive inputs from the brainstem (parabrachial area) through a combination of presynaptic and postsynaptic actions. Tempol had no effect in brain slices from sham controls. The results suggest that ROS contribute to visceral pain-related hyperactivity of amygdala neurons and amygdala-dependent behaviors through a mechanism that involves increased excitatory transmission and excitability of CeA neurons. PMID:25734993

  10. Factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Shingo; Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Hokama, Akira; Hoshino, Kunikazu; Maruwaka, Shuichi; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Parrott, Gretchen; Hirata, Tetsuo; Kinjo, Kozen; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical and biochemical factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population. METHODS: We enrolled 1004 subjects who underwent a medical health checkup between April 2008 and March 2009. The medical health checkup included the following tests: Height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, urinalysis, blood-cell counts, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, chest radiography, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) for visceral fat accumulation. The patients’ medical history and lifestyle factors were collected privately by nurses using a self-administered questionnaire, and they included questions regarding physical activity, sleep duration, dietary habits, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Visceral fat area (VFA) was defined as the sum of the intraperitoneal fat area at the level of the umbilicus with CT density in the range of -150 to -50 Hounsfield units. RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index (BMI) of the study subjects were 57.0 years and 24.4 kg/m2. In both male and females, VFA was significantly and positively correlated with WC (r = 0.532, P < 0.01; r = 0.612, P < 0.01). Subjects with high levels of VFA were primarily male with significantly higher age, height, body weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and hemoglobin in all subjects (P < 0.05). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that VFA had a positive relationship with age ≥ 56, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, and triglyceride level ≥ 149 in males (P < 0.05), whereas it had a positive relationship with age ≥ 58, BMI ≥ 24.4 kg/m2, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level < 40 mg/dL, and current drinking in females (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that gender differences exist in the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with visceral fat accumulation. PMID:27158542

  11. Visceral and Renal Artery Complications of Suprarenal Fixation during Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Dawson, Joseph; Loftus, Ian M.; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2007-07-15

    Background. The effect of suprarenal fixation of endovascular grafts on renal and visceral artery function remains undefined. This study aimed to determine renal and visceral artery complications following suprarenal fixation during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR). Methods. Prospectively collected data from 112 patients who received suprarenal fixation (group SF) and 36 patients who received infrarenal fixation (group IF) in a single institution from December 1997 to April 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Median follow-up was 26 months (range 0.1-101 months). Results. Stent struts extended to or above the level of 106 (94.6%) right renal arteries, 104 (92.9%) left renal arteries, 49 (43.8%) superior mesenteric arteries (SMA), and 7 (6.3%) celiac arteries in group SF. This group had 2 (1.8%) unintentional main renal artery occlusions, of which 1 was successfully treated at the first procedure with a renal stent. There was 1 (0.9%) SMA occlusion which resulted in bowel infarction and death. Group IF had no renal or visceral artery complications. There were no late-onset occlusions or infarcts. There was no significant difference in median serum creatinine between groups SF and IF at 1 month (p = 0.18) and 6 months to 12 months (p 0.22) follow-up. The change in serum creatinine over time was also not significantly different within each group (SF, p = 0.09; IF, p 0.38). Conclusions. In this study, suprarenal fixation was associated with a very small incidence of immediate renal and visceral artery occlusion. There did not appear to be any medium-term sequelae of suprarenal fixation.

  12. Naturally acquired visceral leishmaniosis in a captive Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus).

    PubMed

    Ramírez, G A; Peñafiel-Verdú, C; Altimira, J; García-González, B; Vilafranca, M

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of leishmaniosis has been reported from an increasing number of domestic and wild mammals around the world. In Australian macropods, Leishmania spp infection has been occasionally described in its cutaneous form only. The purpose of this report is to present a case of fatal visceral leishmaniosis in a captive Bennett's wallaby in Madrid, Spain, which was investigated by detailed macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical examinations. PMID:22692623

  13. Clinical importance of assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with visceral obesity. A Japanese perspective.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and impaired insulin action and/or insulin secretion. Obesity T2DM has become a serious problem in Japan as in Western countries, with over-eating and physical inactivity. Obese Asians have mild degree of adiposity, compared with Western subjects. Unlike total body fat, body fat distribution, especially excess accumulation of visceral fat, correlates with various diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities, which increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Obese patients with T2DM have poor glycemic control with disordered eating behaviors, and complications of hypertension and dyslipidemia, leading to ACVD. The major therapies in obese T2DM, hyperinsulinemia and low insulin sensitivity, available for weight loss, especially visceral fat reduction, include caloric restriction, physical activity and behavior modification. On the other hand, the major therapies in non-obese T2DM with insufficient insulin secretion, are insulin-secretory agents and injectable insulin. For clinically meaningful prevention/reduction in the rate of future ACVD in T2DM, it may be important to stratify T2DM subjects into those with and without visceral obesity and design specific management protocols for each group. PMID:22309596

  14. Resistance training, visceral obesity and inflammatory response: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Strasser, B; Arvandi, M; Siebert, U

    2012-07-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for low-grade inflammation, which is associated with increased risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For the most part, recommendations to treat or prevent overweight and obesity via physical activity have focused on aerobic endurance training as it is clear that aerobic training is associated with much greater energy expenditure during the exercise session than resistance training. However, due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal ageing and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Whether resistance training alters visceral fat and the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in adipose tissue has not been addressed in earlier reviews. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to a better metabolic control. Considering the benefits of resistance training on visceral fat and inflammatory response, an important question is: how much resistance training is needed to confer such benefits? Therefore, the purpose of this review was to address the importance of resistance training on abdominal obesity, visceral fat and inflammatory response. PMID:22385646

  15. Performance of Alere™ immunochromathographic test for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Souza Filho, Job Alves de; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes, Artur Augusto Velho; Silva, Shara Regina da; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado; Marcelino, Andreza Pain

    2016-07-30

    The diagnosis and control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has fundamental importance in the control of human visceral leishmaniasis. In this context, the immunochromathographic test (ICT) has emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool. Currently, in Brazil, the algorithm for the diagnosis of CVL uses Dual Path Platform (DPP) ICT as a screening test and ELISA as a confirmatory test. However, the DPP(®) ICT has been facing a problem of insufficient production to meet the national demand. Here, the Alere™ canine visceral leishmaniasis ICT was tested with serum samples from 159 dogs, including symptomatic, asymptomatic and healthy dogs, characterized by DPP(®) ICT and ELISA (panel A), or ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) (panel B), and parasitological examination as gold standard. In this study, the Alere™ ICT obtained 0.974 sensitivity for panel A and 0.854 sensitivity for panel B. The specificity was 1.0 for both panels. Thus, the Alere™ ICT has potential to be used for the serological diagnosis of CVL. PMID:27369585

  16. Stress-Related Alterations of Visceral Sensation: Animal Models for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Stressors of different psychological, physical or immune origin play a critical role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome participating in symptoms onset, clinical presentation as well as treatment outcome. Experimental stress models applying a variety of acute and chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors have been developed to target different periods throughout the lifespan of animals to assess the vulnerability, the trigger and perpetuating factors determining stress influence on visceral sensitivity and interactions within the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence points towards adequate construct and face validity of experimental models developed with respect to animals' age, sex, strain differences and specific methodological aspects such as non-invasive monitoring of visceromotor response to colorectal distension as being essential in successful identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing stress-related alterations in visceral sensitivity. Underlying mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of visceral pain involve a combination of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sensitization based on the nature of the stressors and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive transmission or stress-related analgesic response. PMID:21860814

  17. A comparison of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess visceral fat in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weikun; Ren, Huilong; Tong, Hongzhang; Shen, Xiaoyin; Luo, Jianping; Chen, Shuting; Lai, Jingbo; Chen, Xinyi; Chen, Hongwei; Yu, Wanjun

    2007-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Easy detection of VAT could be an important tool to increase understanding of the metabolic syndrome. To study the relationship between the area of the inferior part of the perirenal fat (AIPPF) and anthropometric, imaging and cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome, seventy two subjects with metabolic syndrome were recruited including 44 men and 28 women (age: 26-68 yr). Each subject underwent ultrasound detection of AIPPF, intraabdominal fat thickness and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate abdominal VAT (MRI VAT). Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were also evaluated. AIPPF measured by ultrasonography demonstrated excellent reproducibility. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that AIPPF has the best sensitivity for women, specificity for men and accuracy of the various measures to predict visceral obesity (MRI VAT value > or = 110 cm2) for both genders. AIPPF was related to MRI VAT, ultrasound measured intraabdominal fat, waist circumference, the ratio of waist and hip circumferences (of men), body mass index and the main cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis suggested that MRI VAT affected AIPPF independent of other investigated obesity indices. This study showed that AIPPF could be applied as an easy and reliable imaging indicator of visceral obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17392130

  18. Visceral Fat Accumulation, Insulin Resistance, and Elevated Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Matsushita, Yumi; Nakagawa, Toru; Honda, Toru; Hayashi, Takeshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate visceral fat accumulation and markers of insulin resistance in relation to elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). Methods Participants were 4,333 male employees (mean age, 49.3 years) who underwent abdominal computed tomography scanning, measured fasting insulin, and did not self-report diabetes and mental disorders under treatment and history of cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of EDS with abdominal fat deposition and markers of insulin resistance. Results Visceral fat area (VFA) and fasting insulin were significantly, positively associated with EDS. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of high VFA for the lowest through highest quartile of depression score were 1 (reference), 1.18 (0.97–1.42), 1.25 (1.02–1.54), 1.23 (1.01–1.51), respectively, and corresponding figures for high fasting insulin were 1 (reference), 0.98 (0.80–1.19), 1.12 (0.91–1.38), and 1.29 (1.06–1.57), respectively. Subcutaneous fat area was not associated with EDS. Conclusions Results suggest that EDS is related to visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat accumulation and insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:26891344

  19. Convergence of limb, visceral, and vertical semicircular canal or otolith inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jian, B. J.; Shintani, T.; Emanuel, B. A.; Yates, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to determine the patterns of convergence of non-labyrinthine inputs from the limbs and viscera onto vestibular nucleus neurons receiving signals from vertical semicircular canals or otolith organs. A secondary aim was to ascertain whether the effects of non-labyrinthine inputs on the activity of vestibular nucleus neurons is affected by bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions. The majority (72%) of vestibular nucleus neurons in labyrinth-intact animals whose firing was modulated by vertical rotations responded to electrical stimulation of limb and/or visceral nerves. The activity of even more vestibular nucleus neurons (93%) was affected by limb or visceral nerve stimulation in chronically labyrinthectomized preparations. Some neurons received non-labyrinthine inputs from a variety of peripheral sources, including antagonist muscles acting at the same joint, whereas others received inputs from more limited sources. There was no apparent relationship between the spatial and dynamic properties of a neuron's responses to tilts in vertical planes and the non-labyrinthine inputs that it received. These data suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs elicited during movement will modulate the processing of information by the central vestibular system, and may contribute to the recovery of spontaneous activity of vestibular nucleus neurons following peripheral vestibular lesions. Furthermore, some vestibular nucleus neurons with non-labyrinthine inputs may be activated only during particular behaviors that elicit a specific combination of limb and visceral inputs.

  20. Respective influences of age and weaning on skeletal and visceral muscle protein synthesis in the lamb.

    PubMed Central

    Attaix, D; Aurousseau, E; Bayle, G; Rosolowska-Huszcz, D; Arnal, M

    1988-01-01

    1. The influences of age and weaning on muscle protein synthesis were studied in vivo, by injecting a large dose of [3H]valine into 1-, 5- and 8-week-old suckling or 8-week-old weaned lambs. 2. The fractional rates of protein synthesis, in red- and white-fibre-type skeletal muscles or striated and smooth visceral muscles, were in 8-week-old suckling animals 24-37% of their values at 1 week of age. This developmental decline was related to decreased capacities for protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratios. 3. At 8 weeks of age, suckling and weaned lambs had similar fractional synthesis rates, capacities for protein synthesis and efficiencies of protein synthesis (i.e. rates of protein synthesis relative to RNA) in skeletal muscles. 4. In contrast, visceral-muscle fractional synthesis rates were lower in 8-week-old suckling lambs than in weaned animals, owing to decreased efficiencies of protein synthesis. It was concluded that developmental factors and the change to a solid diet, or weaning in itself, or both, affect differently skeletal and visceral muscle protein synthesis in the immature lamb. PMID:3223952

  1. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis and IL-10 Receptor Blockade as Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Henry W.; Lu, Christina M.; Mauze, Smita; Freeman, Sherry; Moreira, Andre L.; Kaplan, Gilla; Coffman, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote intracellular infection, including human visceral leishmaniasis, by disabling Th1 cell-type responses and/or deactivating parasitized tissue macrophages. To develop a rationale for IL-10 inhibition as treatment in visceral infection, Th1 cytokine-driven responses were characterized in Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice in which IL-10 was absent or overexpressed or its receptor (IL-10R) was blockaded. IL-10 knockout and normal mice treated prophylactically with anti-IL-10R demonstrated accelerated granuloma assembly and rapid parasite killing without untoward tissue inflammation; IL-12 and gamma interferon mRNA expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase reactivity, and responsiveness to antimony chemotherapy were also enhanced in knockout mice. In IL-10 transgenic mice, parasite replication was unrestrained, and except for antimony responsiveness, measured Th1 cell-dependent events were all initially impaired. Despite subsequent granuloma assembly, high-level infection persisted, and antimony-treated transgenic mice also relapsed. In normal mice with established infection, anti-IL-10R treatment was remarkably active, inducing near-cure by itself and synergism with antimony. IL-10's deactivating effects regulate outcome in experimental visceral leishmaniasis, and IL-10R blockade represents a potential immuno- and/or immunochemotherapeutic approach in this infection. PMID:12379707

  2. Effective immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis with the FML-vaccine.

    PubMed

    Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara Patricia; Cruz Mendes, Amanda; Paraguai de Souza, Edilma; Hashimoto Okada, Lilian Y; de A Trivellato, Fernando Antonio; Kawasaki, Jarbas Kiyoshi A; Costa, Andreia Cerqueira; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Genaro, Odair; Batista, Leopoldina Maria Melo; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2004-06-01

    The potential effect of the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine on immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis was assayed on five mongrel dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani and on 21 Leishmania chagasi naturally infected dogs when seropositive to FML but completely asymptomatic. The clinical signs of the experimentally infected, symptomatic dogs only disappeared after the complete vaccination. Protection was obtained in 3/5 animals that remained asymptomatic, IDR positive and parasite free, 1 year after infection. Furthermore, the asymptomatic, FML-vaccine treated dogs showed stable anti-FML IgG1 levels, increasing IgG2 levels and 79-95% of positive DTH response, during the whole experiment. Twenty-two months after complete vaccination, no obits due to visceral leishmaniasis were recorded and 90% of these dogs were still asymptomatic, healthy and parasite free. On the other hand, 37% (17/46 dogs) kala-azar obits were recorded in a control group that received no treatment during the same period, and that was FML-seropositive and asymtpomatic at the beginning of the assay. Our results indicate that the FML-vaccine was effective in the immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis of asymptomatic infected dogs. Normal proportions of CD4 and CD21 lymphocytes were detected in PBMC by FACS analysis, in dogs submitted to immunotherapy, suggesting their non-infectious condition. All animals showed as well significantly increased percents of CD8 lymphocytes as expected for Quillaja saponin (QuilA) vaccine treatments. PMID:15149782

  3. Compartment-specific remodeling of splenic micro-architecture during experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Yurdakul, Pinar; Dalton, Jane; Beattie, Lynette; Brown, Najmeeyah; Erguven, Sibel; Maroof, Asher; Kaye, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    Progressive splenomegaly is a hallmark of visceral leishmaniasis in humans, canids, and rodents. In experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, splenomegaly is accompanied by pronounced changes in microarchitecture, including expansion of the red pulp vascular system, neovascularization of the white pulp, and remodeling of the stromal cell populations that define the B-cell and T-cell compartments. Here, we show that Ly6C/G(+) (Gr-1(+)) cells, including neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, accumulate in the splenic red pulp during infection. Cell depletion using monoclonal antibody against either Ly6C/G(+) (Gr-1; RB6) or Ly6G(+) (1A8) cells increased parasite burden. In contrast, depletion of Ly6C/G(+) cells, but not Ly6G(+) cells, halted the progressive remodeling of Meca-32(+) and CD31(+) red pulp vasculature. Strikingly, neither treatment affected white pulp neovascularization or the remodeling of the fibroblastic reticular cell and follicular dendritic cell networks. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized compartment-dependent selectivity to the process of splenic vascular remodeling during experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, attributable to Ly6C(+) inflammatory monocytes. PMID:21703391

  4. Visceral Adiposity and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Older Adults: Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Jun; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Laughlin, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Despite growing attention to central obesity as a predictor of clinical coronary heart disease (CHD), there are few reports about the association between directly measured visceral obesity and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in older adults. We examined this association in older community-dwelling adults without clinically recognized CHD. Research Methods and Procedures Older adults (190 men, BMI 27.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 220 women, BMI 25.8 ± 4.6) aged 55 to 88 years (median 69 years) with no history of CHD or coronary revascularization had an electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) to measure coronary-artery calcification score (CACS), an estimate of coronary-plaque burden. Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were assessed by a triple-slice EBCT scan at the lumbar 4–5 disc level and height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured. Results In sex-specific ordinal logistic regression analyses, no measure of obesity or body fat distribution, including body mass index, waist-hip ratio, waist girth, visceral and subcutaneous fat by EBCT, was significantly associated with CACS before or after adjusting for multiple covariates of CACS (age, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, pulse pressure, LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and fasting plasma glucose). Discussion In older adults without clinically recognized CHD, body weight and fat distribution do not predict coronary artery plaque burden. These results raise questions about the value of weight reduction diets for preventing heart disease in elderly survivors without clinical heart disease. PMID:18356852

  5. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  6. Convergence of limb, visceral, and vertical semicircular canal or otolith inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Jian, B J; Shintani, T; Emanuel, B A; Yates, B J

    2002-05-01

    The major goal of this study was to determine the patterns of convergence of non-labyrinthine inputs from the limbs and viscera onto vestibular nucleus neurons receiving signals from vertical semicircular canals or otolith organs. A secondary aim was to ascertain whether the effects of non-labyrinthine inputs on the activity of vestibular nucleus neurons is affected by bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions. The majority (72%) of vestibular nucleus neurons in labyrinth-intact animals whose firing was modulated by vertical rotations responded to electrical stimulation of limb and/or visceral nerves. The activity of even more vestibular nucleus neurons (93%) was affected by limb or visceral nerve stimulation in chronically labyrinthectomized preparations. Some neurons received non-labyrinthine inputs from a variety of peripheral sources, including antagonist muscles acting at the same joint, whereas others received inputs from more limited sources. There was no apparent relationship between the spatial and dynamic properties of a neuron's responses to tilts in vertical planes and the non-labyrinthine inputs that it received. These data suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs elicited during movement will modulate the processing of information by the central vestibular system, and may contribute to the recovery of spontaneous activity of vestibular nucleus neurons following peripheral vestibular lesions. Furthermore, some vestibular nucleus neurons with non-labyrinthine inputs may be activated only during particular behaviors that elicit a specific combination of limb and visceral inputs. PMID:12012162

  7. [Artificial Inversion of the Left-Right Visceral Asymmetry in Vertebrates: Conceptual Approaches and Experimental Solutions].

    PubMed

    Truleva, A S; Malashichev, E B; Ermakov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Externally, vertebrates are bilaterally symmetrical; however, left-right asymmetry is observed in the structure of their internal organs and systems of organs (circulatory, digestive, and respiratory). In addition to the asymmetry of internal organs (visceral), there is also functional (i.e., asymmetrical functioning of organs on the left and right sides of the body) and behavioral asymmetry. The question of a possible association between different types of asymmetry is still open. The study of the mechanisms of such association, in addition to the fundamental interest, has important applications for biomedicine, primarily for the understanding of the brain functioning in health and disease and for the development of methods of treatment of certain mental diseases, such as schizophrenia and autism, for which the disturbance of left-right asymmetry of the brain was shown. To study the deep association between different types of asymmetry, it is necessary to obtain adequate animal models (primarily animals with inverted visceral organs, situs inversus totalis). There are two main possible approaches to obtaining such model organisms: mutagenesis followed by selection of mutant strains with mutations in the genes that affect the formation of the left-right visceral asymmetry and experimental obtaining of animals with inverted internal organs. This review focuses on the second approach. We describe the theoretical models for establishing left-right asymmetry and possible experimental approaches to obtaining animals with inverted internal organs. PMID:26859965

  8. Metabolic alterations following visceral fat removal and expansion: Beyond anatomic location.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Pagliassotti, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Increased visceral adiposity is a risk factor for metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, whereas peripheral (subcutaneous) obesity is not. Though the specific mechanisms which contribute to these adipose depot differences are unknown, visceral fat accumulation is proposed to result in metabolic dysregulation because of increased effluent, e.g., fatty acids and/or adipokines/cytokines, to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Pathological significance of visceral fat accumulation is also attributed to adipose depot/adipocyte-specific characteristics, specifically differences in structural, physiologic and metabolic characteristics compared with subcutaneous fat. Fat manipulations, such as removal or transplantation, have been utilized to identify location dependent or independent factors that play a role in metabolic dysregulation. Obesity-induced alterations in adipose tissue function/intrinsic characteristics, but not mass, appear to be responsible for obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation, thus "quality" is more important than "quantity." This review summarizes the implications of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction as it relates to anatomic site and inherent adipocyte characteristics. PMID:23700533

  9. The contribution of visceral fat to improved insulin signaling in Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Hossain, Tanvir; Bartke, Andrzej; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-06-01

    Ames dwarf (Prop1(df), df/df) mice are characterized by growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyrotropin deficiency, remarkable extension of longevity and increased insulin sensitivity with low levels of fasting insulin and glucose. Plasma levels of anti-inflammatory adiponectin are increased in df/df mice, while pro-inflammatory IL-6 is decreased in plasma and epididymal fat. This represents an important shift in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in adipose tissue, which was not exposed to GH signals during development or adult life. To determine the role of adipose tissue in the control of insulin signaling in these long-living mutants, we examined the effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) adipose tissue. Comparison of the results obtained in df/df mice and their normal (N) siblings indicated different effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. The analysis of the expression of genes related to insulin signaling indicated that VFR improved insulin action in skeletal muscle in N mice. Interestingly, this surgical intervention did not improve insulin signaling in df/df mice skeletal muscle but caused suppression of the signal in subcutaneous fat. We conclude that altered profile of adipokines secreted by visceral fat of Ames dwarf mice may act as a key contributor to increased insulin sensitivity and extended longevity of these animals. PMID:24690289

  10. Relation of skinfold thickness and visceral fat with the endothelial function in Mexican postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Ana Mirna Fino; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between skinfolds and visceral fat with vascular reactivity according to body weight, fat distribution and time since menopause in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In postmenopausal women, tricipital, suprailiac and subscapular skinfolds as well as blood pressure were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Brachial artery Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after the hyperemic stimulus was done and Doppler parameters were assessed. For statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis, as well as Student t were used. Results Sixty-six postmenopausal women were studied; age was 54.5 ± 7.4 years. Skinfold thickness was related with subcutaneous and visceral fat. In all groups, the arterial diameter increased after the hyperemic stimulus among 6.5% and 9% of women. The pulsatility index decreased in the whole group and in those with BMI ≤ 27, WHR ≤ 0.85 and time since menopause ≤ 10 years. Negative correlations were observed between the percentage of change in arterial dilatation and the subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous fat in the whole group and in the subgroups with BMI > 27 and WHR > 0.85. Conclusions Skinfolds are indirectly related with visceral fat, and skinfold thickness permit to conclude about impact in endothelial environment. PMID:26327895

  11. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    PubMed

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members are key signaling molecules that transduce cellular responses from the cell membrane to the nucleus upon Janus kinase (JAK) activation. Although seven STAT members have been reported in mammals, very limited information on STAT genes in molluscans is available. In this study, we identified and characterized a STAT paralog that is homologous to STAT5 from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, and designated as AbSTAT5. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for AbSTAT5 (790 amino acids) with other counterparts revealed conserved residues important for functions and typical domain regions, including the N-terminal domain, coiled-coil domain, DNA-binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains as mammalian counterparts. Analysis of STAT phylogeny revealed that AbSTAT5 was clustered with the molluscan subgroup in STAT5 clade with distinct evolution. According to the genomic structure of AbSTAT5, the coding sequence was distributed into 20 exons with 19 introns. Immunologically essential transcription factor-binding sites, such as GATA-1, HNF, SP1, C/EBP, Oct-1, AP1, c-Jun, and Sox-2, were predicted at the 5'-proximal region of AbSTAT5. Expression of AbSTAT5 mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that the highest level of AbSTAT5 transcripts was detected in hemocytes, followed by gill tissues. Temporal expressions of AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and significant elevations indicated immune modulation. These results suggest that AbSTAT5 may be involved in maintaining innate immune responses from developmental to adult stages in

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  13. Expression of fibronectin variants in vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells in development.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, M A; Frid, M G; Shekhonin, B V; Balabanov, Y V; Koteliansky, V E

    1990-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies recognizing extra domain A (ED-A) and extra domain B (ED-B) fibronectin (FN) sequences were used to characterize FN variants expressed in human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) during fetal and postnatal development and to compare spectrum of FN variants produced by vascular and visceral SMC. In 8- to 12-week-old fetuses both ED-A-containing FN (A-FN) and ED-B-containing FN (B-FN) were found in all smooth muscles studied--aorta, esophagus, stomach, and jejunum. By 20-25 weeks of gestation relative amounts of both A-FN and B-FN were reduced significantly in the aortic media (fivefold for A-FN and twofold for B-FN), while in visceral SMC only B-FN content was decreased. All the adult visceral smooth muscles examined contained A-FN rather than B-FN. Therefore, the cells from adult aortic media appear to be the only SMC so far known to produce FN that contains neither ED-A nor ED-B. Moreover, the data obtained show that, unlike other cells, medial SMC are embedded in vivo in the extracellular matrix that contains FN lacking both ED-A and ED-B. SMC from the minor intimal thickenings in the human child aorta as well as those from the atherosclerotic plaques produce A-FN rather than B-FN. We conclude that (1) vascular SMC change the spectrum of produced FN variants at least twice--during prenatal development between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation, and during the postnatal period, when they are recruited into the intimal cell population; (2) the production of FN variants in visceral SMC is also developmentally regulated; (3) all visceral SMC unlike the cells from adult aortic media produce A-FN; (4) the presence of ED-A and ED-B sequences in the FN molecule is not necessary for the extracellular matrix assembly in vivo. PMID:2202605

  14. Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism Modulates Activity and Connectivity within an Emotional Arousal Network of Healthy Men during an Aversive Visceral Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Labus, Jennifer S.; Gupta, Arpana; Hamaguchi, Toyohiro; Mizuno, Tomoko; Komuro, Hazuki; Kano, Michiko; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Aoki, Masashi; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been linked to increased stress responsiveness and negative emotional states. During fearful face recognition individuals with the s allele of 5-HTTLPR show greater amygdala activation. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism differentially affects connectivity within brain networks during an aversive visceral stimulus. Methods Twenty-three healthy male subjects were enrolled. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood. The genotype of 5-HTTLPR was determined using polymerase chain reaction. Subjects with the s/s genotype (n = 13) were compared to those with the l allele (genotypes l/s, l/l, n = 10). Controlled rectal distension from 0 to 40 mmHg was delivered in random order using a barostat. Radioactive H2[15-O] saline was injected at time of distension followed by positron emission tomography (PET). Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results During baseline, subjects with s/s genotype demonstrated a significantly increased negative influence of pregenual ACC (pACC) on amygdala activity compared to l-carriers. During inflation, subjects with s/s genotype demonstrated a significantly greater positive influence of hippocampus on amygdala activity compared to l-carriers. Conclusion In male Japanese subjects, individuals with s/s genotype show alterations in the connectivity of brain regions involved in stress responsiveness and emotion regulation during aversive visceral stimuli compared to those with l carriers. PMID:25893242

  15. A new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein and its non-described specific B cell conformational epitope applied in the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lage, Daniela P; Martins, Vívian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Costa, Lourena E; Garde, Esther; Dimer, Laura M; Kursancew, Amanda C S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno M; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-04-01

    The serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presents problems related to its sensitivity and/or specificity. In the present study, a new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein, LiHyD, was produced as a recombinant protein (rLiHyD) and evaluated in ELISA experiments for the CVL serodiagnosis. LiHyD was characterized as antigenic in a recent immunoproteomic search performed with Leishmania infantum proteins and the sera of dogs developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Aiming to compare the efficacy between whole proteins and synthetic peptides, two linear and one conformational B cell epitopes of LiHyD were synthesized and also evaluated as diagnostic markers. The four antigens were recognized by the sera of dogs suffering VL. On the contrary, low reactivity was observed when they were assayed with sera from non-infected healthy dogs living in endemic or non-endemic areas of leishmaniasis. In addition, no reactivity was found against them using sera from dogs experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, or Ehrlichia canis, or sera from animals vaccinated with the Leish-Tec® vaccine, a prophylactic preparation commercially available for CVL prevention in Brazil. As comparative diagnostic tools, a recombinant version of the amastigote-specific A2 protein and a soluble crude Leishmania extract were studied. Both antigens presented lower sensitivity and/or specificity values than the LiHyD-based products. The rLiHyD presented better results for the CVL serodiagnosis than its linear epitopes, although the peptide recreating the conformational epitope resulted also appropriate as a diagnostic marker of CVL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the use of a conformational epitope derived from a Leishmania protein for serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:26782811

  16. Pregnancy in Obese Mice Protects Selectively against Visceral Adiposity and Is Associated with Increased Adipocyte Estrogen Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pedroni, Silvia M. A.; Turban, Sophie; Kipari, Tiina; Dunbar, Donald R.; McInnes, Kerry; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Morton, Nicholas M.; Norman, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with increased adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. The metabolic impact of excessive fat within the context of pregnancy is not fully understood. We used a mouse model of high fat (HF) feeding to induce maternal obesity to identify adipose tissue-mediated mechanisms driving metabolic dysfunction in pregnant and non-pregnant obese mice. As expected, chronic HF-feeding for 12 weeks preceding pregnancy increased peripheral (subcutaneous) and visceral (mesenteric) fat mass. However, unexpectedly at late gestation (E18.5) HF-fed mice exhibited a remarkable normalization of visceral but not peripheral adiposity, with a 53% reduction in non-pregnant visceral fat mass expressed as a proportion of body weight (P<0.001). In contrast, in control animals, pregnancy had no effect on visceral fat mass proportion. Obesity exaggerated glucose intolerance at mid-pregnancy (E14.5). However by E18.5, there were no differences, in glucose tolerance between obese and control mice. Transcriptomic analysis of visceral fat from HF-fed dams at E18.5 revealed reduced expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 - Dgat2) and inflammation (chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 - Ccl2) and upregulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) compared to HF non pregnant. Attenuation of adipose inflammation was functionally confirmed by a 45% reduction of CD11b+CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages (expressed as a proportion of all stromal vascular fraction cells) in HF pregnant compared to HF non pregnant animals (P<0.001). An ERα selective agonist suppressed both de novo lipogenesis and expression of lipogenic genes in adipocytes in vitro. These data show that, in a HF model of maternal obesity, late gestation is associated with amelioration of visceral fat hypertrophy, inflammation and glucose intolerance, and suggest that these effects are mediated in part by elevated visceral adipocyte ERα signaling. PMID:24732937

  17. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Soo; Choi, Young Ju; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Huh, Byoung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR) and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years) who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min) using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results The optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects. Conclusion Our results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity. PMID:26124996

  18. Cross-sectional study of alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation in military personnel with amputation.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Michael; Bennett Britton, Thomas M; Drew, Benjamin T; Phillip, Rhodri D

    2015-01-01

    While phantom limb pain is a well-recognized phenomenon, clinical experience has suggested that the augmentation of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is an issue for many military personnel with amputation (visceral stimulation being the sensation of the bowel or bladder either filling or evacuating). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the alteration in phantom limb pain and the effect that visceral stimulation has on phantom limb pain intensity. A cross-sectional study of 75 military personnel who have lost one or both lower limbs completed a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of the alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation. Included in the questionnaire was a pain visual analog scale (VAS) graded from 0 to 10. Patients recorded the presence and intensity of phantom limb pain. They also recorded whether and how this pain altered with a need to micturate or micturition, and/or a need to defecate or defecation, again using a pain VAS. Time since amputation, level of amputation, and medications were also recorded. Patients reported a phantom limb pain prevalence of 85% with a mean VAS of 3.6. In all, 56% of patients reported a change in the severity of phantom limb pain with visceral stimuli. The mean increase in VAS for visceral stimulation was 2.5 +/- 1.6 for bladder stimulation and 2.9 +/- 2.0 for bowel stimulation. Of the patients questioned, 65% reported an improvement in symptoms over time. VAS scores were highest in the subgroup less than 6 mo postamputation. An increase in phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is a common problem for military personnel with amputation. PMID:26360529

  19. Study on the Mechanism Underlying the Regulation of the NMDA Receptor Pathway in Spinal Dorsal Horns of Visceral Hypersensitivity Rats by Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L. D.; Zhao, J. M.; Huang, R. J.; Tan, L. Y.; Hu, Z. H.; Weng, Z. J.; Wang, K.; Wu, H. G.; Liu, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is enhanced in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Treatment of IBS visceral pain by moxibustion methods has a long history and rich clinical experience. In the clinic, moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints can effectively treat bowel disease with visceral pain and diarrhea symptoms. To investigate the regulatory function of moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints on spinal cord NR1, NR2B, and PKCε protein and mRNA expression in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) visceral hypersensitivity rats, we did some research. In the study, we found that moxibustion effectively relieved the IBS visceral hyperalgesia status of rats. Analgesic effect of moxibustion was similar to intrathecal injection of Ro 25-6981. The expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in the spinal dorsal horns of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats increased. Moxibustion on the Tianshu and Shangjuxu acupoints might inhibit the visceral hypersensitivity, simultaneously decreasing the expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in spinal cord of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats. Based on the above experimental results, we hypothesized NR1, NR2B, and PKCε of spinal cord could play an important role in moxibustion inhibiting the process of central sensitization and visceral hyperalgesia state. PMID:27200098

  20. Effects of Visceral Fat Accumulation Awareness on a Web-Based Weight-Loss Program: Japanese Study of Visceral Adiposity and Lifestyle Information—Utilization and Evaluation (J-VALUE)

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro; Sakata, Koichi; Hagiwara, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Takanobu; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Yasumasu, Takeshi; Study Group, J-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    A reduction of visceral fat is important for improvement of metabolic risk. This study was designed to compare the effects of a web-based program alone or together with measurement and self-awareness of accumulated visceral fat in Japanese workers. A new noninvasive device to measure visceral fat accumulation was introduced, and efficacy on weight-loss and improvement of healthy behaviors were examined. This study was conducted according to Helsinki declaration and approved by the ethical committee of Japan Hospital Organization, National Kyoto Hospital. Two-hundred and sixteen overweight and obese males with BMI of more than 23 participated from 8 healthcare offices of 3 Japanese private companies. Subjects were randomly allocated into control group, Web-based weight-loss program (Web), or Web + Visceral fat measurement group (Web + VFA). Eighty-one percent of participants completed the study. Reductions of body weight, waist circumference, and BMI were the largest in Web + VFA group, and the differences between groups were significant by ANOVA. Improvements of healthy behaviors were the largest in Web + VFA group, and the differences of healthy eating improvement scores between Web + VFA and control groups were significant. Our findings suggest that measurement and awareness of visceral fat are effective in weight reduction in overweight and obese males in the workplace. PMID:24555144

  1. TRPV1-mediated presynaptic transmission in basolateral amygdala contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying; Chen, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Ping-An; Xu, Qiya; Zheng, Hang; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The central mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. It’s reported that there are highest densities of TRPV1 labeled neurons within basolateral amygdala (BLA). The aim of this study was to explore the role and mechanisms of TRPV1 in BLA in development of visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral hypersensitivity was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) and was quantified by abdominal withdrawal reflex. Expression of TRPV1 was determined by Western blot. The synaptic transmission of neurons in BLA was recorded by patch clamping. It was found that the expression of TRPV1 in BLA was significantly upregulated in NMD rats; glutamatergic synaptic activities in BLA were increased in NMD rats; application of capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) decreased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in NMD slices through a presynaptic mechanism; application of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) increased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in control slices through presynaptic mechanism without affecting GABAergic synaptic activities; microinjecting capsazepine into BLA significantly increased colonic distension threshold both in control and NMD rats. Our data suggested that upregulation of TRPV1 in BLA contributes to visceral hypersensitivity of NMD rats through enhancing excitation of BLA, thus identifying a potential target for treatment of chronic visceral pain. PMID:27364923

  2. Epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the endemic area of Montes Claros Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França-Silva, João C; da Costa, Roberto T; Siqueira, Ari M; Machado-Coelho, George L L; da Costa, Carlos A; Mayrink, Wilson; Vieira, Edva P; Costa, Jaime S; Genaro, Odair; Nascimento, Evaldo

    2003-02-13

    The Montes Claros City is located in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniosis in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With the implementation of a program for the control of visceral leishmaniosis in 1994, a sectional study was carried out to evaluate the infection by viscerotropic Leishmania in the population of dogs from Montes Claros, basically using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Blood samples were collected on filter paper from 33,937 dogs, representing 96.1% of the canine local population. The prevalence for visceral leishmaniosis was found to be 9.7% in the municipality, being 9.9% in the urban area and 8.8% in the rural area. The annual incidence showed to be 64.3/1000 dogs. Prevalence of infection was not correlated with dogs age. The most affected breeds were: Boxer (24.6%) and Cocker (26.9%); Mongrel dogs had a prevalence of 7.8%. Short-hair animals had a prevalence of 11.9%, while long-furred animals had a prevalence of 8.9%. The isoenzymatic profile indicated that Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi was the visceral leishmaniosis etiological agent in Montes Claros City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main geographical areas for the parasite transmission were identified, and control measures were immediately started. The role of the dog as a reservoir for L. chagasi was confirmed. It was demonstrated that short-furred animals are at a higher risk of acquiring visceral leishmaniosis than the long-furred dogs. PMID:12531292

  3. Characterization of differentiated subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from children: the influences of TNF-alpha and IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Sabin, Matthew; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Crowne, Elizabeth; Stewart, Claire

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte metabolism and development has been extensively studied in adult but not in pediatric tissue. Our aim was to isolate, develop, characterize, and compare primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes from 16 normal prepubertal children (10 male and 6 female). Subculture techniques were developed to increase cell number and allow differentiation using a chemically defined serum-free medium. Removal of insulin from the differentiation medium prevented adipogenesis in both subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes, whereas coincubation with rosiglitazone markedly enhanced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression, and triglyceride accumulation in cells from both fat depots. Adiponectin secretion increased with differentiation from undetectable levels at day 0. Histological analyses demonstrated significant differences in lipid droplet number and size, with subcutaneous cells having fewer but larger vesicles compared with visceral cells. Downregulation and reorganization of the cytoskeleton appeared comparable. We further demonstrate regional differences in adipogenesis manipulation. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was more effective at inhibiting differentiation in subcutaneous cells, whereas insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated differentiation more effectively in visceral cells. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 enhanced differentiation equally. These observations may have important physiological and pharmacological implications for the development of obesity in later life. PMID:15489542

  4. P2X₇ receptor of rat dorsal root ganglia is involved in the effect of moxibustion on visceral hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuangmei; Shi, Qingming; Zhu, Qicheng; Zou, Ting; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Wu, Qin; Xie, Qiuyu; Lin, Weijian; Xie, Wei; Wen, Shiyao; Zhang, Zhedong; Lv, Qiulan; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Ying, Mofeng; Li, Guodong; Liang, Shangdong

    2015-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease often display visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral nociceptors after inflammatory stimulation generate afferent nerve impulses through dorsal root ganglia (DRG) transmitting to the central nervous system. ATP and its activated-purinergic 2X7 (P2X7) receptor play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signal. Purinergic signaling is involved in the sensory transmission of visceral pain. Moxibustion is a therapy applying ignited mugwort directly or indirectly at acupuncture points or other specific parts of the body to treat diseases. Heat-sensitive acupoints are the corresponding points extremely sensitive to moxa heat in disease conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the analgesic effect of moxibustion on a heat-sensitive acupoint "Dachangshu" and the expression levels of P2X7 receptor in rat DRG after chronic inflammatory stimulation of colorectal distension. Heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint inhibited the nociceptive signal transmission by decreasing the upregulated expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in DRG induced by visceral pain, and reversed the abnormal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker of satellite glial cells) in DRG. Consequently, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score in a visceral pain model was reduced, and the pain threshold was elevated. Therefore, heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint can produce a therapeutic effect on IBS via inhibiting the nociceptive transmission mediated by upregulated P2X7 receptor. PMID:25527178

  5. Dietary Cholesterol Promotes Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Visceral, But Not Subcutaneous, Fat in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soonkyu; Cuffe, Helen; Marshall, Stephanie M.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Ha, Jung-Heun; Kavanagh, Kylie; Hong, Cynthia; Tontonoz, Peter; Temel, Ryan E.; Parks, John S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excessive caloric intake is associated with obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction. However, the role of dietary cholesterol in this process is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing dietary cholesterol intake alters adipose tissue cholesterol content, adipocyte size, and endocrine function in nonhuman primates. Approach and Results Age-matched, male African Green monkeys (n=5 per group) were assigned to one of three diets containing 0.002 (Lo), 0.2 (Med) or 0.4 (Hi) mg cholesterol/Kcal. After 10 weeks of diet feeding, animals were euthanized for adipose tissue, liver, and plasma collection. With increasing dietary cholesterol, free cholesterol (FC) content and adipocyte size increased in a step-wise manner in visceral, but not subcutaneous fat, with a significant association between visceral adipocyte size and FC content (r2=0.298; n=15; p=0.035). In visceral fat, dietary cholesterol intake was associated with: 1) increased pro-inflammatory gene expression and macrophage recruitment, 2) decreased expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake, and 3) increased expression of proteins involved in FC efflux. Conclusions Increasing dietary cholesterol selectively increases visceral fat adipocyte size, FC and macrophage content, and proinflammatory gene expression in nonhuman primates. Visceral fat cells appear to compensate for increased dietary cholesterol by limiting cholesterol uptake/synthesis and increasing FC efflux pathways. PMID:24969772

  6. TRPV1-mediated presynaptic transmission in basolateral amygdala contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Chen, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Ping-An; Xu, Qiya; Zheng, Hang; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The central mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. It's reported that there are highest densities of TRPV1 labeled neurons within basolateral amygdala (BLA). The aim of this study was to explore the role and mechanisms of TRPV1 in BLA in development of visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral hypersensitivity was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) and was quantified by abdominal withdrawal reflex. Expression of TRPV1 was determined by Western blot. The synaptic transmission of neurons in BLA was recorded by patch clamping. It was found that the expression of TRPV1 in BLA was significantly upregulated in NMD rats; glutamatergic synaptic activities in BLA were increased in NMD rats; application of capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) decreased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in NMD slices through a presynaptic mechanism; application of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) increased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in control slices through presynaptic mechanism without affecting GABAergic synaptic activities; microinjecting capsazepine into BLA significantly increased colonic distension threshold both in control and NMD rats. Our data suggested that upregulation of TRPV1 in BLA contributes to visceral hypersensitivity of NMD rats through enhancing excitation of BLA, thus identifying a potential target for treatment of chronic visceral pain. PMID:27364923

  7. Shugan-decoction relieves visceral hyperalgesia and reduces TRPV1 and SP colon expression

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jing-Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ye; Xu, Hui; Tang, Rong-Zhu; Dong, Yue-Bin; Xie, Jian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Shugan-decoction (SGD) on visceral hyperalgesia and colon gene expressions using a rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six adult male Wistar rats were randomized into six equal groups for assessment of SGD effects on psychological stress-induced changes using the classic water avoidance stress (WAS) test. Untreated model rats were exposed to chronic (1 h/d for 10 d consecutive) WAS conditions; experimental treatment model rats were administered with intragastric SGD at 1 h before WAS on consecutive days 4-10 (low-dose: 0.1 g/mL; mid-dose: 0.2 g/mL; high-dose: 0.4 g/mL); control treatment model rats were similarly administered with the irritable bowel syndrome drug, dicetel (0.0042 g/mL); untreated normal control rats received no drug and were not subjected to the WAS test. At the end of the 10-d WAS testing period, a semi-quantitative measurement of visceral sensitivity was made by assessing the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) to colorectal balloon-induced distension (at 5 mmHg increments) to determine the pain pressure threshold (PPT, evidenced by pain behavior). Subsequently, the animals were sacrificed and colonic tissues collected for assessment of changes in expressions of proteins related to visceral hypersensitivity (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, TRPV1) and sustained visceral hyperalgesia (substance P, SP) by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Inter-group differences were assessed by paired t test or repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: The WAS test successfully induced visceral hypersensitivity, as evidenced by a significantly reduced AWR pressure in the untreated model group as compared to the untreated normal control group (190.4 ± 3.48 mmHg vs 224.0 ± 4.99 mmHg, P < 0.001). SGD treatments at mid-dose and high-dose and the dicetel treatment significantly increased the WAS-reduced PPT (212.5 ± 2.54, 216.5 ± 3.50 and 217.7 ± 2.83 mmHg respectively, all P < 0

  8. Visceral Adiposity and Left Ventricular Remodeling: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Siddique A.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Bluemke, David A.; Blankstein, Ron; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Lima, Joao A.C.; Allison, Matthew A.; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Shah, Ravi V.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Visceral fat (VF) is a source of pro-inflammatory adipokines implicated in cardiac remodeling. We sought to determine the impact of visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SQ) depots on left ventricular (LV) structure, function, and geometry in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Methods and Results We performed a post-hoc analysis on 1,151 participants from MESA with cardiac magnetic resonance quantification of LV mass and LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMV, an index of concentricity) and computed tomographic-derived SQ and VF area. Multivariable regression models to estimate association between height-indexed SQ and VF area (per cm2/m) with height-indexed LV mass (per height2.7) and LVMV were constructed, adjusted for clinical, biochemical, and demographic covariates. We found that both VF and SQ area were associated with height-indexed LV mass (ρ =0.36 and 0.12, P<0.0001, respectively), while only VF area was associated with LVMV (ρ =0.28, P<0.0001). Individuals with above-median VF had lower LV ejection fraction, greater indexed LV volumes and mass, and higher LVMV (all P < 0.001). In multivariable models adjusted for weight, VF (but not SQ) area was associated with LV concentricity and LV mass index, across both sexes. Conclusion Visceral adiposity is independently associated with LV concentricity, a precursor to heart failure. Further study into the role of VF in LV remodeling as a potential therapeutic target is warranted. PMID:26033394

  9. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    ROSSI, Claudio Nazaretian; TOMOKANE, Thaise Yumie; BATISTA, Luis Fábio da Silva; MARCONDES, Mary; LARSSON, Carlos Eduardo; LAURENTI, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  10. VEGF induces sensory and motor peripheral plasticity, alters bladder function, and promotes visceral sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity. In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of sensory nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and cholinergic nerves (ChAT) was studied one week after one or two intravesical instillations of the growth factor. To study the effects of VEGF on bladder function, mice were intravesically instilled with VEGF and urodynamic evaluation was assessed. VEGF-induced alteration in bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was performed on retrogradly labeled urinary bladder afferents by patch-clamp recording of voltage gated Na+ currents. Determination of VEGF-induced changes in sensitivity to abdominal mechanostimulation was performed by application of von Frey filaments. Results In addition to an overwhelming increase in TRPV1 immunoreactivity, VEGF instillation resulted in an increase in ChAT-directed expression of a fluorescent protein in several layers of the urinary bladder. Intravesical VEGF caused a profound change in the function of the urinary bladder: acute VEGF (1 week post VEGF treatment) reduced micturition pressure and longer treatment (2 weeks post-VEGF instillation) caused a substantial reduction in inter-micturition interval. In addition, intravesical VEGF resulted in an up-regulation of voltage gated Na+ channels (VGSC) in bladder DRG neurons and enhanced abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Conclusions For the first time, evidence is presented indicating that VEGF instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density together with alterations in bladder function and visceral sensitivity. The VEGF pathway is being proposed as a key modulator of

  11. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation. PMID:26844473

  12. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-γ). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20213734

  13. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  14. Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  15. Short-course, cost-effective treatment with amphotericin B-fat emulsion cures visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S; Gupta, L B; Rastogi, V; Agrawal, G; Murray, H W

    2000-01-01

    Although short-course therapy with new lipid formulations of amphotericin B represents an advance over lengthy traditional treatments in visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), high cost has rendered these agents largely irrelevant in developing countries where the disease is endemic. Therefore, we tested standard amphotericin B deoxycholate mixed with a commercial fat emulsion as short-course treatment for Indian visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar in 1997/98. Seventy children and adults with splenic aspirate-documented infection, 23 of whom had failed prior antimony (Sb) therapy, received 5 alternate-day infusions of 2 mg/kg. Apparent cure, which required a parasite-free splenic aspirate smear, was assessed 20 days after treatment (day 30); definitive cure was determined at 6 months. Other than anticipated infusion-related fever and/or chills, treatment was safe and well tolerated. One patient required dose modification because of mild, reversible renal insufficiency. Sixty-nine patients (98.6%, CI 92.3-100%) had apparent cures; during follow-up, there were 4 treatment failures (relapses, 3; unrelated death, 1), yielding definitive cures in 65 of 70 patients (92.9%, CI 84.1-97.6%). Including retreatment costs for patients in Bihar (who now often fail initial Sb therapy), the final per patient cost of the tested regimen (US $260) was 59% and 43% less than treatment with Sb or conventional amphotericin B alone, respectively. Short-course treatment with amphotericin B-fat emulsion is active, cost-effective treatment for patients with visceral leishmaniasis including those with Sb-unresponsive infection. PMID:10897369

  16. Functional brain activation during retrieval of visceral pain-conditioned passive avoidance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Bradesi, Sylvie; Charles, Jonathan R; Pang, Raina D; Maarek, Jean-Michel I; Mayer, Emeran A; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed functional brain activation in rats during expectation of visceral pain. Male rats were trained in step-down passive avoidance (PA) for 2 days. Upon stepping down from a platform, conditioned animals received noxious colorectal distension delivered through a colorectal balloon, whereas the balloon in control rats remained uninflated. On day 3, PA behavior was assessed while [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine was infused intravenously, followed by immediate euthanasia. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF) was analyzed by statistical parametric mapping using 3-dimensional brains reconstructed from autoradiographic brain slice images. Associated with retrieved PA behavior, conditioned rats compared with control subjects showed increases in rCBF in sensory (anterior insula, somatosensory cortex), limbic/paralimbic regions (anterior cingulate, prelimbic cortex, amygdala), all regions previously reported to show activation during acute visceral pain. Increases in rCBF were also noted in the dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and caudate putamen, regions associated with retrieval of PA. Organization of the underlying brain network was further delineated by functional connectivity analysis. This revealed in conditioned rats a strongly and positively connected corticostriatal cluster (cingulate, prelimbic cortex, caudate putamen). The amygdala and cerebellar hemispheres formed another positively connected cluster, which was negatively connected with the corticostriatal cluster, suggesting corticolimbic modulation. Prelimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens, and anterior insula emerged in conditioned animals as hubs. Our results show that during retrieval of PA, brain areas implicated in PA expression as well as those implicated in acute visceral pain processing were recruited, in line with findings from human brain imaging studies on pain expectation. PMID:21944154

  17. Familial aggregation of abdominal visceral fat level: results from the Quebec family study.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Lemieux, S; Rice, T; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of familial aggregation in abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level as assessed by computed tomography (CT). Four measures of abdominal adipose tissue, obtained from an abdominal scan between the fourth and fifth Lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) taken in 366 adult subjects from 100 French-Canadian nuclear families, were considered in this study. Total abdominal fat, AVF, subcutaneous abdominal fat, obtained by computing the difference between total and AVF tissue areas, and the visceral to total abdominal fat ratio were measured. Spouses, parent-offspring, and sibling correlations were computed by maximum likelihood methods after adjustment of the four phenotypes for age and for age and total fat mass (FM) derived from underwater weighing. Significant familial aggregation was found for all phenotypes, whether adjusted or not for body FM. However, after adjustment of data for body FM, in addition to age, all spouse correlations became nonsignificant, suggesting that the familial aggregation of abdominal fat is primarily genetic. Heritability estimates reached 42% and 56% for subcutaneous fat and AVF, respectively. These results suggest that genetic factors are major determinants of the familial aggregation observed in the amount of abdominal fat, irrespective of total body fat content, and that AVF seems more influenced by genetic factors than abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. These findings imply that some individuals are more at risk than others to exhibit the various metabolic complications associated with upper-body obesity because of their inherited tendency to store abdominal fat in the visceral depot rather than in the subcutaneous depot. PMID:8606647

  18. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype. PMID:26180183

  19. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S. Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley (250–300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Results: Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P < 0.001]) decreased VMR compared with the control group. Metamizole 200 mg/kg did not change responses but dose of 400 and 600 mg/kg metamizole reduced VMR. Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P < 0.05]). Conclusion: Metamizole, dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain. PMID:27114637

  20. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Batista, Luis Fábio da Silva; Marcondes, Mary; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-07-11

    Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Combination Therapies for Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Meheus, Filip; Balasegaram, Manica; Olliaro, Piero; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Faiz, Md. Abul; Boelaert, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic parasitic disease that is fatal unless treated. We assessed the cost and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. In particular we examined whether combination therapies are a cost-effective alternative compared to monotherapies. Methods and Findings We assessed the cost-effectiveness of all possible mono- and combination therapies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) from a societal perspective using a decision analytical model based on a decision tree. Primary data collected in each country was combined with data from the literature and an expert poll (Delphi method). The cost per patient treated and average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios expressed as cost per death averted were calculated. Extensive sensitivity analysis was done to evaluate the robustness of our estimations and conclusions. With a cost of US$92 per death averted, the combination miltefosine-paromomycin was the most cost-effective treatment strategy. The next best alternative was a combination of liposomal amphotericin B with paromomycin with an incremental cost-effectiveness of $652 per death averted. All other strategies were dominated with the exception of a single dose of 10mg per kg of liposomal amphotericin B. While strategies based on liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) were found to be the most effective, its current drug cost of US$20 per vial resulted in a higher average cost-effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis showed the conclusion to be robust to variations in the input parameters over their plausible range. Conclusions Combination treatments are a cost-effective alternative to current monotherapy for VL. Given their expected impact on the emergence of drug resistance, a switch to combination therapy should be considered once final results from clinical trials are available. PMID:20838649

  2. Predicting visceral adipose tissue by MRI using DXA and anthropometry in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laddu, Deepika R.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Sato, Tetsuya; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue, independent of total adiposity, is associated with development of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in children and adults. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for estimating visceral adiposity (VAT) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using anthropometric variables and measures of abdominal fat mass from DXA in adolescents and young adults. Methods Cross-sectional data was collected from a multiethnic population of seventy males and females, aged 12–25 years, with BMI ranging from 14.5–38.1 kg/m2. Android (AFM; android region as defined by manufacturers instruction) and lumbar L1-L4 regional fat masses were assessed using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy; GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI, USA). Criterion measures of intra-abdominal visceral fat were obtained using single-slice MRI (General Electric Signa Model 5x 1.5T) and VAT area was analyzed at the level OF L4–L5. Image analysis was carried out using ZedView 3.1. Results DXA measures of AFM (r=0.76) and L1-L4 (r=0.71) were significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with MRI-measured VAT. DXA AFM, together with gender and weight, explained 62% of the variance in VAT (SEE=10.06 cm2). DXA L1-L4 fat mass with gender explained 54% of the variance in VAT (SEE=11.08 cm2). Addition of the significant interaction, gender × DXA fat mass, improved prediction of VAT from AFM (Radj2=0.61, SEE=10.10cm2) and L1-L4 (Radj2=0.59, SEE=10.39cm2). Conclusion These results demonstrate that VAT is accurately estimated from regional fat masses measured by DXA in adolescents and young adults. PMID:26097436

  3. Impact of Bioelectronic Medicine on the Neural Regulation of Pelvic Visceral Function

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation elicited by electrical stimulation of peripheral or spinal nerves is a U.S. Food and Drug Administered (FDA)-approved therapy for treating disorders of the pelvic viscera, including urinary urgency, urgency-frequency, nonobstructive urinary retention and fecal incontinence. The technique is also being tested experimentally for its efficacy in treating interstitial cystitis, chronic constipation and pelvic pain. The goal of neuromodulation is to suppress abnormal visceral sensations and involuntary reflexes and restore voluntary control. Although detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of neuromodulation are still to be elucidated, it is generally believed that effects are due to stimulation of action potentials in somatic afferent nerves. Afferent nerves project to the lumbosacral spinal cord, where they release excitatory neurotransmitters that activate ascending pathways to the brain or spinal circuits that modulate visceral sensory and involuntary motor mechanisms. Studies in animals revealed that different types of neuromodulation (for example, stimulation of a sacral spinal root, pudendal nerve or posterior tibial nerve) act by releasing different inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. In addition, certain types of neuromodulation inhibit visceral smooth muscle by initiating reflex firing in peripheral autonomic nerves or excite striated sphincter muscles by initiating reflex firing in somatic efferent nerves. This report will provide a brief summary of (a) neural control of the lower urinary tract and distal bowel, (b) clinical use of neuromodulation in the treatment of bladder and bowel dysfunctions, (c) putative mechanisms of action of neuromodulation on the basis of animal experiments and (d) new approaches using combination therapies to improve the efficacy of neuromodulation. PMID:26491706

  4. Associations among Pericolonic Fat, Visceral Fat, and Colorectal Polyps on CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiamin; Pattanaik, Sanket; Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Choi, J. Richard; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association between pericolonic fat and colorectal polyps using CT colonography (CTC). METHODS 1169 patients who underwent CTC and same day optical colonoscopy were assessed. Pericolonic fat was measured on CTC in a band surrounding the colon. Visceral adipose tissue volume was measured at the L2-L3 levels. Student t-tests, odds ratio, logistic regression, binomial statistics and weighted-kappa were performed to ascertain associations with the incidence of colorectal polyps. RESULTS Pericolonic fat volume fractions (PFVF) were 61.5±11.0% versus 58.1±11.5%, 61.6 ±11.1% versus 58.7±11.5%, and 62.4±10.6% versus 58.8±11.5% for patients with and without any polyps, adenomatous polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively (p<0.0001). Similar trends were observed when examining visceral fat volume fractions (VFVF). When patients were ordered by quintiles of PFVF or VFVF, there were 2.49, 2.19 and 2.39-fold increases in odds ratio for the presence of any polyp, adenomatous polyps, or hyperplastic polyps from the first to the fifth quintile for PFVF, and 1.92, 2.00 and 1.71-fold increases in odds ratio for VFVF. Polyps tended to occur more commonly in parts of the colon that had more PFVF than the spatially-adjusted average for patients in the highest quintile of VFVF. CONCLUSION Pericolonic fat accumulations, like visceral fat, are correlated with an increased risk of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. PMID:25558027

  5. The Contribution of Immune Evasive Mechanisms to Parasite Persistence in Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Leoratti, Fabiana Maria de Souza; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre; Feijó, Daniel Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that give rise to a range of diseases called Leishmaniasis that affects annually an estimated 1.3 million people from 88 countries. Leishmania donovani and Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi are responsible to cause the visceral leishmaniasis. The parasite can use assorted strategies to interfere with the host homeostasis to establish persistent infections that without treatment can be lethal. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms involved in the parasite subversion of the host protective immune response and how alterations of host tissue physiology and vascular remodeling during VL could affect the organ-specific immunity against Leishmania parasites. PMID:27148272

  6. The Contribution of Immune Evasive Mechanisms to Parasite Persistence in Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Leoratti, Fabiana Maria de Souza; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre; Feijó, Daniel Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that give rise to a range of diseases called Leishmaniasis that affects annually an estimated 1.3 million people from 88 countries. Leishmania donovani and Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi are responsible to cause the visceral leishmaniasis. The parasite can use assorted strategies to interfere with the host homeostasis to establish persistent infections that without treatment can be lethal. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms involved in the parasite subversion of the host protective immune response and how alterations of host tissue physiology and vascular remodeling during VL could affect the organ-specific immunity against Leishmania parasites. PMID:27148272

  7. [Effect of narcotic analgesics on impulse conduction along the afferent pathways of visceral nerves].

    PubMed

    Churiukanov, V V; Sinitsyn, L N

    1976-06-01

    Experiments were conducted on chloralose-anesthetized cats. The action of morphine and promedol upon the potentials of the cortical and subcortical structures occurring after the visceral nerve stimulation was studied. Morphine proved to depress the potentials evoked by stimulation of the inferior cardiac and vagus nerves, in the specific, associative and nonspecific structures of the brain; promedol produced an analogous effect. Morphine also inhibited the potentials occurring after the stimulation of the splanchnic nerve in the associative and nonspecific structures; depression of the responses in the specific pathways was less pronounced. PMID:953307

  8. RAAS Activation Is Associated With Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Among HIV-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Suman; Fitch, Kathleen V.; Wong, Kimberly; Torriani, Martin; Mayhew, Caitlin; Stanley, Takara; Lo, Janet; Adler, Gail K.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Little is known about renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in relationship to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation in HIV-infected patients, a population at significant risk for insulin resistance and other metabolic disease. Design: Twenty HIV and 10 non-HIV-infected subjects consumed a standardized low sodium or liberal sodium diet to stimulate or suppress the RAAS, respectively. RAAS parameters were evaluated in response to each diet and a graded angiotensin II infusion. Further analyses were performed after groups were substratified by median VAT measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Aldosterone concentrations during the low-sodium diet were higher in HIV than non-HIV-infected subjects [13.8 (9.7, 30.9) vs 9.2 (7.6, 13.6) ng/dL, P = .03] and increased across groups stratified by visceral adipose tissue (VAT) [8.5 (7.1, 12.8), 9.2 (8.1, 21.5), 11.4 (9.4, 13.8), and 27.2 (13.0, 36.9) ng/dL in non-HIV-infected without increased VAT, non-HIV-infected with increased VAT, HIV-infected without increased VAT, HIV-infected with increased VAT, respectively, overall trend P = .02]. Under this condition, plasma renin activity [3.50 (2.58, 4.65) vs 1.45 (0.58, 2.33) ng/mL · h, P = .002] was higher among the HIV-infected subjects with vs without increased VAT. Differences in the suppressibility of plasma renin activity by graded angiotensin infusion were seen stratifying by VAT among the HIV-infected group (P < .02 at each dose). In addition, aldosterone (P = .007) was an independent predictor of insulin resistance in multivariate modeling, controlling for VAT and adiponectin. Conclusion: These data suggest excess RAAS activation in relationship to visceral adiposity in HIV-infected patients that may independently contribute to insulin resistance. Mineralocorticoid blockade may have therapeutic potential to reduce metabolic complications in HIV-infected patients with increased visceral adiposity. PMID:26086328

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ara, M; Maillo, C; Peón, G; Clavel, A; Cuesta, J; Grasa, M P; Carapeto, F J

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous papules on the legs. Biopsy of one lesion showed abundant Leishmania amastigotes within epithelial cells of an eccrine sweat gland in the dermis. Leishmania organisms were also found in a blood smear. Rapid and complete clearance of the cutaneous lesions was achieved after antimony therapy. Cutaneous lesions in VL are being reported increasingly frequently in patients with HIV infection and their significance remains in discussion. PMID:9764161

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis after orthotopic liver transplantation: a rare cause of infection.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C M; Oliveira, H M; Lopes, V; Gandara, J; Ferreira, S; Daniel, J; Miranda, H P

    2016-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was known as an opportunistic infection associated with immunosuppression, particularly related to human immunodeficiency virus infection and rarely to solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case of VL, 6 months after liver transplantation, in a patient who presented with febrile pancytopenia. The diagnosis was made by demonstration of amastigotes in smears from bone marrow. VL is a very rare infection in patients who undergo liver transplantation and, to our knowledge, this is the first case diagnosed in Portugal. PMID:26895697

  11. Heading forwards: anterior visceral endoderm migration in patterning the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Stower, Matthew J.; Srinivas, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    The elaboration of anterior–posterior (A–P) pattern is one of the earliest events during development and requires the precisely coordinated action of several players at the level of molecules, cells and tissues. In mammals, it is controlled by a specialized population of migratory extraembryonic epithelial cells, the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). The AVE is a signalling centre that is responsible for several important patterning events during early development, including specifying the orientation of the A–P axis and the position of the heart with respect to the brain. AVE cells undergo a characteristic stereotypical migration which is crucial to their functions. PMID:25349454

  12. α-Synuclein pathology accumulates in sacral spinal visceral sensory pathways.

    PubMed

    VanderHorst, Veronique G; Samardzic, Tamara; Saper, Clifford B; Anderson, Matthew P; Nag, Sukriti; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-07-01

    Urinary urgency and frequency are common in α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. These symptoms cannot be managed with dopamine therapy, and their underlying pathophysiology is unclear. We show that in individuals with Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, or multiple system atrophy, α-synuclein pathology accumulates in the lateral collateral pathway, a region of the sacral spinal dorsal horn important for the relay of pelvic visceral afferents. Deposition of α-synuclein in this region may contribute to impaired micturition and/or constipation in Parkinson disease and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:25893830

  13. The Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Abdominal Visceral Artery Aneurysms