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Sample records for abamectin emamectin benzoate

  1. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    PubMed

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed.

  2. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    PubMed

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed. PMID:24956765

  3. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  4. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis. PMID:26868652

  5. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L-1, respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China. PMID:26509680

  6. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  7. Risk assessment, cross-resistance potential, and biochemical mechanism of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field strain of house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Tiyyabah; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Naeem; Zubair, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the

  8. Risk assessment, cross-resistance potential, and biochemical mechanism of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field strain of house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Tiyyabah; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Naeem; Zubair, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the

  9. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published 2014 SETAC PMID:25363584

  10. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04 days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18 days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3 days for emamectin benzoate (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5 days for lufenuron (0.5 mg kg(-1)), which suggested that 5 days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field.

  11. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04 days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18 days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3 days for emamectin benzoate (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5 days for lufenuron (0.5 mg kg(-1)), which suggested that 5 days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field. PMID:26590145

  12. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

  13. Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate.

    PubMed

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Injection of the poorly water-soluble emamectin benzoate (EB) into pine trunks required the development of an efficient liquid formulation. For injection into big trees in forests a good rate of injection and a high active content were required. Tests on the viscosity and EB-solubilizing ability of 14 various solubilizers in diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) led to the selection of Sorpol SM-100PM as the solubilizer of the formulation. Relationships between the solubilizing ability and amounts of Sorpol SM-100PM and DGMBE relative to that of EB, and between the concentration of the latter and the viscosity or the injection rate of the formulation led to a novel 40 g litre(-1) emamectin benzoate formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation), which was composed of EB (40), Sorpol SM-100PM (120), DGMBE (160) and distilled water (50 g litre(-1)) in methanol. Injection of this formulation at a dose of 10 g EB per unit volume of pine tree prevented over 90% of the trees from wilting caused by pine wood nematode, and this preventative effect continued for 3 years. Neither discolouration of the leaves nor injury around the injection hole on the trees was observed after injection of the formulation.

  14. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    López, Juan D; Latheef, M A; Hoffmann, W C

    2010-01-01

    Newly emerged corn earworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) require a carbohydrate source from plant or other exudates and nectars for dispersal and reproduction. Adults actively seek and forage at feeding sites upon eclosion in the habitat of the larval host plant or during dispersal to, or colonization of, a suitable reproductive habitat. This nocturnal behavior of H. zea has potential for exploitation as a pest management strategy for suppression using an adult feeding approach. This approach entails the use of a feeding attractant and stimulant in combination with a toxicant that when ingested by the adult will either reduce fecundity/fertility at sub-lethal dosages or kill the adult. The intent of this study was to assess reproductive inhibition and toxicity of emamectin benzoate on H. zea when ingested by the adults when mixed in ppm active ingredient (wt:vol) with 2.5 M sucrose as a feeding stimulant. Because the mixture has to be ingested to function, the effect of emamectin benzoate was also evaluated at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations on proboscis extension and gustatory response of H. zea in the laboratory. Feral males captured in sex pheromone-baited traps in the field were used for toxicity evaluations because they were readily available and were more representative of the field populations than laboratory-reared adults. Laboratory-reared female moths were used for reproduction effects because it is very difficult to collect newly emerged feral females from the field. Emamectin benzoate was highly toxic to feral H. zea males with LC(50) values (95% CL) being 0.718 (0.532-0.878), 0.525 (0.316-0.751), and 0.182 (0.06-0.294) ppm for 24, 48 and 72 h responses, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate did not significantly reduce proboscis extension response of feral males and gustatory response of female H. zea. Sublethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate significantly reduced percent larval hatch of

  15. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  16. Tolerance and Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate and Ivermectin for the Treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in Laboratory Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R.; Colvin, Michael E.; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish. PMID:25237985

  17. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages.

  18. Effectiveness of emamectin benzoate for treatment of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jones, Patti G; Hammell, K Larry; Dohoo, Ian R; Revie, Crawford W

    2012-12-01

    Emamectin benzoate (an avermectin chemotherapeutant administered to fish as an in-feed treatment) has been used to treat infestations of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, since 1999. This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of 114 emamectin benzoate treatment episodes from 2004 to 2008 across 54 farms. Study objectives were to establish whether changes in the effectiveness of emamectin benzoate were present for this period, examine factors associated with treatment outcome, and determine variables that influenced differences in L. salmonis abundance after treatment. The analysis was carried out in 2 parts: first, trends in treatment effectiveness and L. salmonis abundance were explored, and second, statistical modelling (linear and logistic regression) was used to examine the effects of multiple variables on post-treatment abundance and treatment outcome. Post-treatment sea lice abundance increased in the later years examined. Mean abundance differed between locations in the Bay of Fundy, and higher numbers were found at farms closer to the mainland and lower levels were found in the areas around Grand Manan Island. Treatment effectiveness varied by geographical region and decreased over time. There was an increased risk for unsuccessful treatments in 2008, and treatments applied during autumn months were more likely to be ineffective than those applied during summer months.

  19. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance. PMID:25685190

  20. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-02-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and transcriptional effects of the anti-salmon lice drug emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, Pål A; Lie, Kai K; Mykkeltvedt, Eva; Samuelsen, Ole B; Petersen, Kjell; Stavrum, Anne-Kristin; Lunestad, Bjørn T

    2008-01-01

    Background Emamectin benzoate (EB) is a dominating pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment and control of infections by sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Fish with an initial mean weight of 132 g were experimentally medicated by a standard seven-day EB treatment, and the concentrations of drug in liver, muscle and skin were examined. To investigate how EB affects Atlantic salmon transcription in liver, tissues were assessed by microarray and qPCR at 7, 14 and 35 days after the initiation of medication. Results The pharmacokinetic examination revealed highest EB concentrations in all three tissues at day 14, seven days after the end of the medication period. Only modest effects were seen on the transcriptional levels in liver, with small fold-change alterations in transcription throughout the experimental period. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that EB treatment induced oxidative stress at day 7 and inflammation at day 14. The qPCR examinations showed that medication by EB significantly increased the transcription of both HSP70 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver during a period of 35 days, compared to un-treated fish, possibly via activation of enzymes involved in phase II conjugation of metabolism in the liver. Conclusion This study has shown that a standard seven-day EB treatment has only a modest effect on the transcription of genes in liver of Atlantic salmon. Based on GSEA, the medication seems to have produced a temporary oxidative stress response that might have affected protein stability and folding, followed by a secondary inflammatory response. PMID:18786259

  2. Measurement of oxytetracycline and emamectin benzoate in freshwater sediments downstream of land based aquaculture facilities in the Atlantic Region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Greenwood, Lyndsay

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of oxytetracycline (OTC) and emamectin benzoate (EB) in sediments located near the effluent outfall from four freshwater aquaculture facilities in Atlantic Canada. While two facilities had no detectable concentrations of EB or OTC, two facilities had detectable concentrations of one or both of these chemicals. Concentrations ranged from <0.05-18 mg/kg to <0.01-2.5 mg/kg for OTC and EB respectively. Although these values could not be compared with freshwater toxicant values, some of the concentrations of EB and OTC detected were higher than LC(50) values calculated for marine invertebrates. OTC concentrations measured in this study are also of a magnitude which has been known to produce resistant bacteria.

  3. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.

  4. A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. Results With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance

  5. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. PMID:25935540

  6. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... cottonseed oil. Pesticide Data Program (PDP) monitoring data for years 2009 and 2010 were used for apples since apple juice had a significant impact on exposure. Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM) default... Tolerance In the Federal Register of September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55329) (FRL- 8886-7), EPA issued a...

  7. Abamectin as a pesticide for agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Lasota, J A; Dybas, R A

    1990-01-01

    The avermectins are a family of macrocyclic lactones, produced by the soil organism Streptomyces avermitilis, which were discovered in the mid-1970's as a direct result of a screening effort for natural products with anthelmintic properties. Avermectin B1 (abamectin), the major component of the fermentation, also showed potent activity against arthropods in preliminary laboratory evaluations and was subsequently selected for development to control phytophagous mites and insect pests on a variety of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Major applications for which abamectin is currently registered include uses on ornamental plants, citrus, cotton, pears and vegetable crops at rates in the range of 5 to 27 grams abamectin per hectare as a foliar spray. Abamectin has shown low toxicity to non-target beneficial arthropods which has accelerated its acceptance into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. Extensive studies have been conducted to support the safety of agricultural uses of abamectin to man and the environment. Abamectin is highly unstable to light and has been shown to photodegrade rapidly on plant and soil surfaces and in water following agricultural applications. Abamectin was also found to be degraded readily by soil microorganisms. Abamectin residues in or on crops are very low, typically less than 0.025 ppm, resulting in minimal exposure to man from harvesting or consumption of treated crops. In addition, abamectin does not persist or accumulate in the environment. Its instability as well as its low water solubility and tight binding to soil, limit abamectin's bioavailability in non-target organisms and, furthermore, prevent it from leaching into groundwater or entering the aquatic environment.

  8. 40 CFR 180.505 - Emamectin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...′-deoxyavermectin B1b) and its metabolites 8,9-isomer of the B1a and B1b component of the parent (8,9-ZMA), or 4... the sum of emamectin (MAB1a + MAB1b isomers) and the associated 8,9-Z isomers (8,9-ZB1a and...

  9. 40 CFR 180.505 - Emamectin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 10% 4′-epi-methylamino-4′-deoxyavermectin B1b) and its metabolites 8,9-isomer of the B1a and B1b... combined residues of emamectin (MAB1a + MAB1b isomers) and the associated 8,9-Z isomers (8,9-ZB1a +...

  10. 40 CFR 180.505 - Emamectin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of 10% 4′-epi-methylamino-4′-deoxyavermectin B1b) and its metabolites 8,9-isomer of the B1a and B1b... combined residues of emamectin (MAB1a + MAB1b isomers) and the associated 8,9-Z isomers (8,9-ZB1a +...

  11. 40 CFR 180.505 - Emamectin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...′-deoxyavermectin B1b) and its metabolites 8,9-isomer of the B1a and B1b component of the parent (8,9-ZMA), or 4... sum of emamectin (MAB1a + MAB1b isomers) and the associated 8,9-Z isomers (8,9-1a and...

  12. 40 CFR 180.505 - Emamectin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 10% 4′-epi-methylamino-4′-deoxyavermectin B1b) and its metabolites 8,9-isomer of the B1a and B1b... combined residues of emamectin (MAB1a + MAB1b isomers) and the associated 8,9-Z isomers (8,9-ZB1a +...

  13. Quantitative determination of benzyl benzoate in benzyl benzoate lotion NF.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V D; Ho, H W

    1976-07-01

    The development of a simple, shorter and more accurate method than the NF method for the determination of benzyl benzoate in Benzyl Benzoate Lotion NF is discussed. Hydrolyzed benzyl benzoate was measured spectrophotometrically. Interference from other ingredients of the lotion, oleic acid and triethanolamine was almost negligible. The proposed method was completed in approximately 15 minutes, as opposed to the two hours required by the NF procedure.

  14. Abamectin in soils: Analytical methods, kinetics, sorption and dissipation.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Andreza Camilotti; Rath, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Abamectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent that has been widely employed in veterinary medicine and has also been used as a pesticide in agriculture. Veterinary drugs may reach the soil and may be transported to surface and ground waters, posing risks to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Sorption, transformation and transport processes are primarily responsible for the fate of these substances in the environment. In this study, the sorption and the aerobic dissipation of abamectin in Brazilian soils (sand, clay and sandy-clay) were evaluated. For sorption studies, batch equilibrium experiments were performed. Sorption and desorption isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model. Abamectin showed a high affinity to soil particles, with Freundlich sorption and desorption coefficients ranging from 44 to 138 μg(1-1/n) (cm(3))(1/n) g(-1) and from 89 to 236 μg(1-1/n) (cm(3))(1/n) g(-1), respectively. Dissipation of abamectin was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soils in an aerobic and dark environment under controlled temperature and humidity. The time required for a 50% reduction of the amount of abamectin present in non-sterile soils was up to 4 days, and the time period for 90% dissipation was up to 12 days. In sterilized soils, there was no reduction in the concentration of abamectin over 37 days of exposure, suggesting that aerobic microbial degradation must have been the primary mechanism responsible for the dissipation of abamectin in soils. PMID:26923238

  15. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  20. Derquantel and Abamectin: Effects and interactions on isolated tissues of Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Trailovic, Sasa M.; Robertson, Alan P.; Thompson, David P.; Woods, Debra J.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    StartectR is a novel anthelmintic combination of derquantel and abamectin. It is hypothesized that derquantel and abamectin interact pharmacologically. We investigated the effects of derquantel, abamectin and their combination on somatic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and pharyngeal muscle glutamate gated chloride receptor channels of Ascaris suum. We used muscle-strips to test the effects of abamectin, derquantel, and abamectin + derquantel together on the contraction responses to different concentrations of acetylcholine. We found that abamectin reduced the response to acetylcholine, as did derquantel. In combination (abamectin + derquantel), inhibition of the higher acetylcholine concentration responses was statistically greater than the predicted additive effect. A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to study electrophysiological effects of the anthelmintics on: 1) acetylcholine responses in somatic muscle and; 2) on L-glutamate responses in pharyngeal preparations. On somatic muscle, derquantel (0.1 - 30 μM) produced a potent (IC50 0.22, CI 0.18-0.28 μM) reversible antagonism of acetylcholine depolarizations. Abamectin (0.3 μM) produced a slow onset inhibition of acetylcholine depolarizations. We compared effects of abamectin and derquantel on muscle preparations pretreated for 30 minutes with these drugs. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than the predicted additive effect of both drugs at higher acetylcholine concentrations. On the pharynx, application of derquantel produced no significant effect by itself or on responses to abamectin and L-glutamate. Abamectin increased the input conductance of the pharynx (EC50 0.42, CI 0.13-1.36 μM). Our study demonstrates that abamectin and derquantel interact at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the somatic muscle and suggested synergism can occur. PMID:23523993

  1. Efficacy of abamectin injection against Dermatobia hominis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J B; Benitez-Usher, C; Cramer, L G; Gross, S J; Kohn, A B

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of abamectin 1%, when injected subcutaneously in cattle at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight, against the larval stages (grubs) of the fly Dermatobia hominis was evaluated in two trials in endemic areas of Brazil and Argentina. Eighteen Holstein x Brahman castrated males and 16 Brahman-cross with natural infestations were used. Larvae were counted by instar in situ on both sides of each animal before treatment, and were expressed, identified as to stage and classified as live or dead 10 days after treatment. Further larval counts were made periodically until day 79 to evaluate the degree of reinfestation and the stage of larval development. Reinfestation was first detected in the abamectin-treated cattle on day 44. Live larvae were found on 6-8 (Argentina) and on all (Brazil) controls at each post-treatment examination. The difference in numbers of live larvae between treatment groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05) at all post-treatment examinations. These data show that abamectin at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight is highly effective in the treatment and control of established parasitic stages of D. hominis in cattle. No adverse reactions were observed in any of the treated animals. PMID:8493240

  2. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly emerged bollworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) require carbohydrate source from plant exudates and nectars for reproduction. Adults actively seek such feeding sites upon eclosion in their natural habitat. We wanted to evaluate this nocturnal behavior of the bollworm for potential use as a p...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  7. Monitoring the susceptibility of citrus rust mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) populations to abamectin.

    PubMed

    Bergh, J C; Rugg, D; Jansson, R K; McCoy, C W; Robertson, J L

    1999-08-01

    A citrus leaf disk bioassay was developed to monitor the susceptibility of citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), populations to abamectin. Disks from leaves of several citrus cultivars were equally suitable bioassay substrates, and there was no difference in mortality when mites were sprayed directly or exposed to dry abamectin residue. The concentration-response relationship was determined at intervals over 2 yr for a reference population of citrus rust mites that had been maintained in culture and never exposed to acaricides. Three diagnostic concentrations of abamectin were selected based on the response of the reference population and were used to test the susceptibility of 15 populations of mites from commercial citrus groves. Comparisons with the reference population showed reduced levels of susceptibility in some populations. Populations of citrus rust mites from 6 commercial groves were sprayed twice in 1997 with combinations of acaricides designed to exert different intensities of selection pressure from abamectin. None of these populations showed a change in their response to abamectin in pre- and postspray bioassays, although their susceptibility was usually less than that of mites from the susceptible reference population. Biweekly counts of rust mites on fruit in these 6 groves suggested that, relative to groves which received no abamectin or 1 abamectin spray, mite control was not adversely affected in the groves sprayed twice with abamectin. The bioassay method is discussed in relation to factors that affect the interpretation of results from its use, and factors that may affect the development of resistance to abamectin in citrus rust mite populations are presented. This study has provided baseline data with which the results of ongoing tests of the response of citrus rust mite populations to abamectin can be compared.

  8. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

  9. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended.

  10. Potential of Foliar, Dip, and Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Richard K.; Rabatin, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the potential of two avermectin compounds, abamectin and emamectin benzoate, for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when applied by three methods: foliar spray, root dip, and pseudostem injection. Experiments were conducted against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato, M. javanica on banana, and Radopholus similis on banana. Foliar applications of both avermectins to banana and tomato were not effective for controlling any of the nematodes evaluated. Root dips of banana and tomato were moderately effective for controlling M. incognita on tomato and R. similis on banana. Injections (1 ml) of avermectins into banana pseudostems were effective for controlling M. javanica and R similis, and were comparable to control achieved with a conventional chemical nematicide, fenamiphos. Injections of 125 to 2,000 μg/plant effectively controlled one or both nematodes on banana; abamectin was more effective than emamectin benzoate for controlling nematodes. PMID:19274200

  11. Evidence for an anaerobic syntrophic benzoate degradation threshold and isolation of the syntrophic benzoate degrader

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, B.T.; McInerney, M.J.; Warikoo, V.

    1995-02-01

    An anaerobic, motile, gram-negative, rod-shaped, syntrophic. benzoate-degrading bacterium, strain SB. was isolated in pure culture with crotonate as the energy source. Benzoate was degraded only in association with an H{sub 2}-using bacterium. The kinetics of benzoate degradation by cell suspensions of strain SB in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 was studied by using progress curve analysis. The coculture degraded benzoate to a threshold concentration of 214 nM to 6.5 {mu}M, with no further benzoate degradation observed even after extended incubation times. The value of the threshold depended on the amount of benzoate added and, consequently, the amount of acetate produced. The addition of sodium acetate. but not that of sodium chloride, affected the threshold value; higher acetate concentrations resulted in higher threshold values for benzoate. When a cell suspension that had reached a threshold benzoate concentration was reamended with benzoate, benzoate was used without a lag. The hydrogen partial pressure was very low and formate was not detected in cell suspensions that had degraded benzoate to a threshold value. The Gibbs free energy change calculations showed that the degradation of benzoate was favorable when the threshold was reached. These studies showed that the threshold for benzoate degradation was not caused by nutritional limitations. the loss of metabolic activity, or inhibition by hydrogen or formate. The data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the existence of a threshold, but a kinetic explanation based on acetate inhibition may also account for the existence of a threshold.

  12. Construction and evaluation of controlled-release delivery system of Abamectin using porous silica nanoparticles as carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Haixin; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Photolysis and poor solubility in water of Abamectin are key issues to be addressed, which causes low bioavailability and residual pollution. In this study, a novel hydrophilic delivery system through loading Abamectin with porous silica nanoparticles (Abam-PSNs) was developed in order to improve the chemical stability, dispersity, and the controlled release of Abamectin. These results suggest that Abam-PSNs can significantly improve the performance of controllable release, photostability, and water solubility of Abamectin by changing the porous structure of silica nanoparticles, which is favorable to improve the bioavailability and reduce the residues of pesticides.

  13. Insecticide Toxicity to Adelphocoris lineolatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) and its Nymphal Parasitoid Peristenus spretus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Bing; Ali, Abid; Luo, Shu-Ping; Lu, Yan-Hui; Liang, Ge-Mei

    2015-08-01

    In China, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important pest of alfalfa, cotton, and other crops, while Peristenus spretus (Chen & van Achterberg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the dominant nymphal parasitoid of this mirid bug. In the present study, the toxicity of 17 common insecticides to A. lineolatus was evaluated, and the susceptibility of P. spretus to the insecticides with high toxicity to A. lineolatus was tested under laboratory conditions. Of the 17 insecticides tested, 12 (beta cypermethrin, deltamethrin, carbosulfan, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, acephate, profenophos, hexaflumuron, and abamectin) had a highly toxic effect on second-instar nymphs of A. lineolatus, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.58 to 14.85 mg a.i. (active ingredient) liter(-1). Adults of P. spretus were most sensitive to chlorpyrifos, with LC(50) values of 0.03 mg a.i. liter(-1), followed by phoxim, acetamiprid, profenophos, carbosulfan, acephate, deltamethrin, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, beta-cypermethrin, and abamectin, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.06 to 3.09, whereas hexaflumuron exhibited the least toxicity to the parasitoid, with LC(50) values >500 mg a.i. liter(-1). A risk quotient analysis indicated that beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, abamectin, and hexaflumuron when applied against A. lineolatus were the least toxic to P. spretus. PMID:26470319

  14. Characterization of Hybrid Toluate and Benzoate Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yong; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2003-01-01

    Toluate dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (TADOmt2) and benzoate dioxygenase of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1 (BADOADP1) catalyze the 1,2-dihydroxylation of different ranges of benzoates. The catalytic component of these enzymes is an oxygenase consisting of two subunits. To investigate the structural determinants of substrate specificity in these ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, hybrid oxygenases consisting of the α subunit of one enzyme and the β subunit of the other were prepared, and their respective specificities were compared to those of the parent enzymes. Reconstituted BADOADP1 utilized four of the seven tested benzoates in the following order of apparent specificity: benzoate > 3-methylbenzoate > 3-chlorobenzoate > 2-methylbenzoate. This is a significantly narrower apparent specificity than for TADOmt2 (3-methylbenzoate > benzoate ∼ 3-chlorobenzoate > 4-methylbenzoate ∼ 4-chlorobenzoate ≫ 2-methylbenzoate ∼ 2-chlorobenzoate [Y. Ge, F. H. Vaillancourt, N. Y. Agar, and L. D. Eltis, J. Bacteriol. 184:4096-4103, 2002]). The apparent substrate specificity of the αBβT hybrid oxygenase for these benzoates corresponded to that of BADOADP1, the parent from which the α subunit originated. In contrast, the apparent substrate specificity of the αTβB hybrid oxygenase differed slightly from that of TADOmt2 (3-chlorobenzoate > 3-methylbenzoate > benzoate ∼ 4-methylbenzoate > 4-chlorobenzoate > 2-methylbenzoate > 2-chlorobenzoate). Moreover, the αTβB hybrid catalyzed the 1,6-dihydroxylation of 2-methylbenzoate, not the 1,2-dihydroxylation catalyzed by the TADOmt2 parent. Finally, the turnover of this ortho-substituted benzoate was much better coupled to O2 utilization in the hybrid than in the parent. Overall, these results support the notion that the α subunit harbors the principal determinants of specificity in ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. However, they also demonstrate that the β subunit contributes significantly to the enzyme

  15. Characterization of hybrid toluate and benzoate dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yong; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2003-09-01

    Toluate dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (TADO(mt2)) and benzoate dioxygenase of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1 (BADO(ADP1)) catalyze the 1,2-dihydroxylation of different ranges of benzoates. The catalytic component of these enzymes is an oxygenase consisting of two subunits. To investigate the structural determinants of substrate specificity in these ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, hybrid oxygenases consisting of the alpha subunit of one enzyme and the beta subunit of the other were prepared, and their respective specificities were compared to those of the parent enzymes. Reconstituted BADO(ADP1) utilized four of the seven tested benzoates in the following order of apparent specificity: benzoate > 3-methylbenzoate > 3-chlorobenzoate > 2-methylbenzoate. This is a significantly narrower apparent specificity than for TADO(mt2) (3-methylbenzoate > benzoate approximately 3-chlorobenzoate > 4-methylbenzoate approximately 4-chlorobenzoate > 2-methylbenzoate approximately 2-chlorobenzoate [Y. Ge, F. H. Vaillancourt, N. Y. Agar, and L. D. Eltis, J. Bacteriol. 184:4096-4103, 2002]). The apparent substrate specificity of the alphaBbetaT hybrid oxygenase for these benzoates corresponded to that of BADO(ADP1), the parent from which the alpha subunit originated. In contrast, the apparent substrate specificity of the alphaTbetaB hybrid oxygenase differed slightly from that of TADO(mt2) (3-chlorobenzoate > 3-methylbenzoate > benzoate approximately 4-methylbenzoate > 4-chlorobenzoate > 2-methylbenzoate > 2-chlorobenzoate). Moreover, the alphaTbetaB hybrid catalyzed the 1,6-dihydroxylation of 2-methylbenzoate, not the 1,2-dihydroxylation catalyzed by the TADO(mt2) parent. Finally, the turnover of this ortho-substituted benzoate was much better coupled to O2 utilization in the hybrid than in the parent. Overall, these results support the notion that the alpha subunit harbors the principal determinants of specificity in ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. However, they also

  16. Effect of abamectin exposure on semen parameters indicative of reduced sperm maturity: a study on farmworkers in Antalya (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, C; Tasatargil, A; Tekcan, M; Sati, L; Gungor, E; Isbir, M; Usta, M F; Akar, M E; Erler, F

    2012-12-01

    Environmental exposure to pesticides may cause serious health risks including fertility and reproductive function. The aim of this study was to highlight whether there is a relationship between exposure to abamectin and male fertility parameters of farmworkers. Twenty male farmworkers who were using abamectin and 20 men not exposed to pesticides were recruited as experimental and control groups, respectively. Semen analysis, molecular markers of sperm maturity and serum reproductive hormone levels were evaluated. In experimental group, high plasma abamectin levels were detected. These men have decreased sperm motility. Moreover, diminished molecular markers of sperm maturity, such as decreased hyaluronic acid (HA) binding of sperm, increased numbers of aniline blue positive sperm and increased percentage of creatine kinase (CK) positive sperm, were observed in abamectin-exposed men. Their serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels did not change significantly. We conclude that exposure to abamectin may impair male fertility by effecting semen quality.

  17. In vitro dermal disposition of abamectin (avermectin B(1)) in livestock.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Ronald E

    2004-06-01

    Many avermectins are approved for topical application in domestic animals. However, extralabel use may result in significant dermal absorption and consequently the potential for adverse effects or violative residues. The primary aim of this study was to assess dermal disposition of abamectin in vitro in bovine, caprine, ovine, and porcine skin dosed in 100% isopropanol, commercial alcohol-based (Ivomec), or oil-based (Eprinex) formulations. Skin sections were perfused in a flow-through diffusion cell system for 8 h, and the disposition of radiolabel abamectin was determined from perfusate and skin samples. Abamectin absorption ranged from 0.09% to 0.20% dose and there were no significant differences between formulations in each species. Isopropanol significantly increased skin deposition in all species when compared to the oil formulation. Absorption was significantly greater in bovine skin than in porcine skin for the isopropanol-containing formulations, but there were no significant species differences for the oil formulation. While significant levels (11.69-50.23% dose) remained on the skin surface, the highest levels deposited in viable skin were observed in caprine skin (28.09% dose) and the lowest levels were in porcine skin (1.50% dose) which could lead to systemic absorption. In summary, these 8-h experiments demonstrated that the alcohol-based formulations compared to oil-based formulations enhanced abamectin absorption and skin deposition in several animal species, and this effect is more likely to be observed in ruminant species than in porcine species.

  18. Potential early intermediates in anaerobic benzoate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, K J; Gibson, J

    1992-01-01

    Alkali-treated extracts of Rhodopseudomonas palustris growing photosynthetically on benzoate were examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for partially reduced benzoate derivatives. Two cyclic dienes, cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-carboxylate and cyclohexa-1,4-diene-1-carboxylate, were detected. Either compound supported cell growth as effectively as benzoate. These results suggest that these cyclohexadienecarboxylates, probably as their coenzyme A esters, are the initial reduction products formed during anaerobic benzoate metabolism by R. palustris. PMID:1610191

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants. PMID:27688974

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants. PMID:27688974

  3. Catabolism of benzoate and monohydroxylated benzoates by Amycolatopsis and Streptomyces spp

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, E.; Knorr, C.; Eichenlaub, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Eight actinomycetes of the genera Amycolatopsis and Streptomyces were tested for the degradation of aromatic compounds by growth in a liquid medium containing benzoate, monohydroxylated benzoates, or quinate as the principal carbon source. Benzoate was converted to catechol. The key intermediate in the degradation of salicylate was either catechol or gentisate, while m-hydroxybenzoate was metabolized via gentisate or protocatechuate. p-Hydroxybenzoate and quinate were converted to protocatechuate. Catechol, gentisate, and protocatechuate were cleaved catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, respectively. The requirement for glutathione in the gentisate pathway was dependent on the substrate and the particular strain. The conversion of p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate by p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase was gratuitously induced by all substrates that were metabolized via protocatechuate as an intermediate, while protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was gratuitously induced by benzoate and salicylate in two Amycolatopsis strains.

  4. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  5. The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Kleerebezem, R.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1999-03-01

    The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1,4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.

  6. Enhancement of BTX biodegradation by benzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Rotert, K.H.; Cronkhite, L.A.; Alvarez, P.J.J.

    1995-12-31

    Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of adding environmentally benign aromatic substrates on the phenotypic composition of indigenous microbial communities. Addition of aromatic compounds (i.e., benzoate or phenylalanine) exerted preferential selective pressure for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) degraders. Addition of a non-aromatic substrate (i.e., acetate), however, did not stimulate a significant increase in the fraction of total heterotrophs capable of degrading BTX. A selective proliferation of BTX degraders would enhance biodegradation kinetics, which should decrease the duration (and cost) of BTX bioremediation. Proof of concept was obtained with laboratory aquifer columns that were continuously fed benzene, toluene, and o-xylene. Benzoate addition to the column`s influent enhanced aerobic BTX degradation and attenuated BTX breakthrough relative to acetate-amended or unamended control columns.

  7. Population-level effects of abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki.

    PubMed

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José W S; Gondim, Manoel G C; Guedes, Raul N C; Oliveira, José E M

    2016-10-01

    The coconut production system, in which the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis is considered a key pest, provides an interesting model for integration of biological and chemical control. In Brazil, the most promising biological control agent for the coconut mite is the phytoseiid predator Neoseiulus baraki. However, acaricides are widely used to control the coconut mite, although they frequently produce unsatisfactory results. In this study, we evaluated the simultaneous direct effect of dry residue contact and contaminated prey ingestion of the main acaricides used on coconut palms (i.e., abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate) on life-history traits of N. baraki and their offspring. These acaricides are registered, recommended and widely used against A. guerreronis in Brazil, and they were tested at their label rates. The offspring of the exposed predators was also evaluated by estimating the instantaneous rate of population increase (r i ). Abamectin compromised female performance, whereas fenpyroximate did not affect the exposed females (F0). Nonetheless, fenpyroximate strongly compromised the offspring (F1) net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of population growth (r i ), and doubling time (DT). In contrast, fenpyroximate did not have such effects on the 2nd generation (F2) of predators with acaricide-exposed grandparents. Azadirachtin did not affect the predators, suggesting that this acaricide can be used in association with biological control by this predatory species. In contrast, the use of abamectin and fenpyroximate is likely to lead to adverse consequences in the biological control of A. guerreronis using N. baraki. PMID:27495808

  8. Population-level effects of abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki.

    PubMed

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José W S; Gondim, Manoel G C; Guedes, Raul N C; Oliveira, José E M

    2016-10-01

    The coconut production system, in which the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis is considered a key pest, provides an interesting model for integration of biological and chemical control. In Brazil, the most promising biological control agent for the coconut mite is the phytoseiid predator Neoseiulus baraki. However, acaricides are widely used to control the coconut mite, although they frequently produce unsatisfactory results. In this study, we evaluated the simultaneous direct effect of dry residue contact and contaminated prey ingestion of the main acaricides used on coconut palms (i.e., abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate) on life-history traits of N. baraki and their offspring. These acaricides are registered, recommended and widely used against A. guerreronis in Brazil, and they were tested at their label rates. The offspring of the exposed predators was also evaluated by estimating the instantaneous rate of population increase (r i ). Abamectin compromised female performance, whereas fenpyroximate did not affect the exposed females (F0). Nonetheless, fenpyroximate strongly compromised the offspring (F1) net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of population growth (r i ), and doubling time (DT). In contrast, fenpyroximate did not have such effects on the 2nd generation (F2) of predators with acaricide-exposed grandparents. Azadirachtin did not affect the predators, suggesting that this acaricide can be used in association with biological control by this predatory species. In contrast, the use of abamectin and fenpyroximate is likely to lead to adverse consequences in the biological control of A. guerreronis using N. baraki.

  9. UASB treatment of wastewater containing concentrated benzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.Y.; Fang, H.H.P.; Chen, T.; Chui, H.K.

    1995-10-01

    The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process removed 97--99% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) from wastewater containing concentrated benzoate at 37 C, pH 7.5, a hydraulic retention time of 9.8 h, and loading rates up to 30.6 g-COD/(L {center_dot} day) based on the reactor volume. About 95.2% of the total COD removed was converted to methane; 0.034 g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was yielded for each gram of COD removed. The highly settleable granules were 1--3 mm in size with a layered microstructure and were composed in abundance of bacteria resembling the benzoate-degrading Syntrophus buswellii. Two interesting observations have led to the postulation that the degradation of benzoate into acetate was probably conducted completely inside the cell of Syntrophus buswellii-like bacteria: (1) no fatty acids except acetate were found in the effluent; and (2) the granules showed very limited butyrate-degrading capability and could not degrade propionate. This study demonstrated the feasibility of removing aromatic pollutants in wastewater by anaerobic processes.

  10. Insecticidal efficacy of abamectin against three stored-product insect pests: influence of dose rate, temperature, commodity, and exposure interval.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Mihail, Spyridon B; Tomanović, Zeljko

    2009-06-01

    The insecticidal efficacy of abamectin against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val was assessed under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of abamectin was assessed on two commodities (wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) and two temperatures (25 and 30 degrees C). The dose rates used were 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ppm. Mortality of the exposed adults in the treated grains was measured after 7, 14 and 21 d (= days), whereas progeny production was assessed 60 d later. Increase of dose rate, exposure interval, and temperature enhanced the efficacy of abamectin. Noticeable mortality was noted for all species after 21 d of exposure, although for S. oryzae, mortality was very high even at 7 d. For dose rates higher than 0.5 ppm, the efficacy of abamectin was higher in maize than in wheat against all species tested. Finally, progeny production was measured for all three species on commodities treated with 0.01 and 0.1 ppm of abamectin.

  11. Sodium Benzoate for Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Misel, Michael L.; Patton, Heather; Mendler, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious but usually reversible neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis, inborn errors of metabolism involving disorders of the urea cycle, and noncirrhotic portosystemic shunting that most commonly arises from a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting procedure. Symptoms can include alterations in cognitive function, neuromuscular activity, and consciousness, as well as sleep disorders and mood changes. HE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and, if not properly treated, will lead to increased hospital admissions and healthcare costs. Although the standard therapies of lactulose and rifaximin (Xifaxan, Salix) are effective for most patients, these drugs may be associated with significant adverse effects and expense and, in some patients, inadequate therapeutic response. A need for adjunctive therapies exists. Drugs that target serum and tissue ammonia metabolism and elimination may be important adjuncts to drugs that reduce ammonia production and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract for patients with severe or persistent overt symptoms of HE. Sodium benzoate is an inexpensive adjunctive agent that can be used in addition to lactulose and rifaximin and may provide an option for some select patients with refractory HE who have failed to respond to standard therapies or who cannot afford them. Although sodium benzoate does not share the same adverse effect profiles of standard therapies for HE, its efficacy has not been well established. Given the significant dose-dependent sodium content of this therapy, it may not be appropriate for patients with significant fluid retention or kidney dysfunction. PMID:24711766

  12. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    PubMed

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  13. The efficacy and plasma profiles of abamectin plus levamisole combination anthelmintics administered as oral and pour-on formulations to cattle.

    PubMed

    Leathwick, D M; Miller, C M; Sauermann, C W; Candy, P M; Ganesh, S; Fraser, K; Waghorn, T S

    2016-08-30

    In phase I, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted on six commercial cattle farms to compare the performance of two pour-on and one oral combination anthelmintic. Groups of 12-15 calves were sampled for faecal nematode egg count (FEC) before treatment with either abamectin oral, levamisole oral, an abamectin+levamisole oral combination or one of two abamectin+levamisole combination pour-ons. Samples were collected again 14days after treatment to calculate the percentage reduction in FEC. The proportions of infective stage larvae (L3) in faecal cultures were used to apportion egg counts to, and calculate efficacy against, the main parasite genera. Abamectin oral was effective against Ostertagia except on one farm where resistance was indicated, but had reduced efficacy against Cooperia on four farms. Levamisole oral was effective against Cooperia on all farms, but had variable efficacy against Ostertagia. The abamectin+levamisole oral was effective against both species on all farms. The abamectin+levamisole pour-ons were effective on some farms but not on others. In particular, pour-on 2 failed to achieve 95% efficacy in 45% of evaluations, 4/6 against Cooperia and 1/5 against Ostertagia. On some farms the combination pour-ons were less effective than their constituent actives administered alone as orals. In phase II, 8 groups of 6 calves, grazing parasite-free pasture, were infected with putatively ML-resistant isolates of Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. Once infections were patent groups were treated with oral or pour-on formulations of abamectin alone, levamisole alone, abamectin+levamisole (two pour-ons) or remained untreated. Blood samples were collected for analysis and after 8days all calves were euthanized and abomasa and intestines recovered for worm counts. All treatments were effective against O. ostertagi and all treatments containing levamisole were effective against C. oncophora. Animals treated with the oral combination

  14. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin, 1 per cent ivermectin and the combination of 1 per cent abamectin +20 per cent levamisole. The results of efficacy of the ivermectin+abamectin and the 0.5 per cent ivermectin against Haematobia irritans were similar. Against Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae, all pour-on formulations tested (1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin), as well as 1 per cent doramectin administered subcutaneously, were considered ineffective. Cattle medicated with 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, pour-on, remained free from parasitism by Dermatobia hominis larvae during 42 days (96 per cent efficacy), while values superior to 90 per cent were obtained by 0.5 per cent ivermectin (92 per cent) and 0.5 per cent abamectin (93 per cent) until the 42nd and 35th days post treatment, respectively. Against Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum, the pour-on of ivermectin+abamectin showed better efficacy than the 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin. As to Cooperia punctata, there was no difference regarding efficacy results obtained by the avermectins combination and abamectin. The pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained high efficacy against R. (B.) microplus, D. hominis and some species of cattle gastrointestinal helminths when compared with formulations of 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin administered through the same route. PMID:26392893

  15. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms

    PubMed Central

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K.; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  16. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    PubMed

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  17. Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Finny S; Kaukinen, Pasi; Gläsker, Sabine; Bespalov, Maxim; Hanski, Leena; Wennerberg, Krister; Kümmerer, Beate M; Ahola, Tero

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type and reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 μM) and ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 μM) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 μM) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner and had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses--Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. Abamectin and ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic and antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle.

  18. Eco-toxicological effects of the avermectin family with a focus on abamectin and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Avermectin family members are categorised as highly effective but toxic natural products that are used as pharmaceuticals in both humans and animals and for crop protection. Abamectin and ivermectin are the two most commonly used compounds from this family with abamectin the only compound to be used for both crop protection and pharmaceutical purposes. Avermectins are produced by the soil dwelling actinomycetes Streptomyces avermitilis and despite having complex chemical structures, they are manufactured via synthesis in large scales for commercial use. Although the extent of the eco-toxicological effects of avermectins is not well documented, reports of eco-toxicity exist. Avermectins have short half-lives and their residues can be eliminated through different food processing methods. However, avermectins can persist in water, sediment, soil and food products and therefore management practices that reduce the potential risks associated with eco-toxicity of these highly toxic compounds need to be further developed. This manuscript provides a critical review of the eco-toxicological risks and the potential for food contamination associated with avermectin use. PMID:27058912

  19. Eco-toxicological effects of the avermectin family with a focus on abamectin and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Avermectin family members are categorised as highly effective but toxic natural products that are used as pharmaceuticals in both humans and animals and for crop protection. Abamectin and ivermectin are the two most commonly used compounds from this family with abamectin the only compound to be used for both crop protection and pharmaceutical purposes. Avermectins are produced by the soil dwelling actinomycetes Streptomyces avermitilis and despite having complex chemical structures, they are manufactured via synthesis in large scales for commercial use. Although the extent of the eco-toxicological effects of avermectins is not well documented, reports of eco-toxicity exist. Avermectins have short half-lives and their residues can be eliminated through different food processing methods. However, avermectins can persist in water, sediment, soil and food products and therefore management practices that reduce the potential risks associated with eco-toxicity of these highly toxic compounds need to be further developed. This manuscript provides a critical review of the eco-toxicological risks and the potential for food contamination associated with avermectin use.

  20. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance. PMID:26470374

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a new long acting endectocide formulation containing 2.25% ivermectin and 1.25% abamectin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Borges, F A; Cho, H S; Santos, E; Oliveira, G P; Costa, A J

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetic parameters of a new formulation that contained 2.25% ivermectin combined with 1.25% abamectin in bovine plasma. The results for 2.25% ivermectin: Cmax (37.11 ng/mL +/- 7.42), Tmax (16 days +/- 5.29), T(1/2) (44.62 days +/- 53.89), AUC (928.2 ng x day/mL +/- 153.83) and MRT (36.73 days +/- 33.64), and for 1.25% abamectin: Cmax (28.70 ng/mL +/- 9.54), Tmax (14 days +/- 4.04), T(1/2) (15.40 days +/- 11.43), AUC (618.05 ng x day/mL +/- 80.27) and MRT (20.79 days +/- 8.43) suggest that this combination of 2.25% ivermectin + 1.25% abamectin possesses properties that give this pharmaceutical formula a longer activity time than two of the commercial products tested (1% ivermectin and 1% abamectin), and showed similarity to 3.15% ivermectin. PMID:17217403

  2. Characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in Panonychus citri (McGregor).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chong-Yu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Feng, Ying-Cai; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), a major citrus pest distributed worldwide, has been found to be resistant to various insecticides and acaricides used in China. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the abamectin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, results showed over-expression of a novel glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) gene (PcGSTm5) in abamectin-resistant P. citri. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcripts of PcGSTm5 were also significantly up-regulated after exposure to abamectin and the maximum mRNA expression level at nymphal stage. The recombinant protein of PcGSTm5-pET-28a produced by Escherichia coli showed a pronounced activity toward the conjugates of 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH). The kinetics of CDNB and GSH and its optimal pH and thermal stability were also determined. Reverse genetic study through a new method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding further support a link between the expression of PcGSTm5 and abamectin resistance. However, no direct evidence was found in metabolism or inhibition assays to confirm the hypothesis that PcGSTm5 can metabolize abamectin. Finally, it is here speculated that PcGSTm5 may play a role in abamectin detoxification through other pathway such as the antioxidant protection.

  3. Characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in Panonychus citri (McGregor).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chong-Yu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Feng, Ying-Cai; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), a major citrus pest distributed worldwide, has been found to be resistant to various insecticides and acaricides used in China. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the abamectin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, results showed over-expression of a novel glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) gene (PcGSTm5) in abamectin-resistant P. citri. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcripts of PcGSTm5 were also significantly up-regulated after exposure to abamectin and the maximum mRNA expression level at nymphal stage. The recombinant protein of PcGSTm5-pET-28a produced by Escherichia coli showed a pronounced activity toward the conjugates of 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH). The kinetics of CDNB and GSH and its optimal pH and thermal stability were also determined. Reverse genetic study through a new method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding further support a link between the expression of PcGSTm5 and abamectin resistance. However, no direct evidence was found in metabolism or inhibition assays to confirm the hypothesis that PcGSTm5 can metabolize abamectin. Finally, it is here speculated that PcGSTm5 may play a role in abamectin detoxification through other pathway such as the antioxidant protection. PMID:27521916

  4. The evaluation of the genotoxicity of two food preservatives: sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate.

    PubMed

    Zengin, N; Yüzbaşıoğlu, D; Unal, F; Yılmaz, S; Aksoy, H

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the genotoxic effects of sodium benzoate (SB) and potassium benzoate (PB) were investigated in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronuclei (MN). The level of nuclear DNA damage of SB and PB were also evaluated using the comet assay. The lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of SB (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) and PB (62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml). A significant increase was observed in CA, SCE, and MN, in almost all treatments compared to negative controls. SB and PB significantly decreased the mitotic index (MI) in all the treatments, compared to the negative controls. However, neither of the additives affected the replication index (RI). Although SB significantly increased DNA damage, PB did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage. The present results indicate that SB and PB are clastogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic to human lymphocytes in vitro.

  5. [Studies for analyzing restricted ingredients such as sodium benzoate].

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Mori, Kenichiro; Nosaka, Tomio; Doi, Kayo; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujii, Makiko; Takano, Katuhiro; Hayashi, Masato; Yoshizawa, Kenichi; Shimamura, Kimio; Sato, Nobuo

    2004-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is a kind of preservatives in cosmetics and is nominated as the restricted ingredients in cosmetics in Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. So the analytical method for sodium benzoate was investigated by HPLC. After adding 5 ml of tetrahydrofuran to 0.05 g of the lotions or creams with 0.1 or 1.0% sodium benzoate and dissolving them, that mixture was made up to 50 ml with methanol. If necessary, the mixture was filtrated with a membrane filter (0.45 microm). The testing solution of 20 micro1 was analyzed by HPLC using the ODS column (CAPCELL PAK C18 column, 4.6 x 250 mm), the mixture of 50 mmol/l phosphate buffer (pH5.5) and acetonitrile (7:3) and the detection wavelength of 227 nm. The working curve from 1.0 to 12.0 microg/ml showed a linear line between the concentrations of sodium benzoate and the peak area. There was no interference of peak of sodium benzoate from the lotion and cream.

  6. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in Iranian doogh.

    PubMed

    Zamani Mazdeh, F; Esmaeili Aftabdari, F; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Z; Shaneshin, M; Torabi, P; Shams Ardekani, M R; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two common preservatives used in Iran, yet use of these preservatives in doogh (Iranian dairy-based drink) is forbidden according to national standards. The aim of this study was to consider the presence of these preservatives in doogh by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The method was performed using a C18 column and detection at 225 nm. The mobile phase contained ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 4.2) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v). The survey included 130 samples of doogh for identification and quantification of the named preservatives. All samples contained sodium benzoate, but potassium sorbate was detected in only 13% of them. The means of benzoate and sorbate were 21.3 ± 2.7 and 13.3 ± 39.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. The limits of detection were 2 and 40 ng g(-1) for benzoate and sorbate, respectively. Results indicate that sodium benzoate may occur in doogh naturally. PMID:24914596

  7. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in Iranian doogh.

    PubMed

    Zamani Mazdeh, F; Esmaeili Aftabdari, F; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Z; Shaneshin, M; Torabi, P; Shams Ardekani, M R; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two common preservatives used in Iran, yet use of these preservatives in doogh (Iranian dairy-based drink) is forbidden according to national standards. The aim of this study was to consider the presence of these preservatives in doogh by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The method was performed using a C18 column and detection at 225 nm. The mobile phase contained ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 4.2) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v). The survey included 130 samples of doogh for identification and quantification of the named preservatives. All samples contained sodium benzoate, but potassium sorbate was detected in only 13% of them. The means of benzoate and sorbate were 21.3 ± 2.7 and 13.3 ± 39.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. The limits of detection were 2 and 40 ng g(-1) for benzoate and sorbate, respectively. Results indicate that sodium benzoate may occur in doogh naturally.

  8. Reactivity of toluate dioxygenase with substituted benzoates and dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yong; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2002-08-01

    Toluate dioxygenase (TADO) of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 catalyzes the dihydroxylation of a broad range of substituted benzoates. The two components of this enzyme were hyperexpressed and anaerobically purified. Reconstituted TADO had a specific activity of 3.8 U/mg with m-toluate, and each component had a full complement of their respective Fe(2)S(2) centers. Steady-state kinetics data obtained by using an oxygraph assay and by varying the toluate and dioxygen concentrations were analyzed by a compulsory order ternary complex mechanism. TADO had greatest specificity for m-toluate, displaying apparent parameters of KmA = 9 +/- 1 microM, k(cat) = 3.9 +/- 0.2 s(-1), and K(m)O(2) = 16 +/- 2 microM (100 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.0; 25 degrees C), where K(m)O(2) represents the K(m) for O(2) and KmA represents the K(m) for the aromatic substrate. The enzyme utilized benzoates in the following order of specificity: m-toluate > benzoate approximately 3-chlorobenzoate > p-toluate approximately 4-chlorobenzoate > o-toluate approximately 2-chlorobenzoate. The transformation of each of the first five compounds was well coupled to O(2) utilization and yielded the corresponding 1,2-cis-dihydrodiol. In contrast, the transformation of ortho-substituted benzoates was poorly coupled to O(2) utilization, with >10 times more O(2) being consumed than benzoate. However, the apparent K(m) of TADO for these benzoates was >100 microM, indicating that they do not effectively inhibit the turnover of good substrates. PMID:12107126

  9. Reactivity of Toluate Dioxygenase with Substituted Benzoates and Dioxygen

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yong; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H.; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2002-01-01

    Toluate dioxygenase (TADO) of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 catalyzes the dihydroxylation of a broad range of substituted benzoates. The two components of this enzyme were hyperexpressed and anaerobically purified. Reconstituted TADO had a specific activity of 3.8 U/mg with m-toluate, and each component had a full complement of their respective Fe2S2 centers. Steady-state kinetics data obtained by using an oxygraph assay and by varying the toluate and dioxygen concentrations were analyzed by a compulsory order ternary complex mechanism. TADO had greatest specificity for m-toluate, displaying apparent parameters of KmA = 9 ± 1 μM, kcat = 3.9 ± 0.2 s−1, and KmO2 = 16 ± 2 μM (100 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.0; 25°C), where KmO2 represents the Km for O2 and KmA represents the Km for the aromatic substrate. The enzyme utilized benzoates in the following order of specificity: m-toluate > benzoate ≃ 3-chlorobenzoate > p-toluate ≃ 4-chlorobenzoate ≫ o-toluate ≃ 2-chlorobenzoate. The transformation of each of the first five compounds was well coupled to O2 utilization and yielded the corresponding 1,2-cis-dihydrodiol. In contrast, the transformation of ortho-substituted benzoates was poorly coupled to O2 utilization, with >10 times more O2 being consumed than benzoate. However, the apparent Km of TADO for these benzoates was >100 μM, indicating that they do not effectively inhibit the turnover of good substrates. PMID:12107126

  10. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. PMID:25278142

  12. Identification and Characterization of the Gene CYP340W1 from Plutella xylostella and Its Possible Involvement in Resistance to Abamectin

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abamectin has been used to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), which is a major agricultural pest that can rapidly develop resistance against insecticides including abamectin. Although cytochrome P450 has been confirmed to play an important role in resistance in P. xylostella, the specific P450 genes associated with the resistance are unclear. The full-length cDNA of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP340W1 was cloned and characterized in the present study. The cDNA assembly yielded a sequence of 1929 bp, containing the open reading frame (ORF) 1491 bp and encodes a 496-amino acid peptide. CYP340W1 was expressed in all P. xylostella developmental stages but its expression level was highest in larvae and especially in the heads of larvae. The expression of CYP340W1 was significantly higher in an abamectin-resistant strain (ABM-R) than in its susceptible counterpart (ABM-S). In addition, expression of CYP340W1 was increased when the ABM-R strain was exposed to abamectin. When injected into third-stage ABM-R larvae, CYP340W1 dsRNA significantly reduced CYP340W1 expression at 6 h and reduced expression by 83% at 12 h. As a consequence of RNAi, the mortality of the injected abamectin-resistant larvae increased after a 48-h exposure to abamectin. The results indicate that the overexpression of CYP340W1 plays an important role in abamectin resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:26999122

  13. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). 721.10352 Section 721.10352 Protection of Environment... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (PMN P-08-93) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). 721.10352 Section 721.10352 Protection of Environment... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (PMN P-08-93) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). 721.10352 Section 721.10352 Protection of Environment... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (PMN P-08-93) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. Acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.

    PubMed

    Van Der Merwe, J S; Smit, F J; Durand, A M; Krüger, L P; Michael, L M

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. The eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. The amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. Both acaricides were effective against R. appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus in the eland. The amitraz/cypermethrin acaricide was effective against R. (Boophilus) decoloratus in the blesbok. Ticks can cause damage to the skins, secondary infections, abscesses, anaemia, loss of condition, tick toxicosis and act as vectors of infectious diseases. Introduction of hosts and/or ticks from endemic to non-endemic areas because of translocation of game, may lead to severe losses. The pouron acaricides tested were effective against natural tick infestations and should always be used according to the manufacturer's instructions and efficacy claims.

  17. Biochemical responses to the toxicity of the biocide abamectin on the freshwater snail Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Zhou, Chune; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2014-03-01

    The toxic effects of abamectin (ABM), an anthelmintic drug, on the snail, Physa Acuta, and the biochemical responses to the exposure stress were evaluated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in snail soft tissues (head, foot, visceral mass, and the mantle) for up to 96h of exposure to 3.4, 9.6, 19.2, or 27.4μgL(-1) of ABM. The results showed that SOD and GST activities were promoted by ABM-exposure at the earlier periods of treatment (12-48h) while these activites were inhibited at the end of test. The tendency of CAT activity was similar to that of SOD, but it increased at the end of test. MDA levels of the snail soft tissues increased in all treatment groups, including the recovery group, indicating that lipid peroxidation occurred in snail soft tissues. ABM-exposure inhibited AChE activity. However, NOS activities increased by ABM-exposure. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes and AChE from the snail soft tissues resumed the normal levels after 96h of recovery period, but MDA level did not attain the original level. This study provides information on the biochemical mechanism of ABM toxicity on the snail.

  18. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of an abamectin-degrading bacterial strain isolated from a citrus orchard.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Yu, Fang-Bo; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Yan, Xin; Li, Shun-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial strain GB-01 was isolated from abamectin-contaminated soils by continuous enrichment culture. The preliminary identification of strain GB-01 as a Burkholderia species was based mainly on simple biochemical and substrate utilization tests; however, these tests alone cannot accurately differentiate all the species within the genus Burkholderia. The strain GB-01 was subjected to taxonomic analysis through a polyphasic approach, in which phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic information was gathered to conclude the classification of this microbe. Phenotypic information comes from basic bacteriological tests and substrate utilization patterns using the Biolog GN2 MicroPlating system and automated miniature biochemical test kits, i.e. API 20 NE, ID 32 GN and API 50 CH, as well as analyzing the whole cell fatty acid profile. Genotypic information was gathered from whole genome DNA base composition (G+C mol%), and DNA-DNA hybridization with its closest species, while phylogenetic information was collected from the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. The results of polyphasic analysis concluded that strain GB-01 is an atypical strain of the Burkholderia diffusa species. PMID:23863292

  19. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section 522.842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; not for use in dairy or beef replacement heifers. Safety and effectiveness have not been...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1940 - Progesterone and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Progesterone and estradiol benzoate. 522.1940 Section 522.1940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  1. Correlation between Pesticide Resistance and Enzyme Activity in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate. PMID:24766444

  2. Interspecies Acetate Transfer Influences the Extent of Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Syntrophic Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M. J.; Robinson, J. A.; Suflita, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 (mu)M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V(infmax) and apparent K(infm) for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacities (V(infmax)/K(infm)) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the kinetics of benzoate degradation were slower with nitrate rather than sulfate as the electron acceptor. When strain SB was grown with Desulfovibrio sp. strain DG2 that had a fourfold-lower V(infmax) for hydrogen use than strain G-11, the V(infmax) for benzoate degradation was 37-fold lower than that of strain SB-G-11 cocultures. The Gibb's free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with a threshold than in suspensions without a threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather, a critical or minimal Gibb's free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation. PMID:16535215

  3. Differences in Interactions of Benzoic Acid and Benzoate with Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Peters, Benjamin J; Groninger, Allison S; Fontes, Fabio L; Crick, Dean C; Crans, Debbie C

    2016-09-20

    The interaction of benzoic acid and benzoate with model membrane systems was characterized to understand the molecular interactions of the two forms of a simple aromatic acid with the components of the membrane. The microemulsion system based on bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) allowed determination of the molecular positioning using 1D NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. Benzoic acid and benzoate were both found to penetrate the membrane/water interfaces; however, the benzoic acid was able to penetrate much deeper and thus is more readily able to traverse a membrane. The Langmuir monolayer model system, using dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, was used as a generic membrane lipid for a cell. Compression isotherms of monolayers demonstrated a pH dependent interaction with a lipid monolayer and confirming the pH dependent observations shown in the reverse micellar model system. These studies provide an explanation for the antimicrobial activity of benzoic acid while benzoate is inactive. Furthermore, these studies form the framework upon which we are investigating the mode of bacterial uptake of pyrazinoic acid, the active form of pyrazinamide, a front line drug used to combat tuberculosis. PMID:27482911

  4. Benzoate catabolite repression of the phenol degradation in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus PHEA-2.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuhua; Yu, Haiying; Yan, Yongliang; Ping, Shuzhen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ming; Lin, Min

    2009-10-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus PHEA-2 exhibited a delayed utilization of phenol in the presence of benzoate. Benzoate supplementation completely inhibited phenol degradation in a benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase knockout mutant. The mphR encoding the transcriptional activator and mphN encoding the largest subunit of multi-component phenol hydroxylase in the benA mutant were significantly downregulated (about 7- and 70-fold) on the basis of mRNA levels when benzoate was added to the medium. The co-transformant assay of E. coli JM109 with mphK::lacZ fusion and the plasmid pETR carrying mphR gene showed that MphR did not activate the mph promoter in the presence of benzoate. These results suggest that catabolite repression of phenol degradation by benzoate in A. calcoaceticus PHEA-2 is mediated by the inhibition of the activator protein MphR.

  5. Synthesis and properties of cholesteryl 4-(Alkanoylamino)benzoates: liquid crystals and organogelators.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kanji; Tsuji, Kazuki; Mori, Akira; Ujiie, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    As a new liquid crystal and organogelator, cholesteryl 4-(alkanoylamino)benzoates were prepared. Cholesteryl 4-(alkanoylamino)benzoates had enantiotropic cholesteric and chiral smectic C phases. Furthermore cholesteryl 4-(alkanoylamino)benzoates gelled organic liquid such as 1-decanol, linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, linalyl acetate, lavender oil, orange oil, and rose oil. The terpene and perfume gels show good release characteristics of the volatile components for a long period.

  6. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M.

    1997-03-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  7. Benzyl benzoates: New phlorizin analogs as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuntai; Chen, Yaozong; Feng, Guanfeng; Ma, Lin

    2011-02-01

    In our research, 14 benzyl benzoates with hydroxyl(s) (3-16) were synthesized and their inhibitory activity on mushroom tyrosinase was tested. Results indicated that among these compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate (3), 4-hydroxybenzyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (5), 4-hydroxybenzyl 2,4,6-dihydroxybenzoate (7), 3-hydroxybenzyl 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate (8), 3-hydroxybenzyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (10) exhibited inhibitory activity with their IC(50) less than 10μM. Further studies showed these five compounds were competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase and their structure-activity relationships were investigated in this article.

  8. Reduced efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) after 20 years of moxidectin pour-on use on a New Zealand deer farm.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, C G; Cowie, C; Fraser, K; Johnstone, P; Mason, P C

    2014-01-17

    A study was undertaken on weaned 4-5 month old farmed red deer to test the efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin anthelmintics, given by three different routes of administration, compared with an untreated control. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14 for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), blood samples were collected on days 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 for pharmacokinetics, and the deer were killed on days 14 or 15 for total nematode count. The control group averaged 1264 adult Ostertagia-type nematode parasite species and treatment efficacy was 77.4% for moxidectin injection, 26% for oral moxidectin and 27.6% for pour-on moxidectin, while the treatment efficacy was 72.4% for abamectin injection, 70.1% for oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and 34.1% for pour-on abamectin. Both moxidectin and abamectin injections were significantly more efficacious than their equivalent pour-ons. There was a significant difference in efficacy between oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and oral moxidectin (P<0.01). The control group averaged 2956 adult lungworm (Dictyocaulus eckerti) and 50 Oesophagostomum venulosum in the large intestine and treatment efficacy against these nematodes was 100% for all treatments. There were negligible numbers of other gastro-intestinal nematodes. At slaughter, there was a significant correlation (P=0.02) between FEC and Ostertagia-type nematodes in the untreated controls. Relatively few eggs were found in faeces from treated animals at 7 and 14 days post-treatment despite significant worm burdens in all six treatment groups, suggesting egg-laying suppression in resistant nematodes, and all three different FECRT calculations tended to overestimate the efficacy of the treatments compared with actual nematode counts. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for both actives were measured 12h after treatment for injection and oral and at 5 days for pour-on. Cmax (ng/ml) for moxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 71.8, 8.3 and 0.4, respectively

  9. 40 CFR 721.10062 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis[propanol], benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10062 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate. (a) Chemical...-furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate (PMN P-04-627; CAS No. 103458-14-6) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10062 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis[propanol], benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10062 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate. (a) Chemical...-furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate (PMN P-04-627; CAS No. 103458-14-6) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10062 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis[propanol], benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10062 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate. (a) Chemical...-furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate (PMN P-04-627; CAS No. 103458-14-6) is subject to reporting...

  12. Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters (p-nitrophenyl benzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-anisate, p-nitrophenyl p-anisate, p-nitrophenyl m-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl p-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-toluate, p-nitrophenyl p-toluate) were synthesized and characterized by students in a second-semester organic laboratory course. In a subsequent laboratory…

  13. 40 CFR 721.10062 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis[propanol], benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10062 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate. (a) Chemical...-furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate (PMN P-04-627; CAS No. 103458-14-6) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10062 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis[propanol], benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10062 2,5-Furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate. (a) Chemical...-furandione, polymer with oxybis , benzoate (PMN P-04-627; CAS No. 103458-14-6) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4060 - Alkylene glycol tereph-tha-late and substituted benzoate esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). 721.4060 Section 721.4060 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted benzoate esters (PMN P-89-596) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4060 - Alkylene glycol tereph-tha-late and substituted benzoate esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). 721.4060 Section 721.4060 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted benzoate esters (PMN P-89-596) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  17. Vibrational spectra and antimicrobial activity of selected bivalent cation benzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borawska, M. H.; Koczoń, P.; Piekut, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Lewandowski, W.

    2009-02-01

    Selected bands of FT-IR spectra of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) benzoates of both solid state and water solution, were assigned to appropriate molecular vibrations. Next evaluation of electronic charge distribution in both carboxylic anion and aromatic ring of studied compounds was performed. Classical plate tests and turbidimetry measurements, monitoring growth of bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and yeasts Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during 24 h of incubation, in optimal growth conditions (control) and in medium with addition of studied benzoate (concentration of 0.01% expressed as the concentration of benzoic acid), proved antimicrobial activity of studied compounds against investigated micro-organisms. PLS (partially least square) and PCR (principal component regression) techniques were applied to build a model, correlating spectral data reflecting molecular structure of studied compounds, with degree of influence of those compounds on growth of studied micro-organisms. Statistically significant correlation within cross validation diagnostic of PLS-1 calibration was found, when log 1/T of selected spectral regions of water solution samples were used as input data. The correlation coefficients between predicted with PLS calibration based on created 1, 2 or 3 factor models, and actual values of antimicrobial activity were: 0.70; 0.76, 0.81 for P. anomala, B. subtilis, and E. coli, respectively. Log(PRESS) values of appropriate models were 2.10, 2,39 and 3.23 for P. anomala, B. subtilis, and E. coli, respectively.

  18. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    PubMed

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. PMID:24859305

  19. Benzoate degradation by Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after dormancy: Characterization of dioxygenases involved in the process.

    PubMed

    Solyanikova, Inna P; Emelyanova, Elena V; Borzova, Oksana V; Golovleva, Ludmila A

    2016-01-01

    The process of benzoate degradation by strain Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after a five-year dormancy was investigated and its peculiarities were revealed. The strain was shown to be capable of growth on benzoate at a concentration of up to 10 g L(-1). The substrate specificity of benzoate dioxygenase (BDO) during the culture growth on a medium with a low (200-250 mg L(-1)) and high (4 g L(-1)) concentration of benzoate was assessed. BDO of R. opacus 1CP was shown to be an extremely narrow specificity enzyme. Out of 31 substituted benzoates, only with one, 3-chlorobenzoate, its activity was higher than 9% of that of benzoate. Two dioxygenases, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (Cat 1,2-DO) and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCA 3,4-DO), were identified in a cell-free extract, purified and characterized. The substrate specificity of Cat 1,2-DO isolated from cells of strain 1CP after the dormancy was found to differ significantly from that of Cat 1,2-DO isolated earlier from cells of this strain grown on benzoate. By its substrate specificity, the described Cat 1,2-DO was close to the Cat 1,2-DO from strain 1CP grown on 4-methylbenzoate. Neither activity nor inhibition by protocatechuate was observed during the reaction of Cat 1,2-DO with catechol, and catechol had no inhibitory effect on the reaction of PCA 3,4-DO with protocatechuate. PMID:26669259

  20. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mechanistic insights into Pseudomonas putida F1 growth on benzoate and citrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas species are capable to proliferate under diverse environmental conditions and thus have a significant bioremediation potential. To enhance our understanding of their metabolic versatility, this study explores the changes in the proteome and physiology of Pseudomonas putida F1 resulting from its growth on benzoate, a moderate toxic compound that can be catabolized, and citrate, a carbon source that is assimilated through central metabolic pathways. A series of repetitive batch cultivations were performed to ensure a complete adaptation of the bacteria to each of these contrasting carbon sources. After several growth cycles, cell growth stabilized at the maximum level and exhibited a reproducible growth profile. The specific growth rates measured for benzoate (1.01 ± 0.11 h-1) and citrate (1.11 ± 0.12 h-1) were similar, while a higher yield was observed for benzoate (0.6 and 0.3 g cell mass per g of benzoate and citrate, respectively), reflecting the different degrees of carbon reduction in the two substrates. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed an enrichment of several oxygenases/dehydrogenases in benzoate-grown cells, indicative of the higher carbon reduction of benzoate. Moreover, the upregulation of all 14 proteins implicated in benzoate degradation via the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway was observed, while several stress-response proteins were increased to aid cells to cope with benzoate toxicity. Unexpectedly, citrate posed more challenges than benzoate in the maintenance of pH homeostasis, as indicated by the enhancement of the Na+/H+ antiporter and carbonic anhydrase. The study provides important mechanistic insights into Pseudomonas adaptation to varying carbon sources that are of great relevance to bioremediation efforts. PMID:24156539

  2. [Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene by Benzoate-Enriched Anaerobic Cultures].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-wei; Yang, Xiao-yong; Hu, An-yi; Yu, Chang-ping

    2015-10-01

    Gas chromatography was used to monitor the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) by anaerobic enrichment cultures with benzoate as the sole carbon source. The 454 pyrosequencing technique was used to investigate the microbial community and the real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify the gene copies of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC). The results showed that TCE was dechlorinated to vinyl chloride along with the formation of methane in 94 days. The anaerobic enrichment cultures exhibited a high diversity, which were classified into 16 phyla, 33 classes, 52 orders, 88 families and 129 genera, while 51.2% of them belonged to unclassified group, which inferred that there were a large portion of bacteria with unknown functional in this system. Degradation of TCE was accomplished by reductive dechlorinating and other functional populations, and the DHC which carried tceA gene could be the dominant reductive dechlorinating populations in the system. PMID:26841609

  3. 2-Amino-5-methyl-pyridinium 4-chloro-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The 4-chloro-benzoate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2(+)·C7H4ClO2(-), is nearly planar with a dihedral angle of 5.14 (16)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl-ate group. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl-ate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R2(2)(8) ring motif. The ion pairs are further connected via N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane. The crystal structure also features a π-π stacking inter-action between the pyridinium and benzene rings with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.7948 (9) Å. PMID:23476392

  4. 2-Amino-6-methyl-pyridinium 3-chloro-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-03-01

    In the title salt, C6H9N2(+)·C7H4ClO2(-), the 3-chloro-benzoate anion shows a whole-mol-ecule disorder over two positions with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.505 (4):0.495 (4). In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a centrosymmetric 2 + 2 aggregate with R2(2)(8) and R4(2)(8) ring motifs. The crystal structure also features a π-π stacking inter-action between the pyridinium rings with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.8339 (9) Å. PMID:23476517

  5. 2-Amino-5-methyl-pyridinium 4-methyl-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The 4-methyl-benzoate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2(+)·C8H7O2(-), is nearly planar, with a dihedral angle of 6.26 (10)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl-ate group. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl-ate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R2(2)(8) ring motif, forming an approximately planar ion pair with a dihedral angle of 9.63 (4)° between the pyridinium and benzene rings. The ion pairs are further connected via N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane. PMID:23476474

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to sodium benzoate chloroacetamide in a sorbolene lotion.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Tina; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-08-01

    Sodium benzoate chloroacetamide is sometimes used as a combination preservative in cosmetics to prevent the growth of bacteria, mould, fungi and yeasts. A case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis to this preservative is described in a 32-year-old female personal care assistant, who was found to have allergic contact dermatitis involving the hands, caused by the sorbolene lotion supplied in her workplace. Patch testing to chloroacetamide, sodium benzoate chloroacetamide and the sorbolene lotion was positive. Patch testing to sodium benzoate alone was negative. She had been found to react to chloroacetamide 12 months earlier, but the relevance of the reaction had not been ascertained.

  7. Formulation development and stability studies of aqueous metronidazole benzoate suspensions containing various suspending agents.

    PubMed

    Zietsman, Sharon; Kilian, Gareth; Worthington, Matthew; Stubbs, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Metronidazole is a synthetic antibacterial and antiprotozoan agent. Crystallization occurs in aqueous metronidazole benzoate suspensions caused by an anhydrate to monohydrate conversion. This study aimed to develop an aqueous metronidazole benzoate suspension that does not exhibit this hydration and the accompanying crystal growth. Four suspending agent systems were evaluated. Xanthan gum and Avicel RC-591 (a combination of microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium) were found to be the suspending agents that resulted in optimal formulation properties. Monohydrate formation did not occur in product containing Avicel RC-591, indicating that suspending agents may exert a positive effect on metronidazole benzoate suspension stability. PMID:17454051

  8. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Gregory S. Y.; Somerville, Colin P.; Jones, Timothy W.; Walsh, John P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle). While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, individual components of pharmaceuticals should be tested when investigating drug allergies. Doctors should be alert to the potential for serious reactions to any of the components of Reandron 1000. PMID:22272209

  9. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  10. Acute and chronic sensitivity, avoidance behavior and sensitive life stages of bullfrog tadpoles exposed to the biopesticide abamectin.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ana M; Daam, Michiel A; dos Santos, Liliana R A; Sanches, Ana L M; Araújo, Cristiano V M; Espíndola, Evaldo L G

    2016-04-01

    As compared to other aquatic organism groups, relatively few studies have been conducted so far evaluating the toxicity of pesticides to amphibians. This may at least partly be due to the fact that regulations for registering pesticides usually do not require testing amphibians. The sensitivity of amphibians is generally considered to be covered by that based on toxicity tests with other aquatic organisms (e.g. fish) although the impact of a pesticide on amphibians may be very different. In the present study, acute and chronic laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of abamectin (as Vertimec(®) 18EC) to bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) tadpoles. Acute tests were conducted at two tadpole stages (Gosner stage 21G and 25G) and avoidance tests were also conducted with stage Gosner stage 21G tadpoles. Calculated acute toxicity values were greater than those reported for standard fish test species, hence supporting the use of fish toxicity data as surrogates for amphibians in acute risk assessments. Given the limited number and extent of available amphibian toxicity studies, however, research needs to increase our understanding of pesticide toxicity to amphibians are discussed. PMID:26758616

  11. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site. PMID:27059867

  12. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site.

  13. Sensitivity of Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Oligochaeta) to a commercial formulation of abamectin in avoidance tests with artificial substrate and natural soil under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria Edna Tenório; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2012-05-01

    Obtaining ecotoxicological data on pesticides in tropical regions is imperative for performing more realistic risk analysis, and avoidance tests have been proposed as a useful, fast and cost-effective tool. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the avoidance behavior of Eisenia andrei to a formulated product, Vertimec® 18 EC (a.i abamectin), in tests performed on a reference tropical artificial soil (TAS), to derive ecotoxicological data on tropical conditions, and a natural soil (NS), simulating crop field conditions. In TAS tests an adaptation of the substrate recommended by OECD and ISO protocols was used, with residues of coconut fiber as a source of organic matter. Concentrations of the pesticide on TAS test ranged from 0 to 7 mg abamectin/kg (dry weight-d.w.). In NS tests, earthworms were exposed to samples of soils sprayed in situ with: 0.9 L of Vertimec® 18 EC/ha (RD); twice as much this dosage (2RD); and distilled water (Control), respectively, and to 2RD: control dilutions (12.5, 25, 50, 75%). All tests were performed under 25 ± 2°C, to simulate tropical conditions, and a 12hL:12hD photoperiod. The organisms avoided contaminated TAS for an EC(50,48h) = 3.918 mg/kg soil d.w., LOEC = 1.75 mg/kg soil d.w. and NOEC = 0.85 mg/kg soil d.w. No significant avoidance response occurred for any NS test. Abamectin concentrations in NS were rather lower than EC(50, 48h) and LOEC determined in TAS tests. The results obtained contribute to overcome a lack of ecotoxicological data on pesticides under tropical conditions, but more tests with different soil invertebrates are needed to improve pesticides risk analysis. PMID:22297724

  14. Monitoring of Resistance to New Chemistry Insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mehmood, Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The armyworm Spodoptera litura (F.) is a very serious pest of many crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. Due to persistent application of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance to conventional as well as new chemistries. The present studies investigated the level of resistance to new chemistry insecticides, having novel modes of action, in the Pakistani field populations of S. litura during 1997-2010 by using a leaf-dip bioassay. Generally, a low to moderate resistance was recorded to indoxacarb, abamectin, fipronil, and methoxyfenozide; along with a very low resistance to spinosad. Resistance to emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, and lufenuron was none or very low, in spite of their intensive use against S. litura. The insecticides, showing no or very low resistance, can be used in rotation in conjunction with other integrated pest management tactics to manage insecticide resistance in S. litura.

  15. Effect of a plant fortifier (Boundary) on pests and predators of greenhouse vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Luigi; Piro, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Boundary, a plant fortifier composed of extracts of Sophora flavescens Aiton and brown algae, was tested for control of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) on tomato (three trials) and of the red spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch on eggplant (one trial) and for side effects on the whitefly predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Kambur) (two trials) on tomato and on the thrips predators Orius laevigatus (Fieber) and Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (two trials) on pepper, all in cold greenhouses in South Italy. Control rates for T. absoluta were moderate (40-70%) in the autumn crop but very high and comparable to those for emamectin benzoate in the spring crops (96-100%). Boundary compared well with abamectin against T. urticae, with near complete control. M. pygmaeus was moderately injured in late autumn, but not in early autumn. At the tested application rate and predator population density Boundary was safe for O. laevigatus and A. swirskii. PMID:25631629

  16. Monitoring of Resistance to New Chemistry Insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mehmood, Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The armyworm Spodoptera litura (F.) is a very serious pest of many crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. Due to persistent application of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance to conventional as well as new chemistries. The present studies investigated the level of resistance to new chemistry insecticides, having novel modes of action, in the Pakistani field populations of S. litura during 1997-2010 by using a leaf-dip bioassay. Generally, a low to moderate resistance was recorded to indoxacarb, abamectin, fipronil, and methoxyfenozide; along with a very low resistance to spinosad. Resistance to emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, and lufenuron was none or very low, in spite of their intensive use against S. litura. The insecticides, showing no or very low resistance, can be used in rotation in conjunction with other integrated pest management tactics to manage insecticide resistance in S. litura. PMID:26470256

  17. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran.

    PubMed

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation. PMID:25832450

  18. Genes involved in the benzoate catabolic pathway in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus PHEA-2.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuhua; Yu, Haiying; Yan, Yongliang; Chen, Ming; Lu, Wei; Li, Shuying; Peng, Zixin; Zhang, Wei; Ping, Shuzhen; Wang, Jin; Lin, Min

    2008-12-01

    A putative benM gene encoding a LysR-type regulator located upstream from the benA gene was found in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus PHEA-2. Disruption of benM or benA destroyed the ability of PHEA-2 to utilize benzoate. The benM mutant was used to construct a genomic library for isolation of the complete gene cluster responsible for benzoate degradation. Sequence analysis showed that the cluster has three putative operons: benM, benABCDE, and benKP. Unlike many well-characterized benzoate-degrading bacteria, muconate is unable to induce in vivo transcription of the PHEA-2 ben cluster. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that the benABCDE operon is activated by the BenM protein in the presence of benzoate. Moreover, a gel-retardation assay demonstrated that BenM binds to the promotor region of the benA gene. The activities of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) showed that PHEA-2 converted benzoate to catechol for further degradation, possibly via an ortho-cleavage pathway.

  19. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran.

    PubMed

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation.

  20. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  1. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  2. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  3. The efficiency of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin and ivermectin) in the control of Boophilus microplus, in artificially infested bovines kept in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Roberto

    2009-05-26

    Tests were performed on artificially infested bovines, kept in field conditions, to assess the efficiency of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin and ivermectin) on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887). This assessment was carried out on 40 bovines, in the Paraíba Valley, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. These bovines were distributed into four groups (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and a control group), after artificial infestation with some 4000 larvae per animal on days -21, -14, -7, -1, 7 and 14. The animals from the treated groups were subcutaneously injected with the commercial avermectins, at a dose of 200microg/kg of live weight (1mL/50kg). The best results were shown by the group treated with doramectin, both in relation to the reduction of female count (an average of 85.92% between 3rd and 28th day after treatment) and also in the reduction of oviposition among the females collected from the bovines after treatment and then kept in the laboratory (an average of 83.51%). None of the avermectins proved to be efficient in inhibiting the hatching of the larvae.

  4. Genome-scale analysis of anaerobic benzoate and phenol metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Dawn E; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A; Lovley, Derek R

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanisms for the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus is expected to improve understanding of the degradation of aromatics in hot (>80° C) environments and to identify enzymes that might have biotechnological applications. Analysis of the F. placidus genome revealed genes predicted to encode enzymes homologous to those previously identified as having a role in benzoate and phenol metabolism in mesophilic bacteria. Surprisingly, F. placidus lacks genes for an ATP-independent class II benzoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) reductase (BCR) found in all strictly anaerobic bacteria, but has instead genes coding for a bzd-type ATP-consuming class I BCR, similar to those found in facultative bacteria. The lower portion of the benzoate degradation pathway appears to be more similar to that found in the phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris, than the pathway reported for all heterotrophic anaerobic benzoate degraders. Many of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate metabolism were found in one of two gene clusters. Genes for phenol carboxylation proceeding through a phenylphosphate intermediate were identified in a single gene cluster. Analysis of transcript abundance with a whole-genome microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate or phenol metabolism had higher transcript abundance during growth on those substrates vs growth on acetate. These results suggest that the general strategies for benzoate and phenol metabolism are highly conserved between microorganisms living in moderate and hot environments, and that anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds might be analyzed in a wide range of environments with similar molecular targets. PMID:21776029

  5. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to

  6. Asthma induced by sulphur dioxide, benzoate and tartrazine contained in orange drinks.

    PubMed

    Freedman, B J

    1977-09-01

    Of 272 patients with asthma, thirty (11%) gave a history of exacerbations occurring after ingestion, solutions of orange orange drinks. Fourteen of these were given provocation tests by drinking, on separate occasions of sulphur dioxide, sodium benzoate and tartrazine, which are present in all orange drinks. Eight reacted to sulphur dioxide with a fall in FEV1, four to sodium benzoate and one to tartrazine, and four did not react to any of these agents. Three of the benzoate patients were also sensitive to sulphur dioxide. The sulphur dioxide sensitive patients were predominantly young, with extrinsic asthma. The benzoate sensitive patients were predominantly middle-aged and the proportion with intrinsic asthma was higher. Prior inhalation of sodium cromoglycate by four patients inhibited the reaction to these substances. Sulphur dioxide has not previously been reported to cause exacerbations of asthma when ingested as a food preservative. It is used as a preservative in a wide range of acidic beverages and foods, and should be considered as possibly causal in patients suffering from apparently cryptogenic asthma, and asthma seemingly due to food allergy. PMID:412611

  7. Effects of sodium benzoate on storage stability of previously improved beverage from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.).

    PubMed

    Adeola, Abiodun A; Aworh, Ogugua C

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate on the quality attributes of improved tamarind beverage during storage was investigated. Tamarind beverages were produced according to a previously reported improved method, with or without chemical preservatives (100 mg/100 mL sodium benzoate). Tamarind beverage produced according to traditional processing method served as the control. The tamarind beverages were stored for 4 months at room (29 ± 2°C) and refrigerated (4-10°C) temperatures. Samples were analyzed, at regular intervals, for chemical, sensory, and microbiological qualities. Appearance of coliforms or overall acceptability score of 5.9 was used as deterioration index. The control beverages deteriorated by 2nd and 10th days at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Improved tamarind beverage produced without the inclusion of sodium benzoate was stable for 3 and 5 weeks at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Sodium benzoate extended the shelf life of the improved tamarind beverage to 6 and 13 weeks, respectively, at room and refrigerated temperatures.

  8. Mechanisms for aqueous photolysis of adsorbed benzoate, oxalate, and succinate on iron oxyhydroxide (goethite) surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Photolysis of carboxylate anions adsorbed onto highly crystalline goethite (??-FeOOH) with 300-400-nm light produces Fe2+(aq) and ??OH from surface and solution redox reactions. The production of Fe2+(aq) and ??OH was studied in N2-purged and aerated aqueous suspensions, respectively, of goethite containing equimolar (10-3 M) concentrations of oxalate and benzoate (ob + g), succinate and benzoate (sb + g), benzoate alone (b + g), and goethite alone (g). The hydroxyl radical was measured by fluorescence analysis of salicylate formed in a reaction between benzoate and ??OH. Fe2+(aq) was determined colorimetrically. A proposed reaction mechanism includes the photoexcitation of Fe(III) surface complexes with OH-, HCO3-, and RCOO- ligands to form Fe2+(aq) and corresponding ligand radicals. Additional ??OH is made by the O2 oxidation of Fe2+(aq) (Haber-Weiss mechanism). Comparison of Fe2+(aq) and ??OH yields permitted an estimate of the relative importance of pathways leading to ??OH.

  9. Isolation and characterization of related substances in alogliptin benzoate by LC-QTOF mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuting; Yang, Danyi; Li, Zhiyu; Hang, Taijun; Song, Min

    2016-09-01

    A highly specific and efficient LC-QTOF mass spectrometric method was developed for the separation and characterization of process related substances and the major degradation products in alogliptin benzoate and its tablets. The separation was performed on Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) using 0.2% formic acid-0.2% ammonium acetate in water as mobile phase A, acetonitrile and methanol (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase B in linear gradient elution mode. Forced degradation studies were also conducted under ICH prescribed stress conditions. Alogliptin benzoate and its tablets were tending to degrade under acid, alkaline, oxidative and thermal stresses, while relatively stable to photolytic stress. A total of seven related substances were detected and characterized through liquid chromatography-high resolution QTOF mass spectrometry techniques, including process related substances and degradation products, and two of them were further synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Based on the related substances elucidation and the plausible formation mechanisms, efficient approaches were proposed to reduce or eliminate related substances, and in consequence the quality of alogliptin benzoate and its tablets have been promoted obviously. Therefore, the impurity profiles obtained are critical to the quality control and manufacturing processes optimization and monitoring of alogliptin benzoate and its tablets. PMID:27281581

  10. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89-94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH4 production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  11. Enzyme-catalysed synthesis and reactions of benzene oxide/oxepine derivatives of methyl benzoates.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Derek R; Sharma, Narain D; Harrison, John S; Malone, John F; McRoberts, W Colin; Hamilton, John T G; Harper, David B

    2008-04-01

    A series of twelve benzoate esters was metabolised, by species of the Phellinus genus of wood-rotting fungi, to yield the corresponding benzyl alcohol derivatives and eight salicylates. The isolation of a stable oxepine metabolite, from methyl benzoate, allied to evidence of the migration and retention of a carbomethoxy group (the NIH Shift), during enzyme-catalysed ortho-hydroxylation of alkyl benzoates to form salicylates, is consistent with a mechanism involving an initial arene epoxidation step. This mechanism was confirmed by the isolation of a remarkably stable, optically active, substituted benzene oxide metabolite of methyl 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate, which slowly converted into the racemic form. The arene oxide was found to undergo a cycloaddition reaction with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione to yield a crystalline cycloadduct whose structure and racemic nature was established by X-ray crystallography. The metabolite was also found to undergo some novel benzene oxide reactions, including epoxidation to give an anti-diepoxide, base-catalysed hydrolysis to form a trans-dihydrodiol and acid-catalysed aromatisation to yield a salicylate derivative via the NIH Shift of a carbomethoxy group.

  12. Effect of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (P < 0.05). At 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (P < 0.05). Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCG→ACG) in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break.

  13. Benzoate-induced stress enhances xylitol yield in aerobic fed-batch culture of Candida mogii TISTR 5892.

    PubMed

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Chisti, Yusuf

    2015-01-20

    Production of the natural sweetener xylitol from xylose via the yeast Candida mogii TISTR 5892 was compared with and without the growth inhibitor sodium benzoate in the culture medium. Sodium benzoate proved to be an uncompetitive inhibitor in relatively poorly oxygenated shake flask aerobic cultures. In a better controlled aerobic environment of a bioreactor, the role of sodium benzoate could equally well be described as competitive, uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibitor of growth. In intermittent fed-batch fermentations under highly aerobic conditions, the presence of sodium benzoate at 0.15gL(-1) clearly enhanced the xylitol titer relative to the control culture without the sodium benzoate. The final xylitol concentration and the average xylitol yield on xylose were nearly 50gL(-1) and 0.57gg(-1), respectively, in the presence of sodium benzoate. Both these values were substantially higher than reported for the same fermentation under microaerobic conditions. Therefore, a fed-batch aerobic fermentation in the presence of sodium benzoate is promising for xylitol production using C. mogii.

  14. Catabolism of Benzoate and Phthalate in Rhodococcus sp. Strain RHA1: Redundancies and Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Patrauchan, Marianna A.; Florizone, Christine; Dosanjh, Manisha; Mohn, William W.; Davies, Julian; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2005-01-01

    Genomic and proteomic approaches were used to investigate phthalate and benzoate catabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1, a polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading actinomycete. Sequence analyses identified genes involved in the catabolism of benzoate (ben) and phthalate (pad), the uptake of phthalate (pat), and two branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway (catRABC and pcaJIHGBLFR). The regulatory and structural ben genes are separated by genes encoding a cytochrome P450. The pad and pat genes are contained on a catabolic island that is duplicated on plasmids pRHL1 and pRHL2 and includes predicted terephthalate catabolic genes (tpa). Proteomic analyses demonstrated that the β-ketoadipate pathway is functionally convergent. Specifically, the pad and pat gene products were only detected in phthalate-grown cells. Similarly, the ben and cat gene products were only detected in benzoate-grown cells. However, pca-encoded enzymes were present under both growth conditions. Activity assays for key enzymes confirmed these results. Disruption of pcaL, which encodes a fusion enzyme, abolished growth on phthalate. In contrast, after a lag phase, growth of the mutant on benzoate was similar to that of the wild type. Proteomic analyses revealed 20 proteins in the mutant that were not detected in wild-type cells during growth on benzoate, including a CatD homolog that apparently compensated for loss of PcaL. Analysis of completed bacterial genomes indicates that the convergent β-ketoadipate pathway and some aspects of its genetic organization are characteristic of rhodococci and related actinomycetes. In contrast, the high redundancy of catabolic pathways and enzymes appears to be unique to RHA1 and may increase its potential to adapt to new carbon sources. PMID:15937168

  15. Reinvestigation of a New Type of Aerobic Benzoate Metabolism in the Proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Zaar, Annette; Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Fuchs, Georg

    2001-01-01

    The aerobic metabolism of benzoate in the proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was reinvestigated. The known pathways leading to catechol or protocatechuate do not operate in this bacterium. The presumed degradation via 3-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and gentisate could not be confirmed. The first committed step is the activation of benzoate to benzoyl-CoA by a specifically induced benzoate-CoA ligase (AMP forming). This enzyme was purified and shown to differ from an isoenzyme catalyzing the same reaction under anaerobic conditions. The second step postulated involves the hydroxylation of benzoyl-CoA to a so far unknown product by a novel benzoyl-CoA oxygenase, presumably a multicomponent enzyme system. An iron-sulfur flavoprotein, which may be a component of this system, was purified and characterized. The homodimeric enzyme had a native molecular mass of 98 kDa as determined by gel filtration and contained 0.72 mol flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 10.4 to 18.4 mol of Fe, and 13.3 to 17.9 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of native protein, depending on the method of protein determination. This benzoate-induced enzyme catalyzed a benzoyl-CoA-, FAD-, and O2-dependent NADPH oxidation surprisingly without hydroxylation of the aromatic ring; however, H2O2 was formed. The gene (boxA, for benzoate oxidation) coding for this protein was cloned and sequenced. It coded for a protein of 46 kDa with two amino acid consensus sequences for two [4Fe-4S] centers at the N terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with subunits of ferredoxin-NADP reductase, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and phenol hydroxylase. Upstream of the boxA gene, another gene, boxB, encoding a protein of 55 kDa was found. The boxB gene exhibited homology to open reading frames in various other bacteria which code for components of a putative aerobic phenylacetyl-CoA oxidizing system. The boxB gene product was one of at least five proteins induced when A. evansii

  16. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  17. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased. PMID:17331341

  18. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  19. Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate lotion for scabies in Nigerian patients.

    PubMed

    Sule, Halima M; Thacher, Tom D

    2007-02-01

    Few studies have compared ivermectin directly with topical agents in developing countries. We compared the effectiveness of oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg) with topical 25% benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram soap in 210 subjects of age 5 to 65 years with scabies. Subjects with persistent lesions after 2 weeks received a second course of treatment. All lesions had resolved after 2 weeks in 77 of 98 (79%) subjects treated with ivermectin and in 60 of 102 (59%) subjects treated topically (P = 0.003). The improvement in severity score was greater in the ivermectin group than in the topical treatment group (P < 0.001). The overall cure rate after 4 weeks was 95% in the ivermectin group and 86% in the topical treatment group (P = 0.04). Compared with topical benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram in the treatment of scabies, ivermectin was at least as effective and led to more rapid improvement.

  20. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker's microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  1. Metabolic effects of benzoate and sorbate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Burlini, N; Pellegrini, R; Facheris, P; Tortora, P; Guerritore, A

    1993-01-01

    Preincubation of yeast cells in the presence of benzoate or sorbate at an extracellular pH value of 6.8 elicited a set of metabolic effects on sugar metabolism, which became apparent after the subsequent glucose addition. They can be summarized as follows: a) reduced glucose consumption; b) inhibition of glucose- and fructose-phosphorylating activities; c) suppression of glucose-triggered peak of hexoses monophosphates; d) substantial reduction of glucose-triggered peak of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate; e) block of catabolite inactivation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy-kinase, but not of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase. On the whole this pattern resulted in prevention of glucose-induced switch of metabolism from a gluconeogenetic to a glycolytic state. Our data also show that, unlike former assumptions, intracellular acidification is not likely to mediate the bulk of metabolic effects of benzoate and sorbate, since under our working conditions intracellular pH kept close to neutrality.

  2. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-06-24

    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  3. Determination of sodium benzoate in food products by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ren, Linlin; Meng, Meng; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhihuan; Eremin, Sergei A; Zhao, Junhong; Yin, Yongmei; Xi, Rimo

    2014-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), based on a polyclonal antibody, has been developed for the detection of sodium benzoate in spiked samples. The immunogen and fluorescein-labeled analyte conjugate were successfully synthesized, and the tracer was purified by TLC. Under the optimal assay conditions, the FPIA shows a detection range of 0.3-20.0 μg mL(-1) for sodium benzoate with a detection limit of 0.26 μg mL(-1) in the borate buffer. In addition, the IC₅₀ value was 2.48 μg mL(-1), and the cross-reactivity of the antibodies with ten structurally and functionally related analogs were detected respectively. Four kinds of food samples (energy drink, candy, ice sucker, RIO(TM) cocktail) were selected to evaluate the application of FPIA in real systems. The recoveries were 96.68-106.55% in energy drink; 95.78-100.80% in candy, 86.97-102.70% in ice sucker, and 103.58-109.87% in benzoate contained sample RIO(TM) cocktail, and coefficients of variation of this method were all lower than 11.25%. Comparing with the detection results of HPLC, the developed FPIA has comparative performance in the real sample determination. The results suggest that the FPIA developed in this study is a rapid, convenient and simple method, which is suitable to be used as a screening tool for homogeneous detection of sodium benzoate in food products.

  4. 3,3-Dinitro­azetidinium 2-hy­droxy­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong; Yan, Biao; Mai, Tao; Hu, Ying; Guan, Yu-Lei

    2010-01-01

    In the title gem-dinitro­azetidinium 2-hy­droxy­benzoate salt, C3H6N3O4 +·C7H5O3 −, the azetidine ring is virtually planar, with a mean deviation from the plane of 0.0242 Å. The dihedral angle between the two nitro groups is 87.5 (1)°. PMID:21589190

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release anticorrosion behavior of benzoate intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The benzoate anion released from Zn-Al LDHs provides a more effective long-term protection against corrosion of Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: {yields} A benzoate anion corrosion inhibitor intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been assembled by coprecipitation method. {yields} The kinetic simulation indicates that the ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process and the diffusion through particle is the rate limiting step. {yields} A significant reduction of the corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive media. -- Abstract: Corrosion inhibitor-inorganic clay composite including benzoate anion intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are assembled by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analyses indicate that the benzoate anion is successfully intercalated into the LDH interlayer and the benzene planes are vertically bilayer-positioned as a quasi-guest ion-pair form in the gallery space. Kinetic simulation for the release data, XRD and FT-IR analyses of samples recovered from the release medium indicate that ion-exchange is responsible for the release process and diffusion through the particle is also indicated to be the rate-limiting step. The anticorrosion capabilities of LDHs loaded with corrosion inhibitor toward Q235 carbon steel are analyzed by polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Significant reduction of corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive medium. This hybrid material may potentially be applied as a nanocontainer in self-healing coatings.

  6. Microbial community structure analysis of a benzoate-degrading halophilic archaeal enrichment.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Sonal; Youssef, Noha H; Fathepure, Babu Z

    2016-05-01

    A benzoate-degrading archaeal enrichment was developed using sediment samples from Rozel Point at Great Salt Lake, UT. The enrichment degraded benzoate as the sole carbon source at salinity ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 M NaCl with highest rate of degradation observed at 4.0 M. The enrichment was also tested for its ability to grow on other aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA), gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid (PCA), catechol, benzene and toluene as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Of these, the culture only utilized 4-HBA as the carbon source. To determine the initial steps in benzoate degradation pathway, a survey of ring-oxidizing and ring-cleaving genes was performed using degenerate PCR primers. Results showed the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (4-HBMO) and protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenase (3,4-PCA) genes suggesting that the archaeal enrichment might degrade benzoate to 4-HBA that is further converted to PCA by 4-HBMO and, thus, formed PCA would undergo ring-cleavage by 3,4-PCA to form intermediates that enter the Krebs cycle. Small subunit rRNA gene-based diversity survey revealed that the enrichment consisted entirely of class Halobacteria members belonging to the genera Halopenitus, Halosarcina, Natronomonas, Halosimplex, Halorubrum, Salinarchaeum and Haloterrigena. Of these, Halopenitus was the dominant group accounting for almost 91 % of the total sequences suggesting their potential role in degrading oxygenated aromatic compounds at extreme salinity. PMID:26995683

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of sodium saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, and sodium benzoate in cola beverages.

    PubMed

    Tyler, T A

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the determination of sodium saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, and sodium benzoate in cola beverages. The sample is degassed, diluted in water, and injected onto a C18 column. The mobile phase consists of 15% acetonitrile in triethylammonium phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 4.3 with NaOH. The total run time is less than 10 min and the active compounds are determined using absorbance detection at 214 nm.

  8. Egg proteins in cod serum. Natural occurrence and induction by injections of oestradiol 3-benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Plack, P. A.; Pritchard, D. J.; Fraser, N. W.

    1971-01-01

    1. Before the uptake of water that precedes spawning, eggs of cod (Gadus morhua L.) contained 30% dry matter, of which 80% was protein. Some 75% of this protein was soluble in 0.5m-sodium chloride. The major components in the extract were two similar lipoproteins, of molecular weight about 400000, containing 21% lipid, some two-thirds of which was phospholipid, and about 0.5% protein phosphorus. 2. These lipoproteins were identified by immunochemical methods in the serum of female cod with developing ovaries, but not in the serum of male or of immature female fish. 3. The concentrations of egg proteins in the serum of female cod were determined by a serial-dilution double-diffusion immunological method, and were shown to increase with development of the ovaries, reaching a value of about 32mg/ml when the weight of the ovaries was 10% of the weight of the fish. 4. Immature male and female cod were injected intramuscularly with a solution of oestradiol-17β 3-benzoate in oil and the concentration of egg proteins in their serum was measured by the immunodiffusion method. The serum contained no detectable egg proteins before injection of the fish, but 30μg of oestradiol benzoate/kg gave rise to detectable amounts of egg proteins in 10 days, and with 300μg or 1mg of oestradiol benzoate/kg the concentration of egg proteins rose to 32mg/ml. The values for male and female cod were similar and represented about one-half of the total serum protein. 5. With a dose of 1mg of oestradiol benzoate/kg, egg proteins were first detected in the serum 2 days after injection and the concentration increased up to 10 days. 6. Serum samples taken before and 10 days after an injection of 1mg of oestradiol benzoate/kg were fractionated by gel-filtration on Sephadex G-200. The difference curves obtained from fractionation curves after and before injection confirmed the values of the concentrations of egg proteins obtained from the immunodiffusion test and showed that the concentrations of

  9. Genetic and genomic insights into the role of benzoate-catabolic pathway redundancy in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    PubMed

    Denef, V J; Klappenbach, J A; Patrauchan, M A; Florizone, C; Rodrigues, J L M; Tsoi, T V; Verstraete, W; Eltis, L D; Tiedje, J M

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, a potent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader, have implicated growth substrate- and phase-dependent expression of three benzoate-catabolizing pathways: a catechol ortho cleavage (ben-cat) pathway and two benzoyl-coenzyme A pathways, encoded by gene clusters on the large chromosome (boxC) and the megaplasmid (boxM). To elucidate the significance of this apparent redundancy, we constructed mutants with deletions of the ben-cat pathway (the DeltabenABCD::kan mutant), the boxC pathway (the DeltaboxABC::kan mutant), and both pathways (the DeltabenABCDDelta boxABC::kan mutant). All three mutants oxidized benzoate in resting-cell assays. However, the DeltabenABCD::kan and DeltabenABCD DeltaboxABC::kan mutants grew at reduced rates on benzoate and displayed increased lag phases. By contrast, growth on succinate, on 4-hydroxybenzoate, and on biphenyl was unaffected. Microarray and proteomic analyses revealed that cells of the DeltabenABCD::kan mutant growing on benzoate expressed both box pathways. Overall, these results indicate that all three pathways catabolize benzoate. Deletion of benABCD abolished the ability of LB400 to grow using 3-chlorobenzoate. None of the benzoate pathways could degrade 2- or 4-chlorobenzoate, indicating that the pathway redundancy does not directly contribute to LB400's PCB-degrading capacities. Finally, an extensive sigmaE-regulated oxidative stress response not present in wild-type LB400 grown on benzoate was detected in these deletion mutants, supporting our earlier suggestion that the box pathways are preferentially active under reduced oxygen tension. Our data further substantiate the expansive network of tightly interconnected and complexly regulated aromatic degradation pathways in LB400. PMID:16391095

  10. Impact of runoff water from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec® 18EC (abamectin) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of zebrafish juveniles.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Andréa; Vieira, Bruna Horvath; Braun, Andréa Simone; Mendes, Lucas Bueno; Daam, Michiel Adriaan; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2016-02-01

    Edge-of-field waterbodies in tropical agroecosystems have been reported to be especially prone to pesticide contamination through runoff resulting from intensive irrigation practices and tropical rainfall. In the present study, the effects of runoff from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec(®) 18EC (active ingredient: abamectin) on zebrafish were evaluated. To this end, the experimental field was applied with the Vertimec(®) 18EC dose recommended for strawberry crop in Brazil, whereas another field was treated with water only to serve as control. No effects of runoff water from either plot were recorded on survival. Water from the treated field led to increased growth and gill alterations. In general, these alterations were of the first and second degree, including proliferation of cells between the secondary lamellae, dilation at the lamellar apex, detachment of the respiratory epithelium and aneurism. These results confirm the high toxic potential of Vertimec(®) 18EC and provide evidence that environmental risks are likely to occur in areas subject to runoff containing this pesticide. PMID:26492427

  11. Cryptanaerobacter phenolicus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobe that transforms phenol into benzoate via 4-hydroxybenzoate.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Côté, Valérie; Duckett, Marie-France; Beaudet, Réjean; Lépine, François; Villemur, Richard; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy

    2005-01-01

    An anaerobic bacterium that transforms phenol and 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-OHB) into benzoate, strain LR7.2T, was isolated from a culture originating from a mixture of swamp water, sewage sludge, swine waste and soil. Cells of strain LR7.2T are Gram-positive short rods (1 x 2 microm) that are electron-dense when observed by electron microscopy. The optimum pH and temperature for growth and transformation activity of 4-OHB are 7.5-8.0 and 30-37 degrees C, respectively. The bacterium does not use sulphate, thiosulphate, nitrate, nitrite, FeCl3, fumarate or arsenate as an electron acceptor. It does not normally use sulphite, although stimulation of growth and 4-OHB transformation activity at a low concentration (up to 2 mM) has been reported previously under different culture conditions. The presence of 4-OHB or phenol is essential for growth; transformation of 4-OHB or phenol into benzoate is used to produce energy for growth. Using [6D]-phenol, 4-OHB was shown to be an intermediate in the transformation of phenol into benzoate. No spore was observed. The bacterium has a DNA G+C content of 51 mol% and its major membrane fatty acid is anteiso-C(15 : 0). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LR7.2T shows only 90 % similarity to its closest relative (Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum). From these results, a new taxon is proposed: Cryptanaerobacter phenolicus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is LR7.2T (=ATCC BAA-820T=DSM 15808T). PMID:15653882

  12. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties. PMID:27455751

  13. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  14. 2-(4-Methyl­phen­yl)-2-oxoethyl 3-bromo­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imtiaz; Ibrar, Aliya; Korzański, Artur; Kubicki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C16H13BrO3, is built of two approximately planar fragments, viz. 3-bromo­benzoate [maximum deviation = 0.055 (2) Å and 2-oxo-2-p-tolyl­ethyl [maximum deviation = 0.042 (2) Å], inclined by 46.51 (7)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and Br⋯Br contacts [3.6491 (7) Å] connect the mol­ecules into infinite layers parallel to (-221). PMID:23476275

  15. Synthesis of optically active 5-alkoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-ones and 4-alkoxy-5-methylcyclopent-1-enyl benzoate.

    PubMed

    Turks, Maris; Vogel, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of (-)-(1E,3Z)-2-methyl-1-((1S)-1-phenylethoxy)penta-1,3-dien-3-ol benzoate with allyltrimethylsilane in SO2 and in the presence of a catalytic amount of Tf2NTMS gives a silyl sulfinate intermediate that furnishes (-)-(6Z,1'S,4S,5S)-5-methyl-4-(1'-phenylethoxy)octa-1,6-dien-6-yl benzoate after acidic workup. The latter undergoes ring-closing metathesis producing (-)-(2S,3S)-2-methyl-3-((1S)-1-phenylethoxy)cyclopent-5-en-1-yl benzoate. It has been converted also into the corresponding trimethylsilyl enol ether. After oxidation, an enone is obtained that undergoes ring-closing metathesis giving (-)-(5S,6S)-6-methyl-5-((1S)-1-phenylethoxy)cyclohex-2-en-1-one.

  16. Biochemical Characterization of Inducible 'Reductase' Component of Benzoate Dioxygenase and Phthalate Isomer Dioxygenases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Rohini; Badri, Abinaya; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-09-01

    The first step involved in the degradation of phthalate isomers (phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate) is the double hydroxylation by respective aromatic-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. These are two component enzymes consisting of 'oxygenase' and 'reductase' components. Soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4 degrades phthalate isomers via protocatechuate and benzoate via catechol 'ortho' ring cleavage pathway. Metabolic studies suggest that strain PP4 has carbon source-specific inducible phthalate isomer dioxygenase and benzoate dioxygenase. Thus, it was of interest to study the properties of reductase components of these enzymes. Reductase activity from phthalate isomer-grown cells was 3-5-folds higher than benzoate grown cells. In-gel activity staining profile showed a reductase activity band of R f 0.56 for phthalate isomer-grown cells as compared to R f 0.73 from benzoate-grown cells. Partially purified reductase components from phthalate isomer grown cells showed K m in the range of 30-40 μM and V max = 34-48 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). However, reductase from benzoate grown cells showed K m = 49 μM and V max = 10 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). Strikingly similar molecular and kinetic properties of reductase component from phthalate isomer-grown cells suggest that probably the same reductase component is employed in three phthalate isomer dioxygenases. However, reductase component is different, with respect to kinetic properties and zymogram analysis, from benzoate-grown cells when compared to that from phthalate isomer grown cells of PP4.

  17. Formulation of rizatriptan benzoate fast dissolving buccal films by emulsion evaporation technique

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadhara, Suryadevara; Sasidhar, Reddyvallam Lankapalli; Balakrishna, Thalamanchi; Vardhan, Malapolu Santha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study deals with the formulation of fast dissolving films of Rizatriptan benzoate that is used for the treatment of Migraine. The concept of fast-dissolving drug delivery emerged from the desire to provide patient with more conventional means of taking their medication. Materials and Methods: In the present research work, various trials were carried out using film forming agents such as maltodextrin, gum karaya and xanthan gum to prepare an ideal film. Emulsion evaporation method was used for the preparation of films. The prepared films were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content, film thickness, folding endurance, dispersion test and curling. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried out using simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Results: About 97% of the drug was found to be released from the film within 10 min that is a desirable character for fast absorption. The drug excipient interaction studies carried out by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and Fourier transform infrared studies revealed that there were no major interactions between the drugs and excipients used for the preparation of films. Conclusion: Fast dissolving films of Rizatriptan benzoate prepared by emulsion evaporation technique were found to be suitable for eliciting better therapeutic effect in the treatment of migraine. PMID:25838995

  18. Metabolism of hydroxylated and fluorinated benzoates by Syntrophus aciditrophicus and detection of a fluorodiene metabolite.

    PubMed

    Mouttaki, Housna; Nanny, Mark A; McInerney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Transformations of 2-hydroxybenzoate and fluorobenzoate isomers were investigated in the strictly anaerobic Syntrophus aciditrophicus to gain insight into the initial steps of the metabolism of aromatic acids. 2-Hydroxybenzoate was metabolized to methane and acetate by S. aciditrophicus and Methanospirillum hungatei cocultures and reduced to cyclohexane carboxylate by pure cultures of S. aciditrophicus when grown in the presence of crotonate. Under both conditions, transient accumulation of benzoate but not phenol was observed, indicating that dehydroxylation occurred prior to ring reduction. Pure cultures of S. aciditrophicus reductively dehalogenated 3-fluorobenzoate with the stoichiometric accumulation of benzoate and fluorine. 3-Fluorobenzoate-degrading cultures produced a metabolite that had a fragmentation pattern almost identical to that of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative of 3-fluorobenzoate but with a mass increase of 2 units. When cells were incubated with deuterated water, this metabolite had a mass increase of 3 or 4 units relative to the TMS derivative of 3-fluorobenzoate. (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19)F NMR) detected a metabolite in fluorobenzoate-degrading cultures with two double bonds, either 1-carboxyl-3-fluoro-2,6-cyclohexadiene or 1-carboxyl-3-fluoro-3,6-cyclohexadiene. The mass spectral and NMR data are consistent with the addition of two hydrogen or deuterium atoms to 3-fluorobenzoate, forming a 3-fluorocyclohexadiene metabolite. The production of a diene metabolite provides evidence that S. aciditrophicus contains dearomatizing reductase that uses two electrons to dearomatize the aromatic ring. PMID:19114508

  19. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate. PMID:23121942

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Nair, B

    2001-01-01

    Benzyl Alcohol is an aromatic alcohol used in a wide variety of cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component, preservative, solvent, and viscosity-decreasing agent. Benzoic Acid is an aromatic acid used in a wide variety of cosmetics as a pH adjuster and preservative. Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of Benzoic Acid used as a preservative, also in a wide range of cosmetic product types. Benzyl Alcohol is metabolized to Benzoic Acid, which reacts with glycine and excreted as hippuric acid in the human body. Acceptable daily intakes were established by the World Health Organization at 5 mg/kg for Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate are generally recognized as safe in foods according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. No adverse effects of Benzyl Alcohol were seen in chronic exposure animal studies using rats and mice. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate in chronic exposure animal studies were limited to reduced feed intake and reduced growth. Some differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated populations were noted in one reproductive toxicity study using mice, but these were limited to lower maternal body weights and decreased mean litter weights. Another study also noted that fetal weight was decreased compared to controls, but a third study showed no differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated groups. Benzoic Acid was associated with an increased number of resorptions and malformations in hamsters, but there were no reproductive or developmental toxicty findings in studies using mice and rats exposed to Sodium Benzoate, and, likewise, Benzoic Acid was negative in two rat studies. Genotoxicity tests for these ingredients were mostly negative, but there were some assays that were positive. Carcinogenicity studies, however, were negative. Clinical data indicated that these ingredients can produce nonimmunologic contact urticaria and nonimmunologic immediate contact reactions

  1. Investigation on sodium benzoate release from poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/organoclay/sodium benzoate based nanocomposite film and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dibyendu; Bhowmick, Biplab; Maity, Dipanwita; Mollick, Md Masud R; Rana, Dipak; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites embedded with nontoxic antimicrobial agents have recently gained potential industrial significance, mainly for their applicability to preserve food quality and ensure safety. In this study, a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/organoclay (CMMT) based nanocomposite film doped with sodium benzoate (SB) as antimicrobial agent was prepared by a solution mixing process. A homogenous dispersion of organoclay (cetyltrimethylammonium-modified montmorillonite [CMMT]) in PBAT matrix was observed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. PBAT/CMMT nanocomposite film showed higher barrier properties against water and methanol vapor compared to the PBAT film. The release of SB from PBAT and its nanocomposite film was measured and the relevant data were fitted to the Weibull model. The higher values of Weibull's shape factor and scale parameter as corroborated by experimental findings indicated faster rate of SB release from PBAT/CMMT/SB nanocomposite film, when compared to the pristine PBAT film. Bacterial inhibition studies were accomplished against 2 food pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, by determining the zone of inhibition and corresponding growth profiles. Both bacterial inhibition studies and growth profiles established that PBAT/CMMT/SB demonstrated better antimicrobial activity than PBAT/SB film. Therefore, PBAT/CMMT/SB nanocomposite film can be used for food packaging application as it showed good barrier properties and antimicrobial activity against food pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25644560

  2. Investigation on sodium benzoate release from poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/organoclay/sodium benzoate based nanocomposite film and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dibyendu; Bhowmick, Biplab; Maity, Dipanwita; Mollick, Md Masud R; Rana, Dipak; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites embedded with nontoxic antimicrobial agents have recently gained potential industrial significance, mainly for their applicability to preserve food quality and ensure safety. In this study, a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/organoclay (CMMT) based nanocomposite film doped with sodium benzoate (SB) as antimicrobial agent was prepared by a solution mixing process. A homogenous dispersion of organoclay (cetyltrimethylammonium-modified montmorillonite [CMMT]) in PBAT matrix was observed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. PBAT/CMMT nanocomposite film showed higher barrier properties against water and methanol vapor compared to the PBAT film. The release of SB from PBAT and its nanocomposite film was measured and the relevant data were fitted to the Weibull model. The higher values of Weibull's shape factor and scale parameter as corroborated by experimental findings indicated faster rate of SB release from PBAT/CMMT/SB nanocomposite film, when compared to the pristine PBAT film. Bacterial inhibition studies were accomplished against 2 food pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, by determining the zone of inhibition and corresponding growth profiles. Both bacterial inhibition studies and growth profiles established that PBAT/CMMT/SB demonstrated better antimicrobial activity than PBAT/SB film. Therefore, PBAT/CMMT/SB nanocomposite film can be used for food packaging application as it showed good barrier properties and antimicrobial activity against food pathogenic bacteria.

  3. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal Low- And High-Dose Exposure To Estradiol Benzoate In The Male Rat: 1. Effects On The Prostate Gland. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Steve Kim, Gerald A. LeBlanc Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Brief exposure of rats to high doses of natural estro...

  4. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods.

    PubMed

    Pylypiw, H M; Grether, M T

    2000-06-23

    A rapid and reliable method is presented for the determination of the preservatives sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in fruit juices, sodas, soy sauce, ketchup, peanut butter, cream cheese, and other foods. The procedure utilizes high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by UV diode array detection for identification and quantitation of the two preservatives. Liquid samples were prepared by diluting 1 ml of the sample with 10 ml of an acetonitrile/ammonium acetate buffer solution. Samples of viscous or solid foods were prepared by blending the sample with the same buffer solution in a 1:5 ratio followed by a dilution identical to liquid samples. All samples were filtered to remove particulate matter prior to analysis. The HPLC determination of the preservatives was performed using a reversed-phase C18 column and UV detection at 225 nm for sodium benzoate and 255 nm potassium sorbate. The percentage of preservative in the sample was calculated by external standard using authentic sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. Apple juice, apple sauce, soy sauce, and peanut butter, spiked at 0.10 and 0.050% for both sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, yielded recoveries ranging from 82 to 96%. The method can detect 0.0010% (10 mg/l) of either preservative in a juice matrix. PMID:10910223

  5. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  6. Hierarchy of Carbon Source Utilization in Soil Bacteria: Hegemonic Preference for Benzoate in Complex Aromatic Compound Mixtures Degraded by Cupriavidus pinatubonensis Strain JMP134

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pantoja, Danilo; Leiva-Novoa, Pablo; Donoso, Raúl A.; Little, Cedric; Godoy, Margarita; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, like many other environmental bacteria, uses a range of aromatic compounds as carbon sources. Previous reports have shown a preference for benzoate when this bacterium grows on binary mixtures composed of this aromatic compound and 4-hydroxybenzoate or phenol. However, this observation has not been extended to other aromatic mixtures resembling a more archetypal context. We carried out a systematic study on the substrate preference of C. pinatubonensis JMP134 growing on representative aromatic compounds channeled through different catabolic pathways described in aerobic bacteria. Growth tests of nearly the entire set of binary combinations and in mixtures composed of 5 or 6 aromatic components showed that benzoate and phenol were always the preferred and deferred growth substrates, respectively. This pattern was supported by kinetic analyses that showed shorter times to initiate consumption of benzoate in aromatic compound mixtures. Gene expression analysis by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that, in all mixtures, the repression by benzoate over other catabolic pathways was exerted mainly at the transcriptional level. Additionally, inhibition of benzoate catabolism suggests that its multiple repressive actions are not mediated by a sole mechanism, as suggested by dissimilar requirements of benzoate degradation for effective repression in different aromatic compound mixtures. The hegemonic preference for benzoate over multiple aromatic carbon sources is not explained on the basis of growth rate and/or biomass yield on each single substrate or by obvious chemical or metabolic properties of these aromatic compounds. PMID:25795675

  7. Hierarchy of Carbon Source Utilization in Soil Bacteria: Hegemonic Preference for Benzoate in Complex Aromatic Compound Mixtures Degraded by Cupriavidus pinatubonensis Strain JMP134.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pantoja, Danilo; Leiva-Novoa, Pablo; Donoso, Raúl A; Little, Cedric; Godoy, Margarita; Pieper, Dietmar H; González, Bernardo

    2015-06-15

    Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, like many other environmental bacteria, uses a range of aromatic compounds as carbon sources. Previous reports have shown a preference for benzoate when this bacterium grows on binary mixtures composed of this aromatic compound and 4-hydroxybenzoate or phenol. However, this observation has not been extended to other aromatic mixtures resembling a more archetypal context. We carried out a systematic study on the substrate preference of C. pinatubonensis JMP134 growing on representative aromatic compounds channeled through different catabolic pathways described in aerobic bacteria. Growth tests of nearly the entire set of binary combinations and in mixtures composed of 5 or 6 aromatic components showed that benzoate and phenol were always the preferred and deferred growth substrates, respectively. This pattern was supported by kinetic analyses that showed shorter times to initiate consumption of benzoate in aromatic compound mixtures. Gene expression analysis by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that, in all mixtures, the repression by benzoate over other catabolic pathways was exerted mainly at the transcriptional level. Additionally, inhibition of benzoate catabolism suggests that its multiple repressive actions are not mediated by a sole mechanism, as suggested by dissimilar requirements of benzoate degradation for effective repression in different aromatic compound mixtures. The hegemonic preference for benzoate over multiple aromatic carbon sources is not explained on the basis of growth rate and/or biomass yield on each single substrate or by obvious chemical or metabolic properties of these aromatic compounds. PMID:25795675

  8. pH-stat fed-batch process to enhance the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate by Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1.

    PubMed

    van Duuren, Jozef B J H; Wijte, Dorien; Karge, Bianka; dos Santos, Vítor A P Martins; Yang, Yu; Mars, Astrid E; Eggink, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 is able to cometabolize benzoate to cis, cis-muconate in the presence of glucose as growth substrate. P. putida KT2440-JD1 was unable to grow in the presence of concentrations above 50 mM benzoate or 600 mM cis, cis-muconate. The inhibitory effects of both compounds were cumulative. The maximum specific uptake rate of benzoate was higher than the specific production rate of cis, cis-muconate during growth on glucose in the presence of benzoate, indicating that a benzoate derivative accumulated in the cells, which is likely to be catechol. Catechol was shown to reduce the expression level of the ben operon, which encodes the conversion of benzoate to cis, cis-muconate. To prevent overdoses of benzoate, a pH-stat fed-batch process for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate was developed, in which the addition of benzoate was coupled to the acidification of the medium. The maximum specific production rate during the pH-stat fed-batch process was 0.6 g (4.3 mmol) g dry cell weight(-1) h(-1), whereas 18.5 g L(-1) cis, cis-muconate accumulated in the culture medium with a molar product yield of close to 100%. Proteome analysis revealed that the outer membrane protein H1 was upregulated during the pH-stat fed-batch process, whereas the expression of 10 other proteins was reduced. The identified proteins are involved in energy household, transport, translation of RNA, and motility.

  9. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of sodium benzoate, a food preservative, with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between sodium benzoate (SB) and calf thymus DNA in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using acridine orange (AO) dye as a fluorescence probe, was investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy along with DNA melting studies and viscosity measurements. An expanded UV-Vis spectral data matrix was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The equilibrium concentration profiles and the pure spectra for SB, DNA and DNA-SB complex from the high overlapping composite response were simultaneously obtained. The results indicated that SB could bind to DNA, and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played a vital role in the binding process. Moreover, SB was able to quench the fluorescence of DNA-AO complex through a static procedure. The quenching observed was indicative of an intercalative mode of interaction between SB and DNA, which was supported by melting studies, viscosity measurements and CD analysis.

  10. 2-Amino-5-methyl­pyridinium 2-amino­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In the 2-amino­benzoate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H6NO2 −, an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed. The dihedral angle between the ring and the CO2 group is 8.41 (13)°. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The ion pairs are further connected via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a donor–donor–acceptor–acceptor (DDAA) array of quadruple hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also features a weak N—H⋯O hydrogen bond and a C—H⋯π inter­action, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:23284507

  11. 2-Amino-5-methyl­pyridinium 4-methyl­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The 4-methyl­benzoate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C8H7O2 −, is nearly planar, with a dihedral angle of 6.26 (10)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R 2 2(8) ring motif, forming an approximately planar ion pair with a dihedral angle of 9.63 (4)° between the pyridinium and benzene rings. The ion pairs are further connected via N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane. PMID:23476474

  12. 2-Amino-6-methyl­pyridinium 3-chloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H4ClO2 −, the 3-chloro­benzoate anion shows a whole-mol­ecule disorder over two positions with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.505 (4):0.495 (4). In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a centrosymmetric 2 + 2 aggregate with R 2 2(8) and R 4 2(8) ring motifs. The crystal structure also features a π–π stacking inter­action between the pyridinium rings with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.8339 (9) Å. PMID:23476517

  13. 2-Amino-5-methyl­pyridinium 3-chloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The 3-chloro­benzoate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H4ClO2 −, is nearly planar with a dihedral angle of 2.44 (13)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R 2 2(8) ring motif, forming an approximately planar ion pair with a dihedral angle of 7.92 (5)° between the pyridinium and benzene rings. The ion pairs are further connected via N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane. PMID:23284506

  14. 2-Amino-5-bromo­pyridinium 3-amino­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt, C5H6BrN2 +·C7H6NO2 −, the pyridine N atom of the 2-amino-5-bromo­pyridine mol­ecule is protonated. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group are hydrogen-bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. Two inversion-related 3-amino­benzoate anions are linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonds, forming an R 2 2(14) ring motif. The crystal structure is further stabilized by π⋯π inter­actions involving the benzene and pyridinium rings with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.7743 (15) Å. PMID:21580412

  15. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate, Potassium Sorbate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh) and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption

    PubMed Central

    ESFANDIARI, Zahra; BADIEY, Mohammad; MAHMOODIAN, Pooya; SARHANGPOUR, Reza; YAZDANI, Elham; MIRLOHI, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh”, the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh. Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP-HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran. Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives. Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use. PMID:26056647

  17. Acetate utilization is inhibited by benzoate in Alcaligenes eutrophus: evidence for transcriptional control of the expression of acoE coding for acetyl coenzyme A synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Ampe, F; Lindley, N D

    1995-01-01

    During batch growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus on benzoate-acetate mixtures, benzoate was the preferred substrate, with acetate consumption being delayed until the rate of benzoate consumption had diminished. This effect was attributed to a transcriptional control of the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the entry of acetate into the central metabolic pathways, rather than to a biochemical modulation of the activity of this enzyme. Analysis of a 2.4-kb mRNA transcript hybridizing with the A. eutrophus acoE gene confirmed this repression effect. In a benzoate-limited chemostat culture, derepression was observed, with no increase in the level of expression following an acetate pulse. Benzoate itself was not the signal triggering the repression of acetyl-CoA synthetase. This role was played by catechol, which transiently accumulated in the medium when high specific rates of benzoate consumption were reached. The lack of rapid inactivation of the functional acetyl-CoA synthetase after synthesis has been stopped enables A. eutrophus to retain the capacity to metabolize acetate for prolonged periods while conserving minimal protein expenditure. PMID:7592330

  18. Adsorption of choline benzoate ionic liquid on graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride nanosheets: a DFT perspective.

    PubMed

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-07-01

    The adsorption of choline benzoate ([CH][BE]) ionic liquid (IL) on the surface of different hexagonal nanosheets has been studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For this, the interaction mechanism, binding energies and electronic structure of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on four types of nanosheets, i.e., graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride, were estimated and compared. The adsorption of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on different nanosheets is mainly featured by van der Waals forces, leading to strong benzoate ion-surface π-stacking. Likewise, there is also an important charge transfer from the anion to the sheet. The electronic structure analysis shows that Si- and Ge-based sheets lead to the largest changes in the HOMO and LUMO levels of choline benzoate. This paper provides new insights into the capability of DFT methods to provide useful information about the adsorption of ionic liquids on nanosheets and how ionic liquid features could be tuned through the adsorption on the suitable nanosheet. PMID:26040507

  19. Ligand sensitized luminescence of uranyl by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium: A new luminescent uranyl benzoate specie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Satendra; Maji, S.; Joseph, M.; Sankaran, K.

    2015-03-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is shown to sensitize and enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in acetonitrile medium. Luminescence spectra and especially UV-Vis spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of tri benzoate complex of uranyl i.e. [UO2(C6H5COO)3]- which is highly luminescent. In particular, three sharp bands at 431, 443, 461 nm of absorption spectra provides evidence for tri benzoate specie of uranyl in acetonitrile medium. The luminescence lifetime of uranyl in this complex is 68 μs which is much more compared to the lifetime of uncomplexed uranyl (20 μs) in acetonitrile medium. In contrary to aqueous medium where uranyl benzoate forms 1:1 and 1:2 species, spectroscopic data reveal formation of 1:3 complex in acetonitrile medium. Addition of water to acetonitrile results in decrease of luminescence intensity of this specie and the luminescence features implode at 20% (v/v) of water content. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the existence of [UO2(C6H5COO)3]- specie in acetonitrile is reported. Mechanism of luminescence enhancement is discussed.

  20. Dietary exposure of children and teenagers to benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) in Beirut (Lebanon).

    PubMed

    Soubra, L; Sarkis, D; Hilan, C; Verger, Ph

    2007-02-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a considered chemical is by definition the amount of that substance which can be ingested every day during the life time without appreciable health risk. The theoretical risk of exceeding the ADI for benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) has often been examined on the basis of worst case scenario. The aim of this paper is to assess the actual intake of the food additives listed above for a group of the Lebanese population (students aged between 9 and 18 years old) likely to be highly exposed to food additives through the consumption of processed foods. Dietary exposure was obtained by combining food consumption data with food additives levels determined by chemical analysis. Food products available in Lebanon and containing added benzoates, sulphites, BHA and BHT were identified. Overall 420 samples of foods and beverages were analysed. The determination of food additives residue levels was carried out according to the official methods adopted in "Lebanese Institute for agronomic research" (IRAL) on food as consumed. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) could be exceeded for sulphites and BHT by a fraction of the population, in particular within children of 9-13 years old. Among all food additive-containing foods, the highest contributors were: soft drinks to benzoates intake, nuts and canned juices to sulphites intake, bread and biscuits to BHA intake and chewing gum to BHT intake.

  1. Spectroscopic, optical, thermal, antimicrobial and density functional theory studies of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthiga Devi, P.; Venkatachalam, K.; Poonkothai, M.

    2016-09-01

    The organic crystal 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate was grown using slow evaporation method. Various characterization techniques such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TG-DSC) were employed to assay the structure and properties of the grown crystal. The antimicrobial evaluation of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate crystal was also performed against some bacteria and fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate were determined for bacterial and fungal strains. The assessment of optimized structure of the molecule and vibrational frequencies were done using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31 G (d, p) basis set. The stability of the molecule, hyperconjugative interactions, delocalization of charges and intermolecular hydrogen bond were studied by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. TD-DFT method employing polarizable continuum model (PCM) was used to examine the electronic absorption spectrum. Evaluation of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Mulliken population charges and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were also carried out. In addition, from the optimized geometry, frontier molecular orbitals analysis was executed.

  2. A Dy2 single-molecule magnet with benzoate anions and phenol-O(-) bridging groups.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hongshan; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xin; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Wang, Wenyuan; Chen, Sanping

    2015-12-28

    A Dy2 single-molecule magnet, namely [Dy2(H3L)2(PhCOO)4]·4H2O (1), was obtained from the reaction of Dy(PhCOO)3 with 1,5-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)carbonohydrazide (H4L). Each Dy(III) ion is located in the chelating pocket [DyO8N] formed by the carboxyl-O, phenol-O, carbohydrazide-O and carbohydrazide-N, forming a tricapped trigonal prism configuration. The Dy(III) centers are bridged by the benzoate anions with μ2:η(1),η(2) coordination mode and the phenol-O(-) groups in the form of μ1:η(2), respectively. The appearance of frequency-dependent out-of-phase (χ''M) signals indicates that 1 displays single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour. Fits of the ac data gave an energy barrier (Ueff) of 42.7 K with a pre-exponential factor (τ0) of 1.31 × 10(-7) s. The structure-property relationship of some selected Dy2 paradigmatic compounds was further discussed.

  3. Tetra-aqua-bis(nicotinamide-κN)cobalt(II) bis-(2-fluoro-benzoate).

    PubMed

    Ozbek, F Elif; Tercan, Barış; Sahin, Ertan; Necefoğlu, Hacali; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2009-01-01

    The title complex, [Co(C(6)H(6)N(2)O)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](C(7)H(4)FO(2))(2), contains one Co(II) atom (site symmetry ), two monodentate nicotin-amide (NA) ligands, four coordinated water mol-ecules and two 2-fluoro-benzoate (FB) anions. The four O atoms in the equatorial plane around the Co atom form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, while the slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination is completed by the two N atoms of the NA ligands in the axial positions. The dihedral angle between the carboxyl group and the adjacent benzene ring is 29.8 (3)°, while the pyridine and benzene rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 7.97 (12)°. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and N-H⋯F hydrogen bonds, forming an infinite three-dimensional network. π-π Contacts between the pyridine and benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.673 (3) Å] may further stabilize the crystal structure. PMID:21582108

  4. Characterization of Transport Proteins for Aromatic Compounds Derived from Lignin: Benzoate Derivative Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Karolina; Chang, Changsoo; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro growth experiments have demonstrated that aromatic compounds derived from lignin can be metabolized and represent a major carbon resource for many soil bacteria. However, the proteins that mediate the movement of these metabolites across the cell membrane have not been thoroughly characterized. To address this deficiency, we used a library representative of lignin degradation products and a thermal stability screen to determine ligand specificity for a set of solute-binding proteins (SBPs) from ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The ligand mapping process identified a set of proteins from Alphaproteobacteria that recognize various benzoate derivatives. Seven high-resolution crystal structures of these proteins in complex with four different aromatic compounds were obtained. The protein–ligand complexes provide details of molecular recognition that can be used to infer binding specificity. This structure–function characterization provides new insight for the biological roles of these ABC transporters and their SBPs, which had been previously annotated as branched-chain amino-acid-binding proteins. The knowledge derived from the crystal structures provides a foundation for development of sequencebased methods to predict the ligand specificity of other uncharacterized transporters. These results also demonstrate that Alphaproteobacteria possess a diverse set of transport capabilities for lignin-derived compounds. Characterization of this new class of transporters improves genomic annotation projects and provides insight into the metabolic potential of soil bacteria. PMID:22925578

  5. Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia

    2008-08-01

    The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

  6. Third-order NLO properties of solution grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, S.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Mohandoss, R.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Manivannan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of solution-grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate (MHB) single crystals were studied by Z-scan technique using a He-Ne (632.8 nm, 30 mW) laser. From the closed aperture Z-scan data, the valley followed by peak on the normalized transmittance indicates the sign of the nonlinear refractive index is positive and shows a self focusing nature. From the open aperture Z-scan curve, it is found that the nonlinear absorption is due to saturation. The order of magnitude of third order susceptibility was estimated to be 10-6 esu. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of MHB single crystal reveals a very low cutoff wavelength (310 nm) and transparency in the entire visible region. Also the material has direct allowed transition and it possesses a band gap of 3.7 eV. The dissipation factor is low and SHG efficiency is high. The higher magnitudes of second and third order NLO parameters make the material suitable for photonic applications like frequency conversion and eye/sensor protection.

  7. [Pharmacological action of [ethyl p(6-guanidinohexanoyloxy)benzoate] methanesulfonate (FOY)].

    PubMed

    Okegawa, T; Aishita, H; Akimoto, A; Makita, T; Nakai, H

    1975-01-01

    General pharmacological effects of [Ethyl p-(6-guanidinohexanoyloxy)benzoate] methanesulfonate (FOY), a new antiproteolytic agent, were studied and the following results were obtained. Acute administration of large doses of FOY in conscious dogs and rabbits caused a decrease in spontaneous motility, ataxia, cyanosis, collapse, mydriasis, and respiratory paralysis. The agent had no effect on the central nervous system and exhibited hypotensive effects in dogs in doses of more than 1 mg/kg. Hypotensive responses were not inhibited by treatment with atropine or hexamethonium. FOY had no effects on ECG in the rabbit at doses of less than 30 mg/kg and at doses from 10(-6) to 10(-4)g/ml, distinctly reduced the amplitude of the spontaneous and rhythmic contractions of the isolated rabbit ileum, guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus preparation. The contractile response to nerve stimulation, noradrenaline and barium was suppressed in isolated guinea-pig vas deferens. FOY had no effects on the twitch response of gastrocnemius muscle to sciatic nerve stimulation in rats. The drug caused local irritant effects in rabbits and rats.

  8. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Guan, Ju; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Engle, Nancy L; Chern, Mawsheng; Ronald, Pamela; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

  9. DIPPR Project 871 For 1995 - Thermodynamic Properties and Ideal-Gas Enthalpies of Formation for Methyl Benzoate, Ethyl Benzoate, (R)-(+)-Limonene, Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether, Trans-Crotonaldehyde, and

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.

    2002-07-01

    Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, (R)-(+)-limonene, tert-amyl methyl ether, trans-crotonaldehyde, and diethylene glycol are reported. The standard energy of combustion and hence standard enthalpy of formation of each compound in the liquid phase has been measured using an oxygen rotating-bomb calorimeter without rotation. Vapor pressures were measured to a pressure limit of 270 kPa or the lower decomposition point for each of the six compounds using a twin ebulliometric apparatus. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for each compound over a range of temperature (ambient to a maximum of 548 K). A differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure two-phase (liquid + vapor) heat capacities for each compound in the temperature region ambient to the critical temperature or lower decomposition point. For methyl benzoate and tert-amyl methyl ether, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for each of the remaining compounds. The results of the measurements were combined to derive a series of thermophysical properties including critical temperature, critical density, critical pressure, acentric factor, enthalpies of vaporization (restricted to within {+-}50 K of the temperature region of the experimentally determined vapor pressures), and heat capacities along the saturation line. Wagner-type vapor-pressure equations were derived for each compound. All measured and derived values were compared with those obtained in a search of the literature. Recommended critical parameters are listed for each of the compounds studied. Group-additivity parameters, useful in the application of the Benson gas-phase group-contribution correlations, were derived.

  10. Evaluation of Effects of Topical Estradiol Benzoate Application on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Ovariectomized Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kanae; Urai, Tamae; Asano, Kimi; Nakajima, Yukari; Nakatani, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing in ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. However, the effects of topical estrogen application on wounds remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of topical estrogen application on wounds with standard treatment methods. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J female mice underwent OVX and received two full-thickness wounds four weeks later. Mice were divided into three groups: topical estradiol benzoate (EB) (0.75 μg/g/day) wound treatment, subcutaneous estradiol (E2) pellets (0.05 mg, 21 days), and topical E2 (0.01 g/day) skin application. Wound healing was observed until day 14. Wound area ratios were significantly smaller in the topical EB wound treatment group than in the subcutaneous E2 pellet group on days 1–14 (p < 0.05) and topical E2 skin application group on days 1–9 (p < 0.05). Neutrophil and macrophage numbers were significantly smaller in the topical EB wound treatment group than in the subcutaneous E2 pellet and topical E2 skin application groups on day 7 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the number of new blood vessels and ratio of myofibroblasts were significantly larger in the topical EB wound treatment group than in the subcutaneous E2 pellet and topical E2 application skin groups on day 7 (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the application of estrogen to wounds reduced inflammatory responses and promoted angiogenesis and wound contraction more than the two other standard treatment methods. PMID:27658263

  11. Effect of sulfate on anaerobic degradation of benzoate in UASB reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H.H.P.; Liu, Y.; Chen, T.

    1997-04-01

    Anaerobic processes have been widely used for the treatment of various high-strength industrial wastewaters. However, application has been limited for the treatment of sulfate-rich industrial wastewaters, such as those from the petrochemical, and mining industries. Wastewaters containing benzoate and sulfate were treated in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors at 34--37 C for 320 d. The sulfate concentration was increased stepwise in Reactor-A up to 7,500 mg/L, and was kept mostly constant at 3,000 mg/L in Reactor-B. Both reactors removed over 98% of organic chemical-oxygen demand (COD) for sulfate up to 6,000 mg/L, despite the fact that the mixed liquor contained up to 769 mg S/L of total sulfides and up to 234 mg S/L of dissolved H{sub 2}S. Sulfate0reducing efficiency decreased with the increase in sulfate concentration, but increased with time at each sulfate concentration. Reactor-B consistently reduced 89% of sulfate. However, both organic COD removal and sulfate-reducing efficiencies of Reactor-A dropped drastically at 7,500 mg SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/L, and showed no sign of recovery after 50 d. The system failure was likely due to the increased sulfate, instead of sulfide, toxicity. From the COD balance, 93.4% of COD removed was converted to methane instead of sulfides, with a net sludge yield of 0.047 g volatile suspended solids (VSS)/g COD. The sulfur balance was over 97%.

  12. Exogenous Estradiol Benzoate Induces Spermatogenesis Disorder through Influencing Apoptosis and Oestrogen Receptor Signalling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lei, X; Cui, K; Liu, Q; Zhang, H; Li, Z; Huang, B; Shi, D

    2016-02-01

    As the exact role for exogenous oestrogen in spermatogenesis is not fully understood, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) exposure to male mice on their spermatogenesis and fertility. Sixty male mice aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group and two treatment groups. The mice of the control group were injected with 250 μl paraffin oil only by every other day subcutaneous injection for 4 weeks. Meantime, the mice of the treatment groups were injected with EB at the concentration of 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that EB slowed down the body weight gains and generated testicular atrophy with spermatogenesis disorder compared with that of the control mice, and consequently induced their infertility. Moreover, the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the testis of EB-treated mice was significantly increased with the EB concentration rise. In comparison with controls, the mRNA expression level of pro-apoptosis factors (Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Apaf1, Chop, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Caspase-12) and key genes in oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling pathway (ER α, ER β, Erk1/2, Hsp90 and DAX-1) were upregulated in the testes of the treatment groups. Furthermore, Western blotting results proved the protein expression level of Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Chop, Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Erk1/2 and Hsp90 were upregulated, and the phosphorylation level of Erk1/2 was also increased. These results indicate that EB may impair spermatogenesis through influencing the apoptosis and ER signalling pathway. PMID:26684898

  13. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  14. Assessment of toxicity risk of insecticides used in rice ecosystem on Trichogramma japonicum, an egg parasitoid of rice lepidopterans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueping; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Both chemical and biological methods are essential for control of insects, for example, lepidopterans, on rice. Thus, it is important to know the effect of chemicals on the biological control agents. In this study, we assessed the toxicity of commonly used insecticides on a biological control agent, Trichogramma japonicum Ahmead (an egg parasitoid of rice lepidopterans) by using a dry film residue method. Results showed that thirty insecticides from seven chemical classes exhibited various degree of toxicity to this parasitoid. Among the seven classes of chemicals tested, organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, phoxim, profenofos, and triazophos) and carbamates (carbaryl, carbsulfan, isoprocarb, metolcarb, and promecarb) exhibited the highest intrinsic toxicity to T. japponicum, with an LC50 of 0.035 (0.029-0.044) to 0.49 (0.34-0.87) mg active ingredient (a.i.) L(-1), followed by antibiotics (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and ivermectin), phenylpyrazoles (butane-fipronil, ethiprole, and fipronil), pyrethroids (cyhalthrin, cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and lambda-cyhaothrin), and neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam). Moreover, the insect growth regulator insecticides (chlorfluazuron, fufenozide, hexaflumuron and tebufenozide) exhibited the lowest toxicity to the wasps with an LC50 of 3,383 (2406-5499) to 30206 (23107-41008) mg ai. L(-1). Risk quotient analysis showed that phenylpyrazoles, pyrethroids, insect growth regulators, neonicotinoids (with the exception of thiamethoxam), and antibiotics (with the exception of abamectin) are classified as safe agents to the parasitoid, while organophosphates and carbamates are classified as slightly, moderately, or highly toxic agents to the parasitoid. The data presented in this paper provided useful information on the selection of compatible insecticides with T. japonicum. PMID:22420260

  15. Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria Transverse to Flow in Response to a Benzoate Source Plume Created in a Saturated Sand-Packed Microcosm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R.; Boser, B.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation processes depend on contact between microbial populations and the groundwater contaminants that they biodegrade. Chemotaxis, the ability of bacteria to sense a chemical gradient and swim preferentially toward locations of higher concentration, can enhance the transport of bacteria toward contaminant sources that may not be readily accessible by advection and dispersion alone. A two-dimensional rectangular-shaped microcosm packed with quartz sand was used to quantify the effect of chemotaxis on the migration of bacteria within a saturated model aquifer system. Artificial groundwater was pumped through the microcosm at a rate of approximately 1 m/day. A plume of sodium benzoate was created by continuous injection into an upper port of the microcosm to generate a chemical gradient in the vertical direction transverse to flow. Chemotactic bacteria, Pseudomonas putida F1, or the nonchemotactic mutant, P. putida F1 CheA, were injected with a conservative tracer in a port several centimeters below the benzoate position. As the injectates traversed the one-meter length of the microcosm, samples were collected from a dozen effluent ports to determine vertical concentration distributions for the bacteria, benzoate and tracer. A moment analysis was implemented to estimate the center of mass, variance, and skewness of the concentration profiles. The transverse dispersion coefficient and the transverse dispersivity for chemotactic and nonchemotactic bacteria were also evaluated. Experiments performed with a continuous injection of bacteria showed that the center of mass for chemotactic bacteria was closer to the benzoate source on average than the nonchemotactic control (relative to the conservative tracer). These results demonstrated that chemotaxis can increase bacterial transport toward contaminants, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation. Experiments with 2 cm and 3 cm spacing between bacteria and benzoate injection locations were

  16. Utilizing the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), as a biological control agent within an integrated pest management programme for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Creontiades spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) in cotton.

    PubMed

    Grundy, P R

    2007-06-01

    Helicoverpa spp. and mirids, Creontiades spp., have been difficult to control biologically in cotton due to their unpredictable temporal abundance combined with a cropping environment often made hostile by frequent usage of broad spectrum insecticides. To address this problem, a range of new generation insecticides registered for use in cotton were tested for compatibility with the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker), a potential biological control agent for Helicoverpa spp. and Creontiades spp. Indoxacarb, pyriproxifen, buprofezin, spinosad and fipronil were found to be of low to moderate toxicity on P. plagipennis whilst emamectin benzoate, abamectin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and omethaote were moderate to highly toxic. Inundative releases of P. plagipennis integrated with insecticides identified as being of low toxicity were then tested and compared with treatments of P. plagipennis and the compatible insecticides used alone, conventionally sprayed usage practice and an untreated control during two field experiments in cotton. The biological control provided by P. plagipennis nymphs when combined with compatible insecticides provided significant (P<0.001) reductions in Helicoverpa and Creontiades spp. on cotton and provided equivalent yields to conventionally sprayed cotton with half of the synthetic insecticide input. Despite this, the utilization of P. plagipennis in cotton as part of an integrated pest management programme remains unlikely due to high inundative release costs relative to other control technologies such as insecticides and transgenic (Bt) cotton varieties. PMID:17524159

  17. Generating susceptible strain and resistance status of field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) against some conventional and new chemistry insecticides in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, M; Saleem, Mushtaq A

    2011-08-01

    Two field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Dera Ghazi Khan (D. G. Khan) and Multan, Pakistan, were tested for resistance to the 10 most commonly used insecticides in Pakistan by using a standard leaf disc bioassay on the F1 progeny. For comparison, a susceptible strain was generated from the Multan strain, which displayed lower LC50 values for most of the insecticides, by either mass rearing without exposure to insecticides or single-pair crosses against selected insecticides. The single-pair crosses generated a more susceptible strain than mass rearing. The D. G. Khan field strain was highly resistant to cypermethrin, profenofos, spinosad, abamectin, and chlorpyrifos and moderately resistant to deltamethrin, indoxacarb, and methoxyfenozide compared with susceptible lab strain. The Multan strain was highly resistant to profenofos and indoxacarb. Both field populations were susceptible to emamectin benzoate and lufenuron. Rotating these two insecticides with others that show very low, low, or moderate levels of resistance and have different modes of action may be useful for the effective management of this pest. PMID:21882702

  18. Induction of parturition in swine with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, estradiol benzoate and oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Gall, M A; Day, B N

    1987-03-01

    Pregnant sows and gilts were administered either 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) intramuscularly on Day 112 or 113 of gestation at 0800 h in an effort to induce parturition. The average interval from PGF(2)alpha injection to farrowing was 55.1 +/- 5.7, 29.4 +/- 3.1, 32.1 +/- 4.6, 27.8 +/- 1.8 and 26.9 +/- 1.1 h for 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively. All PGF(2)alpha treatments increased (P < 0.01) over controls the number of sows farrowing 23 to 33 h after injection. The average gestation length was significantly shorter in treated gilts; however, no detrimental effect on pig performance or pig survivability was observed. A second trial evaluated the effect of a 10-mg dose of PGF(2)alpha on the induction of parturition in sows in order to obtain a majority of sows farrowing within normal working hours (0700 to 1700 h). The interval from injection to farrowing was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGF(2)alpha treatment (66.2 +/- 5.3 vs 28.1 +/- 2.2 h). Fifty-seven percent (P < 0.05) of PGF(2)alpha-treated sows farrowed between 0700 and 1700 h as compared to 13.6% for control sows. A third trial was conducted to examine a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin to control the time of parturition more precisely. Sows receiving only 10 mg of PGF(2)alpha farrowed on an average 31.1 +/- 1.4 h after injection. The injection of 40 IU oxytocin 24 to 28 h after PGF(2)alpha decreased (P < 0.05) the interval from PGF(2)alpha to farrowing (28.1 +/- 0.9 h). The addition of oxytocin increased (P < 0.05) the number of sows farrowing within 3 h of injection (33 vs 86% for PGF(2)alpha and PGF(2)alpha + oxytocin treatments, respectively). A fourth trial was designed to determine if the addition of exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB) to a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin would improve the predictability and synchronization of the induced parturition. Sows were assigned to receive either saline, 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 40 IU oxytocin or 10 mg

  19. Elucidation of the thermophilic phenol biodegradation pathway via benzoate during the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Hoyos-Hernandez, Carolina; Hoffmann, Marieke; Guenne, Angeline; Mazeas, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion makes it possible to valorize municipal solid waste (MSW) into biogas and digestate which are, respectively, a renewable energy source and an organic amendment for soil. Phenols are persistent pollutants present in MSW that can inhibit the anaerobic digestion process and have a toxic effect on microbiota if they are applied to soil together with digestate. It is then important to define the operational conditions of anaerobic digestion which allow the complete degradation of phenol. In this context, the fate of phenol during the anaerobic digestion of MSW at 55°C was followed using an isotopic tracing approach ((13)C6-phenol) in experimental microcosms with inoculum from an industrial thermophilic anaerobic digester. With this approach, it was possible to demonstrate the complete phenol biodegradation into methane and carbon dioxide via benzoate. Benzoate is known to be a phenol metabolite under mesophilic conditions, but in this study it was found for the first time to be a phenol degradation product at thermophilic temperature.

  20. Determination of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino) benzoate in commercial sunscreens and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chou, H J; Yates, R L; Havery, D C; Wenninger, J A

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed for determination of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino) benzoate (NMPABAO), a nitrosamine contaminant in sunscreen products containing 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) benzoate (Padimate O). The method involves extraction of NMPABAO by column chromatography followed by liquid chromatographic separation and analysis wit a nitric oxide detector. To confirm the presence of NMPABAO in sunscreen products, the N-nitrosamine was synthesized and its structure was determined by infrared spectrophotometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (MS). For method validation, recovery studies were performed on a commercial suntan lotion, cream, and gel. Recoveries of NMPABAO added to representative test samples averaged 83%. The method has an estimated detection limit of 30 ppb. The method was used to analyze 25 commercial cosmetic and sunscreen products containing Padimate O. Eleven products contained NMPABAO at levels ranging from 160 to 21000 ppb. NMPABAO presence in 4 products was confirmed by MS at levels > or = 4000 ppb. The highest levels of NMPABAO were associated with products that contained the nitrite-releasing preservative 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol.

  1. Short communication: Use of a mixture of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate in aerobically challenged silages.

    PubMed

    Knicky, Martin; Spörndly, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Aerobic instability is still a common problem with many types of silages, particularly well-fermented silages. This study evaluated the effect of adding an additive mixture based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate to a variety of crop materials on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of silages. Ensiling conditions were challenged by using a low packing density (104±4.3kg of dry matter/m(3)) of forage and allowing air ingression into silos (at 14 and 7 d before the end of the storage, for 8 h per event). Additive-treated silages were found to have significantly lower pH and reduced formation of ammonia-N, 2.3-butanediol, and ethanol compared with untreated control silages. Yeast growth was significantly reduced by additive treatment in comparison with untreated control silage. Consequently, additive-treated silages were considerably more aerobically stable (6.7 d) than untreated control silages (0.5 d). Overall, adding 5mL/kg of fresh crop of the additive based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate reduced undesirable microorganisms in silages and thereby provided suitable ensiling conditions and prolonged aerobic stability, even under air-challenged laboratory ensiling conditions. PMID:26026758

  2. Elucidating the reaction mechanism of the benzoate oxidation pathway encoded aldehyde dehydrogenase from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Jasleen; Leon, Rafael; Temke, Kevin G; Boulanger, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Oxidation of cis-3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde to cis-3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA by the aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDHC (EC.1.2.1.77), is an essential step in the metabolism of benzoate in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In a previous study, we established a structural blueprint for this novel group of ALDH enzymes. Here, we build significantly on this initial work and propose a detailed reaction mechanism for ALDHC based on comprehensive structural and functional investigations of active site residues. Kinetic analyses reveal essential roles for C296 as the nucleophile and E257 as the associated general base. Structural analyses of E257Q and C296A variants suggest a dynamic charge repulsion relationship between E257 and C296 that contributes to the inherent flexibility of E257 in the native enzyme, which is further regulated by E496 and E167. A proton relay network anchored by E496 and supported by E167 and K168 serves to reset E257 for the second catalytic step. We also propose that E167, which is unique to ALDHC and its homologs, serves a critical role in presenting the catalytic water to the newly reset E257 such that the enzyme can proceed with deacylation and product release. Collectively, the reaction mechanism proposed for ALDHC promotes a greater understanding of these novel ALDH enzymes, the ALDH super-family in general, and benzoate degradation in B. xenovorans LB400. PMID:21495107

  3. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community. PMID:26915282

  4. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, S; Giannuzzi, L; Rivero, S; Pinotti, A

    2015-11-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer-polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging.

  5. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  6. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  7. Effectiveness of sodium benzoate as a freshwater low toxicity antifoulant when dispersed in solution and entrapped in silicone coatings.

    PubMed

    Haque, Haroon; Cutright, Teresa J; Newby, Bi-Min Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The traditional solution for preventing organisms from attaching to submerged surfaces is to apply antifouling coatings or biocides. Based on the varied defence mechanisms exhibited by biofilms, the antifoulant needs to prevent bacterial attachment during the early stages of biofilm formation. The potential of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate (NaB) as antifoulants for deterring freshwater bacterial attachment was evaluated with the antifoulants dispersed in solution or entrapped in silicone coatings. Effectiveness was based on the decrease in microbial attachment, limited toxicity, and minimum alteration of the properties of the coatings. The optimal NaB concentration when dispersed in solution, 700 mg l-1, resulted in a biofilm surface coverage of only 3.34% after four weeks. The model silicone, Sylgard 184, demonstrated a better overall performance than the commercial coating, RTV11. Sylgard 184 containing sodium benzoate had 41-52% less biofilm in comparison to the control Sylgard 184, whereas both the control and NaB-entrapped RTV11 coatings had significant biofilm coverage.

  8. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of benzoate and sorbate in yogurt drinks and method optimization by central composite design.

    PubMed

    Kamankesh, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tehrani, Zohreh Modarres; Ferdowsi, Roohallah; Hosseini, Hedayat

    2013-05-15

    A new method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of benzoate and sorbate salts in yogurt drinks was developed. The effective parameters in DLLME process, including volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH and salt effect, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design. The yogurt drink samples were extracted using NaOH and Carrez solutions (potassium hexaferrocyanide and zinc acetate) were used for sedimentation of proteins. For DLLME, a mixture of extraction solvent (1-octanol) and disperser solvent (ethanol) was rapidly injected into the sample solution by syringe and cloudy solution is formed. Subsequently, the upper 1-octanol layer was analyzed by HPLC. The detection limits for benzoate and sorbate were 0.06 ng mL(-1) and 0.15 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seven analyses were 4.96% for benzoate and 4.58% for sorbate. The proposed method demonstrated good linearity and high enrichment factor. A clean separation and good chromatogram is readily achieved without the presence of matrix interference. A comparison of this method with previous methods demonstrated that the proposed method is an accurate, rapid and reliable sample-pretreatment method that gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for extracting and determining sorbate and benzoate in yogurt drink samples. PMID:23618139

  9. Using NMR Spectroscopy to Probe the Chemo- and Diastereoselectivity in the NaBH[subscript 4] Reduction of Benzoin Acetate and Benzoin Benzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Shahrokh; Cagino, Kristen; Bennett, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    A pedagogically useful discovery-based undergraduate organic chemistry lab experiment probing the chemo- and diastereoselectivity in the NaBH[subscript 4] reduction of two chiral ketoesters (benzoin acetate and benzoin benzoate) has been developed. This experiment complements a previously described and highly popular discovery-based experiment…

  10. Generation of a catR deficient mutant of P. putida KT2440 that produces cis, cis-muconate from benzoate at high rate and yield.

    PubMed

    van Duuren, J B J H; Wijte, D; Leprince, A; Karge, B; Puchałka, J; Wery, J; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Eggink, G; Mars, A E

    2011-12-10

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was derived from P. putida KT2440 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG)-mutagenesis and exposure to 3-fluorobenzoate (3-FB). The mutant was no longer able to grow using benzoate as a sole carbon source, but co-metabolized benzoate to cis, cis-muconate during growth on glucose, which accumulated in the growth medium. The specific production rate (q(pm)) was 0.18±0.03 g cis, cis-muconate/(g(DCW) h) in continuous cultures, and increased to 1.4 g cis, cis-muconate/(g(DCW) h) during wash-out cultivation. Transcriptome analysis showed that the cat operon was not induced in P. putida KT2440-JD1 in the presence of 5mM benzoate, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved DNA binding domain of the transcriptional regulator (catR) of the cat operon. The ben operon was highly expressed in the presence of benzoate in the mutant and its parental strain. This operon contains PP_3166 (catA2), which was shown to be a second catechol 1,2-dioxygenase besides catA. P. putida KT2440-JD1 is the first cis, cis-muconate-accumulating mutant that was characterized at the genetic level. The specific production rate achieved is at least eight times higher than those reported for other cis, cis-muconate-producing strains.

  11. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON THE MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Gerald A. LeBlanc, Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Environmental contaminants with estrogen...

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in cured ready-to-eat meat products by use of sodium benzoate and sodium diacetate.

    PubMed

    Seman, D L; Quickert, S C; Borger, A C; Meyer, J D

    2008-07-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (0.08 to 0.25%) in combination with different concentrations of sodium diacetate (0.05 to 0.15%) and NaClI (0.8 to 2%) and different finished product moisture (55 to 75%) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products was evaluated using a central composite design over 18 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C. The effects of these factors on time to growth were analyzed using a time-to-failure regression method. All main effects were significant except product moisture, which was significant when included in the two- and three-way interactions (P < 0.05). Sodium benzoate was more effective (lengthening time to growth) when used with increasing concentrations of sodium diacetate and salt and decreasing finished product moisture. The model indicated that low-moisture products, e.g., bologna or wieners, could have time-to-growth values longer than 18 weeks if they were formulated with 0.1% sodium benzoate and 0.1% sodium diacetate. Time to growth in high-moisture products, e.g., ham or cured turkey breast at 75% moisture, was predicted to be much shorter for the same basic formulation (0.1% sodium benzoate and 0.1% sodium diacetate). Consequently, high-moisture ready-to-eat products in which sodium benzoate is limited to 0.1% (current standard for generally recognized as safe) may need additional ingredients to effectively inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Second-sphere coordination in anion binding: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structures of bis(diethylenetriamine)cobalt(III) complexes containing benzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ritu; Kaur, Amrinder; Kashyap, Monika; Janzen, Daron E.

    2014-04-01

    New complexes of composition s-fac-[Co(dien)2]Cl2(Bz)·H2O (1), s-fac-[Co(dien)2]Cl(p-CBz)2·4.5H2O (2) and mer-[Co(dien)2](p-NBz)3·3H2O (3) were obtained by reacting aqueous solutions of bis(diethylenetriamine)cobalt(III) chloride and sodium salts of benzoates ((Bz = benzoate, CBz = p-chlorobenzoate, NBz = p-nitrobenzoate)) in 1:3 molar ratio. These complexes were characterized by TG analysis and spectroscopic studies (IR, NMR and UV-vis). IR and NMR studies were used for the isomeric identification of [Co(dien)2]3+ in new complexes. This cation, contains ligand diethylenetriamine (dien) bearing H-bond donors, capable of forming hydrogen bonds and its binding properties with benzoates have been studied using standard UV-vis spectroscopic titrations in aqueous medium (log k for Bz = 2.11, p-CBz = 3.64 and p-NBz = 3.66). Single crystal X-ray study of complex 2 and 3 reveals that both the structures are dominantly stabilized by second-sphere coordination through H-bonding interactions of type-NH (dien)⋯O (benzoates) and H (water)⋯O (benzoates) in addition to the electrostatic forces of attractions. Further, the NH (dien)⋯Cl- (counter ion) and NH (dien)⋯O (water) types of interactions are also playing a dominant role to stabilize the crystal lattice in complex 2 and 3 respectively.

  14. 78 FR 49932 - Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50661) (FRL-9358- 9) EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21... Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted from review... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May...

  15. Four-Point Analysis of Molecular Fluctuations in Sucrose Benzoate Near the Glass Transition by Fourier Imaging Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utterback, James; Cook, Jasper; Marcus, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Glass-forming liquids exhibit broad heterogeneous distributions of relaxations. It is of considerable importance to determine the detailed forms of these distributions in order to understand how fast and slow processes are partitioned, and how they couple over time. Such information is available through four-point correlation and distribution functions. We present initial fluorescence fluctuation measurements of probe molecule rotation and translation in the glass forming liquid sucrose benzoate. These measurements are performed using a unique method called polarization-modulated Fourier imaging correlation spectroscopy (PM-FICS), which can simultaneously measure molecular center-of-mass motions and optical anisotropy fluctuations. By combining PM-FICS with single-molecule imaging techniques, we construct two-dimensional spectral densities and joint distribution functions that establish temporal correlations of microscopic coordinates over successive time intervals.

  16. Degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate in aqueous solution by UV/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Yuan, Haixia; Zhai, Pingping; Dong, Wenbo; Li, Hongjing

    2015-07-01

    Steady-state and transient-state photolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB) in the aqueous solution by UV/H2O2. Results showed that the obvious degradation of DHHB was not observed under UV irradiation (λ = 254 nm), and the DHHB degradation was conducted due to the oxidation by hydroxyl radical (HO·). While the H2O2 concentration was between 0.05 and 0.10 mol L(-1), the highest DHHB degradation efficiency was obtained. The lower solution pH favored the transformation of DHHB, and the coexisting Cl(-) and NO3(-) ions slightly enhanced the conversion. The degradation of DHHB by HO· followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model with different initial DHHB concentrations. By intermediate products during DHHB oxidation and laser flash photolysis spectra analysis, a primary degradation pathway was proposed.

  17. Teratogenic Effects of Long Term Consumption of Potassium Benzoate on Eye Development in Balb/c Fetal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Mohammad; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Khayatzadeh, Jina; Shahsavan, Marziyeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Potassium benzoate (PB) is used as a substitute preservative for sodium benzoate primarily in dietetic foods where the sodium content is minimized. There are few reports about the teratogenic effects of PB. The purpose of this study is to investigate the teratogenic effects of PB on eye development in balb/c mice fetuses. Materials and Methods: Thirty female mice were divided to two experimental and one control groups (N=10/grp). Experimental groups I and II received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of 280 and 560 mg/kg of PB, respectively; while the control group received normal saline. Injections were done for 10 days before mating and from gestation days (GD) 6 through 15. Dams were Caesarean sectioned on GD 18. Eye development was externally examined. After measuring weight and crown-rump length of the fetuses, the tissue sections of the eyes were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histopathologic and morphologic changes were recorded. The data was analyzed by ANOVA and Mann Whitney statistical tests using SPSS (version 15). Results: Fetuses with eye malformations observed in both experimental groups of I and II. The incidence of these malformations was significantly increased in fetuses of experimental group II as compared with the control group (P<0.05). Histopathological evaluations of the malformed eyes showed deformed lens, retinal folds with undeveloped layers associated with hemorrhage. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PB can induce teratogenic effects on the eye development of mice fetuses. Therefore, more concise studies are needed regarding its specific and general effects conducted. PMID:24250932

  18. Teratogenic Effects of Long Term Consumption of Potassium Benzoate on Eye Development in Balb/c Fetal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Mohammad; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Khayatzadeh, Jina; Shahsavan, Marziyeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Potassium benzoate (PB) is used as a substitute preservative for sodium benzoate primarily in dietetic foods where the sodium content is minimized. There are few reports about the teratogenic effects of PB. The purpose of this study is to investigate the teratogenic effects of PB on eye development in balb/c mice fetuses. Materials and Methods: Thirty female mice were divided to two experimental and one control groups (N=10/grp). Experimental groups I and II received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of 280 and 560 mg/kg of PB, respectively; while the control group received normal saline. Injections were done for 10 days before mating and from gestation days (GD) 6 through 15. Dams were Caesarean sectioned on GD 18. Eye development was externally examined. After measuring weight and crown-rump length of the fetuses, the tissue sections of the eyes were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histopathologic and morphologic changes were recorded. The data was analyzed by ANOVA and Mann Whitney statistical tests using SPSS (version 15). Results: Fetuses with eye malformations observed in both experimental groups of I and II. The incidence of these malformations was significantly increased in fetuses of experimental group II as compared with the control group (P<0.05). Histopathological evaluations of the malformed eyes showed deformed lens, retinal folds with undeveloped layers associated with hemorrhage. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PB can induce teratogenic effects on the eye development of mice fetuses. Therefore, more concise studies are needed regarding its specific and general effects conducted. PMID:24250934

  19. Rate-determining Attack on Substrate Precedes Rieske Cluster Oxidation during cis-Dihydroxylation by Benzoate Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Brent S.; Rogers, Melanie S.; Marell, Daniel J.; Neibergall, Matthew B.; Chakrabarty, Sarmistha; Cramer, Christopher J.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Rieske dearomatizing dioxygenases utilize a Rieske iron-sulfur cluster and a mononuclear Fe(II) located 15 Å across a subunit boundary to catalyze O2-dependent formation of cis-dihydrodiol products from aromatic substrates. During catalysis, O2 binds to the Fe(II) while the substrate bind nearby. Single turnover reactions have shown that one electron from each metal center is required for catalysis. This finding suggested that the reactive intermediate is Fe(III)-(H)peroxo or HO-Fe(V)=O formed by O-O bond scission. Surprisingly, several kinetic phases were observed during the single turnover Rieske cluster oxidation. Here, the Rieske cluster oxidation and product formation steps of a single turnover of benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase are investigated using benzoate and three fluorinated analogs. It is shown that the rate constant for product formation correlates with the reciprocal relaxation time of only the fastest kinetic phase (RRT-1) for each substrate, suggesting that the slower phases are not mechanistically relevant. RRT-1 is strongly dependent on substrate type, suggesting a role for substrate in electron transfer from the Rieske cluster to the mononuclear iron site. This insight, together with the substrate and O2 concentration dependencies of RRT-1, indicates that a reactive species is formed after substrate and O2 binding, but before electron transfer from the Rieske cluster. Computational studies show that RRT-1 is correlated with the electron density at the substrate carbon closest to the Fe(II), consistent with initial electrophilic attack by an Fe(III)-superoxo intermediate. The resulting Fe(III)-peroxo-aryl radical species would then readily accept an electron from the Rieske cluster to complete the cis-dihydroxylation reaction. PMID:26154836

  20. Dioxygenases of Chlorobiphenyl-Degrading Species Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 and Chlorophenol-Degrading Species Rhodococcus opacus 1CP Induced in Benzoate-Grown Cells and Genes Potentially Involved in These Processes.

    PubMed

    Solyanikova, I P; Borzova, O V; Emelyanova, E V; Shumkova, E S; Prisyazhnaya, N V; Plotnikova, E G; Golovleva, L A

    2016-09-01

    Dioxygenases induced during benzoate degradation by the actinobacterium Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 strain degrading haloaromatic compounds were studied. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 completely degraded 2 g/liter benzoate during 30 h and 10 g/liter during 200 h. Washed cells grown on benzoate retained respiration activity for more than 90 days, and a high activity of benzoate dioxygenase was recorded for 10 days. Compared to the enzyme activities with benzoate, the activity of benzoate dioxygenases was 10-30% with 13 of 35 substituted benzoate analogs. Two dioxygenases capable of cleaving the aromatic ring were isolated and characterized: protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Catechol inhibited the activity of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Protocatechuate did not affect the activity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. A high degree of identity was shown by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for protein peaks of the R. wratislaviensis G10 and Rhodococcus opacus 1CP cells grown on benzoate or LB. DNA from the R. wratislaviensis G10 strain was specifically amplified using specific primers to variable regions of genes coding α- and β-subunits of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and to two genes of the R. opacus 1CP coding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The products were 99% identical with the corresponding regions of the R. opacus 1CP genes. This high identity (99%) between the genes coding degradation of aromatic compounds in the R. wratislaviensis G10 and R. opacus 1CP strains isolated from sites of remote location (1400 km) and at different time (20-year difference) indicates a common origin of biodegradation genes of these strains and a wide distribution of these genes among rhodococci. PMID:27682171

  1. Reduction of 3-chlorobenzoate, 3-bromobenzoate, and benzoate to corresponding alcohols by Desulfomicrobium escambiense, isolated from a 3-chlorobenzoate-dechlorinating coculture.

    PubMed Central

    Genthner, B R; Townsend, G T; Blattmann, B O

    1997-01-01

    An anaerobic bacterial coculture which dechlorinated 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) to benzoate was obtained by single-colony isolation from an anaerobic bacterial consortium which completely degraded 3CB in defined medium. Of 29 additional halogenated aromatic compounds tested, the coculture removed the meta halogen from 2,3- and 2,5-dichlorobenzoate, 3-bromobenzoate (3BB), 5-chlorovanillate (5CV), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate. Dechlorinating activity in the coculture required the presence of pyruvate. 5CV was also O-demethoxylated. The coculture contained two cell types: a short, straight gram-negative rod and a long, thin, curved gram-positive rod. The short rod, Desulfomicrobium escambiense, was recently isolated and identified as a new sulfate-reducing bacterial species (B. R. Sharak Genthner, S. D. Friedman, and R. Devereux, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:889-892, 1997; B. R. Sharak Genthner, G. Mundfrom, and R. Devereux, Arch. Microbiol. 161:215-219, 1994). D. escambiense did not dehalogenate any of the compounds dehalogenated by the coculture, nor dit it O-demethoxylate 5CV or vanillate. However, D. escambiense reduced 3CB, EBB, and benzoate to their respective benzyl alcohols. Reduction to alcohols required the presence of pyruvate, which was transformed to acetate, lactate, and succinate in the presence of absence of 3CB, 3BB, or benzoate. Alcohol formation did not occur in pyruvate-sulfate medium. Under these conditions, sulfate was preferentially reduced. Other electron donors that supported the growth of D. escambiense during sulfate reduction did not support benzoate reduction to benzyl alcohol. PMID:9471962

  2. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  3. Siderophore-Producing Bacteria from a Sand Dune Ecosystem and the Effect of Sodium Benzoate on Siderophore Production by a Potential Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Gaonkar, Teja; Nayak, Pramoda Kumar; Garg, Sandeep; Bhosle, Saroj

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation in natural ecosystems is dependent upon the availability of micronutrients and cofactors, of which iron is one of the essential elements. Under aerobic and alkaline conditions, iron oxidizes to Fe+3 creating iron deficiency. To acquire this essential growth-limiting nutrient, bacteria produce low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators termed siderophores. In this study, siderophore-producing bacteria from rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere areas of coastal sand dunes were isolated using a culture-dependent approach and were assigned to 8 different genera with the predominance of Bacillus sp. Studies on the ability of these isolates to grow on sodium benzoate revealed that a pigmented bacterial culture TMR2.13 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed growth on mineral salts medium (MSM) with 2% of sodium benzoate and produced a yellowish fluorescent siderophore identified as pyoverdine. This was inhibited above 54 μM of added iron in MSM with glucose without affecting growth, while, in presence of sodium benzoate, siderophore was produced even up to the presence of 108 μM of added iron. Increase in the requirement of iron for metabolism of aromatic compounds in ecosystems where the nutrient deficiencies occur naturally would be one of the regulating factors for the bioremediation process. PMID:22629215

  4. Synthesis, structure and temperature-depended 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of an organo-bismuth benzoate with 1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan-Qiong; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Liu, Le-Hui; Qiu, Xing-Tai; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2016-11-01

    An organo-bismuth benzoate with phen as auxiliary ligand, [Bi(phen)(C6H5COO)(C6H4COO)] (1) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) has been hydrothermally synthesized from bismuth nitrate, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, PXRD, IR spectra, TG analyses, temperature-depended 2D-IR COS (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Interestingly, benzoate anions in 1 came from the desulfuration reaction of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid under hydrothermal condition. Compound 1 is a discrete organo-bismuth compound with benzoate and phen ligands. The offset face-to-face π-π stacking interactions and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the isolate complex into a 3D supramolecular network. The temperature-depended 2D-IR COS indicates that the stretching vibrations of Cdbnd C/Cdbnd N of aromatic rings and Cdbnd O bonds are sensitive to the temperature change.

  5. Siderophore-producing bacteria from a sand dune ecosystem and the effect of sodium benzoate on siderophore production by a potential isolate.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Teja; Nayak, Pramoda Kumar; Garg, Sandeep; Bhosle, Saroj

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation in natural ecosystems is dependent upon the availability of micronutrients and cofactors, of which iron is one of the essential elements. Under aerobic and alkaline conditions, iron oxidizes to Fe(+3) creating iron deficiency. To acquire this essential growth-limiting nutrient, bacteria produce low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators termed siderophores. In this study, siderophore-producing bacteria from rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere areas of coastal sand dunes were isolated using a culture-dependent approach and were assigned to 8 different genera with the predominance of Bacillus sp. Studies on the ability of these isolates to grow on sodium benzoate revealed that a pigmented bacterial culture TMR2.13 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed growth on mineral salts medium (MSM) with 2% of sodium benzoate and produced a yellowish fluorescent siderophore identified as pyoverdine. This was inhibited above 54 μM of added iron in MSM with glucose without affecting growth, while, in presence of sodium benzoate, siderophore was produced even up to the presence of 108 μM of added iron. Increase in the requirement of iron for metabolism of aromatic compounds in ecosystems where the nutrient deficiencies occur naturally would be one of the regulating factors for the bioremediation process.

  6. Benzyl-benzoate foam: effects on mite allergens in mattress, serum and nasal secretory IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and bronchial hyperreactivity in children with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sette, L; Comis, A; Marcucci, F; Sensi, L; Piacentini, G L; Boner, A L

    1994-10-01

    Home mattresses of 24 asthmatic children with house dust mite allergy were sprayed with either benzyl-benzoate foam or placebo in a double blind fashion, 10 days before the children left the residential house for asthmatic children Istituto Pio XII (located in the Italian Alps in an environment free of mites) and went back to their own home for the Christmas and Easter holidays. A further group of 8 children, whose mattresses received no treatment, was kept as an absolute control. Two days after spraying, benzyl-benzoate or placebo were vacuumed from the mattresses. Acarex test was performed immediately before spraying and at the end of each holiday period of 20 and 10 days, respectively. Bronchial hyperreactivity as well as serum and nasal secretory specific IgE for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were assessed in all children immediately before leaving and within 48 hr after returning to the residential house. The results of the study show that sprayed benzyl-benzoate foam was no more effective than placebo in reducing the level of house dust mite recovered from patients' mattresses, or in reducing bronchial hyperreactivity and IgE concentration in serum and nasal secretions.

  7. Energetic domains and conformational analysis of human serum albumin upon co-incubation with sodium benzoate and glucose.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, F; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Bohlooli, M; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Hadi Alijanvand, H; Amanlou, M; Sheibani, N; Saboury, A A; Ahmad, F

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), a powerful inhibitor of microbial growth, is one of the most commonly used food preservative. Here, we determined the effects of SB on human serum albumin (HSA) structure in the presence or absence of glucose after 35 days of incubation under physiological conditions. The biochemical, biophysical, and molecular approaches including free amine content assay (TNBSA assay), fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular docking and LIGPLOT studies were utilized for structural studies. The TNBSA results indicated that SB has the ability to bind Lys residues in HSA through covalent bonds. The docking and LIGPLOT studies also determined another specific site via hydrophobic interactions. The CD results showed more structural helicity for HSA incubated with SB, while HSA incubated with glucose had the least, and HSA incubated with glucose + SB had medium helicity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry results demonstrated partial unfolding of HSA incubated with SB in the presence or absence of glucose, while maximum partial unfolding was observed in HSA incubated with glucose. These results were confirmed by DSC and its deconvoluted thermograms. The DSC results also showed significant changes in HSA energetic structural domains due to HSA incubation with SB in the presence or absence of glucose. Together, our studies showed the formation of three different intermediates and indicate that biomolecular investigation are effective in providing new insight into safety determinations especially in health-related conditions including diabetes.

  8. Observation of transient alignment-inversion walls in nematics of phenyl benzoates in the presence of a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Hinov, Hristo P; Vistin', Leonard K; Marinov, Yordan G

    2014-04-17

    Formation of new transient walls by a constant magnetic field at the Fréedericsz critical value has been observed. They are oriented along the initial alignment of the nematic phase of phenyl benzoates and appeared only in relatively thick samples with a thickness between 50 and 100 μm of the cells. The excellent planarity of the liquid crystal orientation is considered to be the most important condition for their presence These magnetic walls are transient as they disappear either after a few seconds for 100 μm thick nematic cells or after parts of a second for thinner (50 μm) nematic cells. Nonregular stable magnetic walls, incorporating disclinations with core, appear immediately after the relaxation of the transient walls, when the planarity of the nematic orientation is not perfect. In thinner nematic cells of 20 μm or less, a Fréedericksz transition has only been observed. The formation of transient magnetic walls can be described by a model taking into account alignment-inversion, twisted along Y regions. The transient walls accompanied by a system of Becke lines relax by going through three-dimensional twist-splay-bend deformations. PMID:24670039

  9. Sexual behaviour of ewes with clover disease treated repeatedly with oestradiol benzoate or testosterone propionate after ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Adams, N R

    1983-05-01

    Ovariectomized ewes, 14 with permanent clover disease infertility (affected ewes) and 14 controls, were injected daily with 40 micrograms oestradiol benzoate for 12 days, and run with 2 rams fitted with marking crayons. The control ewes were mated sooner (P less than 0.05) but both groups became refractory at a similar rate. In a second experiment, 20 similar affected ewes and 19 controls were injected daily with 5 mg testosterone propionate for 31 days and observed daily for 50 min with rams. Affected ewes again were slower to show female behaviour (P less than 0.05) but faster (P less than 0.05) to show aggression against the rams and other ewes. Over the 31 days, the incidence of female sexual behaviour declined at a similar rate in affected and control ewes. When examined in individual pen tests with oestrous ewes on Day 28, affected ewes showed more male-like courting behaviour than did controls (P less than 0.05). The changes in behaviour are too slight to account for the infertility but they do support the hypothesis that phyto-oestrogens can act on the ewe by some of the pathways of sexual differentiation, even after puberty. PMID:6842443

  10. Sexual receptivity facilitated by unesterified estradiol: Dependence on estrogen and progestin receptors and priming dose of estradiol benzoate.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Ordóñez, Raymundo; García-Juárez, Marcos; Lima-Hernández, Francisco J; Gómora-Arrati, Porfirio; Blaustein, Jeffrey D; González-Flores, Oscar

    2015-12-01

    In some conditions, female sexual behavior in ovariectomized rats can be induced by continuous exposure of estradiol (E2) alone or by a single injection of a high dose of the long-lasting, esterified estradiol benzoate (EB). However, there are inconsistencies in the literature on the role of estrogens during priming or in the facilitation on female sexual behavior in EB-primed rats, as well as the cellular mechanisms involved. Either subcutaneous (sc) or intracerebral (icv) administration of some doses of free unesterified E2, induced lordosis in EB-primed rats. Either sc or icv injection of E2, immediately prior to testing, induced high levels of sexual receptivity when the female rats were primed with an EB sc injection of 2 μg EB. The roles of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor on lordosis induced by sc or icv administration of E2 were explored. Tamoxifen or RU486 administrated sc or icv; each reduced lordosis induced by E2. Similarly, antisense oligonucleotides directed at PR-B or total PR (PR-A + PR-B) administrated icv immediately before EB injection inhibited lordosis induced by daily injections of EB. These results suggest that lordosis facilitated by free E2 is dependent on priming dose of EB. Furthermore both ERs and PRs are involved in this action of E2.

  11. Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanli; Peng, Ying; Long, Yan; Xu, Shaofeng; Feng, Nan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2012-04-01

    Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate (dl-PHPB) has been shown to have potent neuroprotective effects, such as reducing the infarct volume and improving neurobehavioral deficits in the transient focal cerebral ischemic rat model. The present study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dl-PHPB on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced apoptosis and the possible mechanism in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Our results showed that dl-PHPB significantly attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced cell death, and reduced neuronal apoptosis. Dl-PHPB partially reversed the decrease of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein level induced by H(2)O(2). Furthermore, dl-PHPB inhibited the elevation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase3, and alleviated the down-regulation of protein kinase C alpha (PKCα). The PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C significantly attenuated the protective effects of dl-PHPB. The findings suggest that dl-PHPB may protect neurons against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis by modulating apoptosis-related proteins, and PKC signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotection of dl-PHPB.

  12. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate.

    PubMed

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  13. An assessment of detection canine alerts using flowers that release methyl benzoate, the cocaine odorant, and an evaluation of their behavior in terms of the VOCs produced.

    PubMed

    Cerreta, Michelle M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the high frequency of illicit substance abuse reported in the United States has made the development of efficient and rapid detection methods important. Biological detectors, such as canines (Canis familiaris), are valuable tools for rapid, on-site identification of illicit substances. However, research indicates that in many cases canines do not alert to the contraband, but rather to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released from the contraband, referred to as the "active odor." In 2013, canine accuracy and reliability were challenged in the Supreme Court case, State of Florida v. Jardines. In this case, it was stated that if a canine alerts to the active odor, and not the contraband, the canine's accuracy and selectivity could be questioned, since many of these compounds have been found in common household products. Specifically, methyl benzoate, the active odor of cocaine, has been found to be the most abundant compound produced by snapdragon flowers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the odor profiles of various species of snapdragon flowers to assess how significantly methyl benzoate contributes to the total VOC profile or fragrance that is produced. Particularly, this study examines the VOCs released from newly grown snapdragon flowers and determines its potential at eliciting a false alert from specially trained detection canines. The ability of detection canines to differentiate between cocaine and snapdragon flowers was determined in order to validate the field accuracy and discrimination power of these detectors. An optimized method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to test the different types and abundances of compounds generated from snapdragon flowers at various stages throughout the plants' life cycle. The results indicate that although methyl benzoate is present in the odor profile of snapdragon flowers, other

  14. An assessment of detection canine alerts using flowers that release methyl benzoate, the cocaine odorant, and an evaluation of their behavior in terms of the VOCs produced.

    PubMed

    Cerreta, Michelle M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the high frequency of illicit substance abuse reported in the United States has made the development of efficient and rapid detection methods important. Biological detectors, such as canines (Canis familiaris), are valuable tools for rapid, on-site identification of illicit substances. However, research indicates that in many cases canines do not alert to the contraband, but rather to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released from the contraband, referred to as the "active odor." In 2013, canine accuracy and reliability were challenged in the Supreme Court case, State of Florida v. Jardines. In this case, it was stated that if a canine alerts to the active odor, and not the contraband, the canine's accuracy and selectivity could be questioned, since many of these compounds have been found in common household products. Specifically, methyl benzoate, the active odor of cocaine, has been found to be the most abundant compound produced by snapdragon flowers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the odor profiles of various species of snapdragon flowers to assess how significantly methyl benzoate contributes to the total VOC profile or fragrance that is produced. Particularly, this study examines the VOCs released from newly grown snapdragon flowers and determines its potential at eliciting a false alert from specially trained detection canines. The ability of detection canines to differentiate between cocaine and snapdragon flowers was determined in order to validate the field accuracy and discrimination power of these detectors. An optimized method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to test the different types and abundances of compounds generated from snapdragon flowers at various stages throughout the plants' life cycle. The results indicate that although methyl benzoate is present in the odor profile of snapdragon flowers, other

  15. Comparison of early morphological and molecular changes induced by 17-alpha-methyltestosterone and estradiol benzoate in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Céline; Belluco, Sara; Tinwell, Helen; Bars, Rémi; Benahmed, Mohamed; Rouquie, David; Schorsch, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    Repeated exposure to 17-α-methyltestosterone (17MT) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 28 or 90 days in rats induce similar ovarian atrophy. The objective of the present work was to identify and compare the early effects induced by 17MT and EB on the ovary using molecular and histopathological tools. Female rats were evaluated after 1, 3 or 7 days following an oral exposure by gavage at a daily dose of 600 mg/kg/day for 17MT and 5 mg/kg/day for EB. All animals were found to be acyclic after 3 or 7 days of treatment with 17MT and EB. Histopathological changes were present in the ovary, uterus, vagina and mammary gland after both treatments. Ovarian atrophy known as the long term effect of 17MT and EB was not yet detected after 7 days of treatment. But non regressive corpora lutea and cystic follicles were identically observed in the ovary of 17MT and EB treated females. Both compounds induced a decrease of LH transcripts together with an increase of plasma progesterone and prolactin levels. Differences in the profile of regulation of the aromatase were noted after 1 and 3 days of treatment in 17MT treated animals (upregulated) when compared to EB treated animals (downregulated). In summary, we have shown that despite the different nature of hormonal activity, EB and 17MT induce very early endocrine perturbation which presents several similarities. Our work indicated that the detection of early key hormonal markers in short term studies can help to predict the adverse long term effects on target tissues.

  16. Sodium Benzoate, a Metabolite of Cinnamon and a Food Additive, Upregulates Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-11-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders.

  17. In Vitro Effects of Sodium Benzoate on Th1/Th2 Deviation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, N; Amirghofran, Z; Nikseresht, A; Ashjazade, N; Zoghi, S; Tahvili, S; Kamali-Sarvestani, E

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) can improve the clinical manifestations in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Sodium benzoate (NaB) deviates the cytokine profile to Th2 (or IL-4 producing) cells in EAE and thus might be effective in the treatment of MS. Therefore, in this study the effect of different concentrations of NaB on the percentage and mRNA levels of IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 20 Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients and eight healthy controls was evaluated in the presence of mitogen (phytohemagglutinin, PHA) or specific antigen (myelin basic protein, MBP). Our results showed that in the patient's group the percentage of CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells was significantly increased in the presence of all concentrations of NaB when PBMCs were stimulated by MBP (p = 0.001) or PHA (p < 0.03). The same results were obtained for normal donors in the highest concentration of NaB, 1000 µg/ml (p = 0.02). Moreover, in the patient's group the percentage of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) cells was decreased significantly when the PBMCs were stimulated by PHA and NaB (p < 0.004) or by MBP and 1000 µg/ml of NaB (p < 0.03). The effect of NaB on IL-4 and IFN-γ production was also documented at the mRNA levels. In conclusion, our data suggest that NaB is able to induce IL-4 production by human PBMCs and therefore might be a useful candidate for conjunctive therapy in RR-MS.

  18. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB.

  19. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A; van Breemen, Richard B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-06-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA - CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. In Vitro Effects of Sodium Benzoate on Th1/Th2 Deviation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, N; Amirghofran, Z; Nikseresht, A; Ashjazade, N; Zoghi, S; Tahvili, S; Kamali-Sarvestani, E

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) can improve the clinical manifestations in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Sodium benzoate (NaB) deviates the cytokine profile to Th2 (or IL-4 producing) cells in EAE and thus might be effective in the treatment of MS. Therefore, in this study the effect of different concentrations of NaB on the percentage and mRNA levels of IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 20 Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients and eight healthy controls was evaluated in the presence of mitogen (phytohemagglutinin, PHA) or specific antigen (myelin basic protein, MBP). Our results showed that in the patient's group the percentage of CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells was significantly increased in the presence of all concentrations of NaB when PBMCs were stimulated by MBP (p = 0.001) or PHA (p < 0.03). The same results were obtained for normal donors in the highest concentration of NaB, 1000 µg/ml (p = 0.02). Moreover, in the patient's group the percentage of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) cells was decreased significantly when the PBMCs were stimulated by PHA and NaB (p < 0.004) or by MBP and 1000 µg/ml of NaB (p < 0.03). The effect of NaB on IL-4 and IFN-γ production was also documented at the mRNA levels. In conclusion, our data suggest that NaB is able to induce IL-4 production by human PBMCs and therefore might be a useful candidate for conjunctive therapy in RR-MS. PMID:27611715

  1. DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Ana; Zhang, Xiang; Cheung, Yuk-Yin; Tang, Wan-yee; Chen, Jing; Ye, Shu-Hua; Medvedovic, Mario; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Prins, Gail S.; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease. PMID:27415467

  2. Kinetically and Crystallographically Guided Mutations of a Benzoate CoA Ligase (BadA) Elucidate Mechanism and Expand Substrate Permissivity.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Chelsea K; Wortas-Strom, Susan; Nosrati, Meisam; Geiger, James H; Walker, Kevin D

    2015-10-13

    A benzoate CoA ligase (BadA), isolated from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, catalyzes the conversion of benzoate to benzoyl CoA on the catabolic pathway of aromatic carboxylic acids. Herein, apparent Michaelis constants K(app)cat and K(app)M were determined for an expanded array of 31 substrates chosen to systematically probe the active site architecture of the enzyme and provide a baseline for expansion of wild-type substrate specificity. Acyl CoA products were observed for 25 of the 31 substrates; in general, BadA converted ortho-substituted substrates better than the corresponding meta and para regioisomers, and the turnover number was more affected by steric rather than electronic effects. The kinetic data are interpreted in relation to six crystal structures of BadA in complex with several substrates and a benzoyl-AMP reaction intermediate. In contrast to other known natural substrate-bound benzoate ligase structures, all substrate-bound BadA structures adopted the thiolation conformation instead of the adenylation conformation. We also observed all the aryl carboxylates to be uniquely oriented within the active site, relative to other structures. Together, the kinetics and structural data suggested a mechanism that involves substrate binding in the thiolation conformation, followed by substrate rotation to an active orientation upon the transition to the adenylation conformation. On the basis of this hypothesis and the structural data, sterically demanding active site residues were mutated, and the substrate specificity was expanded substantially versus that of BadA. Novel activities were seen for substrates with larger substituents, including phenyl acetate. Additionally, the mutant Lys427Ala identified this nonconserved residue as essential for the thiolation step of BadA, but not adenylation. These variously acylated CoAs can serve as novel substrates of acyl CoA-dependent acyltransferases in coupled enzyme assays to produce analogues of

  3. Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(E)-(4-hy-droxy-3-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)amino]-benzoate: a p-hy-droxy Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jing; Kavuru, Padmini; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chadwick, Keith

    2016-07-01

    The title p-hy-droxy Schiff base, C17H17NO4, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of benzocaine with vanillin. The benzyl-idine and benzoate rings are inclined to one another by 24.58 (8)°, and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. Adjacent chains are linked by C-H⋯π and weak offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.819 (1) Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-2).

  4. Crystal structure of zwitterionic 4-(ammonio-methyl)-benzoate: a simple mol-ecule giving rise to a complex supra-molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Atria, Ana María; Garland, Maria Teresa; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H9NO2·H2O consists of an isolated 4-(ammonio-meth-yl)benzoate zwitterion derived from 4-amino-methyl-benzoic acid through the migration of the acidic proton, together with a water molecule of crystallization that is disordered over three sites with occupancy ratios (0.50:0.35:0.15). In the crystal structure, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds together with π-π stacking of the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.8602 (18) Å] result in a strongly linked, compact three-dimensional structure.

  5. 2-Methyl-3-(2-methyl­phen­yl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro­quinazolin-8-yl benzoate

    PubMed Central

    El-Azab, Adel S.; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    In the title quinazolin-4-one derivative, C23H18N2O3, both the benzoate [dihedral angle = 79.99 (6)°] and the 2-tolyl [89.02 (7)°] groups are close to orthogonal to the central fused ring system. Both aryl groups are orientated towards the quinazolin-4-one-bound methyl group. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22412614

  6. 2-Methyl-3-(2-methyl­phen­yl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro­quinazolin-8-yl 4-methyl­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    El-Azab, Adel S.; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    In the title quinazolin-4-one derivative, C24H20N2O3, both the 4-methyl­benzoate [dihedral angle = 83.90 (9)°] and 2-tolyl [87.88 (9)°] groups are almost orthogonal to the central fused ring system. These aryl groups are oriented towards the quinazolin-4-one-bound methyl group. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H⋯O, C—H⋯π and π–π [ring centroid-to-centroid separation = 3.6458 (13) Å] inter­actions. PMID:22412615

  7. 76 FR 69653 - Abamectin (avermectin); Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Federal Register of August 11, 2010 (75 FR 48667) (FRL-8840- 6), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section... test animals. Signs of neurotoxicity were reported in studies of rats, mice, and dog and included... including infants and children). UFA = 10x kg/day. study in dogs UFH = 10x FQPA SF = 1x aPAD = 0.005...

  8. 78 FR 18519 - Abamectin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... . II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50661) (FRL... actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order...

  9. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6) or ECP (ECP group, n = 6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose of both

  10. Microbial evolution during storage of seasoned olives prepared with organic acids with potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and ozone used as preservatives.

    PubMed

    Arroyo López, F N; Durán Quintana, M C; Garrido Fernández, A

    2006-06-01

    The effect of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and ozone in combination with citric, lactic, and acetic acids on the microbial population of seasoned table olives of the olive 'Aloreña' cultivar was studied in both fresh (FF) and stored fruits (SF). The inactivation/growth curves were modeled and the biological parameters estimated, with yeast used as the target microorganism. Regardless of the acid added, potassium sorbate showed a general inactivation effect on yeasts in the products prepared from both FF and SE Sodium benzoate had a rapid inactivation effect with FF, but with SF, it was effective only in the presence of acetic acid. A strain of Issatchenkia occidentalis was found that was resistant to the combination of this preservative with citric or lactic acids. In FF, ozone showed an initial marked inhibition against yeasts, but later, yeasts were again able to grow. In SF, ozone was a strong inactivating agent when it replaced any of the traditional preservatives. Lactic acid bacteria were always absent in products prepared from FF, and apparently were not affected by the different preservative agents in those prepared from SF. The behavior of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria populations in commercial products were similar to those found in experimental treatments.

  11. Physiological and Proteomic Adaptation of “Aromatoleum aromaticum” EbN1 to Low Growth Rates in Benzoate-Limited, Anoxic Chemostats

    PubMed Central

    Trautwein, Kathleen; Lahme, Sven; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Feenders, Christoph; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Harder, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Blasius, Bernd; Reinhardt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    “Aromatoleum aromaticum” EbN1 was cultivated at different growth rates in benzoate-limited chemostats under nitrate-reducing conditions. Physiological characteristics, proteome dynamics, phospholipid-linked fatty acid (PLFA) composition, and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) content were analyzed in steady-state cells at low (μlow) (0.036 h−1), medium (μmed) (0.108 h−1), and high (μhigh) (0.180 h−1) growth rates. A positive correlation to growth rate was observed for cellular parameters (cell size, and DNA and protein contents). The free energy consumed for biomass formation steadily increased with growth rate. In contrast, the energy demand for maintenance increased only from μlow to μmed and then remained constant until μhigh. The most comprehensive proteomic changes were observed at μlow compared to μhigh. Uniformly decreased abundances of protein components of the anaerobic benzoyl coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) pathway, central carbon metabolism, and information processing agree with a general deceleration of benzoate metabolism and cellular processes in response to slow growth. In contrast, increased abundances were observed at μlow for diverse catabolic proteins and components of uptake systems in the absence of the respective substrate (aromatic or aliphatic compounds) and for proteins involved in stress responses. This potential catabolic versatility and stress defense during slow growth may be interpreted as preparation for future needs. PMID:22366417

  12. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Afrizal, Nurdelima,; Umeir; Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang; Riswoko, Asep

    2014-03-24

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  13. Ligand-controlled product selectivity in gold-catalyzed double cycloisomerization of 1,11-dien-3,9-diyne benzoates.

    PubMed

    Rao, Weidong; Susanti, Dewi; Ayers, Benjamin James; Chan, Philip Wai Hong

    2015-05-20

    A synthetic method to prepare tricyclic bridged heptenones and hexenones from gold(I)-catalyzed double cycloisomerization of 1,11-dien-3,9-diyne benzoates is described. A divergence in product selectivity was achieved by fine-tuning the steric nature of the ligand of the Au(I) catalyst. In the presence of [MeCNAu(JohnPhos)](+)SbF6(-) (JohnPhos = (1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-di-tert-butylphosphine) as the catalyst, tandem 1,3-acyloxy migration/metallo-Nazarov cyclization/1,6-enyne addition/Cope rearrangement of the substrate was found to selectively occur to afford the bridged heptenone adduct. In contrast, changing the Au(I) catalyst to [MeCNAu(Me4tBuXPhos)](+)SbF6(-) (Me4tBuXPhos = di-tert-butyl(2',4',6'-triisopropyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)phosphine) was observed to result in the 1,11-dien-3,9-diyne benzoate undergoing a more rapid tandem 1,3-acyloxy migration/metallo-Nazarov cyclization/[4 + 2]-cyclization pathway to give the bridged hexenone derivative. PMID:25905645

  14. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrizal, Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang; Riswoko, Asep; Nurdelima, Umeir

    2014-03-01

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm-1. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm-1 decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm-1 appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm-1 for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  15. Identification of halogenated photoproducts generated after ultraviolet-irradiation of parabens and benzoates in water containing chlorine by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-based approach to investigate the formation of halogenated by-products generated by the UV-induced photodegradation of parabens and their congener benzoates in water containing chlorine. Degradation of parent species, and further identification of their transformation by-products were monitored by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In order to improve detectability, SPME was applied as a preconcentration step after UV-irradiation of target preservatives. Experiments performed with dechlorinated water, ultrapure water, and tap water showed that under UV-light, the presence of even low levels of free chlorine, increases the photodegradation rate of target preservatives, enhancing the formation of halogenated photoproducts. Monobrominated, dibrominated and bromochlorinated hydroxybenzoates were identified, and the transformation of benzoates into halogenated parabens was also confirmed. Bromination is expected to occur when free chlorine is present, due to the presence of traces of bromide in water samples. Five halogenated phenols (mainly brominated) were detected as breakdown photoproducts from both families of target preservatives. On the basis of the appearance of the aforementioned by-products, a tentative transformation pathway, consistent with the photoformation-photodecay kinetics of the by-products, is proposed herein for the first time.

  16. Use of cloned genes of Pseudomonas TOL plasmid to effect biotransformation of benzoates to cis-dihydrodiols and catechols by Escherichia coli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zeyer, J.; Lehrbach, P.R.; Timmis, K.N.

    1985-12-01

    DNA fragments containing the xylD and xylL genes, which specify the broad-specificity enzymes toluate-1,2-dioxygenase and 3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol-1-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase, respectively, of TOL plasmid pWW0-161 of Pseudomonas putida have previously been cloned in the pBR322 vector plasmid. In this study, Escherichia coli cells containing hybrid plasmids carrying the cloned xylD or xylDL genes quantitatively transformed /sup 14/C-ring- and /sup 14/C-carboxy-labeled benzoate to the pathway intermediates 3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol-1-carboxylic acid (cis-dihydrodiol) and catechol, respectively. Like P. putida cells, E. coli cells containing the xylD gene transformed a variety of chloro- and hydrocarbon-substituted benzoates. The toluate-1,2-dioxygenase produced in E. coli thus exhibited the broad-substrate-specificity properties of the enzyme in P. putida. Turnover rates by the enzymes in these two bacteria are compared.

  17. Resistance to Conventional and New Insecticides in House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Poultry Facilities in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Ali Shad, Sarfraz; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are pests of poultry facilities and have the ability to develop resistance against different insecticides. This study was conducted to assess the resistance status of house flies to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and novel chemistry insecticides from poultry facilities in Punjab, Pakistan. Five adult house fly populations were studied for their resistance status to selected conventional and novel chemistry insecticides. For four pyrethroids, the range of resistance ratios was 14-55-fold for cypermethrin, 11-45-fold for bifenthrin, 0.84-4.06-fold for deltamethrin, and 4.42-24-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin when compared with a susceptible population. Very low levels of resistance were found to deltamethrin compared with the other pyrethroids. For the three organophosphate insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.70-16-fold for profenofos, 7.50-60-fold for chlorpyrifos, and 4.37-53-fold for triazophos. Very low levels of resistance were found to profenofos compared with the other insecticides. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.20-16.00-fold for fipronil, 3.73-7.16-fold for spinosad, 3.06-23-fold for indoxacarb, 0.96-5.88-fold for abamectin, and 0.56-3.07-fold for emamectin benzoate. Rotation of insecticides with different modes of action showing no or very low resistance may prevent insecticide resistance in house flies. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring and integrated management plans on poultry farms are required to prevent resistance development, field control failures, and environmental pollution.

  18. Managing Eastern tent caterpillars Malacosoma americanum (F) on horse farms to reduce risk of mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Potter, Daniel A; Foss, Leslie; Baumler, Rebecca E; Held, David W

    2005-01-01

    An equine disease now known as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) struck the Ohio Valley in 2001-2002 causing thousands of foal abortions and enormous economic loss. Evidence that pregnant mares' exposure to Eastern tent caterpillars Malacosoma americanum (F) induces MRLS created an urgent call for control measures suitable for use on horse farms. We surveyed egg mass distribution and monitored emergence in wild cherry trees, and evaluated reduced-risk treatment strategies including foliage sprays, trunk injections, winter egg mass treatments and barrier sprays to intercept larvae entering pastures. Egg masses were concentrated in the lower canopy, on exposed sides of trees. Larval emergence began in mid-March. Emergence was prolonged (3-4 weeks) in 2002, a typically cool spring, but more synchronized in warmer 2003. Winter treatment of egg masses with bifenthrin or permethrin in a penetrating solvent prevented emergence, but 3% horticultural oil was ineffective for that purpose. Insecticidal soap or oil sprayed directly on neonates gave relatively poor control. Bifenthrin and spinosad were effective as foliage sprays against all instars, their field-weathered residues active for at least 7 days. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var kurstaki controlled neonates within 3 days but was less active against late instars, with shorter residual action than bifenthrin or spinosad. Larvae did not avoid insecticide-treated leaves. Trunk microinjection of cherry trees with dicrotophos was effective against all instars, whereas microinjection with milbemectin or abamectin gave poor or inconsistent control. Trunk injection with emamectin benzoate also was effective. Dry permethrin residues controlled late instars crawling in pasture grass for at least 7 days. Factors complicating M americanum management on horse farms are discussed. PMID:15593079

  19. HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods for determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in food and beverages: performances of local accredited laboratories via proficiency tests in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gören, Ahmet C; Bilsel, Gökhan; Şimşek, Adnan; Bilsel, Mine; Akçadağ, Fatma; Topal, Kevser; Ozgen, Hasan

    2015-05-15

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography LC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods and beverages. HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were compared for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in a representative ketchup sample. Optimisation of the methods enabled the chromatographic separation of the analytes in less than 4 min. A correlation coefficient of 0.999 was achieved over the measured calibration range for both compounds and methods (HPLC and LC-MS/MS). The uncertainty values of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were found as 0.199 and 0.150 mg/L by HPLC and 0.072 and 0.044 mg/L by LC-MS/MS, respectively. Proficiency testing performance of Turkish accredited laboratories between the years 2005 and 2013 was evaluated and reported herein. The aim of the proficiency testing scheme was to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, analysing benzoate and sorbate in tomato ketchup. PMID:25577080

  20. Efficacy of Four Nematicides Against the Reproduction and Development of Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Yanting; Huang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Hongshi; Bai, Liqun; Hu, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    To understand the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, avermectin, milbemectin, and thiacloprid on the reproduction and development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, seven parameters, namely population growth, fecundity, egg hatchability, larval lethality, percent larval development, body size, and sexual ratio, were investigated using sublethal (LC20) doses of these compounds in the laboratory. Emamectin benzoate treatment led to a significant suppression in population size, brood size, and percent larval development with 411, 3.50, and 49.63%, respectively, compared to 20850, 24.33, and 61.43% for the negative control. The embryonic and larval lethality increased obviously from 12.47% and 13.70% to 51.37% and 75.30%, respectively. In addition, the body length was also significantly reduced for both males and females in the emamectin benzoate treatment. Avermectin and milbemectin were also effective in suppressing population growth by increasing larval lethality and reducing larval development, although they did not affect either brood size or embryonic lethality. Body length for both male and female worms was increased by avermectin. Thiacloprid caused no adverse reproductive effects, although it suppressed larval development. Sexual ratio was not affected by any of these four nematicides. Our results indicate that emamectin benzoate, milbemectin, and avermectin are effective against the reproduction of B. xylophilus. We think these three nematicides can be useful for the control of pine wilt disease. PMID:26170474

  1. Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(E)-(4-hy-droxy-3-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)amino]-benzoate: a p-hy-droxy Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jing; Kavuru, Padmini; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chadwick, Keith

    2016-07-01

    The title p-hy-droxy Schiff base, C17H17NO4, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of benzocaine with vanillin. The benzyl-idine and benzoate rings are inclined to one another by 24.58 (8)°, and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. Adjacent chains are linked by C-H⋯π and weak offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.819 (1) Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-2). PMID:27555938

  2. High-efficiency astatination of antibodies using N-iodosuccinimide as the oxidising agent in labelling of N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Andersson, H; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Karlsson, B; Skarnemark, G

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies C215, reactive with colorectal carcinomas, and MOv18, reactive with most of the ovarian carcinomas, were radiohalogenated with [211At]astatine. The radiohalogen was conjugate coupled to antibodies via the intermediate labelling reagent N-succinimidyl-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate (m-MeATE) in a two-step, single-pot reaction. Optimisation of the labelling of the reagent was achieved using N-iodosuccinimide, NIS, as the oxidising agent. The yields ranged from 69-95% in the labelling of 0.1-1.0 nmole of the m-MeATE precursor. Subsequent conjugation to antibodies resulted in yields of 58+/-7%. In vitro binding to tumour cells showed that the immunoreactivity of both antibodies was retained after astatine labelling. PMID:11182562

  3. A redetermination from the original data of the crystal structure of 2-amino-4,6-di-meth-oxy-pyrimidin-1-ium 4-amino-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Fábry, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The title structure, C6H9.5N3O2 (0.5+)·C7H6.5NO2 (0.5-), which might be named schematically as 2-amino-4,6-di-meth-oxy-pyrimidine-(μ2-hydrogen)-4-amino-benzoate to indicate a bridging H atom, has been redetermined from the data published by Thanigaimani, Mu-thiah & Lynch [Acta Cryst. (2006), E62, o2976-o2978]. The improvement of the present redetermination consists in a released geometry of the primary amine groups, which were originally assumed to be planar, as well as in a redetermination of the position of the hy-droxy H atom. This H atom, whose parameters were originally constrained, turns out to be situated about the centre of the O⋯N hydrogen bond in two disordered positions with occupancies of 0.5 each. PMID:27375878

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Lemonades and Lemon Sauces by HPLC Using Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Dinç Zor, Şule; Aşçı, Bürge; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem; Yıldırım Küçükkaraca, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    In this study, development and validation of a HPLC method was described for simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, quinoline yellow and sunset yellow. A Box-Behnken design using three variables at three levels was employed to determine the optimum conditions of chromatographic separation: pH of mobile phase, 6.0-7.0; flow rate, 0.8-1.2 mL min(-1) and the ratio of mobile phase composed of a 0.025 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer, 80-90%. Resolution was chosen as a response. The optimized method was validated for linearity, the limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and stability. All the validation parameters were within the acceptance range. The applicability of the developed method to the determination of these food additives in commercial lemonade and lemon sauce samples was successfully demonstrated. PMID:26951541

  5. Crystal structure of zwitterionic 4-(ammonio­methyl)­benzoate: a simple mol­ecule giving rise to a complex supra­molecular structure

    PubMed Central

    Atria, Ana María; Garland, Maria Teresa; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H9NO2·H2O consists of an isolated 4-(ammonio­meth­yl)benzoate zwitterion derived from 4-amino­methyl­benzoic acid through the migration of the acidic proton, together with a water molecule of crystallization that is disordered over three sites with occupancy ratios (0.50:0.35:0.15). In the crystal structure, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds together with π–π stacking of the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8602 (18) Å] result in a strongly linked, compact three-dimensional structure. PMID:25484753

  6. Structural studies of 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-5-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ammonium 2[(2-carboxyphenyl) disulfanyl]benzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazil, Shiji; Ravindran, Reena; Sarau Devi, A.; Bijili, B. K.

    2012-08-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid afforded a proton transfer derivative, 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-5-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ammonium 2[(2-carboxyphenyl) disulfanyl]benzoate, (HAAP+ṡHTBA-), via the oxidation of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid into 2,2'-dithiobis(benzoic acid). The compound has been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The infrared spectrum suggests the existence of an ion-pair compound, which is further established by the single crystal X-ray analysis to be an extended 1D supramolecular chain network extending along 'b' cell direction. The compound shows good thermal stability.

  7. 1,4-Di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis-(3-chloro-benzoate).

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Sato, Osamu

    2014-02-01

    In the title salt C6H14N2 (2+)·2C7H4ClO2 (-), two 3-chloro-benzoate (3CBA) anions are bridged by one diprotonated 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium (H2DABCO(2+)) dication through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In this way, a trimeric unit is generated, in which the mean planes of the two 3CBA anions are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 59.87 (9)°. The trimeric units are linked into a three-dimensional network via weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  8. The Fos expression in rat brain following electrical stimulation of dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus changed with the pre-treatment of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan; Dong, Zhao; Jiang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Fos expression in the brain was systematically investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining after electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in conscious rats. Fos-like immunoreactive neurons are distributed mainly in the upper cervical spinal cord, spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part, raphe magnus nucleus, periaqueductal gray, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. With the pre-treatment of intraperitoneal injection of rizatriptan benzoate, the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons decreased in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part and raphe magnus nucleus, increased in the periaqueductal gray, and remained unchanged in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. These results provide morphological evidence that the nuclei described above are involved in the development and maintenance of the trigeminovascular headache. PMID:20934408

  9. Identification of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) and other designer drugs in herbal incense.

    PubMed

    Blakey, Karen; Boyd, Sue; Atkinson, Sarah; Wolf, Jenna; Slottje, Pim M; Goodchild, Katrina; McGowan, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    The identification and structural elucidation of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR is reported. QMPSB was identified in Queensland, Australia on plant material packaged as herbal incense. The identification of QMPSB was initially hampered due to trans-esterification occurring in the extraction solvent. An investigation of the trans-esterification of QMPSB in methanol and ethanol was conducted and analytical data for the respective methyl and ethyl esters are reported. Analytical data is presented for two other compounds detected on seized plant material packaged as herbal incense: the synthetic cannabimimetic 1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (MAM-1220) and the JWH-081 analogue 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (CHM-081).

  10. Biotransformation of substituted benzoates to the corresponding cis-diols by an engineered strain of Pseudomonas oleovorans producing the TOL plasmid-specified enzyme toluate-1,2-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Wubbolts, M.G.; Timmis, K.N. )

    1990-02-01

    The conversion of substituted benzoates into 1,2-cis-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene carboxylic acids (cis-diols) was affected by using Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas recombinants carrying the xylXYZ genes originating from the Pseudomonas putida mt-2 TOL plasmid, thus producing toluate-1,2-dioxygenase. Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo12 recombinants readily produced meta-and para-substituted cis-diols, but were limited in their oxidation of ortho-substituted substrates.

  11. Antifungal Activity of Diglycerin Ester of Fatty Acids against Yeasts and Its Comparison with Those of Sucrose Monopalmitate and Sodium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Aiko; Sakamoto, Jin J; Furuta, Masakazu; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activities of diglycerin monoester of fatty acids (DGCs), which have been employed as food emulsifiers, were examined against three yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Candida utilis and were compared with those of sucrose monoester of palmitic acid (SC16) as another type of emulsifier and sodium benzoate (SB) as a weak acid food preservative. When the minimum growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diglycerin monolaurate (DGC12) against these yeasts were determined 2 d after incubation in YM broth at pH5.0, they were relatively low, being 0.01% (w/v), for both S. cerevisiae and C. utilis, whereas was high, being 4.0% (w/v), for C. albicans. On the contrary, the MICs of sucrose monopalmitate (SC16) were high, being 3.0 and 4.0% (w/v), for the former two yeasts, respectively, but 0.6% (w/v) for the last yeast. In contrast to these emulsifiers, the MICs of sodium benzoate (SB) were similar independently upon the yeast strain, being in order 0.4, 0.3 and 0.5% (w/v), for the above yeasts, respectively. The anti-yeast activities of DGC12 and SC16 were gradually increased with a decrease in pH, in a manner similar to that of SB, except for the action of SC16 on C. albicans, for which the activity was more effective at pHs 5.0 and 6.0 than at pHs 4.0 and 7.0. Among DGCs tested having different fatty acid moieties in the molecule, lauroyl ester (DGC12) was more effective than myristoyl and palmitoyl esters against S. cerevisiae and C. utilis. The inhibitory effect of DGC12 on the yeast growth depended upon both the cell density and the strength of aeration during the treatment. Further, DGC12 was found to kill S. cerevisiae and C. utilis cells at a rather low concentration of 0.005% (w/v) in 50mM acetate buffer at pH5.0, although, against C. albicans cells, only slight fungicidal activity was demonstrated at a high concentration of 0.5% (w/v). The results obtained support the effectiveness of practical application of DGC12 to acidic

  12. Effects of estradiol benzoate and trenbolone acetate, alone or in combination at dose levels present in Synovex Choice, on performance by feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Cleale, R M; Amodie, D; Bechtol, D T; Drouillard, J S; Edmonds, J D; Edmonds, M; Hunsaker, B D; Kraft, L A; Lawrence, T E; Rulli, R D; Waite, A R

    2013-02-01

    Trials were conducted with beef heifers at 4 sites to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in response to implants containing 14 mg estradiol benzoate and 100 mg trenbolone acetate (EB/TBA; Synovex Choice, Zoetis LLC, New York, NY), 14 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 100 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA), or a sham-implanted control (SC). The study design at each site was a randomized complete block with 12 blocks and 4 treatments. Blocks of cattle at each site were harvested in commercial abattoirs when masked personnel estimated at least 60% of animals would yield carcasses with USDA quality grades of Choice or Prime. Data were pooled across sites for statistical analysis. Initial BW averaged 374 kg, and days on feed ranged from 98 to 126 d (mean 112 d). Heifers implanted with EB/TBA, EB, and TBA had greater ADG and G:F (P < 0.05) than SC; ADG and G:F were greater for EB/TBA than EB or TBA (P < 0.05). Heifers treated with TBA had greater G:F than EB (P < 0.05). Feed intake was not affected by treatments. Mean HCW and LM area for EB/TBA were greater than for other treatments (P < 0.05). Mean HCW for TBA was greater than SC (P < 0.05) but not different from EB. Mean LM area for EB and TBA were greater than SC (P < 0.05) but not different from each other. There were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) for KPH, 12th-rib fat thickness, or yield grade. Dressing percent was greater for EB/TBA than SC (P < 0.05) but not different from EB or TBA. Marbling score was decreased by EB/TBA (P < 0.05) compared with other treatments, but no other differences were noted. Despite the effect of EB/TBA on marbling scores, there were no significant (P > 0.05) treatment differences on proportions of carcasses with quality grades ≥ Choice vs. < Choice. With respect to ADG and G:F, implants containing EB, TBA, or EB/TBA produced improved responses over SC. Furthermore, EB/TBA induced greater ADG and G:F responses than EB and TBA. Results confirmed that EB and TBA have

  13. Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 2–6 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 µg/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words

  14. FT-IR, FT-Raman and molecular docking study of ethyl 4-(2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Azab, Adel S.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; Al-Suwaidan, Ibrahim A.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2016-05-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of ethyl 4-(2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzoate were recorded, assigned and compared with theoretical results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. From the optimized geometry of the molecule, molecular electrostatic potential, nonlinear optical properties and frontier molecular orbitals of the title compound were performed at the DFT level. From the molecular electrostatic potential map, it is evident that the maximum negative region is localized over the sulphur atoms and N3 atom of triazole ring and the maximum positive region is localized on NH group, indicating a possible site for nucleophilic attack. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are much greater than that of urea. The molecular docking studies show that the docked ligand, title compound forms a stable complex with pyrrole inhibitor and gives a binding affinity value of -9.5 kcal/mol and this results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against pyrrole inhibitor.

  15. Mesomorphic, micro-Raman and DFT studies of new calamitic liquid crystals; methyl 4-[4-(4-alkoxy benzoyloxy)benzylideneamino]benzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Rajib; Singh, Hemant Kumar; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2014-07-01

    The mesomorphic properties of newly synthesized homologous series of calamitic liquid crystals; methyl 4-[4-(4-alkoxy benzoyloxy)benzylideneamino]benzoates, H2n+1CnOC6H4COOC6H4C(H)dbnd N C6H4COOCH3; n = 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 (MABBAB-n) containing ester and Schiff base groups as linker have been studied by temperature dependent micro-Raman study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). All members of this series exhibit enantiotropic smectic A (SmA) mesophase with oily streak and focal conic textures. Analyses of Raman marker bands of phenyl rings, Schiff base and ester groups of MABBAB-10 confirm the phase transitions. The Raman study also gives an evidence of breaking of weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds associated with ester groups and formation of new hydrogen bonds through Cdbnd N bond at Cr → SmA phase transition. The monomer and dimer were optimized and vibrational assignment of MABBAB-10 was also done with density functional theoretical (DFT) technique to understand the experimental results.

  16. Presence or absence of a novel charge-transfer complex in the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-ethylbenzamide or ethyl benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reaction paths of base-catalyzed hydrolyses of isoelectronic substrates, Ph–C(=O)–X–Et [X = O (ethyl benzoate) and X = NH (N-ethylbenzamide)], were traced by DFT calculations. To simulate bond interchanges accompanied by proton transfers, a cluster model of Ph–C(=O)–X–Et + OH−(H2O)16 was employed. For X = O, three elementary processes and for X = NH four ones were obtained. The rate-determining step of X = O is the first TS (TS1, the OH− addition step), while that of X = NH is TS2. TS2 of X = NH leads to a novel Mulliken charge-transfer complex, Ph–(OH)(O=)C∙∙∙N(H2)–Et. The superiority or inferiority between the direct nucleophilic process or the general base-catalyzed process for TS1 was examined with the model Ph–C(=O)–X–Et + OH−(H2O)n, n = 3, 5, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 32. The latter process was calculated to be more favorable regardless of the number (n, except n = 3) of water molecules. The counter ion Na+ works unfavorably on the ester hydrolysis, particularly on TS1. A minimal model of TS1 was proposed and was found to be insensitive to n. PMID:23400273

  17. Study of the photochemical transformation of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA) under conditions relevant to surface waters.

    PubMed

    Calza, P; Vione, D; Galli, F; Fabbri, D; Dal Bello, F; Medana, C

    2016-01-01

    We studied the aquatic environmental fate of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA), a widespread sunscreen, to assess its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformation. Direct photolysis is shown to play a key role in phototransformation, and this fast process is expected to be the main attenuation route of OD-PABA in sunlit surface waters. The generation of transformation products (TPs) was followed via HPLC/HRMS. Five (or four) TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVB (or UVA) radiation, respectively. The main detected TPs of OD-PABA, at least as far as HPLC-HRMS peak areas are concerned, would involve a dealkylation or hydroxylation/oxidation process in both direct photolysis and indirect phototransformation. The latter was simulated by using TiO2-based heterogeneous photocatalysis, involving the formation of nine additional TPs. Most of them resulted from the further degradation of the primary TPs that can also be formed by direct photolysis. Therefore, these secondary TPs might also occur as later transformation intermediates in natural aquatic systems.

  18. Negative ion mediated electron stimulated disordering of c(8 × 2) benzoate-Cu(110): extension of the displaced harmonic oscillator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Frederick, B. G.; Perry, C. C.; Munz, A. W.; Bertrams, Th.; Richardson, N. V.

    1997-11-01

    We have extended the displaced harmonic oscillator model for negative ion resonance (NIR) scattering in high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), to interpret the energy transfer processes leading to disordering in STM and LEED, by allowing the curvature of the negative ion PES to be different to that of the ground PES. For the benzoate-Cu(110) system, the results of the extended model are significantly better if the ground and negative ion PESs have frequencies hω = 0.40 and 0.48 eV, respectively, rather than the same frequency. The large resonance width and asymmetry, but not the small overtone to fundamental excitation probability ratio, observed in HREELS can be accounted for with values of the coupling constant, β = 22.2 and inverse lifetime of Г = 0.6 eV (1.1 fs). These parameters, with nD = 7 are simultaneously able to account for the ratio of the STM:LEED disordering cross-sections and, most significantly, predict the large slope observed in the STM disordering cross-section as a function of bias. The properties of the probability distribution, Pn( ɛi, for the NIR process, involving two Franck-Condon transitions, is contrasted with the DIET process and some non-classical behaviour for the case ω 0 ≉ ω 1 is noted.

  19. Study of the photochemical transformation of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA) under conditions relevant to surface waters.

    PubMed

    Calza, P; Vione, D; Galli, F; Fabbri, D; Dal Bello, F; Medana, C

    2016-01-01

    We studied the aquatic environmental fate of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA), a widespread sunscreen, to assess its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformation. Direct photolysis is shown to play a key role in phototransformation, and this fast process is expected to be the main attenuation route of OD-PABA in sunlit surface waters. The generation of transformation products (TPs) was followed via HPLC/HRMS. Five (or four) TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVB (or UVA) radiation, respectively. The main detected TPs of OD-PABA, at least as far as HPLC-HRMS peak areas are concerned, would involve a dealkylation or hydroxylation/oxidation process in both direct photolysis and indirect phototransformation. The latter was simulated by using TiO2-based heterogeneous photocatalysis, involving the formation of nine additional TPs. Most of them resulted from the further degradation of the primary TPs that can also be formed by direct photolysis. Therefore, these secondary TPs might also occur as later transformation intermediates in natural aquatic systems. PMID:26512801

  20. Synthesis, crystal structures and intermolecular interactions of two Mn(II) complexes with 4,4‧-bipy and methyl benzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Jian, Wu; Yi-Ping, Chen; Ze-Min, Xia; Su-Zhi, Ge; Feng, Chai; Ling-Yan, Zhao; Jian-Zhong, Chen

    2013-03-01

    Two manganese complexes containing 4,4'-bipyridine and methyl benzoate as ligands have been prepared and crystallized by solvent evaporation method in DMF. The single crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the complexes crystallize in monoclinic system. Crystal of 1 [Mn2(4,4'-bipy)2 (o-MBA)4]n has space group of P21/c with unit cell parameters of a = 17.508 (Å), b = 11.6229 (Å), c = 27.983 (Å), β = 128.123°, V = 4.4797 nm3, empirical formula: C52H44Mn2N4O8, Mr = 962.79, Z = 4, Dc = 1.428 g/cm3, μ = 0.625 mm-1, and F(000) = 1992. The crystal of 2 [Mn (4,4'-bipy)(m-MBA)2]n belongs to space group C2/c with a = 16.079 (Å), b = 11.652 (Å), c = 24.887 (Å), β = 92.02°, V = 4.660 nm3, empirical formula: C26H22MnN2O4, Mr = 481.40, Z = 8, Dc = 1.372 g/cm3, μ = 1.179 mm-1, F(000) = 1992. The weak interactions in structures are observed from the X-ray crystallographic data. These include the Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and Csbnd H⋯π interactions found in 1. The different strength of intermolecular interaction in the structures is reflected on their different thermal stability of the two complexes measured by thermal gravimetric analysis and the 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy. The study of weak interactions is meaningful to provide supporting data for potential application in molecular biology.

  1. Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate inhibits ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation through P2Y1-PLC signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyan; Xu, Shaofeng; Li, Jiang; Wang, Ling; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypenty1)-benzoate (dl-PHPB) is a new drug candidate for treatment of ischemic stroke with antiplatelet effect. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of dl-PHPB in inhibiting platelet aggregation. The ADP-activated P2Y1-Gq-PLC and P2Y12-Gi-AC pathways were observed, respectively. Intravenous injection of dl-PHPB (1.3, 3.9, 12.9 mg/kg) significantly inhibited ADP-, collagen-, and arachidonic acid-induced rat platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner, and dl-PHPB had a relatively more potent inhibitory effect on ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation than other agonists. Dl-PHPB also showed a decreased expression of CD62P (a marker for platelet activation) mediated by ADP. Both dl-PHPB and ticlopidine (P2Y12 receptor antagonist) decreased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. But, dl-PHPB did not reverse the inhibition of PGE1-induced platelet cAMP formation by ADP, which was different from ticlopidine. Further, dl-PHPB instead of ticlopidine showed increasing phospholipase C-β phosphorylation (ser(1105)). The m-3M3FBS, a phospholipase C activator, attenuated the inhibitory effect of dl-PHPB on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and enhanced IP1 accumulation in rat platelets. Dl-PHPB decreased IP1 accumulation induced by ADP but had no effect on IP1 level enhanced by m-3M3FBS. Our results suggest that dl-PHPB has a potent antiplatelet effect, which is mainly through blockade of P2Y1 receptor-PLC-IP3 pathway and decreasing cytoplasmic calcium.

  2. Modification of Gene Expression of Connexins in the Rat Corpus Epididymis by Estradiol Benzoate or Flutamide Exposure at the Early Neonatal Age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Cell-cell direct communication through channel-forming molecules, connexin (Cx), is essential for a tissue to exchange signaling molecules between neighboring cells and establish unique functional characteristics during postnatal development. The corpus epididymis is a well-known androgen-responsive tissue and involves in proper sperm maturation. In the present research, it was attempted to determine if expression of Cx isoforms in the corpus epididymis in the adult is modulated by exposure to estrogenic or anti-androgenic compound during the early postnatal period. The neonatal male rats at 7 days of age were subcutaneously injected by estradiol benzoate (EB) at low-dose (0.015 mg/kg body weight) or high-dose (1.5 mg/kg body weight) or flutamide (Flu) at low-dose (500 mg/kg body weight) or high-dose (50 mg/kg body weight). The corpus epididymis collected at 4 months of age was subjected to evaluate expressional changes of Cx isoforms by quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment of low-dose EB resulted in increases of Cx32, Cx37, and Cx45 transcript levels, while exposure to high-dose EB decreased expression of Cx26, Cx30.3, Cx31, Cx31.1, Cx32, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45. Treatments of Flu caused significant decreases of expression of all examined Cx isoforms, except Cx37 and Cx43 shown no expressional change with high-dose Flu treatment. These findings imply that expression of most Cx isoforms present in the corpus epididymis would be transcriptionally regulated by actions of androgen and/or estrogen during postnatal period. PMID:27004263

  3. Aberrant Expression of Connexin Isoforms in the Corpus Epididymis of the Adult Rat by Exposure to Estradiol Benzoate or Flutamide at the Weaning Age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Ki-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A proper development of the epididymis during the early postnatal development is required for successful fertility in the adult male. Direct cell-cell communication via connexin (Cx) molecules is a common way of cellular interactions to achieve normal development of a given tissue consisting of different cell types. The present research was attempted to determine the effect of exogenous exposure to estrogenic agonist or antiandrogen at the weaning age on expression of Cx isoforms in the adult corpus epididymis. Male rats were subcutaneously administrated with estradiol benzoate (EB) or flutamide (Flu) at the weaning age. The tissue was collected at 4 months of age. Expressional levels of Cx isoforms were determined by a quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical comparison showed significant increases of Cxs31, 32, 37, 40, and 43 transcript amounts by a treatment of 0.015 mg of EB /kg body weight (BW). A treatment of 1.5 μg of EB /kg BW caused a significant decrease of Cx43 gene expression but increases of Cxs26, 31, 32, 37, and 40 transcript levels. Exposure to 500 mg of Flu/kg BW induced an increase of Cx37 expression but significant decreases of Cxs43 and 45 mRNA levels. Expression of Cx37 was increased by a treatment of 5 mg of Flu/kg BW, while transcript levels of Cxs26, 30.3, 31, 31.1, 32, and 43 were significantly decreased by same treatment. These results demonstrate that exposure to steroidal compounds at the early developmental age alters expression of Cx isoforms in the adult corpus epididymis. PMID:26973973

  4. Cinnamon and Its Metabolite Sodium Benzoate Attenuate the Activation of p21rac and Protect Memory and Learning in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Brahmachari, Saurabh; Rangasamy, Suresh B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in attenuating oxidative stress and protecting memory and learning in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse microglial cells. Similarly, NaB also inhibited fibrillar amyloid beta (Aβ)- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(+)-induced microglial production of ROS. Although NaB reduced the level of cholesterol in vivo in mice, reversal of the inhibitory effect of NaB on ROS production by mevalonate, and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol, suggests that depletion of intermediates, but not end products, of the mevalonate pathway is involved in the antioxidant effect of NaB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an inhibitor of p21rac geranylgeranyl protein transferase suppressed the production of ROS and that NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac in microglia. As expected, marked activation of p21rac was observed in the hippocampus of subjects with AD and 5XFAD transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. However, oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder and NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac and attenuated oxidative stress in the hippocampus of Tg mice as evident by decreased dihydroethidium (DHE) and nitrotyrosine staining, reduced homocysteine level and increased level of reduced glutathione. This was accompanied by suppression of neuronal apoptosis, inhibition of glial activation, and reduction of Aβ burden in the hippocampus and protection of memory and learning in transgenic mice. Therefore, cinnamon powder may be a promising natural supplement in halting or delaying the progression of AD.

  5. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable. PMID:11899046

  6. Synergistic Potentiation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Gating by Two Chemically Distinct Potentiators, Ivacaftor (VX-770) and 5-Nitro-2-(3-Phenylpropylamino) Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Ying; Sohma, Yoshiro; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a phosphorylation-activated but ATP-gated chloride channel. Previous studies suggested that VX-770 [ivacaftor, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide], a CFTR potentiator now used in clinics, increases the open probability of CFTR by shifting the gating conformational changes to favor the open channel configuration. Recently the chloride channel blocker and CFTR potentiator 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoate (NPPB) has been reported to enhance CFTR activity by a mechanism that exploits the ATP hydrolysis-driven, nonequilibrium gating mechanism unique to CFTR. Surprisingly however, NPPB increased the activity of nonhydrolytic G551D-CFTR, the third most common disease-associated mutation. Here, we further investigated the mechanism of NPPB's effects on CFTR gating by assessing its interaction with well-studied VX-770. Interestingly, once G551D-CFTR was maximally potentiated by VX-770, NPPB further increased its activity. However, quantitative analysis of this drug-drug interaction suggests that this pharmacologic synergism is not due to independent actions of NPPB and VX-770 on CFTR gating; instead, our data support a dependent mechanism involving two distinct binding sites. This latter idea is further supported by the observation that the locked-open time of a hydrolysis-deficient mutant K1250A was shortened by NPPB but prolonged by VX-770. In addition, the effectiveness of NPPB, but not of VX-770, was greatly diminished in a mutant whose second nucleotide-binding domain was completely removed. Interpreting these results under the framework of current understanding of CFTR gating not only reveals insights into the mechanism of action for different CFTR potentiators but also brings us one step forward to a more complete schematic for CFTR gating. PMID:27413118

  7. Three-dimensional (3-D) metal-organic frameworks with 3-pyridin-4-yl-benzoate defining new (3,6)-connected net topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Xiujuan; Du Miao; Sun Yan; Guo, Jian-Hua; Li, Jin-Shan

    2009-11-15

    Reactions of different metal salts with 3-pyridin-4-yl-benzoic acid (3,4-Hpybz) under ambient condition afford a series of 3-D metal-organic frameworks with two new types of (3,6)-connected net topologies. In the isomorphic complexes [M{sub 2}(mu-H{sub 2}O)(3,4-pybz){sub 4}]{sub n} (M{sup II}=Mn{sup II} for 1, Zn{sup II} for 2, or Cd{sup II} for 3), the octahedral metal nodes are extended by the 3-connected pybz tectons to constitute 3-D arrays with the Schlaefli symbol of (3.4.5)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 4}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 2}.7{sup 2}), whereas [Pb(3,4-pybz){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) shows a completely different 3-D (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 9}) framework, which represents a subnet of the (4,8)-connected fluorite lattice. - Graphical abstract: This work presents a series of 3-D metal-organic frameworks with 3-pyridin-4-yl-benzoate, which display new (3,6)-connected net topologies of (3.4.5)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 4}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 2}.7{sup 2}) for Mn{sup II}/Zn{sup II}/Cd{sup II} and (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 9}) for Pb{sup II} species.

  8. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  9. Ovarian dynamics in response to two modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocols designed for use in Brahman heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Atkinson, P C; Satake, N; Boe-Hansen, G; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the ovarian response of Brahman heifers to two modified ovulation synchronisation protocols developed to increase the proportion of normal synchronous ovulations. Experiment 1 characterised the growth of the ovulatory follicle in heifers (n=19) treated with an intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) and oestradiol benzoate (ODB), to determine the optimal time to induce ovulation. Using the findings from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 investigated the effect of reducing the duration of IPRD insertion and increasing the interval from IPRD removal to ODB treatment (modified protocol 1 - OPO-6; n=20), and omitting ODB treatment at the time of IPRD insertion (modified protocol 2 - PO-6; n=20). An IPRD (0.78 g progesterone) was inserted at Day 0 (OPO-8) or Day 2 (OPO-6 and PO-6) and all heifers also received 1 mg ODB i.m. Day 8: IPRD removed + 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24 h (OPO-8) and 36 h (OPO-6 and PO-6) post IPRD removal: 1 mg ODB i.m. Fixed-time AI (FTAI) occurred at 54 h for OPO-8 and 72 h for OPO-6 and PO-6, post IPRD removal. After IPRD treatment all OPO-6 and OPO-8 heifers initiated a new follicular wave whereas 25% of PO-6 heifers failed. Diameter of the dominant follicle was larger at FTAI in the PO-6 (11.34 ± 0.50 mm) compared to the OPO-8 protocol (9.74 ± 0.51 mm; P<0.05), but similar to the OPO-6 protocol (10.52 ± 0.51 mm). Proportion of ovulations occurring 12 h prior and 24 h post FTAI was similar for the PO-6 (80%) and OPO-6 (75%) protocols but numerically lower in the OPO-8 heifers (60%). The apparent improvement in ovarian response in heifers treated with the modified protocols needs to be confirmed in larger field studies. PMID:24880980

  10. A field investigation of a modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocol designed for fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Satake, N; Chandra, K; McGowan, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy rates (PR) to fixed-time AI (FTAI) in Brahman heifers were compared after treatment with a traditional oestradiol-based protocol (OPO-8) or a modified protocol (OPO-6) where the duration of intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) was reduced from 8 to 6 days, and the interval from IPRD removal to oestradiol benzoate (ODB) was increased from 24 to 36 h. Rising 2 yo heifers on Farm A: (n = 238 and n = 215; two consecutive days AI); B (n = 271); and C (n = 393) were allocated to OPO-8 or OPO-6. An IPRD was inserted and 1mg ODB i.m. on Day 0 for OPO-8 heifers and Day 2 for OPO-6 heifers. On Day 8, the IPRD was removed and 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24h, for OPO-8 heifers, and 36 h, for OPO-6 heifers, post IPRD removal all heifers received 1mg ODB i.m. FTAI was conducted at 54 and 72 h post IPRD removal for OPO-8 and OPO-6 heifers. At Farm A, OPO-6 heifers, AI on the second day, the PR was 52.4% to FTAI (P = 0.024) compared to 36.8% for OPO-8 heifers. However, no differences were found between OPO-8 and OPO-6 protocols at Farm A (first day of AI) (39.9 vs. 35.7%), or Farms B (26.2 vs. 35.4%) and C (43.2% vs. 40.3%). Presence of a corpus luteum at IPRD insertion affected PR to FTAI (43.9% vs. 28.8%; P < 0.001). This study has shown that the modified ovulation synchronisation protocol OPO-6 may be a viable alternative to the OPO-8 protocol for FTAI in B. indicus heifers. PMID:26282523

  11. Structural and spectroscopic characterization of 1-(diaminomethylene) thiouron-1-ium benzoate and bis(1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium) phthalate trihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpétuo, Genivaldo Julio; Janczak, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Two single crystals of 1-(diaminomethylene) thiouron-1-ium benzoate (1) and bis(1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium) phthalate trihydrate (2) were grown using a solution growth technique. The compound 1 crystallises in the centrosymmetric P21/c space group of the monoclinic system, whereas the compound 2 in the centrosymmetric Pbcn space group of orthorhombic system. The solid-state organisation of 1 and 2 has been analysed with respect to cation-anion and hydrogen bonding interactions. The oppositely charged units interact via almost linear hydrogen bonds with the graphs of R22(8) and R21(6) forming molecular complexes. In the crystal 1 the R22(8) motif is formed by donation to the carboxylate group from amine group joined to C1 and from imine group and R21(6) motif is formed by donation to the O2 from amine group joined to C2 and from imine group, whereas in crystal 2 the graphs are formed oppositely. Interactions between the hydrogen-bonded molecular complexes in 1 lead to formation of layered 2D structure, whereas in 2, due to presence of hydrated water molecules lead to formation of 3D hydrogen-bonded supramolecular network. The obtained deuterated analogues of 1 and 2 crystallise similar as H-compound in the monoclinic and orthorhombic system with quite similar lattice parameters. The compounds were also characterised by the FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The characteristic bands of the functional and skeletal groups are discussed.

  12. Translational diffusion in sucrose benzoate near the glass transition: Probe size dependence in the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Quitevis, Edward L.

    2007-06-01

    The translational diffusion coefficient Dtrans for rubrene, 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA), and tetracene in the fragile molecular glass-former sucrose benzoate (SB) (Tg=337K) was studied as a function of temperature from Tg+3KtoTg+71K by use of the holographic fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique. The values of Dtrans vary by five to six orders of magnitude in this temperature range. Contrary to the predictions of the Stokes-Einstein equation, the temperature dependence of probe diffusion in SB over the temperature range of the measurements is weaker than that of T /η, where η is the shear viscosity. In going from the crossover temperature Tx≈1.2Tg to Tg, Dtransη/T increases by factors of 2.4±0.2 decades for rubrene, 3.4±0.2 decades for BPEA, and 3.8±0.4 decades for tetracene. The decoupling between probe diffusion in SB and viscosity is characterized by the scaling law Dtrans˜T/ηξ, with ξ =0.621 for tetracene, 0.654 for BPEA, and 0.722 for rubrene. Data for probe diffusion in SB are combined with data from the literature for probe diffusion in ortho-terphenyl and ααβ-tris(naphthyl)benzene in a plot of enhancement versus the relative probe size parameter ρm=(mp/mh)1/3, where mp and mh are, respectively, the molecular weights of the probe and host solvent. The plot clearly shows a sharp increase in enhancement of translational diffusion at ρm≈1. By applying temperature shifts, Dtrans for probe diffusion in SB and the dielectric relaxation time τD can be superimposed on a single master curve based on the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation. This suggests that the dynamics of probe diffusion in SB is described by the scaling relationship Dtrans˜1/τD(T +ΔT), where τD(T+ΔT) is the temperature-shifted dielectric relaxation time. The results from this study are discussed within the context of dynamic heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids.

  13. Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Plasma Protein Binding of Sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl) Benzoate (BZP), an Innovative Potent Anti-ischemic Stroke Agent

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hong-Meng; Wei, Jing-Yao; Liu, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Gao-Ju; Chang, Jun-Biao; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (±)-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive, and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg; i.v.) and beagle dogs (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt) were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg) of BZP to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was more than in normal rats (P < 0.05). The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20,000, and 80,000 ng/mL) from rat, beagle dog, and human plasma were 98.1–98.7, 88.9–92.7, and 74.8–83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution, and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials. PMID:27588003

  14. Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Plasma Protein Binding of Sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl) Benzoate (BZP), an Innovative Potent Anti-ischemic Stroke Agent.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hong-Meng; Wei, Jing-Yao; Liu, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Gao-Ju; Chang, Jun-Biao; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (±)-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive, and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg; i.v.) and beagle dogs (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt) were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg) of BZP to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was more than in normal rats (P < 0.05). The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20,000, and 80,000 ng/mL) from rat, beagle dog, and human plasma were 98.1-98.7, 88.9-92.7, and 74.8-83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution, and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials. PMID:27588003

  15. Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-stain-negative, benzoate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Junghare, Madan; Schink, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain KoBa311(T), isolated from the wastewater treatment plant at Konstanz, Germany, was characterized phenotypically and phylogenetically. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, oval to short rods, 3-5 µm long and 0.8-1.0 µm wide with rounded ends, dividing by binary fission and occurring singly or in pairs. The strain grew optimally in freshwater medium and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. Strain KoBa311(T) showed optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.6. Organic electron donors were oxidized completely to carbon dioxide concomitant with sulfate reduction to sulfide. At excess substrate supply, substrates were oxidized incompletely and acetate (mainly) and/or propionate accumulated. The strain utilized short-chain fatty acids, alcohols (except methanol) and benzoate. Sulfate and DMSO were used as terminal electron acceptors for growth. The genomic DNA G+C content was 52.3 mol% and the respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-5 (V-H2). The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1ω7c/ω6c and C18:1ω7c. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain KoBa311(T) within the family Desulfobulbaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. Its closest related bacterial species on the basis of the distance matrix were Desulfobacterium catecholicum DSM 3882(T) (93.0% similarity), Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes (93.1%), Desulforhopalus singaporensis (92.9%), Desulfopila aestuarii (92.4%), Desulfopila inferna JS_SRB250Lac(T) (92.3%) and Desulfofustis glycolicus (92.3%). On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain KoBa311(T) was distinct from any related type species. Therefore, strain KoBa311(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum is KoBa311(T) ( =DSM 28570(T) =KCTC 15441(T)). PMID:25278560

  16. Alternative solvent-based methyl benzoate vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of benzimidazole fungicides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-11-01

    Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using methyl benzoate as an alternative extraction solvent for extracting and preconcentrating three benzimidazole fungicides (i.e., carbendazim, thiabendazole, and fluberidazole) in environmental water samples before high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis has been developed. The selected microextraction conditions were 250 μL of methyl benzoate containing 300 μL of ethanol, 1.0% w/v sodium acetate, and vortex agitation speed of 2100 rpm for 30 s. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors were 14.5-39.0 for the target fungicides. Limits of detection were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.05 μg/L. The proposed method was then applied to surface water samples and the recovery evaluations at three spiked concentration levels of 5, 30, and 50 μg/L were obtained in the range of 77.4-110.9% with the relative standard deviation <7.4%. The present method was simple, rapid, low cost, sensitive, environmentally friendly, and suitable for the trace analysis of the studied fungicides in environmental water samples.

  17. Alternative solvent-based methyl benzoate vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of benzimidazole fungicides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-11-01

    Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using methyl benzoate as an alternative extraction solvent for extracting and preconcentrating three benzimidazole fungicides (i.e., carbendazim, thiabendazole, and fluberidazole) in environmental water samples before high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis has been developed. The selected microextraction conditions were 250 μL of methyl benzoate containing 300 μL of ethanol, 1.0% w/v sodium acetate, and vortex agitation speed of 2100 rpm for 30 s. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors were 14.5-39.0 for the target fungicides. Limits of detection were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.05 μg/L. The proposed method was then applied to surface water samples and the recovery evaluations at three spiked concentration levels of 5, 30, and 50 μg/L were obtained in the range of 77.4-110.9% with the relative standard deviation <7.4%. The present method was simple, rapid, low cost, sensitive, environmentally friendly, and suitable for the trace analysis of the studied fungicides in environmental water samples. PMID:25156324

  18. Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(E)-(4-hy­droxy-3-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)amino]­benzoate: a p-hy­droxy Schiff base

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jing; Kavuru, Padmini; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chadwick, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The title p-hy­droxy Schiff base, C17H17NO4, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of benzocaine with vanillin. The benzyl­idine and benzoate rings are inclined to one another by 24.58 (8)°, and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. Adjacent chains are linked by C—H⋯π and weak offset π–π inter­actions [inter­centroid distance = 3.819 (1) Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-2). PMID:27555938

  19. (/sup 3/H)Batrachotoxinin A 20 alpha-benzoate binding to voltage-sensitive sodium channels: a rapid and quantitative assay for local anesthetic activity in a variety of drugs

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, E.T.; Lewandowski, G.A.; Daly, J.W.; Creveling, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    (/sup 3/H)Batrachotoxinin A benzoate ((/sup 3/H)BTX-B) binds with high affinity to sites on voltage-dependent sodium channels in a vesicular preparation from guinea pig cerebral cortex. In this preparation, local anesthetics competitively antagonize the binding of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B. The potencies of some 40 classical local anesthetics and a variety of catecholamine, histamine, serotonin, adenosine, GABA, glycine, acetylcholine, and calcium antagonists, tranquilizers, antidepressants, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, steroids, vasodilators, antiinflammatories, anticoagulants, analgesics, and other agents have been determined. An excellent correlation with the known local anesthetic activity of many of these agents indicate that antagonism of binding of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B binding provides a rapid, quantitative, and facile method for the screening and investigation of local anesthetic activity.

  20. catena-Poly[[(tetra­aqua­cadmium)-μ-4,4′-bipyridine-κ2 N:N′] 4-hy­droxy-3-sulfonato­benzoate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Ng, Seik Weng

    2012-01-01

    The two independent CdII atoms in the polymeric title compound, [Cd(C10H8N2)(H2O)4](C7H4O6S)·H2O, lie on twofold rotation axes, and each is coordinated by four water mol­ecules and the N atoms of two 4,4′-bipyridine mol­ecules in an octa­hedral geometry. Bridging gives rise to chains along [101] and [-101]. The 4-hy­droxy-3-sulfonato­benzoate dianions are not connected to the CdII atoms, but form hydrogen bonds to the coordinated water mol­ecules as well as the lattice water mol­ecule, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:22719283

  1. Do antiparasitic medicines used in aquaculture pose a risk to the Norwegian aquatic environment?

    PubMed

    Langford, Katherine H; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Schøyen, Merete; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-07-15

    Aquaculture production is an important industry in many countries and there has been a growth in the use of medicines to ensure the health and cost effectiveness of the industry. This study focused on the inputs of sea lice medication to the marine environment. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, emamectin benzoate, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin were measured in water, sediment, and biota samples in the vicinity of five aquaculture locations along the Norwegian coast. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin were not detected above the limits of detection in any samples. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, and emamectin benzoate were detected, and the data was compared the UK Environmental Quality Standards. The concentrations of emamectin benzoate detected in sediments exceed the environmental quality standard (EQS) on 5 occasions in this study. The EQS for teflubenzuron in sediment was exceeded in 67% of the samples and exceeded for diflubenzuron in 40% of the water samples collected. A crude assessment of the concentrations detected in the shrimp collected from one location and the levels at which chronic effects are seen in shrimp would suggest that there is a potential risk to shrimp. It would also be reasonable to extrapolate this to any species that undergoes moulting during its life cycle.

  2. Bioefficacy of insecticides against Leucinodes orbonalis on brinjal.

    PubMed

    Anil; Sharma, P C

    2010-07-01

    Studies on bioefficacy of insecticides against brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee on brinjal were carried out during 2007 and 2008. The results on bioefficacy of insecticides showed that in terms of shoot infestation, emamectin benzoate (0.002%), endosulfan (0.05%), novaluron (0.01%) and lambda-cyhalothrin (0.004%) were found superior. The total number of drooping shoots was minimum (4.17) in emamectin benzoate followed by endosulfan (6.83) and novaluron (7.00), as compared to spinosad (9.17), deltamethrin (11.67) and Bacillus thuringiensis (13.17). In terms of reduction in fruit infestation, emamectin benzoate (0.002%) was highly effective followed by endosulfan (0.05%), agrospray oil T (0.2%) and spinosad (0.0024%). However, cost benefit ratio was highest in agrospray oil T (0.2%) followed by lambda-cyhalothrin (0.004%), endosulfan (0.05%) and deltamethrin (0.0028%). PMID:21186709

  3. Avermectin use in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Horsberg, Tor E

    2012-05-01

    The main indication for use of avermectins in aquaculture-produced fish is infestations with ectoparasitic copepods. The compounds ivermectin and emamectin benzoate are predominantly used as in-feed formulations on salmonid fish against copepods in the family Caligidae: Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Caligus elongatus and C. rogercresseyi. These agents are well-documented as very effective on all developmental stages of the parasites. The duration of effect can be up to 10 weeks. The safety margin for ivermectin is narrow, but better for emamectin benzoate. Environmental impact from these chemicals on bottom-dwelling and sediment-dwelling organisms occurs, but these are restricted to the immediate area around the production site. Avermectins are incompletely absorbed from the intestine of the fish and slowly excreted. They penetrate the blood-brain barrier of the fish, ivermectin more than emamectin benzoate. Resistance has developed against these agents in L. salmonis in almost all major salmon producing areas. The situation must be viewed as serious and can render these agents completely ineffective for salmon lice control.

  4. The effects of some avermectins on bovine carbonic anhydrase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kose, Leyla Polat; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan; Atasever, Ali; Alwasel, Saleh H; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-10-01

    Avermectins are effective agricultural pesticides and antiparasitic agents that are widely employed in the agricultural, veterinary and medical fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of selected avermectins including abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin that are used as drugs against a wide variety of internal and external mammalian parasites, on the carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CA, EC 4.2.1.1.) purified from fresh bovine erythrocyte. CA catalyses the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to bicarbonate ([Formula: see text]) and protons (H(+)) and regulate the acidity of the local tissues. Bovine erythrocyte CA (bCA) enzyme was purified by Sepharose-4B affinity chromatography with a yield of 21.96% and 262.7-fold purification. The inhibition results obtained from this study showed Ki values of 9.73, 17.39, 20.43, 13.39, 16.44 and 17.73 nM for abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively. However, acetazolamide, well-known clinically established CA inhibitor, possessed a Ki value of 27.68 nM.

  5. The effects of some avermectins on bovine carbonic anhydrase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kose, Leyla Polat; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan; Atasever, Ali; Alwasel, Saleh H; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-10-01

    Avermectins are effective agricultural pesticides and antiparasitic agents that are widely employed in the agricultural, veterinary and medical fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of selected avermectins including abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin that are used as drugs against a wide variety of internal and external mammalian parasites, on the carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CA, EC 4.2.1.1.) purified from fresh bovine erythrocyte. CA catalyses the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to bicarbonate ([Formula: see text]) and protons (H(+)) and regulate the acidity of the local tissues. Bovine erythrocyte CA (bCA) enzyme was purified by Sepharose-4B affinity chromatography with a yield of 21.96% and 262.7-fold purification. The inhibition results obtained from this study showed Ki values of 9.73, 17.39, 20.43, 13.39, 16.44 and 17.73 nM for abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively. However, acetazolamide, well-known clinically established CA inhibitor, possessed a Ki value of 27.68 nM. PMID:26207514

  6. Development and application of a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detection for simultaneous determination of granisetron, methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, and their main degradation products in oral pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Hewala, Ismail; El-Fatatry, Hamed; Emam, Ehab; Mabrouk, Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive RP-HPLC method using photodiode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of granisetron hydrochloride, 1-methyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid (the main degradation product of granisetron), sodium benzoate, methylparaben, propylparaben, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (the main degradation product of parabens) in granisetron oral drops and solutions. The separation of the compounds was achieved within 8 min on a SymmetryShield RP18 column (100 x 4.6 mm id, 3.5 microm particle size) using the mobile phase acetonitrile--0.05 M KH2PO4 buffered to pH 3 using H3PO4 (3+7, v/v). The photodiode array detector was used to test the purity of the peaks, and the chromatograms were extracted at 240 nm. The method was validated, and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The robust method was successfully applied to the determination of granisetron and preservatives, as well as their degradation products in different batches of granisetron oral drops and solutions. The method proved to be sensitive for determination down to 0.04% (w/w) of granisetron degradation product relative to granisetron and 0.03% (w/w) 4-hydroxybenzoic acid relative to total parabens.

  7. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of a solid dispersion of (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T) and polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sa-Li; Hou, Peng; Li, Bin; Fu, Jing; Yin, Xing-Bin; Dang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Chun-Jing; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Hui; Lei, Hai-Min; Ni, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic brain injury is a major disease which threatens human health and safety. (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T), a newly discovered lead compound, is effective for the treatment of ischemic brain injury and its sequelae. But the poor solubility of VA-T leads to poor dissolution and limited clinical application. In order to improve the dissolution of VA-T, the pharmaceutical technology of solid dispersions was used in the present study. VA-T/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solid dispersion was prepared by the solvent method. The dissolution studies were carried out and solid state characterization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rate of VA-T was significantly improved by solid dispersion compared to that of the pure drug and physical mixture. The results of DSC and XRD indicated that the VA-T solid dispersion was amorphous. The IR spectra showed the possible interaction between VA-T and PVP was the formulation of hydrogen bonding. The SEM analysis demonstrated that there was no VA-T crystal observed in the solid dispersions. The ideal drug-to-PVP ratio was 1:5. In conclusion, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for the improvement of the dissolution profile of VA-T.

  8. A redetermination from the original data of the crystal structure of 2-amino-4,6-di­meth­oxy­pyrimidin-1-ium 4-amino­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Fábry, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The title structure, C6H9.5N3O2 0.5+·C7H6.5NO2 0.5−, which might be named schematically as 2-amino-4,6-di­meth­oxy­pyrimidine-(μ2-hydrogen)-4-amino­benzoate to indicate a bridging H atom, has been redetermined from the data published by Thanigaimani, Mu­thiah & Lynch [Acta Cryst. (2006), E62, o2976–o2978]. The improvement of the present redetermination consists in a released geometry of the primary amine groups, which were originally assumed to be planar, as well as in a redetermination of the position of the hy­droxy H atom. This H atom, whose parameters were originally constrained, turns out to be situated about the centre of the O⋯N hydrogen bond in two disordered positions with occupancies of 0.5 each. PMID:27375878

  9. Crystal structure of bis­(tri­ethano­lamine-κ3 N,O,O′)nickel(II) bis­(3-hy­droxy­benzoate) tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ibragimov, Aziz B.

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of 3-hy­droxy­benzoic (m-hy­droxy­benzoic) acid (MHBA), tri­ethano­lamine (TEA) and Ni(NO3)2 in aqueous solution led to formation of the hydrated title salt, [Ni(C6H15NO3)2](C7H5O3)·4H2O. In the complex cation, the Ni2+ ion is located on an inversion centre. Two symmetry-related TEA ligands occupy all coordination sites in an N,O,O′-tridentate coordination, leading to a slightly distorted NiN2O4 octa­hedron. Two ethanol groups of each TEA ligand form two five-membered chelate rings around Ni2+, while the third ethanol group does not coordinate to the metal atom. Two MHBA− anions in the benzoate form are situated in the outer coordination sphere for charge compensation. An intricate network of hydrogen bonds between the free and coordinating hy­droxy groups of the TEA ligands, the O atoms of the MHBA− anions and the water mol­ecules leads to the formation of a two-dimensional structure extending parallel to (010). PMID:27308009

  10. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data. PMID:25686474

  11. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data.

  12. Quality by Design-Based Development of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate, and Octinoxate in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

    2014-09-01

    A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DAHHB), and octinoxate (OCT) in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Kinetex(TM) C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using gradient elution at 257 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a buffer : acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v) as solvent A and acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (70 : 30, v/v) as solvent B. The method showed linearity over the range of 0.19-148.4 μg/mL, 0.23-15.3 μg/mL, 1.97-600.5 μg/mL, and 1.85-451.5 μg/mL for MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, respectively. Recovery for all the components was found to be in the range of 98-102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples in which the spectral purity of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, along with the separation of the degradation products from the analyte peaks, was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT in the lotion sample. The design expert with ANOVA software with the linear model was applied and a 2(4) full factorial design was employed to estimate the model coefficients and also to check the robustness of the method. Results of the two-level full factorial design, 2(4) with 20 runs including four centrepoint analysis based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that all four factors, as well as the interactions of resolution between DAHHB and OCT are statistically significant.

  13. Quality by Design-Based Development of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate, and Octinoxate in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

    2014-09-01

    A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DAHHB), and octinoxate (OCT) in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Kinetex(TM) C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using gradient elution at 257 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a buffer : acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v) as solvent A and acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (70 : 30, v/v) as solvent B. The method showed linearity over the range of 0.19-148.4 μg/mL, 0.23-15.3 μg/mL, 1.97-600.5 μg/mL, and 1.85-451.5 μg/mL for MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, respectively. Recovery for all the components was found to be in the range of 98-102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples in which the spectral purity of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, along with the separation of the degradation products from the analyte peaks, was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT in the lotion sample. The design expert with ANOVA software with the linear model was applied and a 2(4) full factorial design was employed to estimate the model coefficients and also to check the robustness of the method. Results of the two-level full factorial design, 2(4) with 20 runs including four centrepoint analysis based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that all four factors, as well as the interactions of resolution between DAHHB and OCT are statistically significant. PMID:25853065

  14. Therapeutic effects of estradiol benzoate on development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in the Lewis rat are mediated via suppression of the humoral response against denatured collagen type II (CII)

    PubMed Central

    WAKSMAN, Y.; HOD, I.; FRIEDMAN, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the development of anti-CII antibodies and their pathogenic potential were studied during the progress of established CIA in the rat. CIA was induced in mature female Lewis rats by two subcutaneous inoculations containing bovine native CII (BCIIn), emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Clinical arthritis fully developed by day 18 and then EB (1 mg/kg body wt per day, diluted in corn oil (CO)) was administered intramuscularly every second day thereafter. Antibodies binding four different CIIs (bovine or rat, either native or heat-denatured) were detected in sera and joint tissue extracts by means of solid-phase ELISA. Pharmacological doses of EB (>0·2 mg/kg body wt per day) caused significant remission of established CIA 5-7 days after treatment, and selectively suppressed the production of antibodies specific for denatured CII. To evaluate the arthritogenic potential of circulating anti-CIId IgG, transfer experiments were performed. IgG anti-CIIn, purified from EB-treated CIA rats, was not arthritogenic, whereas IgG anti-denatured (CIId), purified from CO-treated CIA rats, caused severe passive arthritis. Furthermore, pretreatment with rat CIId protected against subsequent induction of CIA, and this protection was associated with suppressed antibody production against CIId. Collectively, our results indicate that antibodies specific for CIId are involved in the pathogenesis of CIA, and that oestrogen-related remission of clinical arthritis may be caused by a selective suppression of antibodies produced against degraded/denatured CII. PMID:8608634

  15. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  16. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves. PMID:24779907

  17. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves.

  18. Toxicity and bioefficacy of individual and combination of diversified insecticides against jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Ramesh, V; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, S

    2015-11-01

    Toxicity of conventional (profenofos 50 EC and λ-cyhalothrin 5 EC) and non-conventional (flubendiamide 480 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG) insecticides was determined on the basis of median lethal concentration (LC50) values on third instar larvae of jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua under laboratory conditions. Further, the promising binary insecticides combinations with lesser LC50 values and adequate synergistic activity were evaluated under field conditions. The LC50 values calculated for insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and profenophos were 0.212, 0.232, 0.511, 0.985 and 3.263 ppm, respectively. Likewise, the LC50 values for flubendiamide with λ-cyhalothrin in 3:1 proportion was most toxic (0.103 ppm) amongst all the other binary combinations with λ-cyhalothrin. Chlorantraniliprole in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion (0.209 ppm) was most toxic followed by 3:1 proportion (0.345 ppm). Similarly, emamectin benzoate in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion was more toxic (0.271 ppm) than 3:1 ratio (0.333 ppm). Toxicity index of flubendiamide + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1 ratio) was highest (970.87). Bioefficacy of synergistic binary combinations along with individual insecticides established the superiority of profenophos + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1) with 89.12% reduction in infestation and recorded maximum fibre yield 38.67qha' under field condition. Moreover, combination of diverse insecticides group might sustain toxicity against the target insect for longer period with least probability of resistance development. PMID:26688981

  19. Toxicity and bioefficacy of individual and combination of diversified insecticides against jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Ramesh, V; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, S

    2015-11-01

    Toxicity of conventional (profenofos 50 EC and λ-cyhalothrin 5 EC) and non-conventional (flubendiamide 480 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG) insecticides was determined on the basis of median lethal concentration (LC50) values on third instar larvae of jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua under laboratory conditions. Further, the promising binary insecticides combinations with lesser LC50 values and adequate synergistic activity were evaluated under field conditions. The LC50 values calculated for insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and profenophos were 0.212, 0.232, 0.511, 0.985 and 3.263 ppm, respectively. Likewise, the LC50 values for flubendiamide with λ-cyhalothrin in 3:1 proportion was most toxic (0.103 ppm) amongst all the other binary combinations with λ-cyhalothrin. Chlorantraniliprole in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion (0.209 ppm) was most toxic followed by 3:1 proportion (0.345 ppm). Similarly, emamectin benzoate in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion was more toxic (0.271 ppm) than 3:1 ratio (0.333 ppm). Toxicity index of flubendiamide + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1 ratio) was highest (970.87). Bioefficacy of synergistic binary combinations along with individual insecticides established the superiority of profenophos + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1) with 89.12% reduction in infestation and recorded maximum fibre yield 38.67qha' under field condition. Moreover, combination of diverse insecticides group might sustain toxicity against the target insect for longer period with least probability of resistance development.

  20. Crystal structure of μ-4-oxidobenzoato-κ2 O 1:O 4-bis­[bis­(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] bis­(4-hy­droxy­benzoate) 7.5-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jian-Rong; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The title hydrated complex, [Cu2(C7H4O3)(C12H8N2)4](C7H5O3)2·7.5H2O, is composed of dinuclear CuII complex cations, noncoordinating 4-hy­droxy­benzoate anions and water mol­ecules of crystallization. In the dinuclear complex cation, the CuII ions are bridged by a 4-oxidobenzoate ligand and thus each metal ion is five-coordinated by two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) mol­ecules and one anionic O atom in a distorted trigonal-bipyramid geometry. In the crystal, aromatic π–π stacking occurs between phen rings of neighbouring dinuclear CuII complex cations, forming two-dimensional supra­molecular systems parallel to (100). PMID:27746927

  1. Determination of avermectins: a QuEChERS approach to the analysis of food samples.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, A; Antkowiak, S; Granados, M; Companyó, R; Centrich, F

    2015-08-15

    We present a simple method for extracting avermectines from meat, based on a QuEChERS approach followed by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to triple quadrupole (QqQ) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The compounds considered are ivermectin, abamectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, doramectin and moxidectin. The new method has been fully validated according to the requirements of European Decision 657/2002/CE (EU, 2002). The method is suitable for the analysis of avermectins at concentration as low as 2.5 μg kg(-1), and allows high sample throughput. In addition, the detection of avermectins by high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole-Orbritrap (Q-Orbitrap) hybrid instrument has been explored, and the target Selected Ion Monitoring data dependent MS/MS (t-SIM-dd MS/MS) mode has been found to provide excellent performance for residue determination of target analytes.

  2. Determination of avermectins: a QuEChERS approach to the analysis of food samples.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, A; Antkowiak, S; Granados, M; Companyó, R; Centrich, F

    2015-08-15

    We present a simple method for extracting avermectines from meat, based on a QuEChERS approach followed by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to triple quadrupole (QqQ) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The compounds considered are ivermectin, abamectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, doramectin and moxidectin. The new method has been fully validated according to the requirements of European Decision 657/2002/CE (EU, 2002). The method is suitable for the analysis of avermectins at concentration as low as 2.5 μg kg(-1), and allows high sample throughput. In addition, the detection of avermectins by high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole-Orbritrap (Q-Orbitrap) hybrid instrument has been explored, and the target Selected Ion Monitoring data dependent MS/MS (t-SIM-dd MS/MS) mode has been found to provide excellent performance for residue determination of target analytes. PMID:25794721

  3. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  4. A review on the toxicity and non-target effects of macrocyclic lactones in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Errouissi, Faiek; Floate, Kevin; Römbke, Jörg; Wardhaugh, Keith

    2012-05-01

    The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin

  5. A Review on the Toxicity and Non-Target Effects of Macrocyclic Lactones in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Errouissi, Faiek; Floate, Kevin; Römbke, Jörg; Wardhaugh, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin

  6. Compounds altering fat storage in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Rita; Garreta, Elba; Campos, Bruno; Lemos, Marco F L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Tauler, Romà; Barata, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of lipid disruptive effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the lipid metabolic pathways. A recent study showed that tributyltin activated the ecdysteroid, juvenile hormone and retinoic X receptor signaling pathways, and disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in post-spawning females. Tributyltin disruptive effects correlated with lower fitness for offspring and adults. The present study aims to addresses effects of existing compounds on storage lipids in post-spawning females and their health effects. D. magna individuals were exposed 12 chemicals that included vertebrate obesogens (tributyltin, triphenyltin, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), other contaminants known to affect arthropods (pyriproxyfen, fenarimol, methoprene, emamectin benzoate and fluoxetine), as well as the natural hormones methyl farnesoate and 20-hydroxyecdysone. Reproductive effects were also assessed. Quantitative changes in storage lipids accumulated in lipid droplets were studied using Nile red staining, which showed a close relationship with whole organism levels of triacylglycerols. Ten compounds altered storage lipids in a concentration related manner enhancing (tributyltin, bisphenol A, methyl farnesoate, pyriproxyfen and 20-hydroxyecdysone) or decreasing (nonylphenol, fenarimol, emamectin benzoate, methoprene and fluoxetine) their levels in post-spawning females. Eight compounds that altered lipid levels also had detrimental effects on growth and/or reproduction. PMID:26747981

  7. Compounds altering fat storage in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Rita; Garreta, Elba; Campos, Bruno; Lemos, Marco F L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Tauler, Romà; Barata, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of lipid disruptive effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the lipid metabolic pathways. A recent study showed that tributyltin activated the ecdysteroid, juvenile hormone and retinoic X receptor signaling pathways, and disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in post-spawning females. Tributyltin disruptive effects correlated with lower fitness for offspring and adults. The present study aims to addresses effects of existing compounds on storage lipids in post-spawning females and their health effects. D. magna individuals were exposed 12 chemicals that included vertebrate obesogens (tributyltin, triphenyltin, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), other contaminants known to affect arthropods (pyriproxyfen, fenarimol, methoprene, emamectin benzoate and fluoxetine), as well as the natural hormones methyl farnesoate and 20-hydroxyecdysone. Reproductive effects were also assessed. Quantitative changes in storage lipids accumulated in lipid droplets were studied using Nile red staining, which showed a close relationship with whole organism levels of triacylglycerols. Ten compounds altered storage lipids in a concentration related manner enhancing (tributyltin, bisphenol A, methyl farnesoate, pyriproxyfen and 20-hydroxyecdysone) or decreasing (nonylphenol, fenarimol, emamectin benzoate, methoprene and fluoxetine) their levels in post-spawning females. Eight compounds that altered lipid levels also had detrimental effects on growth and/or reproduction.

  8. N-Succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[18F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(guanidinomethyl)benzoate ([18F]SFBTMGMB): A Residualizing Label for 18F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; McDougald, Darryl; Choi, Jaeyeon; Pruszynski, Marek; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Residualizing labeling methods for internalizing peptides and proteins are designed to trap the radionuclide inside the cell after intracellular degradation of the biomolecule. The goal of this work was to develop a residualizing label for the 18F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules based on a template used successfully for radioiodination. N-succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[18F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(bis-Boc-guanidinomethyl)benzoate (Boc2-[18F]SFBTMGMB) was synthesized by click reaction of an azide precursor and [18F]fluorohexyne in 8.5 ± 2.8% average decay-corrected radiochemical yield (n =15). An anti-HER2 nanobody 5F7 was labeled with 18F using [18F]SFBTMGMB ([18F]RL-I), obtained by the deprotection of Boc2-[18F]SFBTMGMB, in 31.2 ± 6.7% (n =5) conjugation efficiency. Thus labeled nanobody had a radiochemical purity of >95%, bound to the HER2-expressing BT474M1 breast cancer cells with an affinity of 4.7 ± 0.9 nM, and had an immunoreactive fraction of 62–80%. In summary, a novel residualizing prosthetic agent for labeling biomolecules with 18F has been developed. An anti-HER2 nanobody was labeled using this prosthetic group with retention of affinity and immunoreactivity to HER2. PMID:26645790

  9. N-Succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[(18)F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(guanidinomethyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SFBTMGMB): a residualizing label for (18)F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; McDougald, Darryl; Choi, Jaeyeon; Pruszynski, Marek; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2016-01-28

    Residualizing labeling methods for internalizing peptides and proteins are designed to trap the radionuclide inside the cell after intracellular degradation of the biomolecule. The goal of this work was to develop a residualizing label for the (18)F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules based on a template used successfully for radioiodination. N-Succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[(18)F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(bis-Boc-guanidinomethyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SFBTMGMB-Boc2) was synthesized by a click reaction of an azide precursor and [(18)F]fluorohexyne in 8.5 ± 2.8% average decay-corrected radiochemical yield (n = 15). An anti-HER2 nanobody 5F7 was labeled with (18)F using [(18)F]SFBTMGMB ([(18)F]RL-I), obtained by the deprotection of [(18)F]SFBTMGMB-Boc2, in 31.2 ± 6.7% (n = 5) conjugation efficiency. The labeled nanobody had a radiochemical purity of >95%, bound to HER2-expressing BT474M1 breast cancer cells with an affinity of 4.7 ± 0.9 nM, and had an immunoreactive fraction of 62-80%. In summary, a novel residualizing prosthetic agent for labeling biomolecules with (18)F has been developed. An anti-HER2 nanobody was labeled using this prosthetic group with retention of affinity and immunoreactivity to HER2.

  10. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is killed by homologues of 2-(1-undecyloxy)-1-ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-01-01

    2-(1-Undecyloxy)-1-ethanol, monochamol, is a male-produced aggregation pheromone of the Monochamus species, which are efficient vectors of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which cause devastating damage to pines worldwide. The nematicidal activity of synthetic monochamol and its homologues (ROEtOH: R = C7-C13) were investigated to find potential alternatives to the currently used PWN control agents abamectin and emamectin. Compounds with C7-C13 chain length alkyl groups exhibited 100% nematicidal activity at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. At a concentration of 100 mg/L, 2-(1-nonyloxy)-1-ethanol (C9OEtOH), 2-(1-decyloxy)-1-ethanol (C10OEtOH), 2-(1-undecyloxy)-1-ethanol (C11OEtOH), and 2-(1-dodecyloxy)-1-ethanol (C12OEtOH) showed 100% nematicidal activity, but the others showed weaker activities. C11OEtOH showed similar nematicidal activity to abamectin in terms of LD90 values, which were 13.30 and 12.53 mg/L, respectively. However, C9OEtOH, C10OEtOH, and C12OEtOH (LC90 values: 53.63, 38.18, and 46.68 mg/L, respectively) were less effective than C11OEtOH and abamectin. These results indicate that monochamol could be an effective alternative agent against PWN. The relationship of insecticidal and nematicidal activity to different carbon chain lengths in compounds is discussed. PMID:27403600

  11. Crystal structure of (±)-(4RS,5RS,7SR)-4-[(1RS,2RS,3RS,6RS)-3-benzo­yloxy-2-(2-hy­droxy­ethyl)-6-meth­oxy­meth­oxy-2-methyl­cyclo­hex­yl]-8,10,10-trimethyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxa­spiro­[4.5]dec-8-en-7-yl benzoate benzene monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Yuu; Fukaya, Keisuke; Sugai, Tomoya; Watanabe, Ami; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C36H44O10·C6H6, the dioxolane ring adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom bonded to the H atom as the flap, while the cyclo­hexene and cyclo­hexane rings are in half-chair and chair conformations, respectively. In the crystal, a pair of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R 2 2(26) graph-set motif connect the benzoate mol­ecules into an inversion dimer. The dimers are linked by a weak C—H⋯O inter­action into a tape structure along [01-1]. The benzene mol­ecule links the tapes through C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a sheet parallel to (100). PMID:25705437

  12. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the putative breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor [11C]methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl)amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Langer, Oliver; Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Stanek, Johann; Dörner, Bernd; Bauer, Florian; Baumgartner, Christoph; Löscher, Wolfgang; Erker, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The multidrug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where it limits brain entry of a broad range of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl)amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate (1) is a recently discovered BCRP-selective inhibitor, which is structurally derived from the potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar. The aim of this study was to develop a new PET tracer based on 1 to map BCRP expression levels in vivo. Methods 1 was labelled with 11C in its methyl ester function by reaction of the corresponding carboxylic acid 2 with [11C]methyl triflate. PET imaging of [11C]-1 was performed in wild-type, Mdr1a/b(−/−), Bcrp1(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice (n=3 per mouse type) and radiotracer metabolism was assessed in plasma and brain. Results Brain-to-plasma ratios of unchanged [11C]-1 were 4.8- and 10.3-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(−/−) and in Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice, respectively, as compared to wild-type animals, but only modestly increased in Bcrp1(−/−) mice. [11C]-1 was rapidly metabolized in vivo giving rise to a polar radiometabolite which was taken up into brain tissue. Conclusion Our data suggest that [11C]-1 preferably interacts with P-gp rather than BCRP at the murine BBB which questions its reported in vitro BCRP selectivity. Consequently, [11C]-1 appears to be unsuitable as a PET tracer to map cerebral BCRP expression. PMID:20610168

  13. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....240 and 556.739 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Steers fed in confinement for slaughter. (i...) Heifers fed in confinement for slaughter—(i) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 28 mg...

  14. Methyl 4-(piperidin-1-ylcarbon­yl)benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, R. M. D.; Landre, I. M. R.; Souza, T. E.; Veloso, M. P.; Doriguetto, A. C

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H17NO3, the piperidine ring has a chair conformation and an intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action stabilizes the mol­ecular conformation. In the crystal, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions occur. PMID:21587861

  15. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... been established in veal calves. A withdrawal period has not been established for this product in preruminating calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. (ii) For an implant as described in.... Safety and effectiveness have not been established in veal calves. A withdrawal period has not...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... been established in veal calves. A withdrawal period has not been established for this product in preruminating calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. (ii) For an implant as described in.... Safety and effectiveness have not been established in veal calves. A withdrawal period has not...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1940 - Progesterone and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... 400 pounds (lb) of body weight. For subcutaneous ear implantation, one dose per animal. Do not use in bull calves intended for reproduction. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in...

  18. 3-(2-Bromo-acet-yl)phenyl benzoate.

    PubMed

    Ambekar, Sachin P; Devarajegowda, H C; Shylajakumari, J; Kumar, K Mahesh; Kotresh, O

    2013-03-01

    In the title compound, C15H11BrO3, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 72.59 (6)°. In the crystal, pairs of C-H⋯π contacts form inversion dimers. Additional C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R2(1)(6) ring motifs and stack these dimers along the b axis. Short inter-molecular Br⋯O contacts of 3.254 (3) Å are also observed and link the stacks into a three-dimensional network. PMID:23476520

  19. Continuous system with microwave irradiation to obtain alkyl benzoates.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Ana; Jaimes, María; Chávez, Gerson; Bravo, Bélgica; Ysambertt, Fredy; Márquez, Nelson

    2005-12-15

    In this study, a continuous linear alcohol derivatization is developed. Reaction of alcohol group (ROH) with benzoyl chloride (BC) is carried out in an on-line system with UV detection. All reaction conditions, as flow rate (FR), ROH/BC molar ratio, wavelength, temperature, microwave (MW) irradiation and reaction coil size (internal diameter and length) were optimized. 0.5mLmin(-1), 2.49 [BC]/[ROH], 230nm, 60 degrees C or medium power (225W) when MW irradiation was used and a reactor coil of 159muL (0.5mmx810mm) were the optimum conditions. The on-line system with microwave irradiation was more efficient than the one with a water bath heating. The developed system reduces analysis time consumption, reagent amounts and this system was used to evaluate the composition of commercial samples of alcohols polyethoxylated (surfactants).

  20. 21 CFR 522.1940 - Progesterone and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in calves to be processed for veal. (2) Steers—(i) Amount—(A) 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol... calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. (3) Steers fed in confinement for...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1940 - Progesterone and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in calves to be processed for veal. (2) Steers—(i) Amount—(A) 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol... calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. (3) Steers fed in confinement for...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1940 - Progesterone and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in calves to be processed for veal. (2) Steers—(i) Amount—(A) 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol... calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. (3) Steers fed in confinement for...

  3. Methyl 4-(butyrylamino)-5-methyl-2-nitro-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lian-Shan; Li, Xiang; Yao, Cheng

    2008-03-29

    The title compound, C(13)H(16)N(2)O(5), is useful as an inter-mediate in the field of agrochemicals. Intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of one six- and one five-membered nearly planar ring; the six-membered ring is also nearly coplanar with the adjacent benzene ring. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules.

  4. Efficacy of some oils and chemical compounds on Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae) infesting Lantana camara in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moursi, S Khadiga; Abo-Shanab, A S H; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak, S I; Mourad, A K; Zaghloul, O A; Abdel-Fatah, R S

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in March, 2008 in El-Nouzha garden, Alexandria governorate. Pre-and post treatment inspections of the insects were examined and recorded before and after (2,4,8, and 12 weeks). Spraying was applied to evaluate the efficiency of the tested compounds, [Mineral oils (KZ oil and Star oil); IGRs (Chlorfluazuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen); Neem oil; emamectin benzoate and thiamethoxam]. Percentages of reduction were calculated. The ensign scale insects Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) were collected from treated Lantana camara shrubs to investigate the effect of the tested chemicals on Aspartate transferase (AST), Alanine transferase (ALT) and Alkaline-phosphatase (ALPK) of the insect enzymes activities. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the tested materials gave good results for controlling both adult and immature stages of the ensign scale insect Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) that infested Lantana camara shrubs, through affecting enzymes activities of the assigned insect pest. PMID:21539253

  5. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis.

  6. 78 FR 55695 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ..., Greensboro, NC 27419. Active ingredient: Avermectin (Abamectin). Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Use... ingredient: Avermectin (Abamectin). Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Use: Caneberries (Group 13-07A). 3... 27419. Active ingredient: Avermectin (Abamectin). Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: Corn...

  7. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  8. The Effect of Temperature on the Toxicity of Insecticides against Musca domestica L.: Implications for the Effective Management of Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality in developing countries like Pakistan because of unhygienic conditions, lack of awareness, and unwise use of preventive measures. Mechanical transmission of diarrheal pathogens by house flies, Musca domestica, is believed as the most effective route of diarrhea transmission. Although the use of insecticides as a preventive measure is common worldwide for the management of house flies, success of the measure could be compromised by the prevailing environmental temperature since it significantly affects toxicity of insecticides and thus their efficacy. Peaks of the house fly density and diarrheal cases are usually coincided and season specific, yet little is known about the season specific use of insecticides. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the temperature-toxicity relationship in house flies, the effect of post-bioassays temperature (range, 20–34°C) on the toxicity of seven insecticides from organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, profenofos), pyrethroid (cypermethrin, deltamethrin) and new chemical (emamectin benzoate, fipronil, spinosad) classes was evaluated by using a feeding bioassay method. From 20–34°C, the toxicities of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil increased 2.10, 2.93, 2.40 and 3.82 fold (i.e. positive temperature coefficient), respectively. Whereas, the toxicities of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and spinosad decreased 2.21, 2.42 and 3.16 fold (i.e. negative temperature coefficient), respectively. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that for the reduction in diarrheal cases, house flies should be controlled with insecticides according to the prevailing environmental temperature. Insecticides with a positive temperature coefficient may serve as potential candidates in controlling house flies and diarrhea epidemics in hot season and vice versa. PMID:24743188

  9. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  10. Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-04-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), are ubiquitous pests that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans, poultries, and dairies. Pesticides are commonly used for the management of this pest. Fipronil is a GABA-gated chloride channel-inhibiting insecticide that has been commonly used for the management of different pests including M. domestica throughout the world. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A field-collected strain of M. domestica was selected with fipronil for continuous 11 generations to assess the cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability for designing a resistance management strategy. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions and cotton soaks dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results at G12 showed that the fipronil-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 140-fold compared to the susceptible strain. Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that fipronil resistance was associated with microsomal oxidase and also esterase. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible strains showed an autosomal and incompletely dominant resistance to fipronil. The LC50 values of F1 and F'1 strains were not significantly different and dominance values were 0.74 and 0.64, respectively. The resistance to fipronil was completely recessive (D(ML) = 0.00) at the highest dose and incompletely dominant at the lowest dose (D(ML) = 0.87). The monogenic resistance based on chi-square goodness of fit test and calculation of the minimum number of segregating genes showed that resistance to fipronil is controlled by multiple genes. The fipronil resistance strain confirmed very low cross-resistance to emamectin benzoate and spinosad while no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid when compared to that of the field population

  11. Using organic-certified rather than synthetic pesticides may not be safer for biological control agents: selectivity and side effects of 14 pesticides on the predator Orius laevigatus.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Siscaro, Gaetano; Zappalà, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    The generalist predator Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a key natural enemy of various arthropods in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Releases of this predator are frequently carried out, and it is included in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs of several crops. The accurate assessment of the compatibility of various pesticides with predator activity is key for the success of this strategy. We assessed acute and sublethal toxicity of 14 pesticides on O. laevigatus adults under laboratory conditions. Pesticides commonly used in either conventional or organic farming were selected for the study, including six biopesticides, three synthetic insecticides, two sulfur compounds and three adjuvants. To assess the pesticides' residual persistence, the predator was exposed for 3d to pesticide residues on tomato sprouts that had been treated 1 h, 7 d or 14 d prior to the assay. The percentage of mortality and the sublethal effects on predator reproductive capacity were summarized in a reduction coefficient (E(x)) and the pesticides were classified according to the IOBC (International Organization for Biological Control) toxicity categories. The results showed that the pesticides greatly differed in their toxicity, both in terms of lethal and sub lethal effects, as well as in their persistence. In particular, abamectin was the most noxious and persistent, and was classified as harmful up to 14 d after the treatment, causing almost 100% mortality. Spinosad, emamectin, metaflumizone were moderately harmful until 7 d after the treatment, while the other pesticides were slightly harmful or harmless. The results, based on the combination of assessment of acute mortality, predator reproductive capacity pesticides residual and pesticides residual persistence, stress the need of using complementary bioassays (e.g. assessment of lethal and sublethal effects) to carefully select the pesticides to be used in IPM programs and appropriately time the

  12. 4-[Bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-ium 2-(2-phenylethyl)benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Richard; Gerber, Thomas; Hosten, Eric; Dayananda, Alaloor S.; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C17H19F2N2 +.C15H13O2 −, derived from a 1,4-diaza­cyclo­hexane derivative and a carb­oxy­lic acid, contains two formula units. The cation is protonated at the secondary amine functionality. The six-membered heterocycles adopt chair conformations. The fluorophenyl rings in the two cations make dihedral angles of 77.21 (19) and 78.8 (2)° while the aromatic rings in the anions enclose angles of 69.5 (2) and 69.9 (2)°. In the crystal, classical N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as C—H⋯F and C—H⋯O contacts connect the entities into layers parallel to ac. PMID:22064768

  13. Crystal structure of 4-formyl-2-nitro-phenyl 4-chloro-2-nitro-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo; Hernández, Geraldine; Ellena, Javier; De Simone, Carlos A; Tenorio, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C14H7ClN2O7, the central ester moiety is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0113 Å. The ester group is twisted away from the chloro- and formyl-substituted rings by 84.60 (9) and 88.55 (9)°, respectively. The crystal packing shows inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions. These inter-actions generate R 2 (2)(20) and R 4 (4)(22) edge-fused rings parallel to (20-2). PMID:26870539

  14. Crystal structure of quinolinium 2-carboxy-6-nitro­benzoate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Mohana, J.; Divya Bharathi, M.; Ahila, G.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Anbalagan, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the anion of the title hydrated mol­ecular salt, C9H8N+·C8H4NO6 −·H2O, the protonated carboxyl and nitro groups makes dihedral angles of 27.56 (5) and 6.86 (8)°, respectively, with the attached benzene ring, whereas the deprotonated carb­oxy group is almost orthogonal to it with a dihedral angle of 80.21 (1)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating [001] chains. The packing is consolidated by weak C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O inter­actions as well as aromatic π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distances: 3.7023 (8) & 3.6590 (9)Å] inter­actions, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:25995899

  15. Different dimensional coordination polymers with 4,4'-oxybis(benzoate): Syntheses, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lun, Huijie; Li, Yamin; Zhang, Xudong; Yang, Jing-He; Xiao, Changyu; Xu, Yanqing; Li, Junrui

    2014-07-01

    Five transition-metal coordination polymers, namely, [Zn{sub 7}Cl{sub 6}(oba){sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Cd{sub 7}Cl{sub 6}(oba){sub 4}]{sub n} (2), [Zn(oba)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (3), [Ag{sub 2}(oba)]{sub n} (4) and [Co(oba)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (5) (H{sub 2}oba=4,4′-oxydibenzoic acid), have been achieved under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isomorphism, featuring pillared-layer 3D motifs, in which the 2D inorganic layers (Zn{sub 6}Cl{sub 7}){sub n} (or (Cd{sub 6}Cl{sub 7}){sub n}) are connected by oba{sup 2−} pillars. Compound 3 exhibits 1D stair-like chain and extends to a 3D network by two different interchain O–H–O hydrogen bonding interactions while compound 4 features wave chains and stretches to 2D layer by interchain Ag–O weak contacts. Compound 5 shows 2D network in which Co-chains are pillared by oba{sup 2−} ligand and then forms a 3D network by four different O–H–O hydrogen bonding interactions. Furthermore, 1–4 exhibit luminescent properties at a solid state and 5 shows antiferromagnetic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Five new transition-metal coordination complexes 1–5 have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), photoluminescent spectra and magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Compound 1 exhibits a pillared-layer 3D network. • The photoluminescent properties of 1–4 have been measured. • Compound 5 exhibits antiferromagnetic behavior.

  16. 76 FR 12873 - Potassium Benzoate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...) 305-5805. II. Petition for Exemption In the Federal Register of February 6, 2008 (73 FR 6964) (FRL... (73 FR 31862) (FRL-8365-3), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408 of FFDCA, 21 U.S.C. 346a..., entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has...

  17. 77 FR 31722 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Estradiol; Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 522, and 558 New Animal Drugs; Change of... amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for 17 new animal drug applications (NADAs) and abbreviated new animal drug applications (ANADAs) for various steroid ear implants for...

  18. 2-Amino-5-methyl-pyridinium 2-hy-droxy-5-chloro-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In the 5-chloro-salicylate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2(+)·C7H4ClO3(-), an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond with an S(6) graph-set motif is observed and the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the -CO2 group is 1.6 (6)°. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl-ate O atoms via a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R2(2)(8) ring motif. The crystal structure also features N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions, resulting in a layer parallel to (10-1). PMID:23476391

  19. 3-[2-(Aminomethyl)-5-[(pyridin-4-yl)carbamoyl]phenyl] benzoates as soft ROCK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Boland, Sandro; Defert, Olivier; Alen, Jo; Bourin, Arnaud; Castermans, Karolien; Kindt, Nele; Boumans, Nicki; Panitti, Laura; Van de Velde, Sarah; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Leysen, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Clinical development of ROCK inhibitors has so far been limited by systemic or local ROCK-associated side effects. A soft drug approach, which involves predictable metabolic inactivation of an active compound to a nontoxic metabolite, could represent an attractive way to obtain ROCK inhibitors with improved tolerability. We herein report the design and synthesis of a new series of soft ROCK inhibitors structurally related to the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. These inhibitors contain carboxylic ester moieties which allow inactivation by esterases. While the parent esters display strong activity in enzymatic (ROCK2) and cellular (MLC phosphorylation) assays, their corresponding carboxylic acid metabolites have negligible functional activity. Compound 32 combined strong efficacy (ROCK2 IC50=2.5 nM) with rapid inactivation in plasma (t1/2 <5'). Compound 32 also demonstrated in vivo efficacy when evaluated as an IOP-lowering agent in ocular normotensive New-Zealand White rabbits, without ocular side effects.

  20. Instabilities across the isotropic conductivity point in a nematic phenyl benzoate under AC driving.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramoda; Patil, Shivaram N; Hiremath, Uma S; Krishnamurthy, K S

    2007-08-01

    We characterize the sequence of bifurcations generated by ac fields in a nematic layer held between unidirectionally rubbed ITO electrodes. The material, which possesses a negative dielectric anisotropy epsilona and an inversion temperature for electrical conductivity anisotropy sigmaa, exhibits a monostable tilted alignment near TIN, the isotropic-nematic point. On cooling, an anchoring transition to the homeotropic configuration occurs close to the underlying smectic phase. The field experiments are performed for (i) negative sigmaa and homeotropic alignment, and (ii) weakly positive sigmaa and nearly homeotropic alignment. Under ac driving, the Freedericksz transition is followed by bifurcation into various patterned states. Among them are the striped states that seem to belong to the dielectric regime and localized hybrid instabilities. Very significantly, the patterned instabilities are not excited by dc fields, indicating their possible gradient flexoelectric origin. The Carr-Helfrich mechanism-based theories that take account of flexoelectric terms can explain the observed electroconvective effects only in part. PMID:17616118

  1. 2-Amino-5-bromo­pyridinium 5-chloro-2-hy­droxy­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In the 5-chloro­salicylate anion of the title salt, C5H6BrN2 +·C7H4ClO3 −, an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond with an S(6) graph-set motif is formed, so that the anion is essentially planar with a dihedral angle of 1.3 (5)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The crystal structure also features N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, resulting in a layer parallel to the (10-1) plane. PMID:23634078

  2. 2-Amino-4-methyl­pyridinium 3-hy­droxy­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H5O3 −, the anion is essentially planar, with a dihedral angle of 2.72 (17)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In the crystal, the anions are connected by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a 41 helical chain along the c axis. The protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The ion pairs are further connected via another N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:24046675

  3. Ammonium 2-(3,4-di­methyl­benzo­yl)benzoate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Hui; Yuan, Yue-Lin; Kou, Jun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In the anion of the title compound, NH4 +·C16H13O3 −·2H2O, the benzene rings are twisted with respect to each other by 73.56 (10)°. In the crystal, extensive N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the cations, anions and lattice water mol­ecules into a three dimensional supra­molecular structure. PMID:23795043

  4. 2,4,6-Tri­nitro­phenyl 3-bromo­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo; Mosquera, Fabricio; Ellena, Javier; Tenorio, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    In the title picryl-substituted ester, C13H6BrN3O8, the mean plane of the central ester C–O–C(=O)–C fragment (r.m.s. deviation= 0.0186 Å) is rotated by 84.73 (7)° and 19.92 (12)° to the picryl and phenyl rings, respectively. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming centrosymmetric dimers enclosing R 2 2(10) and R 2 2(22) ring motifs along [001] and further helical chains of dimers enclosing R 2 2(10) ring motifs along [010]. PMID:24940266

  5. Phenyl 3-meth­oxy-4-phen­oxy­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Zheng, Shuai; Chen, Gang; Wang, Wenjing; Du, Zhenting

    2011-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C20H16O4, the two outermost phenyl rings form dihedral angles of 79.80 (7) and 69.35 (7)° with the central benzene ring. In the crystal structure, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into ribbons propagating along [10]. PMID:22058990

  6. 2-Amino-4-methyl­pyridinium 3-chloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H4ClO2 −, the 2-amino-4-methyl­pyridinium cation is almost planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.010 (1) Å. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The ion pairs are further connected via N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21588043

  7. 2-Amino-4-methylpyridinium 2-hy­droxy-3,5-dinitro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Quah, Ching Kheng; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    In the anion of the title mol­ecular salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H3N2O7 −, the two nitro groups are twisted from the attached benzene ring with dihedral angles of 27.36 (10) and 4.86 (11)°. The anion is stabilized by an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O inter­actions and are further consolidated by C—H⋯π inter­actions, to generate a three-dimensional network. A short O⋯N contact of 2.876 (2) Å also occurs. PMID:21588262

  8. Ethyl 4-ethyl­amino-3-nitro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao-Yuan; Liu, Bo-Nian; Tang, Shi-Gui; Guo, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, C11H14N2O4, a bifurcated intra/intermolecular N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bond occurs.The intramolecular component results in a non-planar six-membered ring with a flattened-boat conformation. In the crystal structure, the inter­molecular interaction links the mol­ecules into chains parallel to the b axis. PMID:21581844

  9. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  10. The Toxicology and Biochemical Characterization of Cantharidin on Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Wei; Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, reported to be toxic to some pests, is being developed as a biopesticide in China. This study evaluates the toxicity and biochemical characterization of cantharidin on the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an economically important fruit pest, under both laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory dose response bioassays showed that the LC50 value of cantharidin against neonate larvae was 0.057 mg ml(-1). Exposure of the larvae to 0.024 and 0.057 mg ml(-1) of cantharidin resulted in significant reduction in larval body weight. Neonate larvae exposed to LC10 of cantharidin showed increased glutathione S-transferase activity and significantly reduced the carboxylesterase and cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidase activities. Results also showed 16 and 25% ovicidal activity at concentrations of 0.057 and 0.14 mg ml(-1) of cantharidin, respectively. Field trials demonstrated cantharidin has a significant effect on both the first and second generations of C. pomonella larvae, but it exhibits a lower control efficiency than the chemical reference emamectin benzoate. Cantharidin may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth.

  11. Effectiveness of 12 Insecticides to a Laboratory Population of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Newly Established in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Shang, Su-Qin

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest that has spread rapidly from its original site in Xinjiang to other northwestern regions of China. Insecticides are widely used to control this pest but its invasion has never been completely stopped. The aim of this study was to establish a laboratory population of the codling moth occurring in China, to investigate the effectiveness of 12 conventional insecticides to this laboratory population, and to recommend the discriminating doses for use in resistance monitoring. The laboratory population was generally similar to other laboratory strains although parameters such as survival rate and larval duration were low when compared with field populations. Toxicity varied among the insecticides tested with LC50 values ranging from 0.016 mg/l for emamectin benzoate to 55.77 mg/l for chlorbenzuron. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field populations. Effectiveness of 12 insecticides to a laboratory population of codling moth in China was evaluated for the first time. This can be integrated into resistance management strategies, especially in orchards with a history of frequent insecticides applications, in order to monitor or decrease insecticide resistance in the future.

  12. Single-dose field bioassay for sensitivity testing in sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis: development of a rapid diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, K O; Horsberg, T E

    2013-03-01

    Sea lice on farmed salmonids are often treated with chemicals. Sensitivity testing of sea lice can reduce the number of treatments by identifying substances the sea lice are susceptible to. This study describes a simpler protocol for field sensitivity testing than today's six-dose bioassay. The protocol, which uses a single dose of the delousing agents deltamethrin, azamethiphos and emamectin benzoate, was developed on four different strains of sea lice and their subsequent generations. A sensitive strain and a strain showing reduced sensitivity were identified for each chemical after performing traditional bioassays and small-scale treatments. The single doses for each chemical were established by modelling dose-response curves from 24-h bioassays on strains with differences in sensitivity. The largest difference between the lower 80% prediction interval for the sensitive strain and the upper 80% prediction interval for the strain showing reduced sensitivity was identified for each delousing agent. The concentration of the chemical and the % mortality corresponding to each of the 80% prediction intervals were subsequently established. To validate the protocol for field use, further studies on both sensitive and resistant strains of sea lice under field conditions are required.

  13. Temporal and spatial variations in lice numbers on salmon farms in the Hardanger fjord 2004-06.

    PubMed

    Heuch, P A; Olsen, R S; Malkenes, R; Revie, C W; Gettinby, G; Baillie, M; Lees, F; Finstad, B

    2009-01-01

    The long and narrow Hardanger fjord in western Norway has a high density of salmon farms and has had severe salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, problems. In the years 2004-06, salmon lice numbers were recorded in selected salmon farms in the fjord as part of a larger research project. Most farm sites participated in a strategic control programme and were deloused between November and January in each year. The aim of the programme was to achieve a mean abundance of <0.3 adult female lice at this time and to minimize the infection pressure on wild smolts in the spring. Dedicated teams carried out detailed counting of lice on farmed fish in April-September each year. Temperature conditions were fairly similar throughout the fjord and amongst years, but wide variations in salinities were observed. The two innermost zones, B and C, had the lowest lice mean abundances, whereas the outermost zones, D and E, consistently had more lice. General linear model analyses showed that differences in adult female lice abundance between the zones were associated with differing levels of salinity and emamectin benzoate treatments strategically administered. Mean fish weight was significantly positively correlated with mean abundance of adult female lice.

  14. The Toxicology and Biochemical Characterization of Cantharidin on Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Wei; Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, reported to be toxic to some pests, is being developed as a biopesticide in China. This study evaluates the toxicity and biochemical characterization of cantharidin on the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an economically important fruit pest, under both laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory dose response bioassays showed that the LC50 value of cantharidin against neonate larvae was 0.057 mg ml(-1). Exposure of the larvae to 0.024 and 0.057 mg ml(-1) of cantharidin resulted in significant reduction in larval body weight. Neonate larvae exposed to LC10 of cantharidin showed increased glutathione S-transferase activity and significantly reduced the carboxylesterase and cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidase activities. Results also showed 16 and 25% ovicidal activity at concentrations of 0.057 and 0.14 mg ml(-1) of cantharidin, respectively. Field trials demonstrated cantharidin has a significant effect on both the first and second generations of C. pomonella larvae, but it exhibits a lower control efficiency than the chemical reference emamectin benzoate. Cantharidin may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth. PMID:26470125

  15. 4-Carb-oxy-pyridin-1-ium 2,4,5-tri-carb-oxy-benzoate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Arman, Hadi D; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2013-01-01

    The title hydrated salt, C6H6NO2 (+)·C10H5O8 (-)·H2O, was isolated from the 1:1 cocrystallization of benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carb-oxy-lic acid and isonicotinic acid in ethanol solution. In the crystal, the cation is close to planar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.085 Å for the nine fitted atoms; the C-C-C-O(carbon-yl) torsion angle = -8.7 (4)°], but twists are evident in the anion, with all but the carb-oxy-lic acid group diagonally opposite the carboxyl-ate group being significantly twisted out of the plane of the benzene ring [C-C-C-O(carbon-yl) torsion angles = -118.1 (2), -157.6 (2), 4.3 (3) and 77.3 (3)°]. In the crystal, the ions and water mol-ecules are consolidated into a three-dimensional architecture by O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding along with C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:24046677

  16. Methyl 2-(methylthio)benzoate: A sex attractant for the June beetles, Phyllophaga tristis and P. apicata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male antennae of Phyllophaga tristis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were tested using a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD) system for electrophysiological responses to five sex pheromones identified from other Phyllophaga species including L-valine ...

  17. High-pressure nuclear-magnetic-resonance study of carbon-13 relaxation in 2-ethylhexyl benzoate and 2-ethylhexyl cyclohexanecarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamy, S. T.; Grandinetti, P. J.; Masuda, Y.; Campbell, D.; Jonas, J.

    1991-03-01

    Natural abundance carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation times and 13G-1H nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) times of 2-ethyl hexylbenzoate (EHB) and 2-ethyl hexylcyclohexanecarboxylate (EHC) have been measured along isotherms of -20, 0, 20, 40, and 80 °C at pressures of 1-5000 bars using high-pressure, high-resolution NMR techniques. The ability to use pressure as an experimental variable has allowed us to study a wide range of molecular motions from extreme narrowing into the slow motional regime. In addition, the high-resolution capability even at high pressure permits the measurement of 13C and NOE for each individual carbon in the molecules studied. Relaxation in both molecules is successfully analyzed in terms of a model assuming a Cole-Davidson distribution of correlation times. The comparison of parameters used in the model demonstrates the increased flexibility of the EHC ring over the EHB ring and also shows how the presence of the flexible ring contributes to the increased over-all mobility of the EHC molecule. The analysis of molecular reorientations in terms of activation volumes also indicates that EHB motion is highly restricted at low temperature.

  18. Anion-controlled assembly of metal 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl) benzoate complexes: Synthesis, characterization and property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Hai-Wei; Lv, Gao-Chao; Hou, Chao; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2015-03-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid (HL) with Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts provide eight new metal complexes which were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, IR, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Two cadmium frameworks [Cd(L)2]·2H2O (1) and [Cd(L)Cl] (2) have 3D structures with (42.65.83)(42.6) and rtl (4.62)2(42.610.83) topologies, respectively. Structural diversity of four copper complexes [Cu3(L)2]·NO3·0.5H2O (3), [Cu2(HL)2(SO4)]·3.5H2O (4), [Cu(L)(bdc)0.5]·1.5H2O (5) and [Cu2(L)(HL)(Hbdc)] (6) (H2bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) is achieved through the alteration of copper salts and addition of auxiliary ligand. As a result, 3 has a 1D ladder structure, 4 is a discrete dinuclear complex, 5 displays a (3,4)-connected 2-nodal 3-fold interpenetrating framework with (42.6.102.12)(42.6) topology, 6 exhibits a 4-connected uninodal 2D sql (44.62) network. Within the zinc series, ZnCl2 and ZnSO4 were used for the syntheses of [Zn(L)Cl] (7) and [Zn(L)(SO4)0.5]·2H2O (8), respectively. 7 shows a 3-connected uninodal 2D hcb network with (63) topology and 8 is a (3,6)-connected 2-nodal 3D framework with (42.6)2(44.62.88.10) topology. The luminescent properties of the Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes were investigated.

  19. Anion-controlled assembly of metal 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl) benzoate complexes: Synthesis, characterization and property

    SciTech Connect

    Kuai, Hai-Wei; Lv, Gao-Chao; Hou, Chao; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2015-03-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid (HL) with Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts provide eight new metal complexes which were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, IR, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Two cadmium frameworks [Cd(L){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O (1) and [Cd(L)Cl] (2) have 3D structures with (4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3})(4{sup 2}.6) and rtl (4.6{sup 2}){sub 2}(4{sup 2}.6{sup 10}.8{sup 3}) topologies, respectively. Structural diversity of four copper complexes [Cu{sub 3}(L){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·0.5H{sub 2}O (3), [Cu{sub 2}(HL){sub 2}(SO{sub 4})]·3.5H{sub 2}O (4), [Cu(L)(bdc){sub 0.5}]·1.5H{sub 2}O (5) and [Cu{sub 2}(L)(HL)(Hbdc)] (6) (H{sub 2}bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) is achieved through the alteration of copper salts and addition of auxiliary ligand. As a result, 3 has a 1D ladder structure, 4 is a discrete dinuclear complex, 5 displays a (3,4)-connected 2-nodal 3-fold interpenetrating framework with (4{sup 2}.6.10{sup 2}.12)(4{sup 2}.6) topology, 6 exhibits a 4-connected uninodal 2D sql (4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}) network. Within the zinc series, ZnCl{sub 2} and ZnSO{sub 4} were used for the syntheses of [Zn(L)Cl] (7) and [Zn(L)(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.5}]·2H{sub 2}O (8), respectively. 7 shows a 3-connected uninodal 2D hcb network with (6{sup 3}) topology and 8 is a (3,6)-connected 2-nodal 3D framework with (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 8}.10) topology. The luminescent properties of the Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Eight new complexes have been successfully synthesized from the hydrothermal reactions of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts with 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid. The complexes exhibited anion-controlled structural diversity. - Highlights: • Metal complexes have diverse structures of 1D chains, 2D networks and 3D frameworks. • Anion-controlled assembly of the complexes is reported. • The luminescent properties of the Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes were investigated.

  20. Isopropyl­aminium 2-carb­oxy-4,5-di­chloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2010-01-01

    In the structure of the 1:1 proton-transfer compound of isopropyl­amine with 4,5-dichloro­phthalic acid, C3H10N+·C8H3Cl2O4 −, the three cation H-atom donors associate with three separate carboxyl O-atom anion acceptors, giving conjoint cyclic R 4 4(12), R 4 4(16) hydrogen-bonding cation–anion inter­actions in a one-dimensional ribbon structure. In the anions, the carboxyl groups lie slightly out of the plane of the benzene ring [maximum deviations = 0.439 (1) for a carboxylic acid O atom and 0.433 (1) Å for a carboxyl­ate O atom]. However, the syn-related proton of the carboxylic acid group forms the common short intra­molecular O—H⋯Ocarbox­yl hydrogen bond. PMID:21580024

  1. Crystal structure of 4-hy-droxy-pyridin-1-ium 3,5-di-carb-oxy-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-07-01

    The structure of the title salt, C5H6NO(+)·C9H5O6 (-), (I), shows that 4-hy-droxy-pyridine has abstracted an H atom from benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid, yielding a pyridinium cation and carboxyl-ate anion. The two ions form an extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network throughout the crystal. The hydrogen bonds that comprise the core of the network are considered strong, with O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O donor-to-acceptor distances ranging from 2.533 (2) to 2.700 (2) Å. Packing is further enhanced by π-stacking of the cations and anions with like species [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6206 (13) Å]. PMID:26279886

  2. 2-Amino-5-methyl­pyridinium 2-hy­droxy-5-chloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In the 5-chloro­salicylate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H4ClO3 −, an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond with an S(6) graph-set motif is observed and the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the –CO2 group is 1.6 (6)°. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The crystal structure also features N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, resulting in a layer parallel to (10-1). PMID:23476391

  3. Cinnamate:CoA ligase initiates the biosynthesis of a benzoate-derived xanthone phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Müller, Andreas; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Ernst, Ludger; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-11-01

    Although a number of plant natural products are derived from benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of this structurally simple precursor is poorly understood. Hypericum calycinum cell cultures accumulate a benzoic acid-derived xanthone phytoalexin, hyperxanthone E, in response to elicitor treatment. Using a subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) library and sequence information about conserved coenzyme A (CoA) ligase motifs, a cDNA encoding cinnamate:CoA ligase (CNL) was isolated. This enzyme channels metabolic flux from the general phenylpropanoid pathway into benzenoid metabolism. HcCNL preferred cinnamic acid as a substrate but failed to activate benzoic acid. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the presence of Mg²⁺ and K⁺ at optimum concentrations of 2.5 and 100 mM, respectively. Coordinated increases in the Phe ammonia-lyase and HcCNL transcript levels preceded the accumulation of hyperxanthone E in cell cultures of H. calycinum after the addition of the elicitor. HcCNL contained a carboxyl-terminal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal made up by the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Leu, which directed an amino-terminal reporter fusion to the peroxisomes. Masking the targeting signal by carboxyl-terminal reporter fusion led to cytoplasmic localization. A phylogenetic tree consisted of two evolutionarily distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by CoA ligases related to benzenoid metabolism, including HcCNL. The other cluster comprised 4-coumarate:CoA ligases from spermatophytes, ferns, and mosses, indicating divergence of the two clades prior to the divergence of the higher plant lineages.

  4. Comparison of biological and chemical treatment processes as cost-effective methods for elimination of benzoate in saline wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Martina; Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2014-12-01

    Eight mixed cultures able to degrade benzoic acid under saline conditions were established and kinetic parameters were determined in batch processes with cultures SBM002 (0.5 g d(-1)·g oDM(-1)), SBM003 (0.7 g d(-1)·g oDM(-1)) and SBM007 (2.2 g d(-1)·g oDM(-1)) showing the highest degradation rates. Treatability of an industrial waste water (12 g L(-1) benzoic acid, 82 g L(-1) NaCl) by these cultures was proven in a fed-batch system (SBM002 & SBM003) and a continuous flow reactor (SBM007). The performance of the continuous flow reactor was 15-times higher compared to the fed-batch system due to the change of inocula, higher concentration of ammonia as nutrient and less accumulation of possibly toxic catecholic compounds. Average DOC reduction was found to be 98% at 100 g L(-1) NaCl and 1.2 g L(-1) benzoic acid under these conditions. Pre-treatment of the waste water via chemical precipitation by acidification to pH 3.5 diminished the concentration of benzoic acid to 2.1 g L(-1). In a combined chemical-biological process the volume of the bioreactor is reduced to 15% compared to a pure biological process. A comparison of operational costs for these three alternatives is presented. PMID:25173642

  5. 4-Cyano-3-fluoro­phenyl 4-(hexa­dec­yl­oxy)benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Usha, M. K.; Srinivas, H. T.; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek K.; Revannasiddaiah, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C30H40FNO3, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 57.76 (7)°. The alkyl chain adopts an all-trans conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. PMID:24764965

  6. Multinuclear oxo-bridged manganese complexes with a bulky substituted benzoate ligand: novel species obtained by using steric control.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Armstrong, William H

    2003-10-29

    A sterically hindered carboxylate ligand is used to synthesize the first transition metal complex containing both bis-mu-oxo and bis-mu-carboxylato groups, [Mn2(mu-O)2(mu-ArtolCO2)2(bpy)2]+. However, methyl substitution on the chelating bipyridine ligand results in the formation of a strikingly different and novel hexanuclear species, [Mn6(mu-O)4(mu3-O)4(mu-ArtolCO2)2(dmb)6]4+. Steric interactions between the bridging carboxylates and chelating pyridine-based ligands determine the nuclearity of the complexes formed.

  7. Ethyl 2-{N-[N-(4-chloro-6-methoxy-pyrimidin-2-yl)carbamo-yl]sulfamo-yl}benzoate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chui; Li, Fang-Shi; Yu, Da-Sheng; Yao, Wei; Liu, Yin-Hong

    2008-06-13

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(15)H(15)ClN(4)O(6)S, contains two independent mol-ecules, in which the pyrimidine and benzene rings are oriented at dihedral angles of 75.21 (3) and 86.00 (3)°. Intra-molecular N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of two five- and two six-membered rings. The six-membered rings have flattened-boat conformations, while the five-membered rings adopt envelope conformations. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288

  9. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  10. A fungal insecticide engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars has high field efficacy and safety in full-season control of cabbage insect pests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk.

  11. Burrowing mayfly Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) as a new test species for pesticide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hyoung-Ho; Kim, Yongeun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Bae, Yeon Jae; Khim, Jong Seong; Cho, Kijong

    2016-09-01

    The potential of mayfly Ephemera orientalis McLachlan eggs and first-instar larvae in ecotoxicological testing was investigated. Both stages of E. orientalis showed high tolerance to various environmental variables, such as water temperature, pH, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon. Toxicological assays were conducted with three insecticides (emamectin benzoate, endosulfan, and cypermethrin), one fungicide (mancozeb), and one herbicide (paraquat dichloride). The two toxicity endpoints for the assay were the 14-day egg median hatching rate (EHC50) in static and renewal exposure systems and 24-h median larval mortality (LC50). Cypermethrin was the most toxic to both eggs (EHC50 in static system = 36.9 μg/L; EHC50 in renewal system < 0.15 μg/L) and larvae (LC50 = 4.5 μg/L), and paraquat dichloride was the least toxic to eggs (EHC50 in static system = 54,359.8 μg/L; EHC50 in renewal system = 49541.3 μg/L) and larvae (LC50 = 9259.5 μg/L). The results were compared to literature data of Daphnia magna Straus and Cloeon dipterum Linnaeus to determine its relative sensitivity to pesticides. These three species had different toxicities to the tested pesticides, especially according to the exposure system. E. orientalis eggs in the static system were found to be less sensitive were D. magna and C. dipterum, but eggs in the renewal system and larvae had similar or higher sensitivities to the tested pesticides. The results revealed that this species has potential for use in ecotoxicological testing of pesticides. Because of its geographic distribution, E. orientalis may be used as an alternative or complementary test species for ecotoxicological studies in Northeast Asian countries, where natural populations of the international standard species, D. magna, are rarely found. PMID:27316648

  12. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. PMID:25175655

  13. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  14. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  16. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND. (R826129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT. (R826129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Crystal structure of 8-hy­droxy­quinolin­ium 2-carboxy-6-nitro­benzoate mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Divya Bharathi, M.; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Anbalagan, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the title hydrated salt, C9H8NO+·C8H4NO6 −·H2O, the deprotonated carboxyl­ate group is almost normal to its attached benzene ring [dihedral angle = 83.56 (8)°], whereas the protonated carboxyl­ate group is close to parallel [dihedral angle = 24.56 (9)°]. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating [001] chains. The packing is consolidated by C—H⋯O and π–π [centroid-to-centroid distances = 3.6408 (9) and 3.6507 (9) Å] inter­actions, which result in a three-dimensional network. PMID:26029446

  19. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic E. coli in strawberry juice by pulsed electric field, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Current regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment may ...

  20. The effects of picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol) and a bite-deterrent chemical (denatonium benzoate) on autotomy in rats after peripheral nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Firouzi, Matin Sadat; Firouzi, Masoumeh; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Zanjani, Leila Oryadi; Zadegan, Shayan Abdollah; Kamrani, Reza Shahryar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-04-01

    Denervation of the hind limb is a technique used to study peripheral nerve regeneration. Autotomy or autophagia is an undesirable response to denervation in such studies. Application of a commercially available lotion used to deter nail biting in humans reduced autotomy in rats after denervation but did not completely prevent it. In this study, this authors evaluated the application of picric acid to prevent autotomy in rats in peripheral nerve experiments. They carried out sciatic nerve transection in 41 adult female Wistar rats and then applied either bite-deterrent lotion (n = 26) or saturated picric acid solution (n = 15) topically to the affected hind limb immediately after surgery and every day for 1 month. Autotomy scores were lower for rats treated with picric acid than for rats treated with bite-deterrent lotion 1 week and 2 weeks after surgery but were not different between the two groups 4 weeks after surgery. The authors conclude that application of picric acid could be used as an alternative strategy to prevent autotomy in peripheral nerve studies.

  1. Crystal structure of trans-bis-(di-ethano-lamine-κ(3) O,N,O')manganese(II) bis-(3-amino-benzoate).

    PubMed

    Ibragimov, Aziz B; Zakirov, Bakhtiyar S; Ashurov, Jamshid M

    2016-04-01

    Reaction of m-amino-benzoic acid (MABA), di-ethano-lamine (DEA) and MnCl2·4H2O led to the formation of the title salt, [Mn(C4H11NO2)2](C7H6NO2)2. In the complex cation, the Mn(2+) ion is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by two symmetry-related tridentate DEA mol-ecules, leading to the formation of a slightly distorted MnN2O4 octa-hedron. The MABA(-) counter-anions are connected to the complex ion by a pair of rather strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, yielding a 1:2 supra-molecular aggregate. Much weaker N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect neighbouring aggregates into a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27375875

  2. Comparison of the crystal structures of methyl 4-bromo-2-(meth-oxy-meth-oxy)benzoate and 4-bromo-3-(meth-oxy-meth-oxy)benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Suchetan, P A; Suneetha, V; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Krishna Murthy, P

    2016-04-01

    The title compounds, C10H11BrO4, (I), and C9H9BrO4, (II), are derivatives of bromo-hy-droxy-benzoic acids. Compound (II) crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In both (I) and (II), the O-CH2-O-CH3 side chain is not in its fully extended conformation; the O-C-O-C torsion angle is 67.3 (3) ° in (I), and -65.8 (3) and -74.1 (3)° in mol-ecules A and B, respectively, in compound (II). In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming C(5) chains along [010]. The chains are linked by short Br⋯O contacts [3.047 (2) Å], forming sheets parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are linked via C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules A and B are linked to form R 2 (2)(8) dimers via two strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. These dimers are linked into ⋯A-B⋯A-B⋯A-B⋯ [C 2 (2)(15)] chains along [011] by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The chains are linked by slipped parallel π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distances = 3.6787 (18) and 3.8431 (17) Å], leading to the formation of slabs parallel to the bc plane. PMID:27375868

  3. The effects of picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol) and a bite-deterrent chemical (denatonium benzoate) on autotomy in rats after peripheral nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Firouzi, Matin Sadat; Firouzi, Masoumeh; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Zanjani, Leila Oryadi; Zadegan, Shayan Abdollah; Kamrani, Reza Shahryar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-04-01

    Denervation of the hind limb is a technique used to study peripheral nerve regeneration. Autotomy or autophagia is an undesirable response to denervation in such studies. Application of a commercially available lotion used to deter nail biting in humans reduced autotomy in rats after denervation but did not completely prevent it. In this study, this authors evaluated the application of picric acid to prevent autotomy in rats in peripheral nerve experiments. They carried out sciatic nerve transection in 41 adult female Wistar rats and then applied either bite-deterrent lotion (n = 26) or saturated picric acid solution (n = 15) topically to the affected hind limb immediately after surgery and every day for 1 month. Autotomy scores were lower for rats treated with picric acid than for rats treated with bite-deterrent lotion 1 week and 2 weeks after surgery but were not different between the two groups 4 weeks after surgery. The authors conclude that application of picric acid could be used as an alternative strategy to prevent autotomy in peripheral nerve studies. PMID:25793680

  4. 2-Hydroxy-3-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ium-4-yl)benzoate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Usman, Anwar; Nayar, Chandini R; Unnikrishnan, P A; Sreeja, P B; Prathapachandra Kurup, M R; Fun, Hoong Kun

    2002-12-01

    The title molecule, C(13)H(13)N(3)O(3).H(2)O, is in the form of a monohydrated zwitterion. The tetrahydropyridinium ring adopts an envelope conformation and is nearly coplanar with the plane of the imidazoline ring. The water solvate molecule plays an important role as a bridge between zwitterions, forming molecular chains running along the c direction, which are interconnected by N-H.O hydrogen bonds into molecular ribbons. The crystal packing is further stabilized by another N-H.O and one O-H.N hydrogen bond, which interconnect the molecular ribbons. PMID:12466626

  5. Crystal structure of 4-[(2E)-3-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)prop-2-eno­yl]phenyl benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, S.; Reuben Jonathan, D.; Prathebha, K.; Jovita, J.; Usha, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C23H18O4, the meth­oxy­benzene ring and attached C=C grouping are disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.823 (5):0.177 (5) ratio. The dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the pendant phenyl and meth­oxy­benzene ring (major orientation) are 51.21 (1) and 51.6 (1)°, respectively. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(28) loops. PMID:25309194

  6. DFT studies of calcium(II), strontium(II) and barium(II) benzoates with N,N,N‧,N‧-Tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl/propyl)ethylenediamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrai, Sangeeta; Kumar, Rakesh; Goyal, Milli; Kaushal, Svati

    2016-06-01

    The computational study of some s-block metal nitrobenzoateate complexes: [Ca(THEEN)(H2O)]2+ (1), [Ca(THPEN)(H2O)2]2+ (2), [Sr(THPEN)(H2O)3]2+ (3), [Ba(THPEN)(H2O)2]22+(4), [Ba(THEEN)(H2O)2]22+ (5), (where THEEN (N,N,N‧,N'-Tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine) and THPEN (N,N,N‧,N'- Tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) are tetrapodal ligands) is presented here using density functional theory (DFT) in its hybrid form B3LYP. The geometries of the title complexes are described by the quantum-chemical approach using input coordinates obtained from the previously synthesized and X-ray characterized diffraction data of [Ca(THEEN)(H2O)](DNB)2.H2O, [Ca(THPEN)(H2O)2](DNB)2.H2O [Sr(THPEN)(H2O)3](DNB)2, [Ba(THPEN)(H2O)2]2(DNB)4.2H2O and [Ba(THEEN)(H2O)2]2(ONB)4 (where DNB- is 3,5-dinitrobenzoate anion and ONB- is 2-nitrobenzoate). Only the primary coordination sphere of complexes (1) - (5) is optimized in the gaseous state. The calculation of energy gaps of frontier orbitals (HOMO-LUMO), 13C -NMR shifts and vibrational bands is carried out using B3LYP/6-31G**/LANL2DZ level of theory. The calculated geometric and spectral parameters reproduced the experimental data with well-agreement. HOMO-LUMO energy gap suggest that [Ca(THPEN)(H2O)2]2+ (2) is the most stable (HLG = 6.893 eV) among all the similar previously and presently reported complexes.

  7. Benzoylation of Ergosterol through Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution and Subsequent Formation of Ergosterol Benzoate Endoperoxide by Reaction with Singlet Oxygen Generated by Photosensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roslaniec, Mary C.; Sanford, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen have been a major focus of research in medicine. The effect of singlet oxygen on sterols within biological membranes is becoming increasingly more important. Ergosterol, a vitamin D precursor, is one such sterol. The benzoylation of ergosterol and subsequent reaction with singlet oxygen to form an…

  8. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical characterization of lead selenide sub-micron particles capped with a benzoate ligand and prepared at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Weyshla A.; Colón, Jadiel; Guzmán, Roger; Rivera, Harry; Santiago-Berríos, Mitk'El B.

    2014-09-01

    Semiconductor materials offer several potential benefits as active elements in the development of harvesting-energy conversion technologies. In particular, lead selenide (PbSe) semiconductors have been used and proposed to design solar energy harvesting devices, IR sensors, FET devices, etc. Lead salts have drawn particular attention from the applied and fundamental research communities due to their exceptionally strong quantum confinement effects. Several syntheses of PbSe have been proposed using long chain surfactants to allow the formation of particles and nanoparticles. Here we present a synthesis using benzoic acid as the capping ligand in ambient atmosphere. Although the particles are not in nanometric size, we compare the crystal structure (using x-ray powder diffraction data), the near infrared and mid-infrared absorption properties of PbSe using oleic acid as the capping ligand with PbSe using benzoic acid as the capping ligand. The new synthetized particles were shown to have similar crystal structure and absorb light in the near infrared region at 1410 nm. We also performed cyclic voltammetry of these particles drop-casted in the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The particles showed electrochemical behavior with an oxidation peak near (-402 ± 5 mV) versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The particles seem to form a polymeric film at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode.

  9. Ethyl 2-{N-[N-(4-chloro-6-methoxy­pyrimidin-2-yl)carbamo­yl]sulfamo­yl}benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chui; Li, Fang-Shi; Yu, Da-Sheng; Yao, Wei; Liu, Yin-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H15ClN4O6S, contains two independent mol­ecules, in which the pyrimidine and benzene rings are oriented at dihedral angles of 75.21 (3) and 86.00 (3)°. Intra­molecular N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of two five- and two six-membered rings. The six-membered rings have flattened-boat conformations, while the five-membered rings adopt envelope conformations. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules. PMID:21202882

  10. Crystal structures of 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-1-ium 4-nitro-benzoate dihydrate and 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis-(4-nitro-benzoate): the influence of solvent upon the stoichiometry of the formed salt.

    PubMed

    Akhmad Aznan, Aina Mardia; Abdullah, Zanariah; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2014-07-01

    The 1:1 co-crystallization of 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with 4-nitro-benzoic acid in ethanol-water (3/1) gave the salt dihydrate C6H13N2 (+)·C7H4NO4 (-)·2H2O, (1), whereas from methanol, the salt C6H14N2 (2+)·2C7H4NO4 (-), (2), was isolated. In (1), the cation and anion are linked by a strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bond, and the carboxyl-ate anion is close to planar [dihedral angle between terminal residues = 6.83 (9)°]. In (2), a three-ion aggregate is assembled by two N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and the carboxyl-ate anions are again close to planar [dihedral angles between terminal residues = 1.7 (3) and 5.9 (3)°]. Through the inter-vention of solvent water mol-ecules, which self-assemble into helical supra-molecular chains along the b axis, the three-dimensional architecture in (1) is stabilized by water-DABCO O-H⋯N and water-carboxyl-ate O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with additional stability afforded by C-H⋯O inter-actions. The global crystal structure comprises alternating layers of water mol-ecules and ion pairs stacked along the c axis. In the crystal of (2), the three-ion aggregates are assembled into a three-dimensional architecture by a large number of methyl-ene-carboxyl-ate/nitro C-H⋯O inter-actions as well as π-π contacts between inversion-related benzene rings [inter-centroid distances = 3.5644 (16) and 3.6527 (16) Å]. The cations and anions assemble into alternating layers along the c axis. PMID:25161500

  11. Crystal structures of 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-1-ium 4-nitro-benzoate dihydrate and 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis-(4-nitro-benzoate): the influence of solvent upon the stoichiometry of the formed salt.

    PubMed

    Akhmad Aznan, Aina Mardia; Abdullah, Zanariah; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2014-07-01

    The 1:1 co-crystallization of 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with 4-nitro-benzoic acid in ethanol-water (3/1) gave the salt dihydrate C6H13N2 (+)·C7H4NO4 (-)·2H2O, (1), whereas from methanol, the salt C6H14N2 (2+)·2C7H4NO4 (-), (2), was isolated. In (1), the cation and anion are linked by a strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bond, and the carboxyl-ate anion is close to planar [dihedral angle between terminal residues = 6.83 (9)°]. In (2), a three-ion aggregate is assembled by two N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and the carboxyl-ate anions are again close to planar [dihedral angles between terminal residues = 1.7 (3) and 5.9 (3)°]. Through the inter-vention of solvent water mol-ecules, which self-assemble into helical supra-molecular chains along the b axis, the three-dimensional architecture in (1) is stabilized by water-DABCO O-H⋯N and water-carboxyl-ate O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with additional stability afforded by C-H⋯O inter-actions. The global crystal structure comprises alternating layers of water mol-ecules and ion pairs stacked along the c axis. In the crystal of (2), the three-ion aggregates are assembled into a three-dimensional architecture by a large number of methyl-ene-carboxyl-ate/nitro C-H⋯O inter-actions as well as π-π contacts between inversion-related benzene rings [inter-centroid distances = 3.5644 (16) and 3.6527 (16) Å]. The cations and anions assemble into alternating layers along the c axis.

  12. Acaricide-impaired functional predation response of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Lima, D B; Melo, J W S; Gondim, M G C; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, J E M; Pallini, A

    2015-07-01

    Acaricides may interfere with a myriad of interactions among arthropods, particularly predator-prey interactions. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), and its phytoseiid predator, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), provide an opportunity to explore such interference because the former is a key coconut pest species that requires both predation and acaricide application for its management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the acaricides abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the functional response of N. baraki to A. guerreronis densities. The following prey densities were tested: 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 preys. The type of functional response and prey handling time (Th) were not altered by the acaricides. However, the attack rate (a') was modified by abamectin and fenpyroximate, and the consumption peak was reduced by abamectin. All of the acaricides allowed for the maintenance of the predator in the field, but exposure to abamectin and fenpyroximate compromised prey consumption. PMID:25847106

  13. Acaricide-impaired functional predation response of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Lima, D B; Melo, J W S; Gondim, M G C; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, J E M; Pallini, A

    2015-07-01

    Acaricides may interfere with a myriad of interactions among arthropods, particularly predator-prey interactions. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), and its phytoseiid predator, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), provide an opportunity to explore such interference because the former is a key coconut pest species that requires both predation and acaricide application for its management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the acaricides abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the functional response of N. baraki to A. guerreronis densities. The following prey densities were tested: 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 preys. The type of functional response and prey handling time (Th) were not altered by the acaricides. However, the attack rate (a') was modified by abamectin and fenpyroximate, and the consumption peak was reduced by abamectin. All of the acaricides allowed for the maintenance of the predator in the field, but exposure to abamectin and fenpyroximate compromised prey consumption.

  14. Susceptibility of helminth species from horses against different chemical compounds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Soares, Vando Edésio; Bergamasco, Paula Luzia Formigoni; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-09-15

    By means of parasitological necropsies, the present study aimed to evaluate, in six experiments, the degree of susceptibility or resistance of different helminth species which naturally infect horses to ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg, moxidectin 0.4 mg/kg, trichlorfon 35 mg/kg, ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2.5 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2.5 mg/kg and ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg+6.6 mg/kg pyrantel. At experimental day zero, the horses were allocated to treatment groups based on average counts of strongylid eggs per gram of feces (EPG) obtained on days -3, -2 and -1. Oxyuris sp. infections were confirmed as positive or negative. All the animals in the six experiments were naturally infected by this helminth species. Each group (control or treated) consisted of six animals. All the assessed Habronema muscae populations analyzed were susceptible to ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin. Of the six Trichostrongylus axei populations, four were susceptible to ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin, trichlorfon and ivermectin+praziquantel, and two were resistant to abamectin+praziquantel and ivermectin+pyrantel. Both Strongyloides westeri populations analyzed were susceptible to ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin and abamectin+praziquantel. For O. equi, resistance was found in four different populations treated with ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin, trichlorfon and ivermectin+praziquantel. Only combinations of abamectin+praziquantel and ivermectin+pyrantel were effective against this parasite species. All the large strongyles diagnosed in the present study (Strongyus edentatus, Strongyus vulgaris and Triodontophorus serratus) were susceptible to all the chemicals tested, with the exception of trichlorfon. Of the Cyathostominae populations, one was diagnosed as resistant to ivermectin and another to trichlorfon. The remaining populations from this nematode group were considered to be sensitive to ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin, ivermectin

  15. 76 FR 55329 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...-pyrazol-4- yl)methylene]amino] oxy]methyl]benzoate and its Z-isomer, (Z)-1,1- dimethylethyl 4-[[[[(1,3... maximum of 10% 4'-epi-methlyamino-4'deoxyavermectin B 1b benzoate), and its metabolites 8,9 isomer of the...]amino] oxy]methyl]benzoate and its Z-isomer, (Z)-1,1- dimethylethyl...

  16. 40 CFR 180.566 - Fenpyroximate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fenpyroximate, (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate and its metabolites, (E)-4- benzoic acid and(E..., (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl 4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate and its metabolite,(E)-4- benzoic acid, calculated... combined residues of the insecticide fenpyroximate, (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl 4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate...

  17. 40 CFR 180.566 - Fenpyroximate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fenpyroximate, (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate and its metabolites, (E)-4- benzoic acid and(E..., (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl 4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate and its metabolite,(E)-4- benzoic acid, calculated... combined residues of the insecticide fenpyroximate, (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl 4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate...

  18. 40 CFR 180.566 - Fenpyroximate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fenpyroximate, (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate and its metabolites, (E)-4- benzoic acid and(E..., (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl 4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate and its metabolite,(E)-4- benzoic acid, calculated... combined residues of the insecticide fenpyroximate, (E)-1,1-dimethylethyl 4- amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate...

  19. Comparison of the crystal structures of methyl 4-bromo-2-(meth­oxy­meth­oxy)benzoate and 4-bromo-3-(meth­oxy­meth­oxy)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Suchetan, P. A.; Suneetha, V.; Naveen, S.; Lokanath, N. K.; Krishna Murthy, P.

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds, C10H11BrO4, (I), and C9H9BrO4, (II), are derivatives of bromo–hy­droxy–benzoic acids. Compound (II) crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In both (I) and (II), the O—CH2—O—CH3 side chain is not in its fully extended conformation; the O—C—O—C torsion angle is 67.3 (3) ° in (I), and −65.8 (3) and −74.1 (3)° in mol­ecules A and B, respectively, in compound (II). In the crystal of (I), mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming C(5) chains along [010]. The chains are linked by short Br⋯O contacts [3.047 (2) Å], forming sheets parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are linked via C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. In the crystal of (II), mol­ecules A and B are linked to form R 2 2(8) dimers via two strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. These dimers are linked into ⋯A–B⋯A–B⋯A–B⋯ [C 2 2(15)] chains along [011] by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The chains are linked by slipped parallel π–π inter­actions [inter-centroid distances = 3.6787 (18) and 3.8431 (17) Å], leading to the formation of slabs parallel to the bc plane. PMID:27375868

  20. A Novel Pan-Negative-Gating Modulator of KCa2/3 Channels, Fluoro-Di-Benzoate, RA-2, Inhibits Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarization–Type Relaxation in Coronary Artery and Produces Bradycardia In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Valero, Marta Sofía; Coleman, Nicole; Brown, Brandon M.; Laría, Celia; Divina Murillo, María; Gálvez, José A.; Díaz-de-Villegas, María D.; Wulff, Heike; Badorrey, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Small/intermediate conductance KCa channels (KCa2/3) are Ca2+/calmodulin regulated K+ channels that produce membrane hyperpolarization and shape neurologic, epithelial, cardiovascular, and immunologic functions. Moreover, they emerged as therapeutic targets to treat cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, and some cancers. Here, we aimed to generate a new pharmacophore for negative-gating modulation of KCa2/3 channels. We synthesized a series of mono- and dibenzoates and identified three dibenzoates [1,3-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate) (RA-2), 1,2-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate), and 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate)] with inhibitory efficacy as determined by patch clamp. Among them, RA-2 was the most drug-like and inhibited human KCa3.1 with an IC50 of 17 nM and all three human KCa2 subtypes with similar potencies. RA-2 at 100 nM right-shifted the KCa3.1 concentration-response curve for Ca2+ activation. The positive-gating modulator naphtho[1,2-d]thiazol-2-ylamine (SKA-31) reversed channel inhibition at nanomolar RA-2 concentrations. RA-2 had no considerable blocking effects on distantly related large-conductance KCa1.1, Kv1.2/1.3, Kv7.4, hERG, or inwardly rectifying K+ channels. In isometric myography on porcine coronary arteries, RA-2 inhibited bradykinin-induced endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)–type relaxation in U46619-precontracted rings. Blood pressure telemetry in mice showed that intraperitoneal application of RA-2 (≤100 mg/kg) did not increase blood pressure or cause gross behavioral deficits. However, RA-2 decreased heart rate by ≈145 beats per minute, which was not seen in KCa3.1−/− mice. In conclusion, we identified the KCa2/3–negative-gating modulator, RA-2, as a new pharmacophore with nanomolar potency. RA-2 may be of use to generate structurally new types of negative-gating modulators that could help to define the physiologic and pathomechanistic roles of KCa2/3 in the vasculature, central nervous system, and during inflammation in vivo. PMID:25468883

  1. A novel pan-negative-gating modulator of KCa2/3 channels, fluoro-di-benzoate, RA-2, inhibits endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in coronary artery and produces bradycardia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Valero, Marta Sofía; Coleman, Nicole; Brown, Brandon M; Laría, Celia; Murillo, María Divina; Gálvez, José A; Díaz-de-Villegas, María D; Wulff, Heike; Badorrey, Ramón; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Small/intermediate conductance KCa channels (KCa2/3) are Ca(2+)/calmodulin regulated K(+) channels that produce membrane hyperpolarization and shape neurologic, epithelial, cardiovascular, and immunologic functions. Moreover, they emerged as therapeutic targets to treat cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, and some cancers. Here, we aimed to generate a new pharmacophore for negative-gating modulation of KCa2/3 channels. We synthesized a series of mono- and dibenzoates and identified three dibenzoates [1,3-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate) (RA-2), 1,2-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate), and 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate)] with inhibitory efficacy as determined by patch clamp. Among them, RA-2 was the most drug-like and inhibited human KCa3.1 with an IC50 of 17 nM and all three human KCa2 subtypes with similar potencies. RA-2 at 100 nM right-shifted the KCa3.1 concentration-response curve for Ca(2+) activation. The positive-gating modulator naphtho[1,2-d]thiazol-2-ylamine (SKA-31) reversed channel inhibition at nanomolar RA-2 concentrations. RA-2 had no considerable blocking effects on distantly related large-conductance KCa1.1, Kv1.2/1.3, Kv7.4, hERG, or inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. In isometric myography on porcine coronary arteries, RA-2 inhibited bradykinin-induced endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type relaxation in U46619-precontracted rings. Blood pressure telemetry in mice showed that intraperitoneal application of RA-2 (≤100 mg/kg) did not increase blood pressure or cause gross behavioral deficits. However, RA-2 decreased heart rate by ≈145 beats per minute, which was not seen in KCa3.1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we identified the KCa2/3-negative-gating modulator, RA-2, as a new pharmacophore with nanomolar potency. RA-2 may be of use to generate structurally new types of negative-gating modulators that could help to define the physiologic and pathomechanistic roles of KCa2/3 in the vasculature, central nervous system, and during inflammation in vivo.

  2. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid induce sublethal injury and enhance pulsed electric field inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic surrogate E. coli in strawberry juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current FDA regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment can be conducte...

  3. A novel pan-negative-gating modulator of KCa2/3 channels, fluoro-di-benzoate, RA-2, inhibits endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in coronary artery and produces bradycardia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Valero, Marta Sofía; Coleman, Nicole; Brown, Brandon M; Laría, Celia; Murillo, María Divina; Gálvez, José A; Díaz-de-Villegas, María D; Wulff, Heike; Badorrey, Ramón; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Small/intermediate conductance KCa channels (KCa2/3) are Ca(2+)/calmodulin regulated K(+) channels that produce membrane hyperpolarization and shape neurologic, epithelial, cardiovascular, and immunologic functions. Moreover, they emerged as therapeutic targets to treat cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, and some cancers. Here, we aimed to generate a new pharmacophore for negative-gating modulation of KCa2/3 channels. We synthesized a series of mono- and dibenzoates and identified three dibenzoates [1,3-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate) (RA-2), 1,2-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate), and 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene) bis(3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate)] with inhibitory efficacy as determined by patch clamp. Among them, RA-2 was the most drug-like and inhibited human KCa3.1 with an IC50 of 17 nM and all three human KCa2 subtypes with similar potencies. RA-2 at 100 nM right-shifted the KCa3.1 concentration-response curve for Ca(2+) activation. The positive-gating modulator naphtho[1,2-d]thiazol-2-ylamine (SKA-31) reversed channel inhibition at nanomolar RA-2 concentrations. RA-2 had no considerable blocking effects on distantly related large-conductance KCa1.1, Kv1.2/1.3, Kv7.4, hERG, or inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. In isometric myography on porcine coronary arteries, RA-2 inhibited bradykinin-induced endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type relaxation in U46619-precontracted rings. Blood pressure telemetry in mice showed that intraperitoneal application of RA-2 (≤100 mg/kg) did not increase blood pressure or cause gross behavioral deficits. However, RA-2 decreased heart rate by ≈145 beats per minute, which was not seen in KCa3.1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we identified the KCa2/3-negative-gating modulator, RA-2, as a new pharmacophore with nanomolar potency. RA-2 may be of use to generate structurally new types of negative-gating modulators that could help to define the physiologic and pathomechanistic roles of KCa2/3 in the vasculature, central nervous system, and during inflammation in vivo. PMID:25468883

  4. 2-({[(Pyridin-1-ium-2-ylmeth-yl)carbamo-yl]form-amido}-meth-yl)pyridin-1-ium bis-(3,5-di-carb-oxy-benzoate): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Jotani, Mukesh M; Syed, Sabrina; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-02-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C14H16N4O2 (2+)·2C9H5O6 (-), comprises half a dication, being located about a centre of inversion, and one anion, in a general position. The central C4N2O2 group of atoms in the dication are almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.009 Å), and the carbonyl groups lie in an anti disposition to enable the formation of intra-molecular amide-N-H⋯O(carbon-yl) hydrogen bonds. To a first approximation, the pyridinium and amide N atoms lie to the same side of the mol-ecule [Npy-C-C-Namide torsion angle = 34.8 (2)°], and the anti pyridinium rings are approximately perpendicular to the central part of the mol-ecule [dihedral angle = 68.21 (8)°]. In the anion, one carboxyl-ate group is almost coplanar with the ring to which it is connected [Cben-Cben-Cq-O torsion angle = 2.0 (3)°], whereas the other carboxyl-ate and carb-oxy-lic acid groups are twisted out of the plane [torsion angles = 16.4 (3) and 15.3 (3)°, respectively]. In the crystal, anions assemble into layers parallel to (10-4) via hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(carbon-yl) and charge-assisted hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bonds. The dications are linked into supra-molecular tapes by amide-N-H⋯O(amide) hydrogen bonds, and thread through the voids in the anionic layers, being connected by charge-assisted pyridinium-N-O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bonds, so that a three-dimensional architecture ensues. An analysis of the Hirshfeld surface points to the importance of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding in the crystal structure. PMID:26958398

  5. (3-Chloro­phen­yl)[(E)-2-(1,3-di­thio­lan-2-yl­idene)hydrazinyl­idene]methyl 3-chloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H12Cl2N2O2S2, the di­thia­cyclo­pentane ring has an envelope conformation with one of the methyl­ene C atoms as the flap. The chloro­phenyl rings make a dihedral angle of 82.63 (7)°. In the crystal, π–π inter­actions between the benzene rings of neighbouring mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.547 (2) Å] link the mol­ecules into inversion dimers. Weak non-classical C—H⋯X (X = O, N, Cl) inter­actions further consolidate the packing, forming a layer structure parallel to (110). PMID:23723867

  6. FT-IR Study of CO2 Adsorption in a Dynamic Copper(II) Benzoate-Pyrazine Host with CO2-CO2 Interactions in the Adsorbed State

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, Kristi L.; Culp, Jeffrey T.; Goodman, Angela; Matranga, Christopher

    2011-02-10

    A detailed correlation is presented between the in situ Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra of adsorbed CO2, CuBzPyz host bands, and CO2 adsorption sites using previously reported crystal structures of CO2- loaded CuBzPyz and CO2 adsorption. isotherms. Through the analysis of both in situ attenuated total reflectance FT-IR spectra taken at several points on the high pressure isotherm and in situ transmission FT-IR spectra acquired at low pressures and cryogenic temperatures, we provide additional insight into the pore-filling mechanism of CO2 on the structurally dynamic CuBzPyz host. The FT-IR spectrum of adsorbed CO2 shows distinct v2 and v3 spectral features that can be attributed to known CO2 adsorption sites observed in the reported crystal structure of the CO2-saturated phase of CuBzPyz. The availability of detailed high quality CO2-loaded structural data for CuBzPyz makes this system a case study for associating infrared spectral features with CO2 adsorption sites and should prove valuable for future interpretations of CO2 host-guest and guest-guest interactions when X-ray quality structural data is unavailable.

  7. {4-[(2,4-Dichloro­benzo­yloxy)meth­yl]-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl}methyl 2,4-dichloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Ismatov, Dilmurot; Azizov, Umarkhon; Talipov, Samat; Ashurov, Jamshid

    2011-01-01

    In the title molecule, C24H15Cl4N3O4, the triazole ring makes dihedral angles of 72.02 (12), 81.60 (12) and 73.82 (11)°, respectively, with the adjacent phenyl ring and the two dichloro­benzene rings. In the crystal, a weak C—H⋯N inter­action, a short Cl⋯Cl contact [3.307 (2) Å] and a π–π stacking inter­action [centroid–centroid distance = 3.568 (4) Å] are observed. An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action is also present. PMID:22065713

  8. Crystal structure of (E)-4-{1-[2-(car­bamo­thio­yl)hydrazin-1-yl­idene]ethyl}phenyl 4-methyl­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Karthik Ananth; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Narasimhan, S.; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C17H17N3O2S, consists of two independent mol­ecules, A and B, with different conformations: in mol­ecule A, the dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the pendant tolyl and carbamo­thio­ylhydrazono groups are 71.12 (9) and 5.95 (8)°, respectively. The corresponding angles in mol­ecule B are 50.56 (12) and 26.43 (11)°, respectively. Both mol­ecules feature an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond, which closes an S(5) ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O, N—H⋯S and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:25705498

  9. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Li; SHAO, Wei-Wei; DING, Guo-Hua; FAN, Xiao-Li; YU, Miao-Ling; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas. PMID:25017745

  10. Effect of Cyantraniliprole on Probing Behavior of the Potato Psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae) as Measured by the Electrical Penetration Graph Technique.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, T; Alvarez, J M; Munyaneza, J E

    2015-12-01

    Zebra chip (ZC), an economically important disease of potato, is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Currently, using insecticides against potato psyllid is the only means to manage ZC. However, the ability of the potato psyllid to rapidly transmit Lso represents a substantial challenge in preventing the spread of ZC. Cyantraniliprole, a novel second-generation anthranilic diamide insecticide has been shown to deter insect feeding and reduce disease transmission. During this study, the effect of cyantraniliprole on potato psyllid probing behavior was assessed using electrical penetration graph technology and compared with abamectin, a commonly used insecticide to control potato psyllid. Results showed that both cyantraniliprole and abamectin significantly deterred probing behavior of the potato psyllid. Average duration of intercellular stylet penetration on cyantraniliprole- and abamectin-treated and untreated control plants was 2.36, 1.80, and 9.15 h, respectively. It took psyllids 1.82, 1.10, and 2.42 h to reach the xylem of cyantraniliprole- and abamectin-treated and untreated plants, respectively. Xylem sap ingestion duration averaged 0.53, 0.57, and 3.66 h on cyantraniliprole- and abamectin-treated and untreated controls, respectively. None of the psyllids exposed to insecticide-treated plants reached the phloem tissue, except one that bypassed the xylem. The insects completely ceased probing after 4.44 and 3.64 h on cyantraniliprole- and abamectin-treated plants, respectively, in contrast with those on untreated plants that probed throughout the entire 24-h experiment duration. These results indicate that cyantraniliprole is as effective as abamectin in deterring potato psyllid feeding and could significantly reduce transmission of Lso and the spread of ZC. PMID:26340224

  11. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide-treated sugar baits for control of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of boric acid, imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin incorporated into sugar baits as oral toxicants for adult phlebotomine sand flies. Variable toxicity of insecticide-sugar bait solutions to adult male and female sand flies was demonstrated, based on male female median lethal concentration values of 0.10-0.08, 6.13-9.53, and 9.03-18.11 mg/liter of imidacloprid, ivermectin, and abamectin, respectively. Complete control of sand flies could not be achieved with as high as 40 g/liter of boric acid in sugar bait solution; concentrations >40 g/liter were found repellent to the sand flies. Uranine O (a fluorescent tracer dye that can be used to measure the ingestion of sugar baits by sand flies) did not interact negatively with imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin when it was combined with the insecticides in a sugar bait. Also, incorporation of imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin into sugar baits did not reduce the effect whether adult male and female sand flies fed on these sugar baits. We propose that imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin could be used to control adult sand fly populations with targeted use of insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  12. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed.

  13. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, March 1992--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney M.J.

    1995-06-23

    Factors affecting the rate and extent of benzoate degradation by anaerobic syntrophic consortia were studied. Cocultures of a syntrophic benzoate degrader, strain SB, with a hydrogen/formate-using sulfate reducer degraded benzoate to a threshold that depended on the amount of substrate and acetate present. The benzoate threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather, a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy value may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation. A sensitive assay to detect low formate concentrations was developed to measure the formate levels when the benzoate threshold was reached. We showed that increased acetate concentrations, even when hydrogen and formate levels are low, affects the extent of benzoate degradation, implicating the importance of interspecies acetate transfer. In addition to benzoate, various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, 2-methylbutyrate, and methyl esters of fatty acids supported growth in coculture with a hydrogen-using partner. SB is the only syntrophic bacterium known to use both benzoate and fatty acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SB clustered with sulfate reducers in the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. SB grew well in coculture with Desulfoarculus baarsii, a sulfate reducer that uses formate but not hydrogen. This unequivocally shows that SB can grow by interspecies formate transfer.

  14. Effects of a Chenopodium-based botanical insecticide/acaricide on Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Bostanian, Noubar J; Akalach, Mohammed; Chiasson, Hélène

    2005-10-01

    UDA-245 is a Chenopodium-based natural insecticide. Forty-eight hours after treatment with this compound, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Aphidius colemani Viereck showed slight contact toxicity at 5 g AI liter(-1). There was no residual toxicity to A colemani. These two beneficials are currently used in commercial flower and vegetable greenhouses for the management of thrips, spider mites, aphids and small caterpillars. In contrast, abamectin and insecticidal soap were toxic by contact to both species. UDA-245 did not reduce the number of eggs laid by treated O insidiosus. The eclosion of these eggs was also not adversely affected by UDA-245. The other two insecticides, abamectin and insecticidal soap had no effect on the emergence of A colemani from treated aphid mummies. However, abamectin decreased the percentage of aphid parasitism by A colemani following a residual treatment. The LC50 for UDA-245 for the two beneficials is slightly over twice the recommended field dose.

  15. HISTOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AGENTS ON CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE.

    PubMed

    El Sobky, Mona M; Ismail, Howaida I H; Assar, Abada A

    2016-04-01

    The histochemical effects of the lethal concentration that kills 50% of larvae (LC50) of three biological agents, abamectin, Bacillus thuringiensis and spinosad on the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, nucleic acids and lipids content of the midgut and fat bodies of Culex pipiens 2nd instar larvae were studied. The results showed that the three tested compounds reduced the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, RNA synthesis and lipids content after 72 hours of treatment where abamectin was the most effective followed by Bacillus thuringiensis then spinosad. PMID:27363043

  16. Effect of benzoic acid on metabolic fluxes in yeasts: a continuous-culture study on the regulation of respiration and alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Verduyn, C; Postma, E; Scheffers, W A; Van Dijken, J P

    1992-07-01

    Addition of benzoate to the medium reservoir of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 growing at a dilution rate (D) of 0.10 h-1 resulted in a decrease in the biomass yield, and an increase in the specific oxygen uptake rate (qO2) from 2.5 to as high as 19.5 mmol g-1 h-1. Above a critical concentration, the presence of benzoate led to alcoholic fermentation and a reduction in qO2 to 13 mmol g-1 h-1. The stimulatory effect of benzoate on respiration was dependent on the dilution rate: at high dilution rates respiration was not enhanced by benzoate. Cells could only gradually adapt to growth in the presence of benzoate: a pulse of benzoate given directly to the culture resulted in wash-out. As the presence of benzoate in cultures growing at low dilution rates resulted in large changes in the catabolic glucose flux, it was of interest to study the effect of benzoate on the residual glucose concentration in the fermenter as well as on the level of some selected enzymes. At D = 0.10 h-1, the residual glucose concentration increased proportionally with increasing benzoate concentration. This suggests that modulation of the glucose flux mainly occurs via a change in the extracellular glucose concentration rather than by synthesis of an additional amount of carriers. Also various intracellular enzyme levels were not positively correlated with the rate of respiration. A notable exception was citrate synthase: its level increased with increasing respiration rate. Growth of S. cerevisiae in ethanol-limited cultures in the presence of benzoate also led to very high qO2 levels of 19-21 mmol g-1 h-1. During growth on glucose as well as on ethanol, the presence of benzoate coincided with an increase in the mitochondrial volume up to one quarter of the total cellular volume. Also with the Crabtree-negative yeasts Candida utilis, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Hansenula polymorpha, growth in the presence of benzoate resulted in an increase in qO2 and

  17. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. McInerney

    1996-06-24

    The factors that affect the rate and extent of a model aromatic compound, benzoate, in methanogenic environments was studied. Benzoate is degraded to a threshold concentration below which no further substrate degradation occurs. The threshold concentration depended on the substrate concentration and the amount of acetate present. The threshold value was not a function of the kinetic ability of the organism or toxicity of the end products. Rather a minimal Gibb's free energy value may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation. In addition, new bacterial species were isolated and described, that degrade benzoate or reduce iron, cobalt and other metals.

  18. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  19. Metabolism of aromatic compounds by Caulobacter crescentus

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, D.K.; Bourquin, A.W.

    1987-05-01

    Cultures of Caulobacter crescentus were found to grow on a variety of aromatic compounds. Degradation of benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, and phenol was found to occur via ..beta..-ketoadipate. The induction of degradative enzymes such as benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, the ring cleavage enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme appeared similar to the control mechanism present in Pseudomonas spp. Both benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase had stringent specificities, as revealed by their action toward substituted benzoates and substituted catechols, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of selected acaricides against two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse cotton using multispectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is an early season pest of cotton in the mid-southern United States and causes reduction in yield, fiber quality and impaired seed germination. Objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of abamectin and spiromesifen with two...

  1. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  2. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Mediated by an ABC Transporter Mutation Increases Susceptibility to Toxins from Other Bacteria in an Invasive Insect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Gong, Lingling; He, Fei; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of pest resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticidal proteins from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used widely in sprays and transgenic crops. Recent efforts to delay pest adaptation to Bt crops focus primarily on combinations of two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest, but this approach is often compromised because resistance to one Bt toxin causes cross-resistance to others. Thus, integration of Bt toxins with alternative controls that do not exhibit such cross-resistance is urgently needed. The ideal scenario of negative cross-resistance, where selection for resistance to a Bt toxin increases susceptibility to alternative controls, has been elusive. Here we discovered that selection of the global crop pest, Helicoverpa armigera, for >1000-fold resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac increased susceptibility to abamectin and spineotram, insecticides derived from the soil bacteria Streptomyces avermitilis and Saccharopolyspora spinosa, respectively. Resistance to Cry1Ac did not affect susceptibility to the cyclodiene, organophospate, or pyrethroid insecticides tested. Whereas previous work demonstrated that the resistance to Cry1Ac in the strain analyzed here is conferred by a mutation disrupting an ATP-binding cassette protein named ABCC2, the new results show that increased susceptibility to abamectin is genetically linked with the same mutation. Moreover, RNAi silencing of HaABCC2 not only decreased susceptibility to Cry1Ac, it also increased susceptibility to abamectin. The mutation disrupting ABCC2 reduced removal of abamectin in live larvae and in transfected Hi5 cells. The results imply that negative cross-resistance occurs because the wild type ABCC2 protein plays a key role in conferring susceptibility to Cry1Ac and in decreasing susceptibility to abamectin. The negative cross-resistance between a Bt toxin and other bacterial insecticides reported here may facilitate more sustainable pest control. PMID:26872031

  3. Identification of the Geobacter metallireducens BamVW Two-Component System, Involved in Transcriptional Regulation of Aromatic Degradation▿

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Javier F.; Zamarro, María Teresa; Barragán, María J. L.; Blázquez, Blas; Boll, Matthias; Kuntze, Kevin; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo; Carmona, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of aromatic degradation in obligate anaerobes was studied in the Fe(III)-respiring model organism Geobacter metallireducens GS-15. A two-component system and a σ54-dependent promoter were identified that are both involved in the regulation of the gene coding for benzoate-coenzyme A ligase, catalyzing the initial step of benzoate degradation. PMID:19915033

  4. SIMULTANEOUS DTERMINATION OF CHROMATE AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed to determine simultaneously, the inorganic anion CrO2-4, and organic aromatic compounds including benzoate, 2-Cl-benzoate, phenol, m-cresol and o-/p-cresol by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Chromate and the aromatics were separated in a relativ...

  5. Reductive dehalogenation and conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate in a methanogenic sediment community: Implications for predicting the environmental fate of chlorinated pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.G.; Stahl, D.A.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-11-01

    Biotransformation of 2-chlorophenol by a methanogenic sediment community resulted in the transient accumulation of phenol and benzoate. 3-Chlorobenzoate was a more persistent product of 2-chlorophenol metabolism. The anaerobic biotransformation of phenol to benzoate presumably occurred via para-carboxylation and dehydroxylation reactions, which may also explain the observed conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate.

  6. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  7. QUANTITATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF IDIOTYPIC ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Brient, Bruce W.; Nisonoff, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies were prepared by injection of specifically purified anti-p-azobenzoate antibodies (D) from individual donor rabbits. Benzoate derivatives were found to be strong inhibitors of the reactions of D with anti-D antisera. There was a close correlation between the combining affinities of the benzoate derivatives used and their effectiveness as inhibitors. Compounds tested that are chemically unrelated to benzoate were ineffective. The results indicate either that the combining site of anti-benzoate antibody is part of an important idiotypic determinant, which is sterically blocked by hapten, or that the hapten induces a conformational change which alters idiotypic determinants not involving the active site. Such conformational changes, if they occur, must be restricted since hapten has little effect on the reactions of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-benzoate antibodies with antisera directed to rabbit fragment Fab and no detectable effect on reactions with antibodies directed to allotypic determinants. PMID:4097134

  8. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future. PMID:22545774

  9. 2-({[(Pyridin-1-ium-2-ylmeth­yl)carbamo­yl]form­amido}­meth­yl)pyridin-1-ium bis­(3,5-di­carb­oxy­benzoate): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jotani, Mukesh M.; Syed, Sabrina; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C14H16N4O2 2+·2C9H5O6 −, comprises half a dication, being located about a centre of inversion, and one anion, in a general position. The central C4N2O2 group of atoms in the dication are almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.009 Å), and the carbonyl groups lie in an anti disposition to enable the formation of intra­molecular amide-N—H⋯O(carbon­yl) hydrogen bonds. To a first approximation, the pyridinium and amide N atoms lie to the same side of the mol­ecule [Npy—C—C—Namide torsion angle = 34.8 (2)°], and the anti pyridinium rings are approximately perpendicular to the central part of the mol­ecule [dihedral angle = 68.21 (8)°]. In the anion, one carboxyl­ate group is almost coplanar with the ring to which it is connected [Cben—Cben—Cq—O torsion angle = 2.0 (3)°], whereas the other carboxyl­ate and carb­oxy­lic acid groups are twisted out of the plane [torsion angles = 16.4 (3) and 15.3 (3)°, respectively]. In the crystal, anions assemble into layers parallel to (10-4) via hy­droxy-O—H⋯O(carbon­yl) and charge-assisted hy­droxy-O—H⋯O(carboxyl­ate) hydrogen bonds. The dications are linked into supra­molecular tapes by amide-N—H⋯O(amide) hydrogen bonds, and thread through the voids in the anionic layers, being connected by charge-assisted pyridinium-N—O(carboxyl­ate) hydrogen bonds, so that a three-dimensional architecture ensues. An analysis of the Hirshfeld surface points to the importance of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding in the crystal structure. PMID:26958398

  10. Effects of sarcoptic mange and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: assessment of weight gain, liver function, nutrient digestibility, wool production and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used acaricidal drugs in India and also to assess the effect of ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy in 72 growing sheep with sarcoptic mange, aged 5-6 months and weighing 20.4-31.7 kg. Eight replicates of nine animals were formed based on sex, and day 0 body weight. Drugs were applied locally on the affected parts daily and recovery changes in skin lesions were observed at the time of every application. L-ascorbic acid was administered intramuscularly. Skin scrapings were collected daily from each group and examined for the presence of mites. Body weights were measured every 10th day from day 0 to 60. Nutrient digestiblity was evaluated by studying digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, total carbohydrates and nutrient balance (nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) for a 30-day period. The liver function was evaluated by bromosulphophthalein (BSP) dye retention time. The animals were shorn on day 60 post-treatment (PT). Meat quality assesment was carried out by killing sheep at 60 days PT and estimating pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, muscle colour, rib eye area and fat thickness. The lambs treated with oil of Jatropha curcas ascorbic acid had significantly (P < 0.05) greater mean daily body weight gains (63.29 g) than the infected untreated control (41.10 g). This was also higher than the mean daily weight gain in other treated groups. Infected untreated sheep showed significantly (P < 0.01) reduced digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and total carbohydrate, but no significant differences for nitrogen-free extract. Treated sheep had significantly higher positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances compared with infested untreated sheep. Oil of J. curcas plus ascorbic acid (OJC-AA) treated group was better over all other treated groups with respect to nutrient digestibility. The BSP test revealed significant (P < 0.05) increase in BSP retention time in sheep with sarcoptic mange. Post -treatment, the BSP retention time decreased in all treated groups and the decrease was maximum in OJC-AA treated group. The carcasses of sheep treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.01) higher water holding capacity, rib eye area and back fat thickness than the untreated infected control group. The muscle pH and tenderness values were significantly lower in OJC-AA treated group post-slaughter than infested untreated control group. Muscle colour of OJC-AA treated group was maximum bright red. The lambs treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.05) greater clean fleece weight and fleece yield than the untreated infected group. It is concluded that OJC was the better therapy for sarcoptic mange of sheep and ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy is advisable. OJC-AA therapy may be better from the point of view of improving two most important production parameters in sheep, that is, wool yield and meat production. PMID:15153077

  11. Crystal structure of tri-aqua-(1,10-phen-anthroline-κ(2) N,N')(2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoato-κO (1))cobalt(II) 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junshan

    2014-11-01

    The title salt, [Co(C8H4F3O3)(C12H8N2)(H2O)3](C8H4F3O3), was obtained under solvothermal conditions by the reaction of 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoic acid with CoCl2 in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The Co(II) ion is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms [Co-N = 2.165 (2) and 2.129 (2) Å] from the phen ligand, by one carboxyl-ate O atom [Co-O = 2.107 (1) Å] and by three O atoms from water mol-ecules [Co-O = 2.093 (1), 2.102 (1) and 2.114 (1) Å]. The equatorial positions of the slightly distorted octa-hedron are occupied by the N atoms, the carboxyl-ate O and one water O atom. An intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network between the water-containing complex cation and the organic anion leads to the formation of ribbons parallel to [010]. PMID:25484778

  12. Simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives in cosmetics by ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Wang, C; Wang, X; Ma, Q

    2008-10-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives: 2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, bronopol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenoxyethanol, methyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, ethyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, methyl benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-propyl ester, propyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, ethyl benzoate, 2-phenylphenol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-butyl ester, butyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, phenyl benzoate, 2,4-dichloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, triclocarban and triclosan in cosmetics. A Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column was used with 0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phase under the condition of gradient elution. Preservatives were extracted with methanol by ultrasonicator, and then they were analysed by UPLC-PDA detector. All these preservatives were baseline separated in 8.5 min. The pre-treatment method of samples and the chromatographic condition of analysis were critically examined in this study. The recoveries ranged from 90.5 to 97.8%, with RSD values below 3.2%, and all correlation coefficients (r) were no less than 0.9997. Thus, this method could be used for analysing the preservatives in cosmetic products.

  13. Efficacy of monepantel and anthelmintic combinations against multiple-resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep, including characterisation of the nematode isolate.

    PubMed

    Baker, K E; George, S D; Stein, P A; Seewald, W; Rolfe, P F; Hosking, B C

    2012-05-25

    Three experiments defined the resistance profile of a population of Haemonchus contortus, which was shown to express multiple resistances to the benzimidazole, levamisole, macrocyclic lactone and salicylanilide anthelmintic classes when given as a registered combination. Study 1 was a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and the efficacies for the anthelmintics were monepantel, 100%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 40.0%; and abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole+naphthalophos, 100%. No larvae were recovered from the post-treatment cultures for monepantel or the 4-way treatment, and for the 3-way treatment the culture was 100% Haemonchus spp. Efficacies in Study 2 were calculated from mean post-mortem nematode burdens of H. contortus and were levamisole+oxfendazole, 3.1%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 5.0%; ivermectin, 0.4%; moxidectin, 28.4% and closantel, 70.2%. Study 3 was also a FECR test that resulted in efficacies of 100% for monepantel and 83.0% for a formulated 4-way combination of abamectin+levamisole+albendazole+closantel. Larvae recovered from the post-treatment culture for the combination-treated sheep were all Haemonchus spp. Multi-resistant parasites such as examined in these studies are a continuing challenge to be managed by farmers and their advisors. Control programs must be planned and well-managed, and should include on-farm testing for anthelmintic resistance, monitoring of nematode burdens (by FEC and larval culture) to determine appropriate treatment times and the management of pastures to reduce the overall parasite challenge. This should be in balance with the generation, use and maintenance of drug-susceptible nematode populations in refugia.

  14. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  15. Evaluation of selected acaricides against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse cotton using multispectral data.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A; López, Juan D

    2015-06-01

    Twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an early season pest of cotton in the mid-southern USA and causes reduction in yield, fiber quality and impaired seed germination. Objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of abamectin and spiromesifen with two divergent LC50 values against TSSM in a computer-operated spray table which simulated aerial application parameters. Combined with a pressure of 276 kPa and a speed of 8 km/h, a 650033 nozzle delivered a spray rate of 18.7 L/ha. The active ingredient rates were 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and the lowest label recommended rates for early season cotton. The intent was to study efficacy relative to deposition characteristics at active ingredient rates equal to and lower than those recommended by the label. Spectral reflectance values from a multispectral optical sensor were used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index which numerically described the surface reflectance characteristics of cotton canopies concomitant to damage caused by T. urticae in the greenhouse. Water sensitive paper samplers described spray droplet spectra parameters (Dv0.1, Dv0.5 and Dv0.9, µm) and percent spray coverage. The volume median diameter (Dv0.5, µm) for abamectin and spiromesifen were respectively, 218 and 258 at one-half rate of the lowest label rate. These spray droplets were well above the driftable portions of the spray volume (<141 µm) for both abamectin and spiromesifen. Efficacy evaluations indicated that spiromesifen was more effective than abamectin in controlling T. urticae on early season cotton at one-half rate of the lowest label rate. Results reported herein demonstrate that the multispectral optical sensor in lieu of manually counting T. urticae appears to be a promising tool for efficacy evaluations against acaricides for early season plants grown in greenhouses.

  16. Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

  17. Sediment-associated pesticides in an urban stream in Guangzhou, China: implication of a shift in pesticide use patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Sun, Baoquan; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Pesticide use patterns in China have changed in recent years; however, the study of the environmental fate of current-use pesticides (CUPs) and their ecotoxicological significance in aquatic ecosystems is limited. In the present study, sediments were collected from an urban stream in the Chinese city of Guangzhou. Sediment-associated legacy organochlorine pesticides and CUPs-including organophosphates, pyrethroids, fipronil, and abamectin-were analyzed. Additionally, the relative toxicity of the sediments was evaluated with 10-d bioassays using Chironomus dilutus. Fifteen of 16 sediments collected from the stream were acutely toxic to C. dilutus, with 81% of the samples causing 100% mortality. Abamectin, fipronil, and pyrethroids (mainly cypermethrin) were identified as the principal contributors to the noted toxicity in the midges, with median predicted toxic units of 1.63, 1.63, and 1.03, respectively. Sediments taken from downstream sites, where residential and industrial regions were located, had elevated CUP concentrations and sediment toxicity compared with upstream sites. The present study is the first of its kind to link sediment CUPs, fipronil, and abamectin concentrations with toxicity in urban streams in China with a focus on shifting pesticide usage patterns.

  18. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of oral treatment of rodents with systemic insecticides for control of bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, Thomas Michael; Stout, Rhett W; Foil, Lane D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral treatment of rodents with diets containing the systemic insecticides ivermectin, abamectin, imidacloprid, or spinosad, to control bloodfeeding sand flies. We found that diets containing concentrations higher than 10 mg/kg abamectin were not palatable to rodents, and that a diet containing 10 mg/kg abamectin (a palatable concentration) did not cause 100% mortality of bloodfeeding sand flies. Treatment of rodents with imidacloprid was effective for less than 3 days post-treatment. Treatment of rodents with diets containing 20 mg/kg ivermectin or 5000 mg/kg spinosad caused 100% mortality of bloodfeeding sand flies for at least 1 week. The efficacy of ivermectin and spinosad also were not reduced when combined with the fluorescent tracer dye rhodamine B in a single diet. We also did not observe significant benefits by increasing the feeding period of the rodents from 3 to 6 or 9 days. We conclude that ivermectin and spinosad are effective as rodent systemic insecticides against bloodfeeding sand flies, and suggest that weekly treatment of wild rodent reservoirs of Leishmania major with bait containing one of these systemic insecticides could be a useful tool as part of a sand fly control program.

  20. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

  1. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain. PMID:25421627

  2. Insecticide resistance in populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, V C; de Siqueira, H A A; da Silva, J E; de Farias, M J D C

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) has a great economic importance in Brassicaceae crops in many parts of the world. Recurrent infestations of this pest in growing areas of Pernambuco state, Brazil, have led farmers to frequently spray their crops with insecticides. However, control failures by several insecticides have been alleged by farmers. The objective of this study was to check whether resistance to insecticides could explain these control failures in P. xylostella. Populations of P. xylostella from Pernambuco were collected between January and April 2009. The resistance ratios of P. xylostella populations were compared among five different active ingredients: abamectin, methomyl, lufenuron, indoxacarb, and diafenthiuron by leaf dipping bioassays using foliar discs of kale leaves. Mortality data were submitted to probit analysis. The P. xylostella populations showed variable response and significant resistance to one or more insecticides. The population from Bezerros County exhibited the highest resistance ratios to indoxacarb (25.3 times), abamectin (61.7 times), and lufenuron (705.2 times), when compared to the reference population. The populations from Bonito and Jupi Counties were 33.0 and 12.0 times more resistant to lufenuron and abamectin, respectively, when compared with the reference population. Resistance to methomyl was the least common, but not less important, in at least four populations. These results indicated that control failures were associated with resistance by some of the evaluated insecticides, reinforcing the need for resistance management in areas of the state of Pernambuco. PMID:21584410

  3. Insecticide resistance in populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, V C; de Siqueira, H A A; da Silva, J E; de Farias, M J D C

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) has a great economic importance in Brassicaceae crops in many parts of the world. Recurrent infestations of this pest in growing areas of Pernambuco state, Brazil, have led farmers to frequently spray their crops with insecticides. However, control failures by several insecticides have been alleged by farmers. The objective of this study was to check whether resistance to insecticides could explain these control failures in P. xylostella. Populations of P. xylostella from Pernambuco were collected between January and April 2009. The resistance ratios of P. xylostella populations were compared among five different active ingredients: abamectin, methomyl, lufenuron, indoxacarb, and diafenthiuron by leaf dipping bioassays using foliar discs of kale leaves. Mortality data were submitted to probit analysis. The P. xylostella populations showed variable response and significant resistance to one or more insecticides. The population from Bezerros County exhibited the highest resistance ratios to indoxacarb (25.3 times), abamectin (61.7 times), and lufenuron (705.2 times), when compared to the reference population. The populations from Bonito and Jupi Counties were 33.0 and 12.0 times more resistant to lufenuron and abamectin, respectively, when compared with the reference population. Resistance to methomyl was the least common, but not less important, in at least four populations. These results indicated that control failures were associated with resistance by some of the evaluated insecticides, reinforcing the need for resistance management in areas of the state of Pernambuco.

  4. Identification and Functional Expression of a Glutamate- and Avermectin-Gated Chloride Channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a Southern Hemisphere Sea Louse Affecting Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F. Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Cid, L. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (nH = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  5. catena-Poly[[tetra-μ-benzoato-κ(8)O:O'-dicopper(II)]-μ-[N-(pyridin-4-yl)nicotin-amide]-κ(2)N:N'-[dibenzoato-κ(2)O-copper(II)]-μ-[N-(pyridin-4-yl)nicotin-amide]-κ(2)N:N'].

    PubMed

    Kraft, Peter E; Laduca, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    In the polymeric title compound, [Cu(3)(C(7)H(5)O(2))(6)(C(11)H(9)N(3)O)(2)](n), square-planar-coordinated Cu(II) ions on crystallographic inversion centres are bound by two monodentate benzoate anions. The resulting [Cu(benzoate)](2) fragments are joined to centrosymmetic [Cu(2)(benzoate)(4)] paddlewheel clusters [Cu⋯Cu = 2.6331 (5) Å] by means of bridging N-(pyridin-4-yl)nicotinamide (4-pna) ligands [dihedral angle between the aromatic rings = 39.18 (12)°], thereby forming [Cu(3)(benzoate)(6)(4-pna)(2)](n) coordination-polymer chains that are arranged parallel to the [30-1] crystal direction. These polymeric chains are anchored into supra-molecular layers by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between neighboring 4-pna ligands. These layers aggregate by crystal packing forces to afford the crystal structure of the title compound. PMID:22904725

  6. Preliminary study of effectiveness of aloe vera in scabies treatment.

    PubMed

    Oyelami, O A; Onayemi, A; Oyedeji, O A; Adeyemi, L A

    2009-10-01

    In an open, non-comparative study carried out between August and December 2002 at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 5 patients with scabies were successfully treated with crude gel of Aloe vera; thereafter the efficacy of the extract was compared with that of benzoate lotion among 30 patients. Sixteen patients were treated with Aloe vera and 14 patients had benzyl benzoate lotion. Itching was still present in 3 patients in the benzyl benzoate group and in 2 patients in the Aloe vera group after 2 courses of treatment. The scabietic lesions virtually disappeared in all of them. None of these patients had any noticeable side effects. It is concluded that Aloe vera gel is as effective as benzyl benzoate in the treatment of scabies.

  7. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  8. Determination of Components in Beverages by Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yinfa; Yeung, Edward S.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a simple and interesting chromatography experiment using three different fluorescence detection principles for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. Experimental procedures and an analysis and discussion of the results are included. (CW)

  9. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, November 1992--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1993-11-12

    The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, in coculture with different sulfate reducers was studied with sulfate or nitrate as the electron acceptor. A threshold value for benzoate degradation dependent on the acetate concentration was observed with sulfate, but not nitrate, as the electron acceptor. No threshold was observed in tricultures containing an acetate-using sulfate reducer. The addition of the acetate-using sulfate reducer to cocultures that had degraded benzoate to its threshold value resulted in further degradation of benzoate to levels below the analytical detection limit (ca. 200 nM). These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and exclude the possibility that the threshold was the result of the inhibitory action of the undissociated form of acetate.

  10. 40 CFR 180.563 - Ethametsulfuron-methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of ethametsulfuron methyl (methyl 2- ((((4-ethoxy-6- (methylamino)-1,3,5- triazin-2-yl) amino) carbonyl) amino) sulfonyl) benzoate) in or on the following raw agricultural commodities. Commodity...

  11. 40 CFR 180.563 - Ethametsulfuron-methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of ethametsulfuron methyl (methyl 2- ((((4-ethoxy-6- (methylamino)-1,3,5- triazin-2-yl) amino) carbonyl) amino) sulfonyl) benzoate) in or on the following raw agricultural commodities. Commodity...

  12. Synthesis of acyl derivatives of salicin, salirepin, and arbutin.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Belyanin, Maxim L; Filimonov, Victor D

    2014-03-31

    The total synthesis of two natural phenolglycosides of the family Salicaceae, namely: populoside and 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) cinnamoate and nine not found yet in plants acyl derivatives of phenoglycosides: 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3,4-dihydroxy) cinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-benzoyloxy benzylbenzoate and 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-phenylbenzoate, starting from readily available phenols and glucose was developed for the first time.

  13. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bernd; Hauke, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253

  14. A Sequential Preparation of Organic Compounds for Senior Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrigan, Cecilia; Crotty, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes procedures suitable for student preparation of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and ethyl benzoate sequentially from benzyl alcohol. Preparation for benzyl chloride also given. All reagents except benzyl alcohol are common inorganic chemicals. (AL)

  15. 40 CFR 116.4 - Designation of hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 631618 Acetic acid ammonium, salt Ammonium benzoate 1863634 Ammonium bicarbonate 1066337 Acid ammonium... Silver nitrate 7761888 Nitric acid silver (1+) salt lunar caustic Sodium 7440235 Natrium Sodium arsenate 7631892 Disodium arsenate Sodium arsenite 7784465 Sodium metaarsenite Sodium bichromate 10588019...

  16. 40 CFR 116.4 - Designation of hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 631618 Acetic acid ammonium, salt Ammonium benzoate 1863634 Ammonium bicarbonate 1066337 Acid ammonium... Silver nitrate 7761888 Nitric acid silver (1+) salt lunar caustic Sodium 7440235 Natrium Sodium arsenate 7631892 Disodium arsenate Sodium arsenite 7784465 Sodium metaarsenite Sodium bichromate 10588019...

  17. 40 CFR 116.4 - Designation of hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 631618 Acetic acid ammonium, salt Ammonium benzoate 1863634 Ammonium bicarbonate 1066337 Acid ammonium... Silver nitrate 7761888 Nitric acid silver (1+) salt lunar caustic Sodium 7440235 Natrium Sodium arsenate 7631892 Disodium arsenate Sodium arsenite 7784465 Sodium metaarsenite Sodium bichromate 10588019...

  18. 40 CFR 116.4 - Designation of hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 631618 Acetic acid ammonium, salt Ammonium benzoate 1863634 Ammonium bicarbonate 1066337 Acid ammonium... Silver nitrate 7761888 Nitric acid silver (1+) salt lunar caustic Sodium 7440235 Natrium Sodium arsenate 7631892 Disodium arsenate Sodium arsenite 7784465 Sodium metaarsenite Sodium bichromate 10588019...

  19. 40 CFR 116.4 - Designation of hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 631618 Acetic acid ammonium, salt Ammonium benzoate 1863634 Ammonium bicarbonate 1066337 Acid ammonium... Silver nitrate 7761888 Nitric acid silver (1+) salt lunar caustic Sodium 7440235 Natrium Sodium arsenate 7631892 Disodium arsenate Sodium arsenite 7784465 Sodium metaarsenite Sodium bichromate 10588019...

  20. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative

    PubMed Central

    Hauke, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253