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Sample records for abandoned agricultural field

  1. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From Okra to Oak: Reforestation of Abandoned Agricultural Fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; John A. Stanturf

    1997-01-01

    There has been a tremendous upsurge in interest in reforestation of bottomland hardwoods. In the lower Mississippi alluvial valley, reforestation projects are occurringon a large scale on abandoned agricultural fields, often in conjunction with state or federal cost-share programs. This paper describes some of the cost share programs used to establish bottomland...

  3. Planted and natural tree seedling survival and density in three floodplain restorations on abandoned agricultural fields

    Treesearch

    Allen E. Plocher

    2003-01-01

    In three floodplain forest restorations, established in abandoned agricultural fields in Illinois, permanent plots were sampled for 3 years to determine survivorship and density of planted tree seedlings, and species composition and density of natural regeneration. Planted tree survivorship decreased over time at all sites and after 3 years ranged from 32 to 61 percent...

  4. Subsurface soil carbon losses offset surface carbon accumulation in abandoned agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Knops, J. M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon is widely understood to accumulate after agricultural abandonment. However, most of the studies have been focused on shallow depths (10 to 30 cm), and there is a lack of deeper soil carbon data. It was reported that in temperate grasslands, 58% of the soil organic carbon in the first meter was stored between 20 and 100 cm, and organic matter in deeper soil might also be susceptible to agricultural disturbance. We used repeated sampling in 2001 and 2014 to directly measure rates of soil carbon change in both surface and subsurface soil in 21 abandoned agricultural fields at Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, MN. Congruent with many other studies, we found carbon accumulated 384.2 C g/m2 in surface soil (0 - 20 cm) over the 13 years. However, we also found carbon pool declined 688.1 C g/m2 in the subsurface soil (40-100 cm), which resulted in a net total loss of soil carbon. We investigated the ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes to explore the mechanisms of the observed soil carbon changes. We found root carbon was not significantly correlated with soil carbon in any of the depth. In situ soil incubation showed nitrogen mineralization rates in subsurface soil are lower than that of surface soil. However, the estimated nitrogen and carbon output through decomposition is higher than inputs from roots, therefore leading to carbon loss in subsurface soil. These results suggest that the decomposition of soil organic matter by microorganisms in subsurface soil is significant, and should be incorporated in ecosystem carbon budget models.

  5. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  6. Spatial probability of soil water repellency in an abandoned agricultural field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a natural soil property with implications on infiltration, erosion and plant growth. It depends on soil texture, type and amount of organic matter, fungi, microorganisms, and vegetation cover (Doerr et al., 2000). Human activities as agriculture can have implications on soil water repellency (SWR) due tillage and addition of organic compounds and fertilizers (Blanco-Canqui and Lal, 2009; Gonzalez-Penaloza et al., 2012). It is also assumed that SWR has a high small-scale variability (Doerr et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to study the spatial probability of SWR in an abandoned field testing several geostatistical methods, Organic Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area it is located near Vilnius urban area at (54 49' N, 25 22', 104 masl) in Lithuania (Pereira and Oliva, 2013). It was designed a experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m). Inside this area it was measured SWR was measured every 50 cm using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). A total of 105 points were measured. The probability of SWR was classified in 0 (No probability) to 1 (High probability). The methods accuracy was assessed with the cross validation method. The best interpolation method was the one with the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the most accurate probability method was SK (RMSE=0.436), followed by DK (RMSE=0.437), IK (RMSE=0.448), PK (RMSE=0.452) and OK (RMSE=0.537). Significant differences were identified among probability tests (Kruskal-Wallis test =199.7597 p<0.001). On average the probability of SWR was high with the OK (0.58±0.08) followed by PK (0.49±0.18), SK (0.32±0.16), DK (0.32±0.15) and IK (0.31±0.16). The most accurate probability methods predicted a lower probability of SWR in the studied plot. The spatial distribution of SWR was different according to the tested technique. Simple Kriging, DK, IK and PK methods

  7. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in themore » surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.« less

  8. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  9. Short-term temporal and spatial variability of soil hydrophobicity in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a natural property of soils. Among other factors, SWR depends on soil moisture, mineralogy, texture, pH, organic matter, aggregate stability, fungal and microbiological activity and plant cover. It has implications on plant growth, superficial and subsurface hydrology and soil erosion. It is well known that SWR is temporarily, increasing when soils are dry and decreasing when moist. In agriculture, soil micro-topography is very heterogeneous with implications on surface water distribution and wettability. Normally, SWR studies are focused on large interval time (e.g, monthly or seasonally). The objective of this work is the study of SWR in a temporal scale and its variability in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania. An experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m) was designed in a flat area. Inside this plot SWR was measured in the field, placing three droplets of water on the soil surface and counting the time that takes to infiltrate. A total of 105 sampling points were measured per sampling period. Soil water repellency was measured after a period of 14 days without rainfall and in the seven consequent weeks (one measurement per week between 28th May and 07th of July 2012). The results showed that in this small plot, SWR was observed in the first (May 28), third and fourth measurements (08th of June and 16th). It was observed an increasing of the percentage of hydrophobic points (Water Drop Penetration Test ≥5 seconds) between the first and the fourth measurement, decreasing thereafter. Significant differences of SWR were observed among all periods (F=78.32, p<0.0001). The coefficient of variation (CV%) changed strikingly, 361.10 % (8th of May), 151.78 % (01st of June), 83.77% (08th of June), 125.87% (16th of June), 0.45 (22nd of June), 121%(31st of June) and 67.13% (7th of July). The correlation between the mean SWR and the CV% is 0.75, p<0.05. The changes were attributed to different soil moisture conditions. The differences

  10. Comparison of water soil erosion on Spanish Mediterannean abandoned land and agricultural fields under vine, almond, olives and citrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Martínez-Hernández, Carlos; Iserloh, Thomas; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    The abandonment of agricultural lands is considered as a global dynamic with on- and off-site consequences on the soil mostly ignored (Vanmaercke et al., 2011), which enhance land degradation processes by increasing water soil erosion (Cammeraat et al., 2010; Keesstra et al., 2012) and by decreasing biodiversity (Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). However, there is a lack of information at pedon scale about the assessment and quantification of which environmental elements activate or avoid water soil erosion after its respective abandonment. Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as useful tool for measuring interrelated soil erosion processes such as splash, initial rainfall-runoff processes, infiltration, sediment yield, water turbidity or nutrient suspensions (Cerdà, 1999; Iserloh et al., 2013; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). 105 experiments were conducted with a small portable rainfall simulator (rainfall intensity of 40 mm h-1 in 30 minutes) in four different land uses and their respective abandoned land: i) citrus and olives (Valencia), almonds (Murcia) and vines (Málaga). We studied the main environmental factors that may determine water soil erosion during the performed experiments: slope, vegetation cover, rock fragment cover, soil properties (texture) and hydrological responses (time to runoff and infiltration generation). REFERENCES Brevik, E.C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J.N., Six, J., Van Oost, K., 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL. SOIL 1, 117-129. doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015 Cammeraat, E.L.H., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semi-arid environment. Ecohydrology 3, 421-430. doi:10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A., 1999. Simuladores de lluvia y su aplicación a la Geomorfología: Estado de la cuestión. Cuad. Investig. Geográfica 45-84. Iserloh, T., Ries, J.B., Arnáez, J., Boix-Fayos, C., Butzen, V., Cerdà, A., Echeverría, M.T., Fern

  11. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  12. The global potential of bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B; Genova, Robert C; Field, Christopher B

    2008-08-01

    Converting forest lands into bioenergy agriculture could accelerate climate change by emitting carbon stored in forests, while converting food agriculture lands into bioenergy agriculture could threaten food security. Both problems are potentially avoided by using abandoned agriculture lands for bioenergy agriculture. Here we show the global potential for bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands to be less than 8% of current primary energy demand, based on historical land use data, satellite-derived land cover data, and global ecosystem modeling. The estimated global area of abandoned agriculture is 385-472 million hectares, or 66-110% of the areas reported in previous preliminary assessments. The area-weighted mean production of above-ground biomass is 4.3 tons ha(-1) y(-1), in contrast to estimates of up to 10 tons ha(-1) y(-1) in previous assessments. The energy content of potential biomass grown on 100% of abandoned agriculture lands is less than 10% of primary energy demand for most nations in North America, Europe, and Asia, but it represents many times the energy demand in some African nations where grasslands are relatively productive and current energy demand is low.

  13. Agricultural land abandonment in Mediterranean environment provides ecosystem services via soil carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Sala, Giovanna; Galati, Antonino; Crescimanno, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Badalamenti, Emilio; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2017-01-15

    Abandonment of agricultural land leads to several consequences for ecosystem functions. Agricultural abandonment may be a significant and low cost strategy for carbon sequestration and mitigation of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions due to the vegetation recovery and increase in soil organic matter. The aim of this study was to: (i) estimate the influence of different Soil Regions (areas characterized by a typical climate and parent material association) and Bioclimates (zones with homogeneous climatic regions and thermotype indices) on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after agricultural land abandonment; and (ii) to analyse the efficiency of the agri-environment policy (agri-environment measures) suggested by the European Commission in relation to potential SOC stock ability in the Sicilian Region (Italy). In order to quantify the effects of agricultural abandonment on SOC, a dataset with original data that was sampled in Sicily and existing data from the literature were analysed according to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) methodology. Results showed that abandonment of cropland soils increased SOC stock by 9.03MgCha -1 on average, ranging from 5.4MgCha -1 to 26.7MgCha -1 in relation to the Soil Region and Bioclimate. The estimation of SOC change after agricultural use permitted calculation of the payments for ecosystem service (PES) of C sequestration after agricultural land abandonment in relation to environmental benefits, increasing in this way the efficiency of PES. Considering the 14,337ha of abandoned lands in Sicily, the CO 2 emission as a whole was reduced by 887,745Mg CO 2 . Therefore, it could be concluded that abandoned agricultural fields represents a valid opportunity to mitigate agriculture sector emissions in Sicily. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  15. Temporal dynamics of plant succession in abandoned field in Mediterranean mountain areas: farming terraces and sloping fields (Iberian System, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Cropland abandonment is an important problem in mountain areas worldwide. This process represents the change from an agricultural management to an abandoned land in which a complex plant succession process occurs, with important hydromorphological effects, and consequences in water resources availability and soil erosion. Literature indicates that plant succession depends on multiple natural factors (soil properties, topography, climate, lithology, and distance to natural covers…) and anthropogenic factors (age of abandonment, management of each field during the cultivation period and after the abandonment…). Despite the advances, much is unknown about the vegetation succession, due to the complexity of ecological and social conditions in which land abandonment occurs. Recently, it is shown that only local factors can explain the heterogeneity of the process (Burel and Baudry, 2002; Jouba and Alados, 2012). In this work, we analyze the diversity of vegetation cover in abandonment fields in Cameros Viejo (Iberian System, Spain), related to the different field patterns (terraces and sloping fields) and the age of abandonment. Agricultural lands were delimited using aerial photographs from 1956 and 1978. The current land cover was obtained from SIOSE (Information System of Land Occupation in Spain). According to our cartography, cultivated land occupied as much as 15,491 ha (39% of the area), remaining abandoned 14,505 ha by 1978. Farming terraces occupied 55.9% of the abandoned area, and 44.1% as sloping fields. On the other hand, our cartography highlights the complexity of current land cover of abandoned fields in a landscape matrix of scrubland. Our results suggest that ecological succession is faster in farming terraces than in sloping fields, mostly until scrubland phase is attained. They also suggest that current land cover is better explained by the physical conditions of each field than by the abandonment age. Acknowledgement This research was supported

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and associated microbial communities from dry grassland do not improve plant growth on abandoned field soil.

    PubMed

    Pánková, Hana; Lepinay, Clémentine; Rydlová, Jana; Voříšková, Alena; Janoušková, Martina; Dostálek, Tomáš; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2018-03-01

    After abandonment of agricultural fields, some grassland plant species colonize these sites with a frequency equivalent to dry grasslands (generalists) while others are missing or underrepresented in abandoned fields (specialists). We aimed to understand the inability of specialists to spread on abandoned fields by exploring whether performance of generalists and specialists depended on soil abiotic and/or biotic legacy. We performed a greenhouse experiment with 12 species, six specialists and six generalists. The plants were grown in sterile soil from dry grassland or abandoned field inoculated with microbial communities from one or the other site. Plant growth, abundance of mycorrhizal structures and plant response to inoculation were evaluated. We focused on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), one of the most important parts of soil communities affecting plant performance. The abandoned field soil negatively affected plant growth, but positively affected plant response to inoculation. The AMF community from both sites differed in infectivity and taxa frequencies. The lower AMF taxa frequency in the dry grassland soil suggested a lack of functional complementarity. Despite the fact that dry grassland AMF produced more arbuscules, the dry grassland inoculum did not improve phosphorus nutrition of specialists contrary to the abandoned field inoculum. Inoculum origin did not affect phosphorus nutrition of generalists. The lower effectiveness of the dry grassland microbial community toward plant performance excludes its inoculation in the abandoned field soil as a solution to allow settlement of specialists. Still, the distinct response of specialists and generalists to inoculation suggested that they differ in AMF responsiveness.

  17. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: Tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Eric P. Eldredge; Keirith A. Snyder; David I. Board; Tara Forbis de Queiroz; Vada Hubbard

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to create resilient ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems typically requires seeding or transplanting native species, improving plant-soil-water relations, and controlling invasive species. We asked if improving water relations via irrigation or surface mulch would result in negative tradeoffs between native species...

  19. A change in landscape: Lessons learned from abandonment of ancient Wari agricultural terraces in Southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Ana C; Williams, Patrick Ryan; Hart, Megan L

    2017-11-01

    Ancient agricultural terrace practices have survived for millennia, sustaining populations through extreme climatic shifts and political regime changes. In arid regions with abrupt relief such as Southern Peru, agricultural terracing is undergoing a resurgence, as has seen revitalization of once abandoned terrace and hydraulic systems. Wari terraces at Cerro Baul provide clues to past cultural practices. They also document sustainable farming practices by using resilient land management techniques which can help combat desertification and degradation of arable lands. Three abandoned Wari terrace systems were mapped using microtopographic methods, the erosion patterns examined, the states of preservation compared, and then the design contrasted with modern terracing practices in the Moquegua Valley. In order to negate the harmful effects of desertification, rehabilitation and reconstruction of these terraces using ancient knowledge and techniques may be necessary. Rehabilitation must be conducted with consideration for preservation of cultural patrimony that may be encountered within the terrace treads or riser structures. With future climatic shifts impacting vulnerable dryland areas more than others, the ability to resiliently respond to these changes may be found in the lessons learned from ancient farming techniques such as the Wari. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in hydrological connectivity due to vegetation recovery and wall collapse in abandoned terraced fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana-Renault, Noemí; López-Vicente, Manuel; Oranjuren, Rafael; Ángel Llorente, José; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Arnáez, José

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural terraces have been built in mountain regions worldwide in order to provide a larger surface for cultivation, improve water availability and reduce soil erosion, as they favour infiltration and reduce runoff and sediment connectivity from hillslopes to streams. In many Mediterranean countries, farmland abandonment has led to progressive natural revegetation and, in terraced slopes, due to a lack of maintenance, to a collapse of the water conservation structures, often followed by small mass movements and gullying. Little is known about the effect of such failures on the hydrological system, especially at catchment scale. The aim of this study is to contributing to fill in this gap by exploring the effect of vegetation recovery and terrace failure on hydrological connectivity in a small catchment (192 ha) in northern Spain mostly occupied by abandoned terraced fields. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). Besides using the C-RUSLE factor, as used by many authors, we tested the inclusion of an infiltration component (Kf) to assess the landscape-weighting factor. The Kf factor accounted for the high infiltration rates observed in the terraced soils and was estimated using the permeability classes of the K-RUSLE factor. A 2x2 m resolution DEM was used to capture the terraced fields and run the IC model. Following the recommendation of Cavalli et al. (2015), we used the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm (Tarboton, 1997) to represent the real flow paths, especially on hillslopes, where divergent flow predominates, and on stream channels. To ensure the continuity of the flow path lines, local sinks were filled in with the algorithm of Planchon & Darboux (2001) that preserved a minimum slope gradient of 0.01 degrees. Finally, linear landscape elements such as stonewalls, rock outcrops, and trails and forest roads were also considered. The IC was calculated for the current scenario

  1. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  2. Water repellency, plants, agriculture abandonment and fire in citrus plantations. The Canyoles river watershed study site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a key soil property that determine the soil and water losses, soil fertility and plant development. Although until the 90's the soil water repellency was seeing as an uncommon soil characteristic, now is considered a key soil property to understand the soil hydrology (Alanís et al., 2016; Hewelke et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016; Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2016). The inspiring research of Leonard DeBano and Stefan H Doerr changed the fate of the science (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al. 2000). Soil water repellency was associated to forest fire affected land due to the pioneer contribution of professor DeBano in the 70's and Professor Doerr in the 90's. The research during the last two decades demonstrate that fire affects the reallocation of the hydrophobic substances and can reduce or increase the severity of the soil water repellence at different soil depths and horizons. The SWR is usually measured by sampling to show the influence of key soil properties (texture, structure, plant cover, litter, season…) on the degree of soil water repellency. The sampling is applied usually with a few drops when the Water Drop Penetration Time method is applied, and this inform of the time of penetration, but few researches focussed in the spatial distribution of the water repellency, which is a key factor of the runoff generation, the water infiltration and the water redistribution such as demonstrate the wetting fronts. Our approach research the spatial distribution of the water repellency by means of an intense sampling of soil surface water repellency. One thousand drops were distributed in a square meter (100 lines separated 1 cm and 100 drops per each line of 100 cm, with a total od 1000 drops in 1m2) on 10 sampling points on 4 land managements: ploughing and herbicide agriculture fields treatment), abandoned 10 years, and burnt. The research was carried out in citrus plantations of the Canyoles river watershed. The results show that the

  3. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-22

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km 2 of urban gain and -21,017 km 2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km 2 ) and closed shrubland (60,854 km 2 ) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  4. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001–2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and −21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development. PMID:27874092

  5. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and -21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  6. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  7. Impacts of land-use history on the recovery of ecosystems after agricultural abandonment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Andreas; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Bayer, Anita D.; Lindeskog, Mats; Arneth, Almut

    2016-09-01

    Land-use changes have been shown to have large effects on climate and biogeochemical cycles, but so far most studies have focused on the effects of conversion of natural vegetation to croplands and pastures. By contrast, relatively little is known about the long-term influence of past agriculture on vegetation regrowth and carbon sequestration following land abandonment. We used the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model to study the legacy effects of different land-use histories (in terms of type and duration) across a range of ecosystems. To this end, we performed six idealized simulations for Europe and Africa in which we made a transition from natural vegetation to either pasture or cropland, followed by a transition back to natural vegetation after 20, 60 or 100 years. The simulations identified substantial differences in recovery trajectories of four key variables (vegetation composition, vegetation carbon, soil carbon, net biome productivity) after agricultural cessation. Vegetation carbon and composition typically recovered faster than soil carbon in subtropical, temperate and boreal regions, and vice versa in the tropics. While the effects of different land-use histories on recovery periods of soil carbon stocks often differed by centuries across our simulations, differences in recovery times across simulations were typically small for net biome productivity (a few decades) and modest for vegetation carbon and composition (several decades). Spatially, we found the greatest sensitivity of recovery times to prior land use in boreal forests and subtropical grasslands, where post-agricultural productivity was strongly affected by prior land management. Our results suggest that land-use history is a relevant factor affecting ecosystems long after agricultural cessation, and it should be considered not only when assessing historical or future changes in simulations of the terrestrial carbon cycle but also when establishing long-term monitoring networks and

  8. Ecosystem N distribution and δ15N during a century of forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compton, J.E.; Hooker, T.D.; Perakis, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of terrestrial ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools reflect internal processes and input–output balances. Disturbance generally increases N cycling and loss, yet few studies have examined ecosystem δ15N over a disturbance-recovery sequence. We used a chronosequence approach to examine N distribution and δ15N during forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment. Site ages ranged from 10 to 115 years, with similar soils, climate, land-use history, and overstory vegetation (white pine Pinus strobus). Foliar N and δ15N decreased as stands aged, consistent with a progressive tightening of the N cycle during forest regrowth on agricultural lands. Over time, foliar δ15N became more negative, indicating increased fractionation along the mineralization–mycorrhizal–plant uptake pathway. Total ecosystem N was constant across the chronosequence, but substantial internal N redistribution occurred from the mineral soil to plants and litter over 115 years (>25% of ecosystem N or 1,610 kg ha−1). Temporal trends in soil δ15N generally reflected a redistribution of depleted N from the mineral soil to the developing O horizon. Although plants and soil δ15N are coupled over millennial time scales of ecosystem development, our observed divergence between plants and soil suggests that they can be uncoupled during the disturbance-regrowth sequence. The approximate 2‰ decrease in ecosystem δ15N over the century scale suggests significant incorporation of atmospheric N, which was not detected by traditional ecosystem N accounting. Consideration of temporal trends and disturbance legacies can improve our understanding of the influence of broader factors such as climate or N deposition on ecosystem N balances and δ15N.

  9. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  10. Microfilming maps of abandoned anthracite mines: mines in the southern anthracite field

    SciTech Connect

    Gait, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series concerning the Bureau of Mines program for microfilming maps of abandoned mines in the Pennsylvania anthracite region. A catalog of the microfilmed maps of 47 of 49 major mines and 18 independent mines in the Southern field is presented. Previous reports included catalogs of microfilmed maps of mines in the Eastern Middle field, the Wyoming and Lackawanna Basins of the Northern field, and the Western Middle anthracite field.

  11. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land.

  12. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of the Mediterranean Basin: A Case Study of the Abandonment of Cultivation Terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island’s unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  13. Socioeconomic dimensions of changes in the agricultural landscape of the Mediterranean basin: a case study of the abandonment of cultivation terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island's unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  14. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  15. Wetland fields as mirrors of drought and the Maya abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Beach, Timothy P.; Dunning, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    Getting at the Maya Collapse has both temporal and geographic dimensions, because it occurred over centuries and great distances. This requires a wide range of research sites and proxy records, ranging from lake cores to geomorphic evidence, such as stratigraphy and speleothems. This article synthesizes these lines of evidence, together with previously undescribed findings on Maya wetland formation and use in a key region near the heart of the central Maya Lowlands. Growing lines of evidence point to dryer periods in Maya history, which correlate to major periods of transition. The main line of evidence in this paper comes from wetland use and formation studies, which show evidence for both large-scale environmental change and human adaptation or response. Based on multiproxy studies, Maya wetland fields had a long and varied history, but most evidence indicates the start of disuse during or shortly after the Maya Terminal Classic. Hence, the pervasiveness of collapse extended into a range of wetlands, including perennial wetlands, which should have been less responsive to drought as a driver of disuse. A synthesis of the lines of evidence for canal infilling shows no attempts to reclaim them after the Classic Period. PMID:22371605

  16. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  17. Refining Field Measurements of Methane Flux Rates from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagron, C. S.; Kang, M.; Riqueros, N. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in Pennsylvania demonstrate the potential for significant methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. A subset of tested wells was high emitting, with methane flux rates up to seven orders of magnitude greater than natural fluxes (up to 105 mg CH4/hour, or about 2.5LPM). These wells contribute disproportionately to the total methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. The principles guiding the chamber design have been developed for lower flux rates, typically found in natural environments, and chamber design modifications may reduce uncertainty in flux rates associated with high-emitting wells. Kang et al. estimate errors of a factor of two in measured values based on previous studies. We conduct controlled releases of methane to refine error estimates and improve chamber design with a focus on high-emitters. Controlled releases of methane are conducted at 0.05 LPM, 0.50 LPM, 1.0 LPM, 2.0 LPM, 3.0 LPM, and 5.0 LPM, and at two chamber dimensions typically used in field measurements studies of abandoned wells. As most sources of error tabulated by Kang et al. tend to bias the results toward underreporting of methane emissions, a flux-targeted chamber design modification can reduce error margins and/or provide grounds for a potential upward revision of emission estimates.

  18. Carbon implications of Virgin Lands Campaign cropland expansion and post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in Russia and Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Kurganova, I.; Schierhorn, F.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Müller, D.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Political economy and institutional changes regarding land use play crucial role in shaping land cover worldwide. Among such events was the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, when 45.2 million ha of virgin steppes were ploughed up from 1954 to 1963 in northern Eurasia. We took opportunity to evaluate carbon (C) costs of this Campaign, particularly with the account of massive cropland abandonment in the former Campaign area after demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Within cropland mask produced with remotely sensed data, we spatially disaggregated historical annual sown area statistics at the provincial level for Russia and Kazakhstan based on cropland suitability assessment. We also adjusted our cropland allocation model with the use of 1:3,000,000 map depicting cropland expansion in Northern Kazakhstan. We used C bookkeeping approach to assess C dynamics based on soil stratification and C field measurements. The Campaign resulted in huge C losses from soils, which accounted for 611±47 Mt C in Russia and 241±11 Mt C in Kazakhstan for upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation. Such C losses could be compared with C losses due to plowing up the prairies in the mid-1930s in USA. Despite the huge C losses from soils during the Campaign, the total C budget in soils of both countries at national level was positive after 1991 due to sequestered C on abandoned lands, albeit the patterns of C loss during the Campaign and C sink in post-Soviet period differed. The C sink from 1991 to 2010 on abandoned croplands in Russia (45.5Mha) comprised 976±108Mt C and Kazakhstan (12.9Mha) comprised 240±34Mt C. However, already ongoing recultivation of abandoned cropland in Kazakhstan and already planned such activities in Russia, can release stored C on abandoned lands. Our study highlights the importance of environmental evaluation of such governmental programs and their alternatives, particularly, since such programs are not rare events in modern land

  19. A Comparison of Large-Scale Reforestation Techniques Commonly Used on Abandoned Fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Vally

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; John A. Stanturf

    1999-01-01

    Reforesting abandoned land in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley has attracted heightened attention. Currently, federal cost share programs, such as the Wetland Reserve Program and the Conservation Reserve Program, are enticing landowners to consider reforesting lands that are marginally productive for agriculture. This study examined four reforestation techniques...

  20. Plant Succession at the Edges of Two Abandoned Cultivated Fields on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Sally A.; Rickard, William H.

    How vegetation recovers from disturbances is an important question for land managers. We examined 500 m2 plots to determine the progress made by native herbaceous plant species in colonizing the edges of abandoned cultivated fields at different elevations and microclimates, but with similar soils in a big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass steppe. Alien species, especially cheatgrass and cereal rye, were the major competitors to the natives. The native species with best potential for restoring steppe habitats were sulphur lupine, hawksbeard, bottlebrush squirreltail, needle-and-thread grass, Sandberg's bluegrass, and several lomatiums.

  1. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property on...

  2. FOREST ECOSYSTEM CARBON AND NITROGEN ACCUMULATION DURING THE FIRST CENTURY AFTER AGRICULTURAL ABANDONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests of the northeastern U.S. are expected to serve as a substantial sink for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as they recover from extensive clearing and agriculture. However, questions remain concerning the rate, distribution and duration of this potential sink. We used a chron...

  3. Carbon pool and biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, land use, and agricultural abandonment in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, J Boone; Hughes, R Flint; Heider, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Current rates of deforestation and the resulting C emissions in the tropics exceed those of secondary forest regrowth and C sequestration. Changing land-use strategies that would maintain standing forests may be among the least expensive of climate change mitigation options. Further, secondary tropical forests have been suggested to have great value for their potential to sequester atmospheric C. These options require an understanding of and capability to quantify C dynamics at landscape scales. Because of the diversity of physical and biotic features of tropical forests as well as approaches and intensities of land uses within the neotropics, there are tremendous differences in the capacity of different landscapes to store and sequester C. Major gaps in our current knowledge include quantification of C pools, rates and patterns of biomass loss following land-cover change, and quantification of the C storage potential of secondary forests following abandonment. In this paper we present a synthesis and further analyses from recent studies that describe C pools, patterns of C decline associated with land use, and rates of C accumulation following secondary-forest establishment--all information necessary for climate-change mitigation options. Ecosystem C pools of Neotropical primary forests minimally range from approximately 141 to 571 Mg/ha, demonstrating tremendous differences in the capacity of different forests to store C. Most of the losses in C and nutrient pools associated with conversion occur when fires are set to remove the slashed forest to prepare sites for crop or pasture establishment. Fires burning slashed primary forests have been found to result in C losses of 62-80% of prefire aboveground pools in dry (deciduous) forest landscapes and 29-57% in wet (evergreen) forest landscapes. Carbon emissions equivalent to the aboveground primary-forest pool arise from repeated fires occurring in the first 4 to 10 years following conversion. Feedbacks of climate

  4. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product 'Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  5. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5 Agriculture...

  6. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5 Agriculture...

  7. Waterlogging accelerates the loss of soil organic carbon from abandoned paddy fields in the hilly terrain in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao Li; Wang, Wei; Tian, Wen Wen; Xie, Ke Jun

    2017-11-06

    Paddy soils have been widely recognized as important carbon sinks. However, paddy field abandonment is increasing in the hilly area in subtropical China. Soil waterlogging and weed burning are common practices in abandoned paddy fields, which could affect vegetation cover and carbon sequestration. An rice cultivation experiment was ceased in 2006, and four new treatments were applied as waterlogging (W), drainage (D), waterlogging combined with burning (WB), and drainage combined with burning (DB). Waterlogging altered the vegetation cover and caused an associated change in biomass. Paspalum paspaloides, Murdannia triquetra, and Bidens frondosa dominated W and WB plots, and Microstegium vimineum and Bidens frondosa dominated D and DB plots. Abandonment of paddy fields led to a rapid decrease in soil organic carbon (SOC), and waterlogging accelerates SOC loss which should be attributed mainly to alteration of the vegetation cover. Six years' rice cultivation increased SOC content by 13.5% (2.4 g kg -1 ) on average. In contrast, six years' abandonment reduced SOC content by 14.5% (3.0 g kg -1 ) on average. Decline rate of SOC was 0.38, 0.64, 0.30, and 0.65 g kg -1 a -1 for D, W, DB, and WB, respectively. Such results indicate a significant risk of SOC loss from abandoned paddy fields.

  8. Spatio-temporal relation between landslide occurrence and abandoned or not maintained agricultural terraces in the Moldavian Plateau, NE Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Santangelo, Michele; Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Terraced landscapes are one of the most obvious human-shaped landscapes, mainly used to reduce the negative impact of soil erosion due to uncontrolled runoff and shallow landslides occurrence. Nevertheless, as the recent literature emphasizes, these old best practices can transform into a potential hazard for soil degradation, if not appropriately maintained. In Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania), agricultural terraces were built after the 1960s for landslide, soil erosion and runoff control, mainly in connection with construction of reservoirs, for increasing their operation time. Usually, the slope reduction was obtained by construction of cut-off ditches, hillside ditches, intermittent terraces, bench terraces, broad-based terraces, vineyardand orchard terraces. Due to the dry climatic setting, to the lack of hard rocks for construction, and to the generally light earth moving machinery available for construction, terraces are generally characterized by a small escarpment (0.5m to 1m), and a relatively short lateral extension (5 to 40 m). When the terraces were maintained, the backslope was typically covered with grass. When, after the 1990s, the lands were returned to the initial owners, the vegetation cover of the terraces was no more maintained, and the terraces themselves were progressively abandoned, due to lack of funds. Accurate landslide mapping on high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images, allowed to produce geomorphological inventories in 5 test cases, representative of the whole study area. In each inventory, landslides were classified based on type and relative age based on published classification schemes. We investigate the spatial and temporal relation between landslides occurrence and terraces, based on the spatial interactions of landslides of different ages and terraces. Results reveal that terraces were built, both on landslide-free and landslide-bearing slopes, and that frequently landslides and gullies develop on terraced slopes. Reactivations of

  9. Hand Planting Versus Machine Planting of Bottomland Red Oaks on Former Agricultural Fields in Louisiana's Mississippi Alluvial Plain: Sixth-Year Results

    Treesearch

    Alexander J. Michalek; Brian Roy Lockhart; Thomas J. Dean; Bobby D. Keeland; John W. McCoy

    2002-01-01

    Interest in restoring bottomland hardwoods on abandoned agricultural fields has gained considerably over the past 15 years, due primarily to federal cost-share programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program and the Wetlands Reserve Program. While a variety of artificial regeneration techniques are available to afforest these lands, none have met with consistently...

  10. Understanding the role of soil erosion on co2-c loss using (13)c isotopic signatures in abandoned Mediterranean agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Novara, Agata; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemio; Pereira, Paulo; Gristina, Luciano

    2016-04-15

    Understanding soil water erosion processes is essential to evaluate the redistribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) within a landscape and is fundamental to assess the role of soil erosion in the global carbon (C) budget. The main aim of this study was to estimate the C redistribution and losses using (13)C natural abundance. Carbon losses in soil sediment, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and CO2 emission were determined. Four bounded parallel plots were installed on a 10% slope. In the upper part of the plots, C3soil was replaced with C4soil. The SOC and δ(13)C were measured after 145.2mm rainfall in the upper (2m far from C4strip), middle (4m far from C4strip) lower (6m far from C4strip) trams of the plot and in the sediments collected in the Gerlach collector at the lower part of the plot. A laboratory incubation experiment was performed to evaluate the CO2 emission rate of soils in each area. OC was mainly lost in the sediments as 2.08g(-)(2) of C was lost after 145.2mm rainfall. DOC losses were only 5.61% of off-site OC loss. Three months after the beginning of the experiment, 15.90% of SOC in the upper tram of the plot had a C4 origin. The C4-SOC content decreased along the 6m length of the plot, and in the sediments collected by the Gerlach collector. CO2 emission rate was high in the upper plot tram due to the high SOC content. The discrimination of CO2 in C3 and C4 portion permitted to increase our level of understanding on the stability of SOC and its resilience to decomposition. The transport of sediments along the plot increased SOC mineralization by 43%. Our study underlined the impact of rainfall in C losses in soil and water in abandoned Mediterranean agriculture fields and the consequent implications on the C balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Treesearch

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  12. Zoning of agricultural field using a fuzzy indicators model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for deciding how to subdivide a field into a few relatively homogenous zones is using applications of fuzzy sets theory. Data collected from a precision agriculture study in central Texas...

  13. Magnetic surveys for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Abandoned and unrecorded wells may act as conduits for the contamination of groundwater supplies by oil field brines and other pollutants. The casings of abandoned wells eventually develop leaks, which, if not properly plugged, can allow pollutants to reach freshwater aquifers that supply drinking water. Sources of pollutants include brine ponds, landfill sites, agricultural activities, industrial activities, illegal disposal sites, or accidental spills. The problem is particularly acute in regions where there are old petroleum fields or where water wells have been extensively used for agricultural irrigation. Even urban areas can contain wells that were abandoned and concealed during development. Carefully designed ground magnetic or aeromagnetic surveys can be used to locate abandoned wells by mapping the magnetic disturbances or "anomalies" produced by their steel well casings. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) can, at the request of other Federal, State, or local agencies, conduct, process, and interpret such surveys, or it can aid in the design and monitoring of contracts for such surveys.

  14. Metals in boat paint fragments from slipways, repair facilities and abandoned vessels: an evaluation using field portable XRF.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Rees, Aldous B; Gkiokas, Dimitrios; Solman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Paint flaking off abandoned vessels or generated during boat repair is hazardous to human health and wildlife. In this study, a means of screening paint fragments using a field portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer is described. The technique is capable of delivering rapid, surficial measurements of Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn down to concentrations less than 150 μg g(-1), and Sn and Cr to concentrations of a few hundred μg g(-1). Application of the technique to fragments collected from slipways, yards, hardstandings, abandoned boats and ships undergoing maintenance throughout the EU reveal highly variable concentrations of metals among samples from the same environment or from the same region of a given boat; in many cases, variability is also evident in different areas or on different surfaces of the same fragment. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of substances that have been restricted or banned (e.g. Sn, an indicator of organotin, and up to concentrations of 40,000 μg g(-1), and Pb up to concentrations of 200,000 μg g(-1)). Although FP-XRF can rapidly screen samples whose composition and origin are unknown and can assist in instantaneous decision making, a full risk assessment will rely on additional analyses of the precise species (including organo-forms) of the metals present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil carbon sequestration due to post-Soviet cropland abandonment: estimates from a large-scale soil organic carbon field inventory.

    PubMed

    Wertebach, Tim-Martin; Hölzel, Norbert; Kämpf, Immo; Yurtaev, Andrey; Tupitsin, Sergey; Kiehl, Kathrin; Kamp, Johannes; Kleinebecker, Till

    2017-09-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered cropland abandonment on a continental scale, which in turn led to carbon accumulation on abandoned land across Eurasia. Previous studies have estimated carbon accumulation rates across Russia based on large-scale modelling. Studies that assess carbon sequestration on abandoned land based on robust field sampling are rare. We investigated soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks using a randomized sampling design along a climatic gradient from forest steppe to Sub-Taiga in Western Siberia (Tyumen Province). In total, SOC contents were sampled on 470 plots across different soil and land-use types. The effect of land use on changes in SOC stock was evaluated, and carbon sequestration rates were calculated for different age stages of abandoned cropland. While land-use type had an effect on carbon accumulation in the topsoil (0-5 cm), no independent land-use effects were found for deeper SOC stocks. Topsoil carbon stocks of grasslands and forests were significantly higher than those of soils managed for crops and under abandoned cropland. SOC increased significantly with time since abandonment. The average carbon sequestration rate for soils of abandoned cropland was 0.66 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 (1-20 years old, 0-5 cm soil depth), which is at the lower end of published estimates for Russia and Siberia. There was a tendency towards SOC saturation on abandoned land as sequestration rates were much higher for recently abandoned (1-10 years old, 1.04 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ) compared to earlier abandoned crop fields (11-20 years old, 0.26 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Our study confirms the global significance of abandoned cropland in Russia for carbon sequestration. Our findings also suggest that robust regional surveys based on a large number of samples advance model-based continent-wide SOC prediction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of fire as a management tool for controlling Schinus terebinthifolius as secondary successional growth on abandoned agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doren, Robert F.; Whiteaker, Louis D.; Larosa, Anne Marie

    1991-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius, native to South America, has become an aggressive woody weed in southern Florida, displacing native vegetation as well as rapidly invading disturbed sites. Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of fire as a management option for controlling Schinus on abandoned farmland in Everglades National Park, known as the “Hole-in-the-Donut,” began in 1979. Study plots were established to monitor any change(s) in herbaceous cover and in numbers and size of Schinus stems. Except in the control plot (which was not burned), each site was burned as often as fuel conditions permitted (usually once every one or two years), through 1985. Results indicated that both the number and density of Schinus stems increased over the course of the study. While plots that burned showed a reduction in the rate of Schinus invasion, invasion still progressed rapidly with or without the occurrence of fire. The increase in Schinus stem density from 1980 to 1985 was highly significant in all transects except one. Herbaceous cover showed no clear trends relative to burning.

  17. Relationships between soil parameters and vegetation in abandoned terrace fields vs. non-terraced fields in arid lands (Lanzarote, Spain): An opportunity for restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, José Ramón; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia; Reyes-Betancort, J. Alfredo; Tejedor, Marisa; Jiménez, Concepción; Díaz, Francisco J.

    2017-11-01

    Over 90% of terraced fields have been abandoned on the island of Lanzarote in the last 40 years. The present work analyses the effects of abandonment on the soil and vegetation recovery of terraced field agroecosystems by comparing them with adjacent non-terraced fields in Lanzarote, Canary Islands (Spain). This information is necessary to take the appropriate management actions to achieve goals such as soil protection and biodiversity conservation. Results indicate that terraced fields display better soil quality than non-terraced ones, as shown by the significant differences found in parameters such as SAR, exchangeable Na, CaCO3, B content, moisture content or soil depth. Moreover, the terraced fields' plant community has more species similarities with the native plant community when compared with non-terraced areas. Owing to characteristics such as deeper soils, more water capacity, lower salinity and less sodic soils, terraced soils provide better conditions for passive restoration of both soil and vegetation. Therefore, the recovery and maintenance of wall structures and revegetation with native/endemic species are proposed to promote the restoration of native systems and preserve a landscape with cultural and aesthetic value.

  18. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings on Agricultural Fields and Pastures

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds

    2004-01-01

    Acres planted to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) increased annually through the 1990s until 2000 with peak plantings exceeding 110 million seedlings annually. Many of these longleaf seedlings were planted on agricultural crop fields and pastures. Agricultural areas have unique characteristics that can make them more challenging to successfully plant...

  19. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  20. Field potential soil variability index to identify precision agriculture opportunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precision agriculture (PA) technologies used for identifying and managing within-field variability are not widely used despite decades of advancement. Technological innovations in agronomic tools, such as canopy reflectance or electrical conductivity sensors, have created opportunities to achieve a ...

  1. Railroad abandonment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-03-25

    Abandonment and discontinuance of railroad service is allowed by federal law which permits a carrier to end its obligation to provide common carrier service over a particular rail line. Although a number of specific reasons may be given for the aband...

  2. Volume Tables and Point-Sampling Factors for Shortleaf Pines in Plantation on Abandoned Fields in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Highlands

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley; David R. Bower

    1968-01-01

    The tables and equations published here provide ways to estimate total and merchantable cubic-foot volumes, both inside and outside bark, of shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) planted on abandoned fields in the Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau, Eastern Highland Rim, and Western Highland Rim regions of Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia (fig. 1). There already are...

  3. Does proximity to a mature forest contribute to the seed rain and recovery of an abandoned agriculture area in a semiarid climate?

    PubMed

    Souza, J T; Ferraz, E M N; Albuquerque, U P; Araújo, E L

    2014-07-01

    Proximity to forests contributes to the recolonisation of anthropogenic-disturbed areas through seed input. We evaluated the role of proximity to a mature forest in the recolonisation of an agricultural area that has been abandoned for 18 years and is currently a young forest. Seed rain was monitored at fixed distances from the mature forest. The type of surface recolonisation (germination versus resprouting) and the reproductive season were measured in both forests. The majority of plants recolonising the young forest originated from seed germination. Proximity to the mature forest contributed to the seed rain in the young forest; however, 18 years has not provided sufficient time for the recolonisation of 80 species present in the mature forest. Some species shared between forests differed in their fruiting season and seed dispersal. The seed rain had a total species richness of 56, a total density of 2270 seeds·m(-2)·year(−1) and predominance of self- and wind dispersal. A significant reduction in seed rain with increasing distance from the mature forest was observed. The young forest contained 35 species not observed in the mature forest, and the floristic similarity between the two forests was 0.5, indicating that the two forests are floristically distinct. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. The trajectories and determinants of agricultural land-use change over the last two decades in post-Soviet European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Müller, D.; Sieber, A.; Kuemmerle, T.; Radeloff, V. C.; Hostert, P.

    2012-04-01

    distances from settlements, areas with low agricultural productivities-low grain yields and lower soil qualities), while in Rostov province mainly marginal environmental factors alone explained abandonment patterns. Interestingly, in both provinces agricultural fields abandoned after 2000 were in close proximity to fields that were abandoned between 1990 and 2000. While agricultural land abandonment has slowed down recently, it remains an important land use issue, because these abandoned lands may provide an opportunity for biodiversity conservation, but also because of the negative socio-economic implications of land abandonment, and the strong evidence that abandonment at least in north and temperate Russia is permanent.

  5. Field variability and vulnerability index to identify precision agriculture opportunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Innovations in precision agriculture (PA) have created opportunities to achieve a greater understanding of within-field variability. However, PA adoption has been hindered due to uncertainty about field-specific performance and return on investment. Uncertainty could be better addressed by analyzing...

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Field Trips on Instruction in Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Norval L.

    To determine the effect of field trips on student achievement in each of four subject matter areas in vocational agriculture, 12 schools offering approved programs were randomly selected and divided into a treatment group and a control group. Uniform teaching outlines and reference materials were provided to each group. While no field trips were…

  7. Decadal Trend in Agricultural Abandonment and Woodland Expansion in an Agro-Pastoral Transition Band in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    , and the open shrubland is likely to be misclassified to the bare ground in some locations. Forests, closed shrublands, and grasslands in APTBNC expanded by 23%, 50%, and 9%, respectively, during 2003-2013. The expansion of these land cover types is compensated with the shrinkages in croplands (20%), bare ground (15%), and open shrublands (30%). The significant decline in agricultural lands is primarily attributed to the KFPs implemented in the end of last century and the nationwide urbanization in recent decade. The increased coverage of grass and woody plants would largely reduce soil erosion, improve mitigation of climate change, and enhance carbon sequestration in this region.

  8. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has become...

  9. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  10. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Laboratory and Field Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the agricultural laboratory and field technician cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for…

  11. Pre-Columbian Agriculture: Construction history of raised fields in Bermeo, in the Bolivian Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous

  12. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3434 - List of Agriculture-Related Fields

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of Agriculture-Related Fields A Appendix A to Part 3434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS...

  13. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3434 - List of Agriculture-Related Fields

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of Agriculture-Related Fields A Appendix A to Part 3434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS Pt...

  14. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  15. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    PubMed Central

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk. PMID:26357584

  16. Linking field observations, Landsat and MODIS data to estimate agricultural change in European Russia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beurs, K. M.; Ioffe, G.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been one of the most important anthropogenic change processes in European Russia that has been unfolding since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most vivid side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. Currently, Russia is transitioning into a country with an internal "archipelago" of islands of productive agriculture around cities embedded in a matrix of unproductive, abandoned lands. This heterogeneous spatial pattern is mainly driven by depopulation of the least favorable parts of the countryside, where "least favorable" is a function of fertility, remoteness, and their interaction. In this work we provide a satellite, GIS and field based overview of the current agricultural developments in Russia and look beyond the unstable period immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We apply Landsat images in one of Russia's oblasts to create a detailed land cover map. We then use a logistic model to link the Landsat land cover map with the inter-annual variability in key phenological parameters calculated from MODIS to derive the percent of cropland per 500m MODIS pixel. By evaluating the phenological characteristics of the MODIS curves for each year we determine whether a pixel was actually cropped or left fallow. A comparison of satellite-estimated cropped areas with regional statistics (by rayon) revealed that the satellite estimates are highly correlated with the regional statistics for both arable lands and successfully cropped areas. We use the crop maps to determine the number of times a particular area was cropped between 2002 and 2009 by summing all the years with crops per pixel. This variable provides a good indication about the intensification and de-intensification of the Russian croplands over the last decade. We have visited several rural areas in Russia and we link the satellite data with information acquired through field interviews

  17. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2017-06-01

    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation.

  18. Tension on the Farm Fields: The Death of Traditional Agriculture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguamanam, Chidi

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the historic transitions and progressions in agricultural science, this article examines the emergence of the phenomenon of agricultural biotechnology. It identifies pivotal sites of tension between agricultural biotechnology and alternative approaches to agriculture. The article identifies two distinct sources of contemporary…

  19. Classification and soil moisture determination of agricultural fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbroek, A. C.; Groot, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    During the Mac-Europe campaign of 1991 several SAR (Synthetic Aperature Radar) experiments were carried out in the Flevoland test area in the Netherlands. The test site consists of a forested and an agricultural area with more than 15 different crop types. The experiments took place in June and July (mid to late growing season). The area was monitored by the spaceborne C-band VV polarized ERS-1, the Dutch airborne PHARS with similar frequency and polarization and the three-frequency PP-, L-, and C-band) polarimetric AIRSAR system of NASA/JPL. The last system passed over on June 15, 3, 12, and 28. The last two dates coincided with the overpasses of the PHARS and the ERS-1. Comparison of the results showed that backscattering coefficients from the three systems agree quite well. In this paper we present the results of a study of crop type classification (section 2) and soil moisture determination in the agricultural area (section 3). For these studies we used field averaged Stokes matrices extracted from the AIRSAR data (processor version 3.55 or 3.56).

  20. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  1. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  2. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  3. Optimization of agricultural field workability predictions for improved risk management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Risks introduced by weather variability are key considerations in agricultural production. The sensitivity of agriculture to weather variability is of special concern in the face of climate change. In particular, the availability of workable days is an important consideration in agricultural practic...

  4. Field study on the accumulation of trace elements by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Paula; Simões, Isabel; Palma, Patrícia; Amaral, Olga; Matos, João Xavier

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of trace elements (TE) by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines, eighteen different small farms were selected near three mines from the Portuguese sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (São Domingos, Aljustrel and Lousal). Total and bioavailable As, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were analyzed in the soils, and the same TE were analyzed in three different vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), collected at the same locations. The soils were contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, since their total concentrations exceeded the considered soil quality guideline values for plant production in the majority of the sampling sites. The maximum total concentrations for those TE were extremely high in some of the sampling sites (e.g. 1,851 mg As kg(-1) in São Domingos, 1,126 mg Cu kg(-1) in Aljustrel, 4,946 mg Pb kg(-1) in São Domingos, and 1,224 mg Zn kg(-1) in Aljustrel). However, the soils were mainly circumneutral, a factor that contributes to their low bioavailable fractions. As a result, generally, the plants contained levels of these elements characteristic of uncontaminated plants, and accumulation factors for all elements <1, typical of excluder plants. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for Cu and Zn, through the consumption of these vegetables, falls below the recommended upper limit for daily intake of these elements. The sampling site that stood out from the others was located at São João de Negrilhos (Aljustrel), where bioavailable Zn levels were higher, a consequence of the slight acidity of the soil. Therefore, the Zn content in vegetables was also higher, characteristic of contaminated plants, emphasizing the risk of Zn entering the human food chain via the consumption of crops produced on those soils. © 2013.

  5. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  6. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  7. Sinkhole-type subsidence over abandoned coal mines in St. David, Illinois. Mine subsidence report, St. David, Illinois. A field survey and analysis of mine subsidence of abandoned coal mines in St. David, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Wildanger, E.G.; Mahar, J.; Nieto, A.

    1980-01-01

    This study examined the geologic data, mining history, and subsidence trends of the St. David region. Mine subsidence has occurred due to collapse of the abandoned mine workings. The known subsidence areas have been mapped and described. Results of the study include: (1) St. David has been undermined by both large shipping mines and smaller local mines; (2) sinkholes will continue to develop in this area in response to rock failure and roof collapse above the abandoned mine workings; (3) some primary factors that contribute to the sinkhole problems are the undermining and roof rock composition; (4) sinkholes will bemore » smaller in the future; (5) ten of the 63 sinkholes occurred close enough to structures to cause damage, and only six sinkholes caused damage; (6) ways to minimize potential damage to future homes from sinkhole subsidence are manageable; (7) threats to residents lie in the collapse of heavy walls, brick chimneys, breaks in gas, water, or electrical lines; and (8) location of future subsidence is not predictable. (DP)« less

  8. To and From the Field: Communications and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Information on current research and projects, as well as general suggestions and conceptual material, is presented in 11 articles related to communication in rural areas of developing nations. These articles deal with (1) how information flows to small Nepalese farms; (2) an overview of communication in agricultural development projects, with…

  9. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  10. Variability of surface temperature in agricultural fields of central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the relationship between hand-held infrared thermometers and aircraft thermal scanners in near-level terrain and to quantify the variability of surface temperatures within individual fields, ground-based and aircraft thermal sensor measurements were made along a 50-km transect on 3 May 1979 and a 20-km transect on 7 August 1980. These comparisons were made on fields near Davis, California. Agreement was within 1 C for fields covered with vegetation and 3.6 C for bare, dry fields. The variability within fields was larger for bare, dry fields than for vegetatively covered fields. In 1980, with improvements in the collection of ground truth data, the agreement was within 1 C for a variety of fields.

  11. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  12. Field scale remediation of mine wastes at an abandoned gold mine, Australia II: Effects on plant growth and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddocks, Greg; Lin, Chuxia; McConchie, David

    2009-05-01

    This second paper reports the results of plant growth, plant mortality, plant leaf tissue metal and salt concentrations and leachate quality monitoring from lysimeters in four large field trial treatments established on sulfidic waste rock/soil that was used for haul road construction at a closed gold mine in Australia. The TerraB™, lime and clay treatments allowed good tree growth of four Eucalypt species, compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in tree growth between the TerraB™, lime or clay treatments over the 2 years of monitoring in this paper. However, the growth of one tree species was poor in the TerraB™ treatment. Leaf tissue metal and major ion data are also presented. Leachate pH in the control became increasingly acidic (pH 4.57-3.95). The addition of Ca(OH)2 and biosolids led to an initial increase in leachate pH, compared to the control; however, this has decreased over the duration of the study (pH 5.37-4.89) and may affect the sustainable growth of plants in the future. In the TerraB™ and biosolids treatment leachate pH increased to 6.92 after the first rainfall event and continued to increase over the duration of the study to pH 7.4 after 24 months. After 24 months average heavy metal leachate concentrations (mg/L) in the lysimeters for Al, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn were, control: 32.55, 5.67, 12.71, 39.29, 121.80, TerraB™: 0.07, 0.02, 0.07, 0.57, 0.23, and lime: 2.19, 1.19, 2.33, 3.6, 28.4. No leachate was available for collection from the clay treatment indicating that this technique was functioning in terms of minimizing the infiltration of water into the mine soil.

  13. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  14. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  15. FieldSAFE: Dataset for Obstacle Detection in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peter; Larsen, Morten; Steen, Kim Arild; Green, Ole; Karstoft, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a multi-modal dataset for obstacle detection in agriculture. The dataset comprises approximately 2 h of raw sensor data from a tractor-mounted sensor system in a grass mowing scenario in Denmark, October 2016. Sensing modalities include stereo camera, thermal camera, web camera, 360∘ camera, LiDAR and radar, while precise localization is available from fused IMU and GNSS. Both static and moving obstacles are present, including humans, mannequin dolls, rocks, barrels, buildings, vehicles and vegetation. All obstacles have ground truth object labels and geographic coordinates. PMID:29120383

  16. FieldSAFE: Dataset for Obstacle Detection in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kragh, Mikkel Fly; Christiansen, Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Larsen, Morten; Steen, Kim Arild; Green, Ole; Karstoft, Henrik; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2017-11-09

    In this paper, we present a multi-modal dataset for obstacle detection in agriculture. The dataset comprises approximately 2 h of raw sensor data from a tractor-mounted sensor system in a grass mowing scenario in Denmark, October 2016. Sensing modalities include stereo camera, thermal camera, web camera, 360 ∘ camera, LiDAR and radar, while precise localization is available from fused IMU and GNSS. Both static and moving obstacles are present, including humans, mannequin dolls, rocks, barrels, buildings, vehicles and vegetation. All obstacles have ground truth object labels and geographic coordinates.

  17. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf ofmore » Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.« less

  18. Mapping Agricultural Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa with a Computer Vision Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debats, S. R.; Luo, D.; Estes, L. D.; Fuchs, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is an important focus for food security research, because it is experiencing unprecedented population growth, agricultural activities are largely dominated by smallholder production, and the region is already home to 25% of the world's undernourished. One of the greatest challenges to monitoring and improving food security in this region is obtaining an accurate accounting of the spatial distribution of agriculture. Households are the primary units of agricultural production in smallholder communities and typically rely on small fields of less than 2 hectares. Field sizes are directly related to household crop productivity, management choices, and adoption of new technologies. As population and agriculture expand, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the distribution of field sizes as well as how agricultural communities are spatially embedded in the landscape. In addition, household surveys, a common tool for tracking agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, would greatly benefit from spatially explicit accounting of fields. Current gridded land cover data sets do not provide information on individual agricultural fields or the distribution of field sizes. Therefore, we employ cutting edge approaches from the field of computer vision to map fields across Sub-Saharan Africa, including semantic segmentation, discriminative classifiers, and automatic feature selection. Our approach aims to not only improve the binary classification accuracy of cropland, but also to isolate distinct fields, thereby capturing crucial information on size and geometry. Our research focuses on the development of descriptive features across scales to increase the accuracy and geographic range of our computer vision algorithm. Relevant data sets include high-resolution remote sensing imagery and Landsat (30-m) multi-spectral imagery. Training data for field boundaries is derived from hand-digitized data sets as well as crowdsourcing.

  19. Topographic effects on denitrification in drained agricultural fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Denitrification is affected by soil moisture, while soil moisture can be affected by topography. Therefore, denitrification can be spatially correlated to topographic gradients. Three prior converted fields on the Delmarva Peninsula were sampled spatially for denitrification enzyme activity. The up...

  20. In pursuit of a science of agriculture: the role of statistics in field experiments.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-09-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century statistics has reshaped the experimental cultures of agricultural research taking part in the subtle dialectic between the epistemic and the material that is proper to experimental systems. This transformation has become especially relevant in field trials and the paper will examine the British agricultural institution, Rothamsted Experimental Station, where statistical methods nowadays popular in the planning and analysis of field experiments were developed in the 1920s. At Rothamsted statistics promoted randomisation over systematic arrangements, factorisation over one-question trials, and emphasised the importance of the experimental error in assessing field trials. These changes in methodology transformed also the material culture of agricultural science, and a new body, the Field Plots Committee, was created to manage the field research of the agricultural institution. Although successful, the vision of field experimentation proposed by the Rothamsted statisticians was not unproblematic. Experimental scientists closely linked to the farming community questioned it in favour of a field research that could be more easily understood by farmers. The clash between the two agendas reveals how the role attributed to statistics in field experimentation defined different pursuits of agricultural research, alternately conceived of as a scientists' science or as a farmers' science.

  1. Infrared-temperature variability in a large agricultural field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Dunnigan Agro-Meteorological Experiment airborne thermal scanner images of a large varying-terrain barley field are acquired and analyzed. Temperature variability that may occur within instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) is defined (coefficient of variation: standard deviation/mean temperature in degrees C), and the percentage of the area within various IFOV's within + or - 1, 2, 3, and 5 degrees of the mean is determined. With the exception of very rugged terrain, over 80% of the area within 4, 16, 65 and 258 ha cells was at temperatures within + or - 3 C of the mean cell temperature. Remote measurements of field temperature appeared to be slightly influenced by pixel size in the range 4 ha to 259 ha, and the area percentage within any pixel which contributes within + or - 1, 2, 3, and 5 degrees C of the mean, is nominally the same. In conclusion, no great advantage is found in utilizing a small IFOV instead of a large one for remote sensing of crop temperature.

  2. Atmospheric effect on classification of finite fields. [satellite-imaged agricultural areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric effect on the upward radiance of sunlight scattered from the earth-atmosphere system is strongly influenced by the contrasts between fields and their sizes. In this paper, the radiances above finite fields are computed to simulate radiances measured by a satellite. A simulation case including 11 agricultural fields and four natural fields (water, soil, savanah, and forest) is used to test the effect of field size, background reflectance, and optical thickness of the atmosphere on the classification accuracy. For a given atmospheric turbidity, the atmospheric effect on classification of surface features may be much stronger for nonuniform surfaces than for uniform surfaces. Therefore, the classification accuracy of agricultural fields and urban areas is dependent not only on the optical characteristics of the atmosphere, but also on the size of the surface elements to be classified and their contrasts. It is concluded that new atmospheric correction methods, which take into account the finite size of the fields, are needed.

  3. Gypsum as a best management practice for reducing P loss from agricultural fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus loss from agricultural fields fertilized with poultry litter (PL) may contribute to eutrophication of nearby rivers, lakes, and streams. It has been suggested that gypsum can be used as a soil amendment to reduce P loss from these fields. Also, a new USDA-NRCS National Conservation Practi...

  4. The impact of agriculture terraces on soil organic matter, aggregate stability, water repellency and bulk density. A study in abandoned and active farms in the Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Di Prima, Simone; Brevik, Erik; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion, land degradation, lack of organic matter, erodible soils, rock outcrops… are a consequence of the human abuse and misuse of the soil resources. And this is a worldwide environmental issue (Novara et al., 2011; Vanlauwe et al., 2015; Musinguzi et al., 2015; Pereira et al., 2015; Mwagno et al., 2016). Agriculture terraces are a strategy to reduce the soil erosion, improve the soil fertility and allow the ploughing (Cerdà et al., 2010; Li et al., 2014). Although this idea is well accepted there are few scientific evidences that demonstrate that soils in the terraced areas are more stable, fertile and sustainable that the soil in non terraced areas. In fact, the ploughing in comparison to the abandoned or not ploughed land results in the soil degradation (Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Gao et al., 2015; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014). This is mainly due to the lack of vegetation that increase the surface runoff (Cerdà et al., 1998; Keesstra et al., 2007). And why is necessary to develop also in terraced landscapes soil erosion control strategies (Mekonnen et al., 2015a; Mekonnen et al., 2015b; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Our objective was to assess the soil organic matter content (Walkley and Black, 1934), the soil bulk density (ring method), the aggregate stabilility (drop impact) and the water repellency (Water Drop Penetration Time test) in four study sites in the Sierra de Enguera. Two sites were terraced: one abandoned 40 years before the measurements and the other still active with olive crops. And two control sites non-terraced. We used the paired plot strategy to compare the impact of terracing and abandonment. At each site we collected randomly 50 soil samples at 0-2 cm, 4-6 and 8-10 cm depth. At each sampling point 100 WDPT measurements where carried out, and one sample for the bulk density, and one for the organic matter, and one for the soil aggregate stability were collected. The soil surface samples shown the largest differences. The

  5. Field-based study of connectivity in an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lexartza-Artza, I.; Wainwright, J.

    2009-12-01

    Field-based studies of hydrological connectivity can provide context-specific knowledge that might both help understand dynamic complex systems and contribute to other synthetic or modelling approaches. The importance of such an understanding of catchment processes and also of the knowledge of catchment connections with water bodies and the changes of concentration with scale for Integrated Catchment Management has been increasingly emphasized. To provide a holistic understanding, approaches to the study of connectivity need to include both structural and functional aspects of the system and must consider the processes taking place within and across different temporal and spatial scales. A semi-quantitative nested approach has been used to investigate connectivity and study the interactions and feedbacks between the factors influencing transfer processes in the Ingbirchworth Catchment, in the uplands of the River Don, England. A series of reconnaissance techniques have been combined with monitoring of aspects such as rainfall, runoff, sediment transfer and soil-moisture distribution from plot to catchment scale and with consideration of linkages between land and water bodies. The temporal aspect has also been considered, with a special focus on the temporal distribution of events and the influence of longer term catchment changes such as those in land use and management practices. A variability of responses has been observed in relation to the characteristics of events, land use and scale of observation, with elements traditionally considered as limiting or enhancing connectivity responding differently under changing conditions. Sediment redistribution, reshaping of structure and consequent reinforcing loops can be observed across all land uses and landscape units, but the relevance it terms of effective connectivity of highly connected patches varies as the scale is increased. The knowledge acquired can contribute to recognise emerging processes significant for

  6. Bird use of agricultural fields under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    We conducted bird surveys in reduced-tillage and conventional tillage fields in spring, summer, fall, and winter from 1987 to 1991 in the Texas Panhandle. Eastern meadowlarks, longspurs, and savannah sparrows were more common in reduced-tillage (sorghum and wheat stubble) fields than in conventionally tilled (plowed) fields in at least 1 season. Other species also had patterns suggestive of greater abundance in reduced-tillage fields. Hornedlarks, which prefer habitat with sparse vegetation, were more abundant in plowed fields in all seasons except summer. Bird diversity was greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields in summer. Cover density and height were greater in reduced tillage fields in all seasons except spring. Cover density and height rather than cover composition (e.g.,grain stubble or live plants) seemed to be the important factors affecting bird distribution. Patterns of bird abundance between sorghum and wheat stubble fields also were dependent on cover. Herbicide use was not greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields. Reduced-tillage agriculture for sorghum and wheat farming should be encouraged in the southern Great Plains as a means of improving the attractiveness of agricultural land to many bird species.

  7. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  8. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) detects fine roots of agricultural crops in the field

    Treesearch

    Xiuwei Liu; Xuejun Dong; Qingwu Xue; Daniel I. Leskovar; John Jifon; John R. Butnor; Thomas Marek

    2018-01-01

    Aim Ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a non-invasive technique is widely used in coarse root detection. However, the applicability of the technique to detect fine roots of agricultural crops is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing GPR to detect fine roots in the field.

  9. Anthropogenic effects on soil quality in ancient terraced agricultural fields of Chihuahua, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural soil quality was investigated in ancient field systems near Casas Grandes (also known as Paquimé), one of the largest and most complex prehistoric settlements in the North American Southwest. This research was completed as part of an interdisciplinary study of the anthropogenic ecology...

  10. Occurrence and movement of antibiotic resistant bacxteria, in tile-drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might accelerate the transport of pathogen indicators such as e...

  11. Definition of zones with different levels of productivity within an agricultural field using fuzzy modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for the definition of zones with different levels of productivity is based on fuzzy indicator model. Fuzzy indicator model for identification of zones with different levels of productivit...

  12. Simple, Low-Cost Data Collection Methods for Agricultural Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Richard T.; Winger, Marlon; Kitchen, Boyd

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes relatively simple and inexpensive methods for collecting data from agricultural field studies. Describes methods involving on-farm testing, crop yield measurement, quality evaluations, weed control effectiveness, plant nutrient status, and other measures. Contains 29 references illustrating how these methods were used to conduct…

  13. Use of FGD gypsum to reduce p loss from agricultural fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlling P loss from agricultural fields has become a major issue in recent years, especially in areas where manure is used as nutrient sources. It is believed that FGD gypsum can be used as a management practice to reduce soluble P loss. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine FGD gy...

  14. Californian demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. We present a fully automated computational methodology to extract agricultural fields from 30m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series and results for approximately 250,000 square kilometers (eleven 150 x 150 km WELD tiles) encompassing all the major agricultural areas of California. The extracted fields, including rectangular, circular, and irregularly shaped fields, are evaluated by comparison with manually interpreted Landsat field objects. Validation results are presented in terms of standard confusion matrix accuracy measures and also the degree of field object over-segmentation, under-segmentation, fragmentation and shape distortion. The apparent success of the presented field extraction methodology is due to several factors. First, the use of multi-temporal Landsat data, as opposed to single Landsat acquisitions, that enables crop rotations and inter-annual variability in the state of the vegetation to be accommodated for and provides more opportunities for cloud-free, non-missing and atmospherically uncontaminated surface observations. Second, the adoption of an object based approach, namely the variational region-based geometric active contour method that enables robust segmentation with only a small number of parameters and that requires no training data collection. Third, the use of a watershed algorithm to decompose connected segments belonging to multiple fields into coherent isolated field segments and a geometry based algorithm to detect and associate parts of

  15. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  16. Automated Agricultural Field Extraction from Multi-temporal Web Enabled Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture has caused significant anthropogenic surface change. In many regions agricultural field sizes may be increasing to maximize yields and reduce costs resulting in decreased landscape spatial complexity and increased homogenization of land uses with potential for significant biogeochemical and ecological effects. To date, studies of the incidence, drivers and impacts of changing field sizes have not been undertaken over large areas because of computational constraints and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. The Landsat series of satellites provides near-global coverage, long term, and appropriate spatial resolution (30m) satellite data to document changing field sizes. The recent free availability of all the Landsat data in the U.S. Landsat archive now provides the opportunity to study field size changes in a global and consistent way. Commercial software can be used to extract fields from Landsat data but are inappropriate for large area application because they require considerable human interaction. This paper presents research to develop and validate an automated computational Geographic Object Based Image Analysis methodology to extract agricultural fields and derive field sizes from Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov/). WELD weekly products (30m reflectance and brightness temperature) are classified into Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™) spectral categories and an edge intensity map and a map of the probability of each pixel being agricultural are derived from five years of 52 weeks of WELD and corresponding SIAM™ data. These data are fused to derive candidate agriculture field segments using a variational region-based geometric active contour model. Geometry-based algorithms are used to decompose connected segments belonging to multiple fields into coherent isolated field objects with a divide and conquer strategy to detect and merge partial circle

  17. Optical modeling of agricultural fields and rough-textured rock and mineral surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.; Vincent, R. K.; Horwitz, H. M.; Erickson, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review was made of past models for describing the reflectance and/or emittance properties of agricultural/forestry and geological targets in an effort to select the best theoretical models. An extension of the six parameter Allen-Gayle-Richardson model was chosen as the agricultural plant canopy model. The model is used to predict the bidirectional reflectance of a field crop from known laboratory spectra of crop components and approximate plant geometry. The selected geological model is based on Mie theory and radiative transfer equations, and will assess the effect of textural variations of the spectral emittance of natural rock surfaces.

  18. Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework: 3. Land Use and Field Boundary Database Development and Structure.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Mark D; James, David E; Sandoval-Green, Claudette M J

    2017-05-01

    Conservation planning information is important for identifying options for watershed water quality improvement and can be developed for use at field, farm, and watershed scales. Translation across scales is a key issue impeding progress at watershed scales because watershed improvement goals must be connected with implementation of farm- and field-level conservation practices to demonstrate success. This is particularly true when examining alternatives for "trap and treat" practices implemented at agricultural-field edges to control (or influence) water flows through fields, landscapes, and riparian corridors within agricultural watersheds. We propose that database structures used in developing conservation planning information can achieve translation across conservation-planning scales, and we developed the Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) to enable practical planning applications. The ACPF comprises a planning concept, a database to facilitate field-level and watershed-scale analyses, and an ArcGIS toolbox with Python scripts to identify specific options for placement of conservation practices. This paper appends two prior publications and describes the structure of the ACPF database, which contains land use, crop history, and soils information and is available for download for 6091 HUC12 watersheds located across Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, and parts of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin and comprises information on 2.74 × 10 agricultural fields (available through /). Sample results examining land use trends across Iowa and Illinois are presented here to demonstrate potential uses of the database. While designed for use with the ACPF toolbox, users are welcome to use the ACPF watershed data in a variety of planning and modeling approaches. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. A mobile app for delivering in-field soil data for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, John P.; Stojanovic, Vladeta; Falconer, Ruth E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade precision agriculture has grown from a concept to an emerging technology, largely due to the maturing of GPS and mobile mapping. We investigated methods for reliable delivery and display of appropriate and context aware in-field farm data on mobile devices by developing a prototype android mobile app. The 3D app was developed using OpenGL ES 2.0 and written in Java, using the Android Development Tools (ADT) SDK. The app is able to obtain GPS coordinates and automatically synchronise the view and load relevant data based on the user's location. The intended audience of the mobile app is farmers and agronomists. Apps are becoming an essential tool in an agricultural professional's arsenal however most existing apps are limited to 2D display of data even though the modern chips in mobile devices can support the display of 3D graphics at interactive rates using technologies such as webGL. This project investigated the use of games techniques in the delivery and 3D display of field data, recognising that this may be a departure from the way the field data is currently delivered and displayed to farmers and agronomists. Different interactive 3D visualisation methods presenting spatial and temporal variation in yield values were developed and tested. It is expected that this app can be used by farmers and agronomists to support decision making in the field of precision agriculture and this is a growing market in UK and Europe.

  20. Profiling Nematode Communities in Unmanaged Flowerbed and Agricultural Field Soils in Japan by DNA Barcode Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

  1. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    PubMed

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Assessing field vulnerability to phosphorus loss in Beijing agricultural area using Revised Field Phosphorus Ranking Scheme.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Li-ding; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Xin-yu; Ma, Yan; Fu, Bo-jie

    2007-01-01

    Guanting Reservoir, one of the drinking water supply sources of Beijing, suffers from water eutrophication. It is mainly supplied by Guishui River. Thus, to investigate the reasons of phosphorus (P) loss and improve the P management strategies in Guishui River watershed are important for the safety of drinking water in this region. In this study, a Revised Field P Ranking Scheme (PRS) was developed to reflect the field vulnerability of P loss at the field scale based on the Field PRS. In this new scheme, six factors are included, and each one was assigned a relative weight and a determination method. The affecting factors were classified into transport factors and source factors, and, the standards of environmental quality on surface water and soil erosion classification and degradation of the China were used in this scheme. By the new scheme, thirty-four fields in the Guishui River were categorized as "low", "medium" or "high" potential for P loss into the runoff. The results showed that the P loss risks of orchard and vegetable fields were higher than that of corn and soybean fields. The source factors were the main factors to affect P loss from the study area. In the study area, controlling P input and improving P usage efficiency are critical to decrease P loss. Based on the results, it was suggested that more attention should be paid on the fields of vegetable and orchard since they have extremely high usage rate of P and high soil test of P. Compared with P surplus by field measurements, the Revised Field PRS was more suitable for reflecting the characteristics of fields, and had higher potential capacity to identify critical source areas of P loss than PRS.

  3. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  4. Application of Unmanned Aerial Systems in Spatial Downscaling of Landsat VIR imageries of Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, A.; Hassan Esfahani, L.; Ebtehaj, A.; McKee, M.

    2016-12-01

    While coarse space-time resolution of satellite observations in visible to near infrared (VIR) is a serious limiting factor for applications in precision agriculture, high resolution remotes sensing observation by the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) systems are also site-specific and still practically restrictive for widespread applications in precision agriculture. We present a modern spatial downscaling approach that relies on new sparse approximation techniques. The downscaling approach learns from a large set of coincident low- and high-resolution satellite and UAS observations to effectively downscale the satellite imageries in VIR bands. We focus on field experiments using the AggieAirTM platform and Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI observations obtained in an intensive field campaign in 2013 over an agriculture field in Scipio, Utah. The results show that the downscaling methods can effectively increase the resolution of Landsat VIR imageries by the order of 2 to 4 from 30 m to 15 and 7.5 m, respectively. Specifically, on average, the downscaling method reduces the root mean squared errors up to 26%, considering bias corrected AggieAir imageries as the reference.

  5. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  6. Abandoned babies and absent policies.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Joanne; Sherr, Lorraine

    2009-12-01

    Although infant abandonment is a historical problem, we know remarkably little about the conditions or effects of abandonment to guide evidence driven policies. This paper briefly reviews the existing international evidence base with reference to potential mental health considerations before mapping current UK guidelines and procedures, and available incidence data. Limitations arising from these findings are discussed with reference to international practice, and interpreted in terms of future pathways for UK policy. A systematic approach was utilized to gather available data on policy information and statistics on abandoned babies in the UK. A review of the limited literature indicates that baby abandonment continues to occur, with potentially wide-ranging mental health ramifications for those involved. However, research into such consequences is lacking, and evidence with which to understand risk factors or motives for abandonment is scarce. International approaches to the issue remain controversial with outcomes unclear. Our systematic search identified that no specific UK policy relating to baby abandonment exists, either nationally or institutionally. This is compounded by a lack of accurate of UK abandonment statistics. Data that does exist is not comprehensive and sources are incompatible, resulting in an ambiguous picture of UK baby abandonment. Available literature indicates an absence of clear provision, policy and research on baby abandonment. Based on current understanding of maternal and child mental health issues likely to be involved in abandonment, existing UK strategy could be easily adapted to avoid the 'learning from scratch' approach. National policies on recording and handling of baby abandonments are urgently needed, and future efforts should be concentrated on establishing clear data collection frameworks to inform understanding, guide competent practice and enable successfully targeted interventions.

  7. Rainfall-runoff of anthropogenic waste indicators from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Gray, James L; Borch, Thomas; Furlong, Edward T; Davis, Jessica G; Yager, Tracy J; Yang, Yun-Ya; Kolpin, Dana W

    2017-02-15

    The presence of anthropogenic contaminants such as antimicrobials, flame-retardants, and plasticizers in runoff from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids may pose a potential threat to the environment. This study assesses the potential for rainfall-induced runoff of 69 anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), widely found in household and industrial products, from biosolids amended field plots. The agricultural field containing the test plots was treated with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. AWIs present in soil and biosolids were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results for 18 AWIs were not evaluated due to their presence in field blank QC samples, and another 34 did not have sufficient detection frequency in samples to analyze trends in data. A total of 17 AWIs, including 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, were present in runoff with acceptable data quality and frequency for subsequent interpretation. Runoff samples were collected 5days prior to and 1, 9, and 35days after biosolids application. Of the 17 AWIs considered, 14 were not detected in pre-application samples, or their concentrations were much smaller than in the sample collected one day after application. A range of trends was observed for individual AWI concentrations (typically from 0.1 to 10μg/L) over the course of the study, depending on the combination of partitioning and degradation mechanisms affecting each compound most strongly. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize anthropogenic contaminants from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters and redistribute them to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. For 14 of 17 compounds examined, the potential for runoff remobilization during rainstorms persists even after three 100-year rainstorm-equivalent simulations and the passage of a

  8. Rainfall-runoff of anthropogenic waste indicators from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, James L.; Borch, Thomas; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica; Yager, Tracy; Yang, Yun-Ya; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of anthropogenic contaminants such as antimicrobials, flame-retardants, and plasticizers in runoff from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids may pose a potential threat to the environment. This study assesses the potential for rainfall-induced runoff of 69 anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), widely found in household and industrial products, from biosolids amended field plots. The agricultural field containing the test plots was treated with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. AWIs present in soil and biosolids were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results for 18 AWIs were not evaluated due to their presence in field blank QC samples, and another 34 did not have sufficient detection frequency in samples to analyze trends in data. A total of 17 AWIs, including 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, were present in runoff with acceptable data quality and frequency for subsequent interpretation. Runoff samples were collected 5 days prior to and 1, 9, and 35 days after biosolids application. Of the 17 AWIs considered, 14 were not detected in pre-application samples, or their concentrations were much smaller than in the sample collected one day after application. A range of trends was observed for individual AWI concentrations (typically from 0.1 to 10 μg/L) over the course of the study, depending on the combination of partitioning and degradation mechanisms affecting each compound most strongly. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize anthropogenic contaminants from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters and redistribute them to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. For 14 of 17 compounds examined, the potential for runoff remobilization during rainstorms persists even after three 100-year rainstorm-equivalent simulations and the

  9. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  10. Rapid mineralisation of the herbicide isoproturon in soil from a previously treated Danish agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Aamand, Jens

    2003-10-01

    Mineralisation of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon (3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and two of its known metabolites, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea (monodesmethyl-isoproturon) and 4-isopropylaniline, was studied in Danish agricultural soils with or without previous exposure to isoproturon. A potential for rapid mineralisation of isoproturon and the two metabolites was present in soils sampled from three plots within an agricultural field previously treated regularly with the herbicide, with 34-45%, 51-58% and 33-36% of the added [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon, [phenyl-U-14C]monodesmethyl-isoproturon and [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline metabolised to [14C]carbon dioxide within 30 days at 20 degrees C. In contrast, such extensive mineralisation of these three compounds was not observed within this period in soils sampled from two other agricultural fields without previous treatment with isoproturon. The mineralisation patterns indicated growth-linked metabolism of the three compounds in the previously exposed soils, and doubling times for [14C]carbon dioxide production ranged from 1.6 to 3.2, 1.0 to 2.1 and 1.3 to 1.7 days for isoproturon, monodesmethyl-isoproturon and 4-isopropylaniline, respectively. The ability to mineralise [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon to [14C]carbon dioxide was successfully sub-cultured to a fresh mineral medium which provided isoproturon as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One of the soils sampled from an agricultural field not previously treated with isoproturon showed accelerated mineralisation of [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline toward the end of the experiment, with a doubling time for [14C]carbon dioxide production of 7.4days. This study indicates that the occurrence of rapid mineralisation of the phenyl ring of isoproturon to carbon dioxide is related to previous exposure to the herbicide, which suggests that microbial adaptation upon repeated isoproturon use may occur within agricultural fields.

  11. An application to model traffic intensity of agricultural machinery at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Katja; Kuhwald, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Several soil-pressure-models deal with the impact of agricultural machines on soils. In many cases, these models were used for single spots and consider a static machine configuration. Therefore, a statement about the spatial distribution of soil compaction risk for entire working processes is limited. The aim of the study is the development of an application for the spatial modelling of traffic lanes from agricultural vehicles including wheel load, ground pressure and wheel passages at the field scale. The application is based on Open Source software, application and data formats, using python programming language. Minimum input parameters are GPS-positions, vehicles and tires (producer and model) and the tire inflation pressure. Five working processes were distinguished: soil tillage, manuring, plant protection, sowing and harvest. Currently, two different models (Diserens 2009, Rücknagel et al. 2015) were implemented to calculate the soil pressure. The application was tested at a study site in Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 2015, field traffic were recorded by RTK-GPS and used machine set ups were noted. Using these input information the traffic lanes, wheel load and soil pressure were calculated for all working processes. For instance, the maize harvest in 2016 with a crop chopper and one transport vehicle crossed about 55 % of the total field area. At some places the machines rolled over up to 46 times. Approximately 35 % of the total area was affected by wheel loads over 7 tons and soil pressures between 163 and 193 kPa. With the information about the spatial distribution of wheel passages, wheel load and soil pressure it is possible to identify hot spots of intensive field traffic. Additionally, the use of the application enables the analysis of soil compaction risk induced by agricultural machines for long- and short-term periods.

  12. Leaf Area Index Estimation Using Chinese GF-1 Wide Field View Data in an Agriculture Region.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiangqin; Gu, Xingfa; Meng, Qingyan; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Xiang; Wei, Zheng; Jia, Kun; Wang, Chunmei

    2017-07-08

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type. The radiative transfer model was firstly used to simulate the physical relationship between canopy reflectance and LAI under different soil and vegetation conditions, and then the training sample dataset was formed. Then, neural networks (NNs) were used to develop the LAI estimation algorithm using the training sample dataset. Green, red and near-infrared band reflectances of GF-1 WFV data were used as the input variables of the NNs, as well as the corresponding LAI was the output variable. The validation results using field LAI measurements in the agriculture region indicated that the LAI estimation algorithm could achieve satisfactory results (such as R² = 0.818, RMSE = 0.50). In addition, the developed LAI estimation algorithm had potential to operationally generate LAI datasets using GF-1 WFV land surface reflectance data, which could provide high spatial and temporal resolution LAI data for agriculture, ecosystem and environmental management researches.

  13. Edge-of-field research to quantify the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drainage is needed to sustain agricultural production to meet the demands of a growing global population, but it also transports nutrients from fields to surface water bodies. The State of Ohio is facing the tremendous challenge of maintaining agricultural production while protecting the environment...

  14. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from fields fertilized with digestate from an agricultural biogas plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czubaszek, Robert; Wysocka-Czubaszek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Digestate from biogas plants can play important role in agriculture by providing nutrients, improving soil structure and reducing the use of mineral fertilizers. Still, less is known about greenhouse gas emissions from soil during and after digestate application. The aim of the study was to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from a field which was fertilized with digestate. The gas fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance system. Each day, the eddy covariance system was installed in various places of the field, depending on the dominant wind direction, so that each time the results were obtained from an area where the digestate was distributed. The results showed the relatively low impact of the studied gases emissions on total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Maximum values of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes, 79.62 and 3.049 µmol s-1 m-2, respectively, were observed during digestate spreading on the surface of the field. On the same day, the digestate was mixed with the topsoil layer using a disc harrow. This resulted in increased CO2 emissions the following day. Intense mineralization of digestate, observed after fertilization may not give the expected effects in terms of protection and enrichment of soil organic matter.

  15. The Role Of Management Of The Field-Forest Boundary In Poland's Process Of Agricultural Restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woch, Franciszek; Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work described here has been to point to the relationships between the field-forest boundary and crop productivity as regards the present agrarian land-use structure in Poland, and to provide new opportunities for arranging the agrarian process and the spatial planning of the rural landscape in the context of the sustainable shaping of the field-forest boundary. Impacts of forests and woodlands on crop productivity have been assessed using available data from relevant Polish literature. An assessment of the plot-distribution pattern characterising farms in Poland was made on the basis of reference data from the Agency for the Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Finally, the possibility of afforestation of agricultural land has been evaluated within the existing legal framework, and on the basis of available data, with attention paid to the need to include organization of the field-forest boundary within the comprehensive management and planning of rural areas, and to preserve woody elements in patchy landscapes. This all creates an opportunity to test innovative approaches to integrated land use which combines the creation of public goods and local products based on participatory learning processes that bring in local stakeholders and decision-makers.

  16. Preparing students for higher education and careers in agriculture and related fields: An ethnography of an urban charter school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Kesha Atasha

    This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  17. Field experiments to evaluate nitrate-leaching from drained agriculturally used areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Denise; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Christen, Olaf; Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land use is one of the main sources for diffuse nitrogen (N) inputs into surface- and groundwater. To fulfill the objectives of the European water protection policy it is mandatory to optimize agricultural management and to adopt it to site specific conditions. N present in soil is dominated by organic N, and after mineralization inorganic plant available N, obtaining the components ammonia and nitrate (NO3-N). In the environment, NO3-N occurs as the negatively charged ion NO3- which is generally solved. Thus, NO3-N is the major N-species in waters, whereas its transport is directly influenced by the flow regime. In dependence of soil type and meteorological conditions, subsurface drainage was often installed to prevent water logged zones as a requirement for agricultural use. But drainage systems were often discussed as one of the main sources for NO3-N inputs into surface water due to temporary high discharge rates and short residence time of soil water resulting in limited conditions for NO3-N degradation via denitrification. In the study presented herein, two adjacent tile-drained agriculturally used areas with adjusted agronomic conditions but different soil properties were investigated regarding their flow regime and their N-kinetic from 11/1/2013 until 10/31/2015. Both fields obtained the same size and drainage network (drain depth 0.8 m, gab distance 10 m). Field I was influenced by confined groundwater conditions due to an alternating strata of sandy and loamy layers. Field II was impermeable from a depth of one meter, showing a backwater influenced flow regime. The temporal course of soil moisture (35, 60 and 85 cm depth), drain rate as well as ground- and backwater head was registered continuously at both sites. Furthermore NH4-N- and NO3-N-concentrations (cNO3-N) in each compartment were measured. The experimental results showed that field I revealed significantly lower discharged drain rates and NO3-N-loads (17.1 mm and 2.5 kg N

  18. A novel application for concentrator photovoltaic in the field of agriculture photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Luqing; Guan, Chenggang; Zhang, Fangxin; Li, Ming; Lv, Hui; Liu, Yang; Yao, Peijun; Ingenhoff, Jan; Liu, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Agriculture photovoltaics is a trend setting area which has already led to a new industrial revolution. Shortage of land in some countries and desertification of land where regular solar panels are deployed are some of the major problems in the photovoltaic industry. Concentrator photovoltaics experienced a decline in applicability after the cost erosion of regular solar panels at the end of the last decade. We demonstrate a novel and unique application for concentrator photovoltaics tackling at a same time the issue of conventional photovoltaics preventing the land being used for agricultural purpose where ever solar panels are installed. We leverage the principle of diffractive and interference technology to split the sun light into transmitted wavelengths necessary for plant growth and reflected wavelengths useful for solar energy generation. The technology has been successfully implemented in field trials and sophisticated scientific studies have been undertaken to evaluate the suitability of this technology for competitive solar power generation and simultaneous high-quality plant growth. The average efficiency of the agriculture photovoltaic system has reached more than 8% and the average efficiency of the CPV system is 6.80%.

  19. The USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative: Protecting and restoring the environment near abandoned mine lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is part of a larger strategy of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to clean up Federal lands contaminated by abandoned mines.Thousands of abandond hard-rock metal mines (such as gold, copper, lead, and zinc) have left a dual legacy across the Western United States. They reflect the historic development of the west, yet at the same time represent a possible threat to human health and local ecosystems.Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) are areas adjacent to or affected by abandoned mines. AML's often contain unmined mineral deposits, mine dumps (the ore and rock removed to get to the ore deposits), and tailings (the material left over from the ore processing) that contaminate the surrounding watershed and ecosystem. For example, streams near AML's can contain metals and (or) be so acidic that fish and aquatic insects cannot live in them.Many of these abandoned hard-rock mines are located on or adjacent to public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, and U.S. Forest Service. These federal land management agencies and the USGS are committed to mitigating the adverse effects that AML's can have on water quality and stream habitats.The USGS AML Initiative began in 1997 and will continue through 2001 in two pilot watersheds - the Boulder River basin in southwestern Montana and the upper Animas River basin in southwestern Colorado. The USGS is providing a wide range of scientific expertise to help land managers minimize and, where possible, eliminate the adverse environmental effects of AML's. USGS ecologists, geologists, water quality experts, hydrologists, geochemists, and mapping and digital data collection experts are collaborating to provide the scientific knowledge needed for an effective cleanup of AML's.

  20. Distribution of selenium in soils of agricultural fields, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Deverel, S.J.; Hatfield, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Soils from three agricultural fields in the Panoche Creek alluvial fan area in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, were analyzed for soluble, adsorbed, and total concentrations of selenium (Se) to assess the distribution and forms of Se in relation to the leaching of Se from soils. This assessment is needed to evaluate the importance of soil Se in affecting ground water concentrations. Soil samples were collected from three fields with drainage systems of different ages (6, 15, 1.5 yr) and different Se concentrations in drain water (58, 430, 3700 µg L−1, respectively). Concentrations of soluble Se and salinity were highest in soils from the field drained for 1.5 yr and lowest in the field drained for 6 yr. Of the total concentration of soil Se from all three fields, the proportion of adsorbed and soluble Se ranged from 1 to 11% and 2 > 0.68) in saturation extracts of soils sampled from below the water table. In contrast, most soluble salts and Se apparently have been leached from the unsaturated soils in the fields drained for 6 and 15 yr. For the leached soils, dissolution and precipitation of evaporite minerals containing Se may no longer control concentrations of soluble Se.

  1. Validation of SMAP Radar Vegetation Data Cubes from Agricultural Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, L.; Xu, X.; Liao, T.; Kim, S.; Njoku, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Mission will be launched in October 2014. The objective of the SMAP mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state. These measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. In the active algorithm, the retrieval is performed based on the backscattering data cube, which are characterized by two surface parameters, which are soil moisture and soil surface rms height, and one vegetation parameter, the vegetation water content. We have developed a physical-based forward scattering model to generate the data cube for agricultural fields. To represent the agricultural crops, we include a layer of cylinders and disks on top of the rough surface. The scattering cross section of the vegetation layer and its interaction with the underground soil surface were calculated by the distorted Born approximation, which give explicitly three scattering mechanisms. A) The direct volume scattering B) The double bounce effect as, and C) The double bouncing effects. The direct volume scattering is calculated by using the Body of Revolution code. The double bounce effects, exhibited by the interaction of rough surface with the vegetation layer is considered by modifying the rough surface reflectivity using the coherent wave as computed by Numerical solution of Maxwell equations of 3 Dimensional simulations (NMM3D) of bare soil scattering. The rough surface scattering of the soil was calculated by NMM3D. We have compared the physical scattering models with field measurements. In the field campaign, the measurements were made on soil moisture, rough surface rms heights and vegetation water content as well as geometric parameters of vegetation. The three main crops lands are grassland, cornfield and soybean fields. The corresponding data cubes are validated using SGP99, SMEX02

  2. Distribution of selenium in soils of agricultural fields, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Deverel, S.J.; Hatfield, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Soils from three agricultural fields in the western San Joaquin Valley were analyzed for soluble, adsorbed, and total concentrations of selenium (Se) to assess the distribution and forms of Se, and the relation of the distribution and forms of Se to the leaching of Se from soils. Soil samples were collected in three fields with drainage systems of different ages (6, 15, 1.5 yr) and different Se concentrations in drain water (58, 430, 3700 micrograms/L respectively). Preliminary methods to determine total Se and estimate adsorbed Se were developed. Of the three fields, concentrations of soluble Se and salinity were highest in soils from the field drained for 1.5 yr and lowest in the field drained for 6 yr. The field drained for 1.5 yr also had the highest concentration of total Se in soil; a median of 1.2 microgram/gm. Of the total concentration of Se in soil from all three fields, the proportion of adsorbed Se and soluble Se ranged from 1 to 11% and < 1 to 63%, respectively. Most of the variance in soluble Se is explained by salinity ( r sq > 0.68) in saturation extracts of soils sampled from below the water table, reflecting evaporative concentration of Se and salinity. In contrast, most soluble salts and Se apparently have been leached from the unsaturated soils in the fields drained for 6 and 15 yr; therefore, the correlation was lower between Se and salinity in saturation extracts of those soils (r sq < 0.33). Among soils from all three fields, the ratio of Se to salinity in saturation extracts increased with increasing salinity. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  4. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  5. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying

    PubMed Central

    Skovsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35–0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0–300 kgNha. The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS) and the Point Cloud Library (PCL). Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations. PMID:29168783

  6. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination: field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities.

    PubMed

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g(-1) dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus(®), 0.1 μg active ingredient epoxiconazole g(-1) dry soil, RoundUp Flash(®), 2.5 μg active ingredient glyphosate g(-1) dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Skovsen, Søren; Gislum, René

    2017-11-23

    A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35-0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0-300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS) and the Point Cloud Library (PCL). Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  8. On-farm bioremediation of dimethazone and trifluralin residues in runoff water from an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation is the use of living organisms, primarily microorganisms, to degrade environmental contaminants into less toxic forms. Nine biobeds (ground cavity filled with a mixture of composted organic matter, topsoil, and a surface grass) were established at Kentucky State University research farm (Franklin County, KY) to study the impact of this practice on reducing surface runoff water contamination by residues of dimethazone and trifluralin herbicides arising from an agricultural field. Biobed (biofilter) systems were installed at the bottom of the slope of specially designed runoff plots to examine herbicides retention and degradation before entering streams and rivers. In addition to biobed systems, three soil management practices: municipal sewage sludge (SS), SS mixed with yard waste compost (SS + YW), and no-mulch rototilled bare soil (NM used for comparison purposes) were used to monitor the impact of soil amendments on herbicide residues in soil following natural rainfall events. Organic amendments increased soil organic matter content and herbicide residues retained in soil following rainfall events. Biobeds installed in NM soil reduced dimethazone and trifluralin by 84 and 82%, respectively in runoff water that would have been transported down the land slope of agricultural fields and contaminated natural water resources. Biobeds installed in SS and SS+YW treatments reduced dimethazone by 65 and 46% and trifluralin by 52 and 79%, respectively. These findings indicated that biobeds are effective for treating dimethazone and trifluralin residues in runoff water.

  9. Emergent insect production in post-harvest flooded agricultural fields used by waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Richard C.; Blumenshine, Steven C.; Yee, Julie; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    California’s Tulare Lake Basin (TLB) is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America even though most wetlands there have been converted to cropland. To guide management programs promoting waterbird beneficial agriculture, which includes flooding fields between growing periods, we measured emergence rates of insects, an important waterbird food, in three crop types (tomato, wheat, alfalfa) in the TLB relative to water depth and days flooded during August–October, 2003 and 2004. We used corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion values to compare a set of models that accounted for our repeated measured data. The best model included crop type and crop type interacting with days flooded and depth flooded. Emergence rates (mg m−2 day−1) were greater in tomato than wheat or alfalfa fields, increased with days flooded in alfalfa and tomato but not wheat fields, and increased with water depth in alfalfa and wheat but not tomato fields. To investigate the relationship between the range of diel water temperatures and insect emergence rates, we rearedChironomus dilutus larvae in environmental chambers under high (15–32°C) and low fluctuation (20–26°C) temperature regimes that were associated with shallow and deep (respectively) sampling sites in our fields. Larval survival (4×) and biomass (2×) were greater in the low thermal fluctuation treatment suggesting that deeply flooded areas would support greater insect production.

  10. Meteorological and associated data collected over agricultural fields in Pinal County, Arizona, 1989 and 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Brown, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Data were collected at temporary meteorological stations installed in agricultural fields in Pinal County, Arizona, to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of point data and to examine how station location affects ground-based meteorological data and the resulting values of evapotranspiration calculated using remotely sensed multispectral data from satellites. Time-specific data were collected to correspond with satellite overpasses from April to October 1989, and June 27-28, 1990. Meteorological data consisting of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and net radiation were collected at each station during all periods of the project. Supplementary measurements of soil temperature, soil heat flux density, and surface or canopy temperature were obtained at some locations during certain periods of the project. Additional data include information on data-collection periods, station positions, instrumentation, sensor heights, and field dimensions. Other data, which correspond to the extensive field measurements made in con- junction with satellite overpasses in 1989 and 1990, include crop type, canopy cover, canopy height, irrigation, cultivation, and orientation of rows. Field boundaries and crop types were mapped in a 2- to 3-square-kilometer area surrounding each meteorological station. Field data are presented in tabular and graphic form. Meteorological and supplementary data are available, upon request, in digital form.

  11. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fields of eastern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madison, Allison M.; Ruark, Matthew D.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Lara W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric T.

    2014-11-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn-soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66-96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L-1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  12. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B.; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  13. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  14. Pretreatment of agriculture field water for improving membrane flux during pesticide removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Romil; Saha, N. K.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pretreatment of feed water to improve membrane flux during filtration of agriculture field water containing substituted phenyl urea pesticide diuron has been reported. Laboratory-made reverse osmosis membrane was used for filtration. Preliminary experiments were conducted with model solution containing natural organic matter extracted from commercial humic acids, divalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+. Membrane fouling was characterized by pure water flux decline, change in membrane hydrophilicity and infrared spectroscopy. Natural organic matter present in field water causes severe membrane fouling. The presence of divalent cations further aggravated fouling. Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and polyacrylic acids (PAA) in feed resulted in the decrease in membrane fouling. Pretreatment of field water is a must if it is contaminated with micro-organism having membrane fouling potential. Feed water pretreatment and use of PAA restricted membrane fouling to 16 % after 60 h of filtration. Membrane permeate flux decline was maximum at the first 12 h and thereafter remained steady at around 45-46 lm-2h-1 till the end of 60 h. Diuron rejection remained consistently greater than 93 % throughout the experiment. Diuron rejection was found to be unaffected by membrane fouling.

  15. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  16. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  17. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationship for a drained agricultural field in Eastern North Carolina Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Youssef, M.; Birgand, F.; Chescheir, G. M.; Maxwell, B.; Tian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drainage is a practice used to artificially enhance drainage characteristics of naturally poorly drained soils via subsurface drain tubing or open-ditch systems. Approximately 25% of the U.S. agricultural land requires improved drainage for economic crop production. However, drainage increases the transport of dissolved agricultural chemicals, particularly nitrates to downstream surface waters. Nutrient export from artificially drained agricultural landscapes has been identified as the leading source of elevated nutrient levels in major surface water bodies in the U.S. Controlled drainage has long been practiced to reduce nitrogen export from agricultural fields to downstream receiving waters. It has been hypothesized that controlled drainage reduces nitrogen losses by promoting denitrification, reducing drainage outflow from the field, and increasing plant uptake. The documented performance of the practice was widely variable as it depends on several site-specific factors. The goal of this research was to utilize high frequency measurements to investigate the effect of agricultural drainage and related management practices on nitrate fate and transport for an artificially drained agricultural field in eastern North Carolina. We deployed a field spectrophotometer to measure nitrate concentration every 45 minutes and measured drainage flow rate using a V-notch weir every 15 minutes. Furthermore, we measured groundwater level, precipitation, irrigation amount, temperature to characterize antecedent conditions for each event. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationships generated from the high frequency measurements illustrated anti-clockwise hysteresis loops and nitrate flushing mechanism in response to most precipitation and irrigation events. Statistical evaluation will be carried out for the C-Q relationships. The results of our analysis, combined with numerical modeling, will provide a better understanding of hydrological and

  19. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  20. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  1. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  2. Herbicide sorption to fine particulate matter suspended downwind of agricultural operations: field and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Clymo, Amelia S; Shin, Jin Young; Holmen, Britt A

    2005-01-15

    Tillage-induced erosion of herbicides bound to airborne soil particles has not been quantified as a mechanism for offsite herbicide transport. This study quantifies the release of two preemergent herbicides, metolachlor and pendimethalin, to the atmosphere as gas- and particle-phase species during soil incorporation operations. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and gas-phase samples were collected at three sampling heights during herbicide disking into the soil in Davis, CA, in May 2000 and May 2001 using filter/PUF sampling. Quartz fiber filters (QFFs) were used in May 2000, and Teflon membrane filters (TMFs) were used in May 2001. The field data were combined with laboratory filter/PUF partitioning experiments to account for adsorption to the filter surfaces and quantify the mass of PM2.5-bound herbicides in the field samples. Laboratory results indicate a significant adsorption of metolachlor, but not pendimethalin, to the quartz filter surfaces. Metolachlor partitioning to PM2.5 collected on TMF filters resulted in corrected PM2.5 field partition coefficient values, Kp,corr = Cp/Cg, of approximately 10(-3.5) m3/microg, indicating its preference for the gas phase. Pendimethalin exhibited more semivolatile behavior,with Kp,corr values that ranged from 10(-3) to 10(-1) m3/ microg and increased with sampling height and distance downwind of the operation. An increase in pendimethalin enrichment at a height of 5 m suggests winnowing of finer, more sorptive soil components with corresponding higher transport potential. Pendimethalin was enriched in the PM2.5 samples by up to a factor of 250 compared to the field soil, indicating thatfurther research on the processes controlling the generation of PM-bound herbicides during agricultural operations is warranted to enable prediction of off-site mass fluxes by this mechanism.

  3. Care of the abandoned child.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, M

    1991-01-01

    Care of abandoned children in India is discussed in terms of reasons for abandonment, the physical condition of the children, and legal categories. The options available currently are the cottage system, sponsorship programs, foster care, or adoption. Child-care and rehabilitation that may be necessary is specified as is the importance of maintaining records. The gaps in child-care are exposed. The role of nongovernmental organization (NGOs) and new legislation in closing the gaps is presented. Abandonment is usually a direct result of poverty, but it can also be caused by mental or physical handicaps or illegitimacy. The numbers of abandoned children may reach 2 million. 40-60% of abandoned infants die during monsoons and summers. The legal categories are privately abandoned, children on remand, or court-committed children. The cottage system emphasizes deinstitutionalization, but there remains a great demand for care. Sponsorship aims to strengthen the family unit to prevent abandonment. Foster care provides an alternative family substitute, but is known only theoretically. Childcare may involve instant hospitalization, care is an institution, or foster care with a suitable family. Nursery care requires discipline in hygiene, sanitation, maintenance of individual medical records, and a general cheerful atmosphere. Records are important for the child in later life and for adoption. Rehabilitation is a sociolegal process which must be done properly or it can jeopardize a child's future security. Despite the Supreme Court guidelines of 1984, there is no uniform system of adoption practices, and the child's interests are overlooked when adoptions are promoted. NGOs play an important role in making social welfare programs work. However their efforts are of limited help without government support and legislation. There is a lack of proper legislation which is outside the control of political and religious interests; e.g., Hindu law only permits adoption of one child of

  4. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jing-Ying; Liao, Huei-Hung; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2010-12-01

    Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are "foreground-mask sampling" to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and "selective tracking" to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  5. Combining optical remote sensing, agricultural statistics and field observations for culture recognition over a peri-urban region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbart, Nicolas; Emmanuelle, Vaudour; Fabienne, Maignan; Catherine, Ottlé; Jean-Marc, Gilliot

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the potential of multi-temporal optical remote sensing, with high revisit frequency, to derive missing information on agricultural calendar and crop types over the agricultural lands in the Versailles plain in the western Paris suburbs. This study comes besides past and ongoing studies on the use of radar and high spatial resolution optical remote sensing to monitor agricultural practices in this study area (e.g. Vaudour et al. 2014). Agricultural statistics, such as the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) for France, permit to know the nature of annual crops for each digitized declared field of this land parcel registry. However, within each declared field several cropped plots and a diversity of practices may exist, being marked by agricultural rotations which vary both spatially and temporally within it and differ from one year to the other. Even though the new LPIS to be released in 2016 is expected to describe individual plots within declared fields, its attributes may not enable to discriminate between winter and spring crops. Here we evaluate the potential of high observation frequency remote sensing to differentiate seasonal crops based essentially on the seasonality of the spectral properties. In particular, we use the Landsat data to spatially disaggregate the LPIS statistical data, on the basis of the analysis of the remote sensing spectral seasonality measured on a number of selected ground-observed fields. This work is carried out in the framework of the CNES TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO of the French Space Agency.

  6. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Observations in Irrigated Agriculture Fields Using the Cosmic-ray Neutron Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, T. E.; Avery, W. A.; Finkenbiner, C. E.; Wang, T.; Brocca, L.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 40% of global food production comes from irrigated agriculture. With the increasing demand for food even greater pressures will be placed on water resources within these systems. In this work we aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at the field-scale (~500 m) using the newly developed cosmic-ray neutron rover near Waco, NE. Here we mapped soil moisture of 144 quarter section fields (a mix of maize, soybean, and natural areas) each week during the 2014 growing season (May to September). The 11 x11 km study domain also contained 3 stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes for independent validation of the rover surveys. Basic statistical analysis of the domain indicated a strong inverted parabolic relationship between the mean and variance of soil moisture. The relationship between the mean and higher order moments were not as strong. Geostatistical analysis indicated the range of the soil moisture semi-variogram was significantly shorter during periods of heavy irrigation as compared to non-irrigated periods. Scaling analysis indicated strong power law behavior between the variance of soil moisture and averaging area with minimal dependence of mean soil moisture on the slope of the power law function. Statistical relationships derived from the rover dataset offer a novel set of observations that will be useful in: 1) calibrating and validating land surface models, 2) calibrating and validating crop models, 3) soil moisture covariance estimates for statistical downscaling of remote sensing products such as SMOS and SMAP, and 4) provide center-pivot scale mean soil moisture data for optimal irrigation timing and volume amounts.

  7. Field and wind tunnel comparison of four aerosol samplers using agricultural dusts.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stephen J; Nakatsu, Jason; Tillery, Marvin; Keefe, Thomas; Mehaffy, John; Thorne, Peter S; Donham, Kelley; Nonnenmann, Matthew; Golla, Vijay; O'shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    Occupational lung disease is a significant problem among agricultural workers exposed to organic dusts. Measurements of exposure in agricultural environments in the USA have traditionally been conducted using 37-mm closed-face cassettes (CFCs) and respirable Cyclones. Inhalable aerosol samplers offer significant improvement for dose estimation studies to reduce respiratory disease. The goals of this study were to determine correction factors between the inhalable samplers (IOM and Button) and the CFC and Cyclone for dusts sampled in livestock buildings and to determine whether these factors vary among livestock types. Determination of these correction factors will allow comparison between inhalable measurements and historical measurements. Ten sets of samples were collected in swine, chicken, turkey, and dairy facilities in both Colorado and Iowa. Pairs of each sampling device were attached to the front and back of a rotating mannequin. Laboratory studies using a still-air chamber and a wind tunnel provided information regarding the effect of wind speed on sampler performance. Overall, the IOM had the lowest coefficient of variation (best precision) and was least affected by changes in wind speed. The performance of the Button was negatively impacted in poultry environments where larger (feather) particulates clogged the holes in the initial screen. The CFC/IOM ratios are important for comparisons between newer and older studies. Wind speed and dust type were both important factors affecting ratios. Based on the field studies (Table 6), a ratio of 0.56 is suggested as a conversion factor for the CFC/IOM (average for all environments because of no statistical difference). Suggested conversion factors for the Button/IOM are swine (0.57), chicken (0.80), turkey (0.53), and dairy (0.67). Any attempt to apply a conversion factor between the Cyclone and inhalable samplers is not recommended.

  8. Accuracy of topographic index models at identifying ephemeral gully trajectories on agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Sekaluvu, Lawrence; Hutchinson, Stacy L.

    2018-04-01

    Topographic index (TI) models have been widely used to predict trajectories and initiation points of ephemeral gullies (EGs) in agricultural landscapes. Prediction of EGs strongly relies on the selected value of critical TI threshold, and the accuracy depends on topographic features, agricultural management, and datasets of observed EGs. This study statistically evaluated the predictions by TI models in two paired watersheds in Central Kansas that had different levels of structural disturbances due to implemented conservation practices. Four TI models with sole dependency on topographic factors of slope, contributing area, and planform curvature were used in this study. The observed EGs were obtained by field reconnaissance and through the process of hydrological reconditioning of digital elevation models (DEMs). The Kernel Density Estimation analysis was used to evaluate TI distribution within a 10-m buffer of the observed EG trajectories. The EG occurrence within catchments was analyzed using kappa statistics of the error matrix approach, while the lengths of predicted EGs were compared with the observed dataset using the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) statistics. The TI frequency analysis produced bi-modal distribution of topographic indexes with the pixels within the EG trajectory having a higher peak. The graphs of kappa and NSE versus critical TI threshold showed similar profile for all four TI models and both watersheds with the maximum value representing the best comparison with the observed data. The Compound Topographic Index (CTI) model presented the overall best accuracy with NSE of 0.55 and kappa of 0.32. The statistics for the disturbed watershed showed higher best critical TI threshold values than for the undisturbed watershed. Structural conservation practices implemented in the disturbed watershed reduced ephemeral channels in headwater catchments, thus producing less variability in catchments with EGs. The variation in critical thresholds for all

  9. N-C isotopic investigation of a zeolite-amended agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Natali, Claudio; Faccini, Barbara; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a C and N isotopic investigation in the soil-plant system of the ZeoLIFE project experimental field have been carried out. Since many years, natural and NH4-enriched zeolites have been used as soil amendant in agricultural context in order to reduce N losses, increase NUE (Nitrogen Use Efficiency) and crop yield. Nevertheless up to now there are no studies that, using the stable isotopes approach, highlighted the interaction between zeolites and plants in agricultural systems. The main aims of this study is to verify if natural zeolites amendment can enhance chemical fertilization efficiency and if N transfer from NH4-enriched zeolites to plants really occurs. Plants grown following traditional cultivation methods (with no zeolite addition) and plants grown on soils amended with natural and NH4-enriched zeolites (the latter obtained after mixing with pig-slurry with a very high 15N) were compared for two cultivation cycles (maize and wheat). As widely known, plants grown under conventional farming systems (use of chemical fertilizers as urea) and plants grown under organic farming can be discriminated by the isotopic signatures of plant tissues. For both years the main results of the study reveals that plants grown on plots amended with natural zeolites generally have their nitrogen isotopic signature more similar to that of the chemical fertilizers employed during the cultivation with respect to the plants cultivated in the non-amended plot. This suggests an enhanced N uptake by the plant from this specific N source with respect to the non-amended plot. On the other hand, plants grown on NH4-enriched zeolites registered a higher 15N, approaching the pig-slurry isotopic signature, confirming that this material can constitute an N pool for plants at least for two cultivation cycles. The distinct agricultural practices seem to be reflected in the plant physiology as recorded by the carbon discrimination factor (13C) which generally increases

  10. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  11. The footprint of marginal agriculture in the Mediterranean mountain landscape: An analysis of the Central Spanish Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Lasanta, T; Nadal-Romero, E; Errea, M P

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland. This article studies the role of traditional agriculture in the deterioration of the landscape. By using experimental plots in the Central Pyrenees to reproduce traditional agriculture and abandonment, maps of field types, and current uses and ground cover, it could be confirmed that shifting agriculture has caused very heavy soil loss, which explains the deterioration of the landscape on several slopes. Burning scrub and adding the ash to the soil as a fertilizer did not greatly help to improve soil quality, but caused high rates of erosion and a very slow process of regrowth. The average data obtained from the shifting experimental plots recorded losses of 1356kgha -1 years -1 , 1.6 times more than the plot of fertilized cereal, and 8.2 times more than the dense scrub plot. Following abandonment, losses in the shifting agriculture plot were almost three times higher than the abandoned sloping field plot. Traditional shifting agriculture in the Pyrenees is the main cause of the deterioration of the landscape 50-70years after agriculture ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Maps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Map of the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims generally located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89 in the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  13. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets related to Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, ain the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  14. Nanotechnologies in agriculture and food - an overview of different fields of application, risk assessment and public perception.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Antje; Rissanen, Mikko E

    2012-12-01

    Nanomaterials in agriculture and food are key issues of public and regulatory interest. Over the past ten years, patents for nanotechnological applications in the field of food and agriculture have become abundant. Uncertainty prevails however regarding their current development status and presence in the consumer market. Thus, the discussion on nanotechnologies in the food sector with its specific public perception of benefits and risks and the patterns of communication are becoming similar to the debate on genetically modified organisms. The food industry's silence in communication increased mistrust of consumer organisations and policy makers. The article discusses the background of the current regulatory debates, starting with the EU recommendation for defining nanomaterials, provides an overview of possible fields of application in agriculture and food industries and discusses risk assessment and the public debate on benefits and risks. Communicative recommendations are directed at researchers, the food industry and regulators in order to increase trust both in stakeholders, risk management and regulatory processes.

  15. Effects of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi on soybean aphid and identification of Metarhizium isolates from agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Eric H; Jaronski, Stefan T; Coates, Brad S; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial plants can harbor endophytic fungi that may induce changes in plant physiology that in turn affect interactions with herbivorous insects. We evaluated whether the application of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum to soybean seeds could become endophytic and affect interactions with soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura). It was found that A. glycines population sizes increased on plants with M. brunneum (strain F52) seed inoculum, but no significant effects were shown with analogous treatments with B. bassiana (strain GHA). Fungi recovered from soybean plant tissues indicate that endophytism was established, and that B. bassiana was more prevalent. Metarhizium brunneum was only recovered from stems, but B. bassiana was recovered from stems and leaves. This work confirms that some entomopathogenic fungi can be endophytic in soybean, however, some of these fungi may have a negative effect on the plants by increasing susceptibility of soybean to A. glycines. We also used DNA sequence data to identify species of Metarhizium obtained from agricultural fields in Iowa. Phylogenetic analyses, based on DNA sequence data, found that all isolates were Metarhizium robertsii, which is consistent with past studies indicating a cosmopolitan distribution and wide host range for this species. These results are important for understanding the dynamics of implementing environmentally sustainable measures for the control of pest insects.

  16. Leaching of azoxystrobin and its degradation product R234886 from Danish agricultural field sites.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Kjær, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to estimate leaching of the fungicide azoxystrobin (methyl (αE)-2-[[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy]-α-(methoxymethylene)benzene-acetate) and one of its primary degradation products R234886 ([(E)-2-(2-[6-cyanophenoxy)-pyrimidin-4-yloxyl]-phenyl-3-methoxyacrylic acid], major fraction) at four agricultural research fields (one sandy and three loamy) in Denmark. Water was sampled from tile drains, suction cups and groundwater wells for a minimum period of two years after application of azoxystrobin. Neither azoxystrobin nor R234886 were detected at the sandy site, but did leach through loamy soils. While azoxystrobin was generally only detected during the first couple of months following application, R234886 leached for a longer period of time and at higher concentrations (up to 2.1μgL(-1)). Azoxystrobin is classified as very toxic to aquatic organisms and R234886 as very harmful. Our study shows that azoxystrobin and R234886 can leach through loamy soils for a long period of time following application of the pesticide and thereby pose a potential threat to vulnerable aquatic environments and drinking water resources. We thus recommend the inclusion of azoxystrobin and R234886 in pesticide monitoring programmes and further investigation of their long-term ecotoxicological effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluxes of Nitrous Acid (HONO) above an Agricultural Field Side near Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufs, S.; Cazaunau, M.; Stella, P.; Loubet, B.; Kurtenbach, R.; Cellier, P.; Mellouki, W.; Kleffmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    HONO is an important precursor of the OH radical, the detergent of the atmosphere. Field measurements show high diurnal HONO mixing ratios that cannot be explained by chemical models with known gas phase chemistry. Therefore, daytime sources of HONO are still under discussion. During the last decade many experimental investigation were performed to study heterogeneous production of HONO like the photo enhanced reduction of NO2 on humic acids or photolysis of HNO3 on surfaces. Recently, nitrite produced by bacteria, present in soil, was discussed as a source of HONO as well. In addition gas phase sources like the photolysis of nitrophenols, or the reaction of excited NO2 are discussed. Gradient measurements show high mixing ratios of HONO even above the boundary layer. However, beside intensive investigations on the sources of HONO, it is still an open question whether heterogeneous or gas phase sources are more important in the atmosphere. Flux measurements could represent a method to find the origin of missing sources of HONO. Until now instruments are not sensitive and fast enough to do Eddy correlation measurements for HONO. Alternatively, HONO fluxes are estimated by the Aerodynamic Gradient (AGM), or Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) methods. Here we present HONO fluxes estimated by AGM and the LOPAP technique (Long Path Absorption Photometer) above an agricultural field in Grignon, Paris (48°51'N, 1°58'E). Fluxes during different seasons and different types of vegetations including bare soil will be presented and compared with chemical corrected fluxes of NO, NO2 and O3, or other parameters.

  18. Preplanting Treatments and Natural Invasion of Tree Species Onto Former Agricultural Fields at the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Treesearch

    John W. McCoy; Bobby D. Keeland; Brian Roy Lockhart; Thomas Dean

    2002-01-01

    As part of a study of oak planting techniques for bottomland hardwood afforestation we examined the natural invasion of woody species onto former agricultural fields at Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge. Three replications of 14 treatments were established as 0.4 hectare (1 acre) plots in a complete randomized block design. Combinations of these treatments were...

  19. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  20. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  1. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  2. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  3. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  4. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  5. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  6. Long-term impact of precision agriculture on a farmer’s field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Targeting management practices and inputs with precision agriculture has high potential to meet some of the grand challenges of sustainability in the coming century. Although potential is high, few studies have documented long-term effects of precision agriculture on crop production and environmenta...

  7. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Title to Unclaimed... part, at which time merchandise having thus remained in Customs custody is considered as unclaimed and abandoned, the port director, with the concurrence of the Assistant Commissioner, Office of Field Operations...

  8. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  9. Heavy metal pollution associated with an abandoned lead-zinc mine in the Kirki region, NE Greece.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Christos; Zafiriadis, Ilias; Mathioudakis, Vasileios; Constantinidis, Theodore

    2010-09-01

    The "Agios Philippos" mine in the Kirki region (NE Greece) has been abandoned in 1998 after half a century of ore exploration without a reclamation or remediation plan. This article aims at elucidating the potential environmental risks associated with this site by quantifying pollution in tailing basins, stream waters, stream sediments and agricultural fields. Concentrations of heavy metals in the abandoned mine tailings reached 12,567 mg/kg for Pb, 22,292 mg/kg for Zn, 174 mg/kg for Cd and 241 mg/kg for As. The geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor for these metals were indicative of extremely high contamination (I(geo) > 5) and extremely high enrichment (EF > 40), respectively. Stream waters in the proximity of the mine had an acidic pH equal to 5.96 and a high sulfate content (SO(4)(-2) = 545.5 mg/L), whereas concentrations of Mn, Zn and Cd reached 2,399 microg/L, 7,681 microg/L and 11.2 microg/L. High I(geo) and EF values for Cd, Zn and As in stream sediments indicates that surface water pollution has a historic background, which is typically associated with acid mine drainage. Agricultural fields in the proximity of the mine exhibited high I(geo) and EF values, which were in decreasing order Cd > Pb > Zn > As. These findings urge for an immediate remediation action of the afflicted area.

  10. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  11. Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model in combination with tool for multi-attributed decision-making

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. This paper extends previously published work entitled “Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model” to a general case where there is disagreement between groups of managers or expert...

  12. Iron coated sand/glauconite filters for phosphorus removal from artificially drained agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermoere, Stany; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    Flanders (Belgium) is confronted with reactive phosphorus concentrations in streams and lakes which are three to four times higher than the 0.1 ppm P limit set by the Water Framework Directive. Much of the excessive P input in surface waters is derived from agriculture. Direct P input from artificially drained fields (short-circuiting the buffering capacity of the subsoil) is suspected to be one of the major sources. We aim to develop simple and cheap filters that can be directly installed in the field to reduce P concentration from the drain water. Here we report on the performance of such filters tested at lab scale. As starting materials for the P filter, iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were used. These materials, both rich in Fe, were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35, 50/50 and 0/100 (iron coated sand/glauconite ratio based on weight basis) and filled in plastic tubes. A screening experiment using the constant head method with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P showed that all four types of mixtures reduced the P concentration in the outflowing water to almost zero, and that the 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 mixtures had a sufficiently large hydraulic conductivity of 0.9 to 6.0 cm/min, while the hydraulic conductivity of the 50/50 mixture was too low (< 0.4 cm/min). In a second experiment the iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 and filled in the same plastic tubes as in the first experiment. Subsequently a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P was passed through the filters over several days, in amounts equivalent to half of the yearly water volume passing through the drains. This experiment firstly showed that in all cases the hydraulic conductivity fluctuated strongly: it decreased from 4.0-6.0 cm/min to 2.0-1.5 cm/min for the 75/25 filter, and to values < 0.4 cm/min for the 65/35 filter, whereas it increased from 0.8 to 1.4 cm/min for the 0/100 filter. Secondly, we observed a

  13. Accidental Strangulation Due to Entrapment of Saree in Crop Thrasher Machine in an Elderly Women Working at Agricultural Field.

    PubMed

    Parchake, Manoj Bhausaheb; Kumre, Vikas; Kachare, Rajesh V

    2016-09-01

    Strangulation is generally considered as homicidal death and in accidental strangulation circumstantial evidence alone can point toward the accidental nature of incidence. In present case, a 71-year-old woman, wearing a saree (garment worn by traditional women in India) working in agricultural field, got entangled in the crop thrasher machine and got strangled. Immediately, she was taken to the nearest hospital, where she survived for 6 to 8 hours and then died. The autopsy reveals cross ribbon-shaped ligature mark on neck and anterior chest along with 1 puncture wound at the right lateral aspect of the neck. A lack of proper precaution and safety measures at agricultural field are other contributing factors. Accidental strangulation by saree is extremely rare, hence, this case is presented for its rarity and pattern of injury.

  14. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2011-01-01

    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  15. The fate and transport of the Cry1Ab protein in an agricultural field and laboratory aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Strain, Katherine E; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal crystalline proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were commercialized almost two decades ago as a means to manage agricultural pests. The Bt proteins are highly specific and only lethal upon ingestion, limiting the scope of toxicity to target insects. However, concern of exposure to non-target organisms and negative public perceptions regarding Bt crops has caused controversy surrounding their use. The objective of this research was to monitor the fate and transport of a Bt protein, Cry1Ab, in a large-scale agricultural field containing maize expressing the Cry1Ab protein and a non-Bt near isoline, and in aquatic microcosms. The highest environmental concentrations of the Cry1Ab protein were found in runoff water and sediment, up to 130ngL(-1) and 143ngg(-1) dry weight, respectively, with the Cry1Ab protein detected in both Bt and non-Bt maize fields. As surface runoff and residual crop debris can transport Bt proteins to waterways adjacent to agricultural fields, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the potential fate of the Cry1Ab protein under different conditions. The results showed that sediment type and temperature can influence the degradation of the Cry1Ab protein in an aquatic system and that the Cry1Ab protein can persist for up to two months. Although Cry1Ab protein concentrations measured in the field soil indicate little exposure to terrestrial organisms, the consistent input of Bt-contaminated runoff and crop debris into agricultural waterways is relevant to understanding potential consequences to aquatic species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the APEX Model to Simulate Runoff Quality from Agricultural Fields in the Southern Region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Avila, John J; Radcliffe, David E; Osmond, Deanna; Bolster, Carl; Sharpley, Andrew; Ortega-Achury, Sandra L; Forsberg, Adam; Oldham, J Larry

    2017-11-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely applied to assess phosphorus (P) loss in runoff water and has been proposed as a model to support practical decisions regarding agricultural P management, as well as a model to evaluate tools such as the P Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of APEX to simulate P losses from agricultural systems to determine its potential use for refinement or replacement of the P Index in the southern region of the United States. Uncalibrated and calibrated APEX model predictions were compared against measured water quality data from row crop fields in North Carolina and Mississippi and pasture fields in Arkansas and Georgia. Calibrated models satisfactorily predicted event-based surface runoff volumes at all sites (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] > 0.47, |percent bias [PBIAS]| < 34) except Arkansas (NSE < 0.11, |PBIAS| < 50) but did not satisfactory simulate sediment, dissolved P, or total P losses in runoff water. The APEX model tended to underestimate dissolved and total P losses from fields where manure was surface applied. The model also overestimated sediments and total P loads during irrigation events. We conclude that the capability of APEX to predict sediment and P losses is limited, and consequently so is the potential for using APEX to make P management recommendations to improve P Indices in the southern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  18. Monitoring and Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution - Case study on terraced paddy fields in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yeh, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intensive use of chemical fertilizer has negatively impacted environments in recent decades, mainly through water pollution by nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) originating from agricultural activities. As a main crop with the largest cultivation area about 0.25 million ha per year in Taiwan, rice paddies account for a significant share of fertilizer consumption among agriculture crops. This study evaluated the fertilization of paddy fields impacting return flow water quality in an agricultural watershed located at Hsinchu County, northern Taiwan. Water quality monitoring continued for two crop-periods in 2012, around subject to different water bodies, including the irrigation water, drainage water, and shallow groundwater. The results indicated that obviously increasing of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP concentrations in the surface drainage water were observed immediately following three times of fertilizer applications (including basal, tillering, and panicle fertilizer application), but reduced to relatively low concentrations after 7-10 days after each fertilizer application. Groundwater quality monitoring showed that the observation wells with the more shallow water depth, the more significant variation of concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP could be observed, which means that the contamination potential of nutrient of groundwater is related not only to the impermeable plow sole layer but also to the length of percolation route in this area. The study also showed that the potential pollution load of nutrient could be further reduced by well drainage water control and rational fertilizer management, such as deep-water irrigation, reuse of return flow, the rational application of fertilizers, and the SRI (The System of Rice Intensification) method. The results of this study can provide as an evaluation basis to formulate effective measures for agricultural non-point source pollution control and the reuse of agricultural return flow. Keywords

  19. [Spatio-temporal distribution of carabids and spiders between semi-natural field margin and the adjacent crop fields in agricultural landscape].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu Zhu; Han, Yin; Yu, Zhen Rong; Liu, Yun Hui

    2017-06-18

    This study was conducted before and after harvesting of wheat and maize in a typical agricultural landscape of the North China Plain. We investigated the diversity of two important natural enemy groups, carabids and spiders, using pitfall traps at crop field margin with different vegetation structures and their neighboring crop field. Throughout the comparison of the spatial and temporal distribution of the diversity of carabids and spiders in field margin and neighboring field, and the investigation of the relationship between arthropod communities and vegetation structure, this study aimed to understand the role of semi-natural field margin in biodiversity conservation of different natural enemy taxa. Results showed that the abundance of spiders was significantly higher in field margin than in neighboring fields over the entire period. No significant difference of the diversity of carabids in field margin and crop field was observed, but the community composition was different. Number of spider families increased in field margin but deceased in crop field after harvesting, indicating a migration activity between field and field margin. Vegetation structure in the field margin had different association with carabids than with spiders, with diversity of dominant carabid species positively associated with herb coverage and negatively with wood coverage, while the diversity of spider family Linyphiidae was positively associated with herb coverage only. Semi-natural habitat benefited the conservation of the diversity of arthropod natural enemies in crop field via promoting their dispersal to crop field, while such impacts differed from different vegetation structures and varied from target beneficial natural enemy communities. Future studies should focus on in-depth understanding of the food and habitat source requirement of different natural enemy taxa, and hence to design suitable semi-natural habitats to maintain a high diversity of natural enemy communities.

  20. THE USE OF CHEMICALS TO CONTROL FIELD RODENTS AND OTHER PREDATORS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS ARE (1) USE OF CHEMICALS FOR RODENT CONTROL AND ERADICATION, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND COMPUTATIONS, (3) RODENT…

  1. Integrated description of agricultural field experiments and production: the ICASA version 2.0 data standards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural research increasingly seeks to quantify complex interactions of processes for a wide range of environmental conditions and crop management scenarios, leading to investigation where multiple sets of experimental data are examined using tools such as simulation and regression. The use of ...

  2. Mass balance and swath displacement evaluations from agricultural application field trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spray drift is on an ongoing concern for any agricultural application and continues to be the focus for new developments and research efforts dealing with drift reduction technologies, best management application practices and the development of new decision support systems for applicators. Typical...

  3. Treatment of phosphorus transported from tile and ditch-drained agricultural fields using sorption materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many flat, poorly drained soils, such as the Delmarva Peninsula, the upper Midwest, and certain areas of Europe such as Denmark and Netherlands, have been extensively drained through the construction of artificial drainage ditches and tiles to allow agriculture and other human activities. In additi...

  4. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The field of Archaeology remains focused on historical issues while underexploring its potential contribution on currently existing societal problems, e.g. climate change. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of archeological studies for the research of the 'human species as a significant moving agent' in terms of the changing natural environment during a much earlier time frame. This research is based on the study area of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region in the Netherlands and Belgium and exhibits the period from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Roman period. This period is characterized by the widespread introduction and use of an agricultural system, often referred to as the Celtic Field system that served as one of the most modifying systems in terms of anthropogenic-environmental change during this period. Emphasis in this research is given to results generated by the use of the remote sensing technology, LiDAR. New information is reported considering a correlation between singular field size and the overall surface of the agricultural complexes and secondly, the presentation of newly identified Celtic field systems in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region are presented. The study of the dynamics of the Celtic Field agricultural system provides evidence for a significant anthropogenic footprint on the natural environment due to land cover dominance, soil degeneration, increased soil acidification and forest clearance. Soil exhaustion forced the inhabitants to re-establish their relationship with the landscape in terms of fundamental changes in the habitation pattern and the agrarian exploitations of the land.

  5. Selection of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat selection and use are measures of relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the relative importance of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley areas and determined use and selection of these TB landscapes through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selection (based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated) were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available, used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt. Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods. During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least selected field types and accounted for <13% of pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded landscape available but were little used and least selected. Exodus of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irrigated fallow, safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter. Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should concentrate

  6. Biological and Agricultural Studies on Application of Discharge Plasma and Electromagnetic Fields 5. Effects of High Electric Fields on Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaka, Katsuo

    The biological effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on animals are reviewed with emphasis on studies of the nervous system, behavior, endocrinology, and blood chemistry. First, this paper provides a histrical overview of studies on the electric field effects initiated in Russia and the United States mainly regarding electric utility workers in high voltage substations and transmission lines. Then, the possible mechanisms of electric field effects are explained using the functions of surface electric fields and induced currents in biological objects. The real mechanisms have not yet been identified. The thresholds of electric field perception levels for rats, baboons, and humans are introduced and compared. The experimental results concerning the depression of melatonin secretion in rats exposed to electric fields are described.

  7. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in themore » earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.« less

  8. A field method for soil erosion measurements in agricultural and natural lands

    Treesearch

    Y.P. Hsieh; K.T. Grant; G.C. Bugna

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important watershed processes in nature, yet quantifying it under field conditions remains a challenge. The lack of soil erosion field data is a major factor hindering our ability to predict soil erosion in a watershed. We present here the development of a simple and sensitive field method that quantifies soil erosion and the resulting...

  9. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the fields of geology, agriculture, forestry, and hydrology to selected test sites in Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary study of the ERTS-1 imagery coverage of Iran, commenced on October 26, 1972. All of the images were carefully examined, and a photomosaic covering approximately ninety-five per cent of the country was prepared. A number of images of selected areas were studied in detail. In the field of geology, a number of large scale faults were identified, which do not figure on geological maps. Furthermore, a preliminary study was carried out on the recent sediments, their possible sources, and origin. A limited number of geological work maps were prepared as well. In the fields of agriculture and forestry, studies based on color composite prints of certain areas were undertaken, with a purpose of identifying potential arable areas. Investigations in the field of water resources resulted in the discovery of a number of small lakes, and streams. Furthermore, fluctuations of the water level in some lakes were observed.

  10. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  11. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  12. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  13. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  14. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  15. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Patent and Trademark Office. Express abandonment of the application may not be recognized by the Office...

  16. Effects of agricultural fungicides on microorganisms associated with floral nectar: susceptibility assays and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Bartlewicz, Jacek; Pozo, María I; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides have become an inseparable element of agricultural intensification. While the direct impact of pesticides on non-target organisms, such as pollinators, has recently received much attention, less consideration has been given to the microorganisms that are associated with them. Specialist yeasts and bacteria are known to commonly inhabit floral nectar and change its chemical characteristics in numerous ways, possibly influencing pollinator attraction. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of nectar yeasts Metschnikowia gruessi, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Candida bombi to six widely used agricultural fungicides (prothioconazole, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram). Next, a commercial antifungal mixture containing tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin was applied to natural populations of the plant Linaria vulgaris and the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of nectar-inhabiting yeasts and bacteria was compared between treated and untreated plants. The results showed that prothioconazole and tebuconazole were highly toxic to nectar yeasts, inhibiting their growth at concentrations varying between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L. Azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram on the other hand exhibited considerably lower toxicity, inhibiting yeast growth at concentrations between 1 and 32 mg/L or in many cases not inhibiting microbial growth at all. The application of the antifungal mixture in natural plant populations resulted in a significant decrease in the occurrence and abundance of yeasts in individual flowers, but this did not translate into noticeable changes in bacterial incidence and abundance. Yeast and bacterial species richness and distribution did not also differ between treated and untreated plants. We conclude that the application of fungicides may have negative effects on the abundance of nectar yeasts in floral nectar. The consequences of these effects on plant pollination processes in agricultural

  17. The seasonal role of field characteristics on seed-eating bird abundances in agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Codesido, Mariano; Abba, Agustín M.; Bilenca, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In temperate agroecosystems, avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices. We assessed the seasonal roles of field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000 km2 study area in the Pampas of central Argentina. During spring-summer and autumn of 2011–2013, we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species. We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species. We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance to the nearest woodlot. In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements. Species that build their nests in trees, such as eared doves Zenaida auriculata, picazuro pigeons Patagioenas picazuro, and monk parakeets Myiopsitta monachus, were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots, whereas grassland yellow-finches Sicalis luteola, which nest at areas with tall grasses, were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings. In autumn (non-breeding season), most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs. The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources. In addition, both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons Patagioenas maculosa were associated with woodlots, which provide suitable roosting sites. Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems, the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season. PMID

  18. Biodiversity in Organic Farmland - How Does Landscape Context Influence Species Diversity in Organic Vs. Conventional Agricultural Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seufert, V.; Wood, S.; Reid, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Rhemtulla, J.; Ramankutty, N.

    2014-12-01

    The most important current driver of biodiversity loss is the conversion of natural habitats for human land uses, mostly for the purpose of food production. However, by causing this biodiversity loss, food production is eroding the very same ecosystem services (e.g. pollination and soil fertility) that it depends on. We therefore need to adopt more wildlife-friendly agricultural practices that can contribute to preserving biodiversity. Organic farming has been shown to typically host higher biodiversity than conventional farming. But how is the biodiversity benefit of organic management dependent on the landscape context farms are situated in? To implement organic farming as an effective means for protecting biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem services we need to understand better under what conditions organic management is most beneficial for species. We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature to answer this question, compiling the most comprehensive database to date of studies that monitored biodiversity in organic vs. conventional fields. We also collected information about the landscape surrounding these fields from remote sensing products. Our database consists of 348 study sites across North America and Europe. Our analysis shows that organic management can improve biodiversity in agricultural fields substantially. It is especially effective at preserving biodiversity in homogeneous landscapes that are structurally simplified and dominated by either cropland or pasture. In heterogeneous landscapes conventional agriculture might instead already hold high biodiversity, and organic management does not appear to provide as much of a benefit for species richness as in simplified landscapes. Our results suggest that strategies to maintain biodiversity-dependent ecosystem services should include a combination of pristine natural habitats, wildlife-friendly farming systems like organic farming, and high-yielding conventional systems, interspersed in structurally

  19. Assessment of Various Remote Sensing Technologies in Biomass and Nitrogen Content Estimation Using AN Agricultural Test Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsi, R.; Viljanen, N.; Kaivosoja, J.; Hakala, T.; Pandžić, M.; Markelin, L.; Honkavaara, E.

    2017-10-01

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging is usually acquired by satellite and aircraft platforms. Recently, miniaturized hyperspectral 2D frame cameras have showed great potential to precise agriculture estimations and they are feasible to combine with lightweight platforms, such as drones. Drone platform is a flexible tool for remote sensing applications with environment and agriculture. The assessment and comparison of different platforms such as satellite, aircraft and drones with different sensors, such as hyperspectral and RGB cameras is an important task in order to understand the potential of the data provided by these equipment and to select the most appropriate according to the user applications and requirements. In this context, open and permanent test fields are very significant and helpful experimental environment, since they provide a comparative data for different platforms, sensors and users, allowing multi-temporal analyses as well. Objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of an open permanent test field in context of precision agriculture. Satellite (Sentinel-2), aircraft and drones with hyperspectral and RGB cameras were assessed in this study to estimate biomass, using linear regression models and in-situ samples. Spectral data and 3D information were used and compared in different combinations to investigate the quality of the models. The biomass estimation accuracies using linear regression models were better than 90 % for the drone based datasets. The results showed that the use of spectral and 3D features together improved the estimation model. However, estimation of nitrogen content was less accurate with the evaluated remote sensing sensors. The open and permanent test field showed to be suitable to provide an accurate and reliable reference data for the commercial users and farmers.

  20. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  1. "Green technology": Bio-stimulation by an electric field for textile reactive dye contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Sivasankar; Santhanam, Manikandan; Selvaraj, Subbulakshmi; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu; Pandian, Kannan; Pazos, Marta

    2018-05-15

    The aim of the study is to degrade pollutants as well as to increase the fertility of agricultural soil by starch enhancing electrokinetic (EKA) and electro-bio-stimulation (EBS) processes. Starch solution was used as an anolyte and voltage gradient was about 0.5V/cm. The influence of bacterial mediated process was evaluated in real contaminated farming soil followed by pilot scale experiment. The in-situ formation of β-cyclodextrin from starch in the treatments had also influence on the significant removal of the pollutants from the farming soil. The conductivity of the soil was effectively reduced from 15.5dS/m to 1.5dS/m which corroborates well with the agricultural norms. The bio-stimulation was confirmed by the increase of the phosphorus content in the treated soil. Finally, phytotoxicity assays demonstrated the viability of the developed technique for soil remediation because plant germination percentage was higher in the treated soil in comparison to untreated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Utilization of Edge-of-Field Monitoring of Agricultural Runoff in Addressing Nonpoint Source Pollution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While basin-scale studies and modeling are important tools in relating land uses to water quality concerns, edge-of-field monitoring (EOFM) provides the necessary resolution to spatially target, design, and evaluate in-field conservation practices for reducing nutrient and sediment loading from agri...

  3. Shorebird habitat availability assessment of agricultural fields using a digital aerial video system

    Treesearch

    Clinton W. Jeske; Scott Wilson; Paul C. Chadwick; Wylie Barrow

    2005-01-01

    Field and wetland conditions in the rice prairies of Louisiana and Texas are highly dynamic habitats. Rice prairies are important habitat for many species of migratory birds, including shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Ground sampling a variety of fields to assess habitat availability is very labor intensive, and accessibility to private lands makes statistical...

  4. Transfer function control strategy of Subak rice field land and agricultural development in Denpasar city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.; Sardiana, Ketut; Putu Ratna Adi, Gst.

    2017-01-01

    The success of tourism development in Bali gave a negative impact on Subak rice fields, especially on land convertion over 2579 ha year-1 (2002-2013) to the area awakened. Denpasar city has lost rice fields 185 ha year-1 and six Subak, as well as potentially losing 10 Subak, as a result of the allocation of space in the region in the Spatial Planing. UNESCO, in 2012 the establishment of Subak as a cultural heritage. Most Subak rice fields designated as an Urban Green Open Space ( UGOS). Satellite image Iconos 2002, World 2015 View Coverage of Denpasar, and ArcGIS 10.3 software used for mapping the balance of rice field and violation of land use in the area of UGOS. The control strategy over the convertion of spatial land-based environment is done through zoning map. Land conversion of rice fields for 13 years (2002-2015) in Denpasar (572.76 ha), comes standard acreage of rice fields in 2015. Denpasar city has experienced of food deficits, even in the UGOS has awakened 96.04 ha (24.04 ha year-1). A period of 50 years into the future, rice fields which needs to be protected 872.83 ha, buffer area 984.77 ha, and can be converted 499.81 ha.

  5. Abundance of the tick Dermacentor reticulatus in an ecosystem of abandoned meadows: Experimental intervention and the critical importance of mowing.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Dwużnik, Dorota; Behnke, Jerzy M; Mierzejewska, Ewa J

    2017-11-15

    The effect of agricultural activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe in recent years and the associated abandonment of crop fields, meadows and pastures may enable an increase in tick densities. In the present study we assessed whether regular mowing would have a negative effect on Dermacentor reticulatus populations and whether the cessation of regular mowing would cause an increase in abundance of D. reticulatus ticks. Two field experiments were conducted during a five-year period (2012-2016) in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) region of Central Poland. Experiment 1: The long-term effect of mowing on tick population was tested in the meadow ecosystem of Stoski, an old fallow land plot that was mowed three times a year. Experiment 2: Neglecting the cultivation by abandonment of arable land was evaluated in Kury village. Four areas (2 experimental 'fallow lands', 2 control meadows) were selected. The first fallow land plot was a fenced off area comprising mostly of a horse pasture and the second fallow land plot was designated in an old abandoned orchard. At each site, ticks were collected in consecutive springs and autumns by dragging at least twice during each season from experimental and control areas. Altogether 1452 D. reticulatus ticks were collected and their densities were compared by multifactorial ANOVA. In the end of the first experiment, a significant decrease (6 times) in tick abundance was observed in the mowed area in comparison to old fallow land. In the end of the second experiment, tick abundance was three times higher in the experimental fallow lands in comparison to the control meadows. In conclusion it was found that regular mowing significantly reduced the density of questing D. reticulatus ticks in open areas. Cessation of mowing may enhance the number of ticks and the associated risk of acquiring tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Andres; Murcia, Harold; Copot, Cosmin; De Keyser, Robin

    2015-07-10

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1) the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and image processing; (2) a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3) the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  7. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Andres; Murcia, Harold; Copot, Cosmin; De Keyser, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1) the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and image processing; (2) a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3) the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. PMID:26184205

  8. Investigating summer flow paths in a Dutch agricultural field using high frequency direct measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsman, J. R.; Waterloo, M. J.; Groen, M. M. A.; Groen, J.; Stuyfzand, P. J.

    2014-11-01

    The search for management strategies to cope with projected water scarcity and water quality deterioration calls for a better understanding of the complex interaction between groundwater and surface water in agricultural catchments. We separately measured flow routes to tile drains and an agricultural ditch in a deep polder in the coastal region of the Netherlands, characterized by exfiltration of brackish regional groundwater flow and intake of diverted river water for irrigation and water quality improvement purposes. We simultaneously measured discharge, electrical conductivity and temperature of these separate flow routes at hourly frequencies, disclosing the complex and time-varying patterns and origins of tile drain and ditch exfiltration. Tile drainage could be characterized as a shallow flow system, showing a non-linear response to groundwater level changes. Tile drainage was fed primarily by meteoric water, but still transported the majority (80%) of groundwater-derived salt to surface water. In contrast, deep brackish groundwater exfiltrating directly in the ditch responded linearly to groundwater level variations and is part of a regional groundwater flow system. We could explain the observed salinity of exfiltrating drain and ditch water from the interaction between the fast-responding pressure distribution in the subsurface that determined groundwater flow paths (wave celerity), and the slow-responding groundwater salinity distribution (water velocity). We found water demand for maintaining water levels and diluting salinity through flushing to greatly exceed the actual sprinkling demand. Counterintuitively, flushing demand was found to be largest during precipitation events, suggesting the possibility of water savings by operational flushing control.

  9. Waterfowl density on agricultural fields managed to retain water in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Nelms, C.O.

    1999-01-01

    Managed water on private and public land provides habitat for wintering waterfowl in the Mississippi Valley, where flood control projects have reduced the area of natural flooding. We compared waterfowl densities on rice, soybean, and moist-soil fields under cooperative agreements to retain water from 1 November through 28 February in Arkansas and Mississippi and assessed temporal changes in waterfowl density during winter in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. Fields flooded earlier in Arkansas, but retained water later in Mississippi. Over winter, waterfowl densities decreased in Arkansas and increased in Mississippi. Densities of waterfowl, including mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the most abundant species observed, were greatest on moist-soil fields. However, soybean fields had the greatest densities of northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata).

  10. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  11. Shifting agriculture: the main cause of landscape degradation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasanta, Teodoro; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz

    2017-04-01

    Cereal agriculture occupied large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees to feed the population in a socio-economic system of limited exchanges with the outside. In the Western valleys, shifting agriculture constitutes the dominant field pattern, representing almost three-quarters of the traditional agricultural space (Lasanta et al., in press). These were cultivated at times of heavy population growth, necessitating steep and stony hillsides with poor soil to be tilled, or the ones that were far away from the village. The fields were created by clearing the vegetation from a slope, then burning it to use the ash as a fertilizer. Cereal was grown for 3-4 years, after which they were abandoned for 20-30 years to recover fertility, and the cycle was repeated. Almost all the fields (99%) using shifting agriculture had been abandoned by the 1950s. This study analyzes the role of the shifting agriculture in soil erosion and landscape degradation. For this purpose, (i) experimental plots, which reproduce the traditional agriculture in the Pyrenees and the abandonment processes, and (ii) the cartography made from the SIOSE (2009), which shows the present land cover 50 years after cropland abandonment, were used. The results show that shifting agriculture caused higher soil losses than other agricultural uses (1.36 kg m-2 yr-1): fallow land (0.87 kg m-2 yr-1), chemically fertilized cereal (0.86 kg m-2 yr-1) and meadow (0.14 kg m-2 yr-1). Also, after land abandonment, soil losses are higher in shifting agriculture (0.78 kg m-2 yr-1) than cereal lands (0.73 kg m-2 yr-1). The burning of the shrub cover and the use of ashes as fertilizer did not contribute to improve the soil quality, which explains both the higher soil losses during the cultivated period and after the abandonment, since slower plant succession occurs. The results obtained from the SIOSE confirm that the change from meadows to shrubland is relatively fast, as a consequence of the low relationship with livestock

  12. Recent advancement on chemical arsenal of Bt toxin and its application in pest management system in agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Banerjee, Goutam

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, soil bacterium, which is very popular bio-control agent in agricultural and forestry. In general, B. thuringiensis secretes an array of insecticidal proteins including toxins produced during vegetative growth phase (such as secreted insecticidal protein, Sip; vegetative insecticidal proteins, Vip), parasporal crystalline δ-endotoxins produced during vegetative stationary phase (such as cytolytic toxin, Cyt; and crystal toxin, Cry), and β-exotoxins. Till date, a wide spectrum of Cry proteins has been reported and most of them belong to three-domain-Cry toxins, Bin-like toxin, and Etx_Mtx2-like toxins. To the best of our knowledge, neither Bt insecticidal toxins are exclusive to Bt nor all the strains of Bt are capable of producing insecticidal Bt toxins. The lacuna in their latest classification has also been discussed. In this review, the updated information regarding the insecticidal Bt toxins and their different mode of actions were summarized. Before applying the Bt toxins on agricultural field, the non-specific effects of toxins should be investigated. We also have summarized the problem of insect resistance and the strategies to combat with this problem. We strongly believe that this information will help a lot to the budding researchers in the field of modern pest control biotechnology.

  13. Assessment of soil redistribution rates by (137)Cs and (210)Pbex in a typical Malagasy agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Rabesiranana, N; Rasolonirina, M; Solonjara, A F; Ravoson, H N; Raoelina Andriambololona; Mabit, L

    2016-02-01

    Soil degradation processes affect more than one-third of the Malagasy territory and are considered as the major environmental threat impacting the natural resources of the island. This innovative study reports about a pioneer test and use of radio-isotopic techniques (i.e. Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) under Madagascar agroclimatic condition to evaluate soil erosion magnitude. This preliminary investigation has been conducted in a small agricultural field situated in the eastern central highland of Madagascar, 40 km East from Antananarivo. Both anthropogenic Cs-137 and geogenic Pb-210 soil tracers provided similar results highlighting soil erosion rates reaching locally 18 t ha(-1) yr(-1,) a level almost two times higher than the sustainable soil loss rate under Madagascar agroclimatic condition. The sediment delivery ratio established with both radiotracers was above 80% indicating that most of the mobilized sediment exits the field. Assessing soil erosion rate through fallout radionuclides in Madagascar is a first step towards an efficient land and water resource management policy to optimise the effectiveness of future agricultural soil conservation practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of the ClearSky smoke dispersion forecast system for agricultural field burning in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rahul; Vaughan, Joseph; Heitkamp, Kyle; Ramos, Charleston; Claiborn, Candis; Schreuder, Maarten; Schaaf, Mark; Lamb, Brian

    The post-harvest burning of agricultural fields is commonly used to dispose of crop residue and provide other desired services such as pest control. Despite careful regulation of burning, smoke plumes from field burning in the Pacific Northwest commonly degrade air quality, particularly for rural populations. In this paper, ClearSky, a numerical smoke dispersion forecast system for agricultural field burning that was developed to support smoke management in the Inland Pacific Northwest, is described. ClearSky began operation during the summer through fall burn season of 2002 and continues to the present. ClearSky utilizes Mesoscale Meteorological Model version 5 (MM5v3) forecasts from the University of Washington, data on agricultural fields, a web-based user interface for defining burn scenarios, the Lagrangian CALPUFF dispersion model and web-served animations of plume forecasts. The ClearSky system employs a unique hybrid source configuration, which treats the flaming portion of a field as a buoyant line source and the smoldering portion of the field as a buoyant area source. Limited field observations show that this hybrid approach yields reasonable plume rise estimates using source parameters derived from recent field burning emission field studies. The performance of this modeling system was evaluated for 2003 by comparing forecast meteorology against meteorological observations, and comparing model-predicted hourly averaged PM 2.5 concentrations against observations. Examples from this evaluation illustrate that while the ClearSky system can accurately predict PM 2.5 surface concentrations due to field burning, the overall model performance depends strongly on meteorological forecast error. Statistical evaluation of the meteorological forecast at seven surface stations indicates a strong relationship between topographical complexity near the station and absolute wind direction error with wind direction errors increasing from approximately 20° for sites in

  15. A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Kennedy, Christina M; Kremen, Claire; Batáry, Péter; Berendse, Frank; Bommarco, Riccardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Snyder, William E; Williams, Neal M; Winfree, Rachael; Klatt, Björn K; Åström, Sandra; Benjamin, Faye; Brittain, Claire; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Clough, Yann; Danforth, Bryan; Diekötter, Tim; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ekroos, Johan; Elle, Elizabeth; Freitas, Breno M; Fukuda, Yuki; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Grab, Heather; Gratton, Claudio; Holzschuh, Andrea; Isaacs, Rufus; Isaia, Marco; Jha, Shalene; Jonason, Dennis; Jones, Vincent P; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Krauss, Jochen; Letourneau, Deborah K; Macfadyen, Sarina; Mallinger, Rachel E; Martin, Emily A; Martinez, Eliana; Memmott, Jane; Morandin, Lora; Neame, Lisa; Otieno, Mark; Park, Mia G; Pfiffner, Lukas; Pocock, Michael J O; Ponce, Carlos; Potts, Simon G; Poveda, Katja; Ramos, Mariangie; Rosenheim, Jay A; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary; Saunders, Manu E; Schon, Nicole L; Sciligo, Amber R; Sidhu, C Sheena; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja; Veselý, Milan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wilson, Julianna K; Crowder, David W

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts. Using a global metadataset, we quantified the effects of organic farming and plant diversification on abundance, local diversity (communities within fields), and regional diversity (communities across fields) of arthropod pollinators, predators, herbivores, and detritivores. Both organic farming and higher in-field plant diversity enhanced arthropod abundance, particularly for rare taxa. This resulted in increased richness but decreased evenness. While these responses were stronger at local relative to regional scales, richness and abundance increased at both scales, and richness on farms embedded in complex relative to simple landscapes. Overall, both organic farming and in-field plant diversification exerted the strongest effects on pollinators and predators, suggesting these management schemes can facilitate ecosystem service providers without augmenting herbivore (pest) populations. Our results suggest that organic farming and plant diversification promote diverse arthropod metacommunities that may provide temporal and spatial stability of ecosystem service provisioning. Conserving diverse plant and arthropod communities in farming systems therefore requires sustainable practices that operate both within fields and across landscapes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, A. L.; Gullett, B. K.; Urbanski, S. P.; Elleman, R.; O'Neill, S.; Tabor, D.; Mitchell, W.; Baker, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models, and emission inventories. Batch measurements of PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC), particle mass by size, CO, CO2, CH4, and aerosol characteristics were taken at ground level, on an aerostat-lofted instrument package, and from an airplane. Biomass samples gathered from the field were burned in a laboratory combustion facility for comparison with these ground and aerial field measurements. Emission factors for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), CH4, and CO measured in the field study platforms were typically higher than those measured in the laboratory combustion facility. Field data for Kentucky bluegrass suggest that biomass residue loading is directly proportional to the PM2.5 emission factor; no such relationship was found with the limited wheat data. CO2 and BC emissions were higher in laboratory burn tests than in the field, reflecting greater carbon oxidation and flaming combustion conditions. These distinctions between field and laboratory results can be explained by measurements of the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Higher MCEs were recorded in the laboratory burns than from the airplane platform. These MCE/emission factor trends are supported by 1-2 min grab samples from the ground and aerostat platforms. Emission factors measured here are similar to other studies measuring comparable fuels, pollutants, and combustion conditions. The size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was single modal with a log-normal shape, which was

  17. Infrared-temperature variability in a large agricultural field. [Dunnigan, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The combined effect of water carved gullies, varying soil color, moisture state of the soil and crop, nonuniform phenology, and bare spots was measured for commercially grown barley planted on varying terrain. For all but the most rugged terrain, over 80% of the area within 4, 16, 65, and 259 ha cells was at temperatures within 3 C of the mean cell temperature. The result of using relatively small, 4 ha instantaneous field of views for remote sensing applications is that either the worst or the best of conditions is often observed. There appears to be no great advantage in utilizing a small instantaneous field of view instead of a large one for remote sensing of crop canopy temperatures. The two alternatives for design purposes are then either a very high spatial resolution, of the order of a meter or so, where the field is very accurately temperature mapped, or a low resolution, where the actual size seems to make little difference.

  18. Operation of agricultural test fields for study of stressed crops by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toler, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test site for the study of winter wheat development and collection of ERTS data was established in September of 1973. The test site is a 10 mile square area located 12.5 miles west of Amarillo, Texas on Interstate Hwy. 40, in Randall and Potter counties. The center of the area is the Southwestern Great Plains Research Center at Bushland, Texas. Within the test area all wheat fields were identified by ground truth and designated irrigated or dryland. The fields in the test area other than wheat were identified as to pasture or the crop that was grown. A ground truth area of hard red winter wheat was established west of Hale Center, Texas. Maps showing the location of winter wheat fields in excess of 40 acres in size within a 10 mile radius were supplied NASA. Satellite data was collected for this test site (ERTS-1).

  19. Intensive field measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from a tropical agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, P. M.; Keller, M.; Weitz, A.; Grauel, B.; Veldkamp, E.

    2000-03-01

    The amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) continues to increase in the atmosphere. Agricultural use of nitrogen fertilizers in the tropics is thought to be an important source of atmospheric N2O. High frequency, highly precise measurements of the N2O flux were made with an automated system deployed in N fertilized and unfertilized agricultural plots of papaya and corn in Costa Rica for an entire corn crop growth to harvest cycle. N2O fluxes were as high as 64 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from fertilized versus 12 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from unfertilized corn and 28 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from fertilized versus 4.6 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from unfertilized papaya. Fertilized corn released more N2O than fertilized papaya over the 125 days of the crop cycle, 1.83 kg N ha-1 versus 1.37 kg N ha-1. This represents a loss as N2O of 1.1 and 0.9% of the total N applied as ammonium nitrate to the corn and papaya, respectively. As has often been observed, N2O fluxes were highly variable. The fastest rates of emission were associated with fertilization and high soil moisture. A diurnal cycle in the fluxes was not evident probably due to the minimal day/night temperature fluctuations. Each chamber was measured between 509 and 523 times over the course of the experiment. This allows us to evaluate the effect on constructed mean fluxes of lowered sampling frequencies. Sampling each collar about once a day throughout the crop cycle (25% of the data set) could result in a calculated mean flux from any individual chamber that can vary by as much as 20% even though the calculated mean would probably be within 10% of the mean of the complete data set. The uncertainty increases very rapidly at lower sampling frequencies. For example, if only 10% of the data set were used which would be the equivalent of sampling every other day, a very high sampling frequency in terms of manual measurements, the calculated mean flux could vary by as much as 40% or more at any given site.

  20. Use of an automatic resistivity system for detecting abandoned mine workings

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W.R.; Burdick, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    A high-resolution earth resistivity system has been designed and constructed for use as a means of detecting abandoned coal mine workings. The automatic pole-dipole earth resistivity technique has already been applied to the detection of subsurface voids for military applications. The hardware and software of the system are described, together with applications for surveying and mapping abandoned coal mine workings. Field tests are presented to illustrate the detection of both air-filled and water-filled mine workings.

  1. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  2. Quantifying variability in field scale evapotranspiration measurements in an irrigated agricultural region under advection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compares the evapotranspiration (ET) measurements from eddy covariance, lysimetry, and water balance using a network of neutron probe sensors and investigates the role of within-field variability in the vegetation density in explaining the differences among the ET estimates from the vario...

  3. Soil nutrient variability and groundwater nitrate-N in agricultural fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Landscape and management often result in uneven nutrient loads within a field. The hypotheses of this study are that 1) phosphorus accumulates at low areas in the landscape adjacent to waterways, and 2) nitrate at lower landscape positions will be decreased in the subsoil due to denitrification and ...

  4. Agricultural conservation planning framework: 3. Land use and field boundary database development and structure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conservation planning information is important in identifying options for watershed water quality improvement, and can be developed for use at field, farm, and watershed scales. Translation across scales is a key issue impeding progress at watershed scales because watershed improvement goals must be...

  5. Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...

  6. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    A. L. Holder; B. K. Gullett; S. P. Urbanski; R. Elleman; S. O' Neill; D. Tabor; W. Mitchell; K. R. Baker

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models,...

  7. Standardization of doctoral study in agricultural and extension education: is the field of study mature enough for achievement of the optimum degree of order?

    PubMed

    Briers, G E; Lindner, J R; Shinn, G C; Wingenbach, G W; Baker, M T

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and extension education--or some derivative name--is a field of study leading to the doctoral degree in universities around the world. Is there are body of knowledge or a taxonomy of the knowledge--e.g., a knowledge domain--that one should possess with a doctorate in agricultural and extension education? The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the work of researchers who attempted to define the field of study, with a taxonomy comprising the knowledge domains (standards) and knowledge objects--structured interrelated sets of data, knowledge, and wisdom--of the field of study. Doctoral study in agricultural and extension education needs a document that provides for rules and guidelines--rules and guidelines that in turn provide for common and repeated use--all leading to achievement of an optimum degree of order in the context of academic, scholarly, and professional practice in agricultural and extension education. Thus, one would know in broad categories the knowledge, skills, and abilities possessed by one who holds a doctoral degree in agricultural and extension education. That is, there would exist a standard for doctoral degrees in agricultural and extension education. A content analysis of three previous attempts to categorize knowledge in agricultural and extension education served as the primary technique to create a new taxonomy--or to confirm an existing taxonomy--for doctoral study in agricultural and extension education. The following coalesced as nine essential knowledge domains for a doctorate in agricultural and extension education: (1) history, philosophy, ethics, and policy; (2) agricultural/rural development; (3) organizational development and change management; (4) planning, needs assessment, and evaluation; (5) learning theory; (6) curriculum development and instructional design; (7) teaching methods and delivery strategies; (8) research methods and tools; and, (9) scholarship and communications.

  8. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    PubMed

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the progress of EPA's cleanup of abandoned uranium mines on Navajo and Hopi lands and in other areas of Arizona and New Mexico, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  10. Wetland mitigation in abandoned gravel pits.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to provide on-site mitigation for wetland impacts due to road construction in : northeastern Minnesota counties that retain greater than 80 percent of their pre-settlement wetlands. Abandoned : gravel pits are on...

  11. Long-term field-scale experiment on using lime filters in an agricultural catchment.

    PubMed

    Kirkkala, Teija; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Tarvainen, Marjo

    2012-01-01

    The River Yläneenjoki catchment in southwest Finland is an area with a high agricultural nutrient load. We report here on the nutrient removal performance of three on-site lime-sand filters (F1, F2, and F3), established within or on the edge of the buffer zones. The filters contain burnt lime (CaO) or spent lime [CaO, Ca(OH), and CaCO]. Easily soluble lime results in a high pH level (>11) and leads to an efficient precipitation of soluble phosphorus (P) from the runoff. Water samples were taken from the inflow and outflow of each site in different hydrological situations. The length of the monitoring period was 4 yr for F1, 6 yr for F2, and 1.5 yr for F3. F1 and F2 significantly reduced the suspended solids (SS), total P (PTOT), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) in the treated water. The proportional reduction (%) varied but was usually clearly positive. Filter F3 was divided into two equal parts, one containing burnt lime and the other spent lime. Both filter parts removed PTOT and SS efficiently from the water; the burnt-lime part also removed DRP. The mixed-lime part removed DRP for a year, but then the efficiency decreased. The effect of filters on nitrogen compounds varied. We conclude that sand filters incorporating lime can be used together with buffer zones to reduce both P and SS load to watercourses. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  13. Evaluation of the effects of varying moisture contents on microwave thermal emissions from agriculture fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. H. K.

    1980-01-01

    Three tasks related to soil moisture sensing at microwave wavelengths were undertaken: (1) analysis of data at L, X and K sub 21 band wavelengths over bare and vegetated fields from the 1975 NASA sponsored flight experiment over Phoenix, Arizona; (2) modeling of vegetation canopy at microwave wavelengths taking into consideration both absorption and volume scattering effects; and (3) investigation of overall atmospheric effects at microwave wavelengths that can affect soil moisture retrieval. Data for both bare and vegetated fields are found to agree well with theoretical estimates. It is observed that the retrieval of surface and near surface soil moisture information is feasible through multi-spectral and multi-temporal analysis. It is also established that at long wavelengths, which are optimal for surface sensing, atmospheric effects are generally minimal. At shorter wavelengths, which are optimal for atmosheric retrieval, the background surface properties are also established.

  14. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  15. Chemical and biological characterization of products of incomplete combustion from the simulated field burning of agricultural plastic.

    PubMed

    Linak, W P; Ryan, J V; Perry, E; Williams, R W; DeMarini, D M

    1989-06-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were performed to characterize products of incomplete combustion emitted during the simulated open field burning of agricultural plastic. A small utility shed equipped with an air delivery system was used to simulate pile burning and forced-air-curtain incineration of a nonhalogenated agricultural plastic that reportedly consisted of polyethylene and carbon black. Emissions were analyzed for combustion gases; volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate organics; and toxic and mutagenic properties. Emission samples, as well as samples of the used (possibly pesticide-contaminated) plastic, were analyzed for the presence of several pesticides to which the plastic may have been exposed. Although a variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in the volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate fractions of these emissions, a substantial fraction of higher molecular weight organic material was not identified. No pesticides were identified in either combustion emission samples or dichloromethane washes of the used plastic. When mutagenicity was evaluated by exposing Salmonella bacteria (Ames assay) to whole vapor and vapor/particulate emissions, no toxic or mutagenic effects were observed. However, organic extracts of the particulate samples were moderately mutagenic. This mutagenicity compares approximately to that measured from residential wood heating on a revertant per unit heat release basis. Compared to pile burning, forced air slightly decreased the time necessary to burn a charge of plastic. There was not a substantial difference, however, in the variety or concentrations of organic compounds identified in samples from these two burn conditions. This study highlights the benefits of a combined chemical/biological approach to the characterization of complex, multi-component combustion emissions. These results may not reflect those of other types of plastic that may be used

  16. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger

  17. 77 FR 31841 - Notice of Applications for Authorization To Abandon Facilities and Services and To Acquire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... To Abandon Facilities and Services and To Acquire Facilities by Merger Steuben Gas Storage Company... Field Storage Facilities (Adrian Field) which Steuben operates pursuant to certificates of public... authorization to charge market based rates following its acquisition of the Adrian Field Storage Facility. The...

  18. Assessment of Nitrate-N Load in Subsurface Drainage Water from the Agricultural Fields in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenjabaev, S.; Forkutsa, I.; Dukhovny, V.; Frede, H. G.

    2012-04-01

    Leaching of nitrate-N (NO3-) from irrigated agricultural land and water contamination have become a worldwide concern. This study was conducted to investigate amount of nitrate-N leached to groundwater and surface water from irrigated cotton, winter wheat and maize fields in the Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan). Therefore at two sites ("Akbarabad" and "Azizbek") equipped with closed horizontal drainage system during 2010-2011 vegetation seasons we monitored water flow, nutrient concentrations and salinity at surface and subsurface drains, at irrigation canals and groundwater. We also applied stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) method in order to investigate the source of drainage water runoff. Discussed are results of 2010. Farmers fertilized cotton fields with ammonium nitrate of 350-450 kg ha-1 in "Akbarabad" and 700 kg ha-1 in "Azizbek" sites. In winter wheat and maize fields (in "Akbarabad") about 500 kg ha-1 of ammonium nitrate were applied. Cotton fields were irrigated with 2700 m3 ha-1 ("Akbarabad") and 3500 m3 ha-1 ("Azizbek"). In winter wheat and maize fields applied irrigation water amounted to 3900 m3 ha-1 and 723 m3 ha-1, respectively. Frequent groundwater and subsurface drainage water sampling revealed that nitrate leaching occurred mostly during and right after the irrigation events. The estimated average nitrate-N concentration in subsurface drainage water in "Akbarabad" was slightly higher (9 mg l-1) than in "Azizbek" (8 mg l-1). During July-November (2010), in average, nitrate-N losses through subsurface drainage amounted to 24 kg ha-1 in "Akbarabad" and 18 kg ha-1 in "Azizbek". The salinity of drainage water at both sites was similar and varied between 2.3-2.7 dS m-1. Preliminary results of isotope signals of studied water (precipitation, drainage, irrigation and ground water) indicate that the source of drainage water runoff comes from the irrigation water, while the contribution of rainfall is negligible. It is planned to run simulations with DRAINMOD

  19. Automated ortho-rectification of UAV-based hyperspectral data over an agricultural field using frame RGB imagery

    DOE PAGES

    Habib, Ayman; Han, Youkyung; Xiong, Weifeng; ...

    2016-09-24

    mechanized agricultural field. Identified features are then used to improve the geometric fidelity of the previously ortho-rectified hyperspectral data. Lastly, experimental results from two real datasets show that the geometric rectification of the hyperspectral data was improved by almost one order of magnitude.« less

  20. Automated ortho-rectification of UAV-based hyperspectral data over an agricultural field using frame RGB imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Ayman; Han, Youkyung; Xiong, Weifeng

    mechanized agricultural field. Identified features are then used to improve the geometric fidelity of the previously ortho-rectified hyperspectral data. Lastly, experimental results from two real datasets show that the geometric rectification of the hyperspectral data was improved by almost one order of magnitude.« less

  1. Experimental monitoring and numerical study of pesticide (carbofuran) transfer in an agricultural soil at a field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmimou, Abderrahim; Maslouhi, Abdellatif; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila

    2014-09-01

    We studied the transport of a pesticide at field scale, namely carbofuran molecule, which is known for its high mobility, especially in sandy soils with high hydraulic conductivity and low organic matter. To add to our knowledge of the future of this high-mobility molecule in this type of soils, we developed a mechanistic numerical model allowing the simulation of hydric and solute transfers (bromide and carbofuran) in the soil. We carried out this study in an agricultural plot in the region of Mnasra in Morocco. Confrontation of the measured and simulated values allowed the calibration of the parameters of hydric transfer and carbofuran. The developed model accurately reproduces the measured values. Despite a weak irrigation and precipitation regime, carbofuran was practically leached beyond the root zone. Prospective simulations show that under a more important irrigation regime, carbofuran reaches a 100-cm depth, whereas it does not exceed 60 cm under a deficit regime.

  2. Estrogen Transport in Surface Runoff from Agricultural Fields Treated with Two Application Methods of Dairy Manure.

    PubMed

    Mina, Odette; Gall, Heather E; Saporito, Louis S; Kleinman, Peter J A

    2016-11-01

    This study compares two methods of dairy manure application-surface broadcast and shallow disk injection-on the fate and transport of natural estrogens in surface runoff from 12 field plots in central Pennsylvania. Ten natural surface runoff events were sampled over a 9-mo period after fall manure application. Results show that the range of estrogen concentrations observed in surface runoff from the broadcast plots was several orders of magnitude higher (>5000 ng L) than the concentrations in runoff from the shallow disk injection plots (<10 ng L). Additionally, the transport dynamics differed, with the majority of the estrogen loads from the surface broadcast plots occurring during the first rainfall event after application, whereas the majority of the loads from the shallow disk injection plots occurred more than 6 mo later during a hail storm event. Total estrogen loads were, on average, two orders of magnitude lower for shallow disk injection compared with surface broadcast. Independent of the method of manure application, 17α-estradiol and estrone were preserved in the field for as long as 9 mo after application. Overall, injection of manure shows promise in reducing the potential for off-site losses of hormones from manure-amended soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  4. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... pipeline facility or each abandoned onshore pipeline facility that crosses over, under or through a...

  5. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned onshore pipeline facility that crosses over, under or through a commercially navigable waterway, the last...

  6. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling factors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions at the field-scale in an agricultural slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilain, Guillaume; Garnier, Josette; Tallec, Gaëlle; Tournebize, Julien; Cellier, Pierre; Flipo, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural practices widely contribute to the atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration increase and are the major source of N2O which account for 24% of the global annual emission (IPCC, 2007). Soil nitrification and denitrification are the microbial processes responsible for the production of N2O, which also depends on soil characteristics and management. Besides their control by various factors, such as climate, soil conditions and management (content of NO3- and NH4+, soil water content, presence of degradable organic material…), the role of topography is less known although it can play an important role on N2O emissions (Izaurralde et al., 2004). Due to the scarcity of data on N2O direct vs. indirect emission rate from agriculture in the Seine Basin (Garnier et al., 2009), one of the objectives of the study conducted here was to determine the N2O emission rates of the various land use representative for the Seine Basin, in order to better assess the direct N2O emissions, and to explore controlling factor such as meteorology, topography, soil properties and crop successions. The main objective of this study was at the same time to characterize N2O fluxes variability along a transect from an agricultural plateau to a river and to analyze the influence of landscape position on these emissions. We conducted this study in the Orgeval catchment (Seine basin, France; between 48°47' and 48°55' N, and 03°00' and 03°55' E) from May 2008 to August 2009 on two agricultural fields cropped with wheat, barley, oats, corn. N2O fluxes were monitored from weekly to bimonthly using static manual chambers placed along the chosen transect in five different landscape positions from the plateau to the River. This study has shown that soil moisture (expressed as Water Filled Pore Space) and NO3- soil concentrations explained most of the N2O flux variability during the sampling period. Most of N2O was emitted directly after N fertilization application during a relatively

  8. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Monteiro, Sara C; Beck, Andrew; Coelho, Bonnie Ball; Boxall, Alistair B A; Duenk, Peter W; Kleywegt, Sonya; Lapen, David R; Payne, Michael; Sabourin, Lyne; Li, Hongxia; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-06-15

    Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 22, 36 and 266 days post-application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of 9 model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan. In runoff from the injected plots, concentrations of the model PPCPs were generally below the limits of quantitation. In contrast, in the broadcast application treatment, the concentrations of atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan on the day following application ranged from 70-1477 ng L(-1) in runoff and generally declined thereafter with first order kinetics. The total mass of PPCPs mobilized in surface runoff per m(2) of the field ranged from 0.63 microg for atenolol to 21.1 microg for ibuprofen. For ibuprofen and acetaminophen, concentrations in runoff first decreased and then increased, suggesting that these drugs were initially chemically or physically sequestered in the biosolids slurry, and subsequently released in the soil. Carbamazepine and triclosan were detected at low concentrations in a runoff event 266 days after broadcast application. Overall, this study showed that injection of biosolids slurry below the soil surface could effectively eliminate surface runoff of PPCPs.

  9. Nitrogen Cycle Modeling: a Mechanistic Estimate of N-losses From Agricultural Fields Over the Seasonal Time Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Venterea, R.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen and production of NO, N2O, and CO2 gas and NO2- and NO3- ions in nutrient-enriched agricultural fields is mediated by soil microbial activity, the hydrological cycle, plant dynamics, and climatic forcing. Understanding how NO, N2O, CO2 gases and NO2- and NO3- ions are released from agricultural fields to the environment is a key factor in controlling the green-house effect and water contamination, and assumes ever greater importance in view of the foreseen increase in biofuel, food, and fiber production. To address these issues we have developed a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) for various nitrification and denitrification pathways, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, heat and water flows, and various chemical reactions at local and kinetic equilibrium. The soil column is represented in a 1D framework, with hydraulic properties described by a water tension-saturation model. Biotic and abiotic reactions are assumed to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, while a consortium of several micro-organismal strains is assumed to follow multiple Monod growth kinetics accounting for electron donor, electron acceptor, and inhibitor concentrations. Water flow is modeled with the Darcy-Richards equation, while nutrient transport is modeled by Fickian advective and diffusive processes in both gaseous and liquid phases. Heat flow is modeled with the Fourier equation. Plant dynamics is taken into account by coupling TOUGHREACT-N with CERES to determine water and nutrient uptake, and soil carbon accumulation. TOUGHREACT-N was calibrated against field measurements to assess pathways of N losses following fertilization. A good agreement between field observations and model predictions was found. We identified two dominant time scales in the system response that depended on plants dynamics. Before plants have substantial impact on soil nutrients and moisture content, N losses are characterized by rapid increases as a function of water application

  10. Linking Landsat observations with MODIS derived Land Surface Phenology data to map agricultural expansion and contraction in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, S.; de Beurs, K.

    2010-12-01

    Direct human impacts on the land surface are especially pronounced in agricultural regions that cover a substantial portion of the global land surface: 12% of the terrestrial surface is under active agricultural management. Crops display phenologies distinct from natural vegetation; the growing seasons are often shifted in time, crop establishment is generally fast and the vegetation is rapidly removed at harvest. Previously we have demonstrated that agricultural land abandonment alters land surface phenology sufficiently to be detectable from a time series of coarse resolution imagery. With land surface phenology models based on accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD) and AVHRR NDVI, we demonstrated that abandoned croplands covered with native grasses and weeds typically greened-up and peaked sooner than active croplands. Here we present an expansion of these analyses for the MODIS time period with the ultimate goal to map agricultural abandonment and expansion in European Russia from 2000 to 2010. We used the 8-day, 1km L3 Land Surface Temperature data (MOD11A2) to generate the accumulated growing degree days and the 16-day L3 Nadir BRDF-Adjusted reflectance data at 500m resolution (MCD43A4) to calculate NDVI. We calculated phenological metrics based on three methods: 1) Double-logistic models such as those applied to produce the standard MODIS phenology product (MOD12Q2); 2) A combination of NDII and NDVI; this method has been shown to provide start/end of season measurement closest to field observations in snowy areas; and 3) A quadratic model linking accumulated growing degree days and vegetation indices which we successfully applied in agricultural areas of Kazakhstan and semi-arid Africa. We selected Landsat imagery for two vastly different regions in Russia and present a Landsat-guided probabilistic detection of abandoned and active croplands for all available years of the MODIS image time series (2000-2010). For each region, we selected at least two images

  11. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both

  12. Instantaneous and daily values of the surface energy balance over agricultural fields using remote sensing and a reference field in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kustas, William P.; Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Gay, L.W.; Duell, L.F.W.; Kunkel, K.E.; Matthias, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature and reflectance in the visible and near infrared wavebands along with ancilliary meteorological data provide the capability of computing three of the four surface energy balance components (i.e., net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat flux) at different spatial and temporal scales. As a result, under nonadvective conditions, this enables the estimation of the remaining term (i.e., the latent heat flux). One of the practical applications with this approach is to produce evapotranspiration (ET) maps for agricultural regions which consist of an array of fields containing different crops at varying stages of growth and soil moisture conditions. Such a situation exists in the semiarid southwest at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix. For one day (14 June 1987), surface temperature and reflectance measurements from an aircraft 150 m above ground level (agl) were acquired over fields from zero to nearly full cover at four times between 1000 MST and 1130 MST. The diurnal pattern of the surface energy balance was measured over four fields, which included alfalfa at 60% cover, furrowed cotton at 20% and 30% cover, and partially plowed what stubble. Instantaneous and daily values of ET were estimated for a representative area around each flux site with an energy balance model that relies on a reference ET. This reference value was determined with remotely sensed data and several meteorological inputs. The reference ET was adjusted to account for the different surface conditions in the other fields using only remotely sensed variables. A comparison with the flux measurements suggests the model has difficulties with partial canopy conditions, especially related to the estimation of the sensible heat flux. The resulting errors for instantaneous ET were on the order of 100 W m-2 and for daily values of order 2 mm day-1. These findings suggest future research should involve development of methods to

  13. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of fertilizer application on NO and N2O fluxes from agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Yamulki, Sirwan; Goulding, K. W. T.; Webster, C. P.

    1995-12-01

    Losses of fertilizer as NO and N2O were studied at Broadbalk field, Rothamsted Experimental Station in England, on which subplots have been subject to differing constant levels of fertilizer application for many years. Fluxes of NO and N2O were measured using open- and closed-chamber techniques, respectively. Fluxes from unfertilized soil ranged from 0.3 to 4.8 ng N m-2 s-1 for NO and 0.23 to 3.0 ng N m-2 s-1 for N2O. The corresponding fluxes from the plot with the highest fertilizer application (92 kg N ha-1 yr-1 as NH4NO3) ranged from 0.5 to 64 ng N m-2 s-1 for NO and 0.4 to 240 ng N m-2 s-1 for N2O. Application of increasing amounts of fertilizer substantially enhanced emission rates of both NO and N2O. However, the amount of increase was controlled by competition between the crop and the microorganisms for the available soil nutrients, and loss of N2O to the atmosphere increased sharply at superoptimal levels of fertilizer application. The fertilizer-derived NO and N2O emissions represented approximately 90% of the total emission of these gases during the 25-day sampling period after fertilizer application. The results suggest that while increasing the amount of fertilizer increases both NO and N2O fluxes simultaneously, the NO/N2O emission ratio decreases. Results from laboratory experiments showed that the magnitude of the fertilizer loss as N2O was strongly affected by the form of the applied fertilizer.

  15. Leaching of glyphosate and amino-methylphosphonic acid from Danish agricultural field sites.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Ullum, Marlene; Grant, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Pesticide leaching is an important process with respect to contamination risk to the aquatic environment. The risk of leaching was thus evaluated for glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) and its degradation product AMPA (amino-methylphosphonic acid) under field conditions at one sandy and two loamy sites. Over a 2-yr period, tile-drainage water, ground water, and soil water were sampled and analyzed for pesticides. At a sandy site, the strong soil sorption capacity and lack of macropores seemed to prevent leaching of both glyphosate and AMPA. At one loamy site, which received low precipitation with little intensity, the residence time within the root zone seemed sufficient to prevent leaching of glyphosate, probably due to degradation and sorption. Minor leaching of AMPA was observed at this site, although the concentration was generally low, being on the order of 0.05 microg L(-1) or less. At another loamy site, however, glyphosate and AMPA leached from the root zone into the tile drains (1 m below ground surface [BGS]) in average concentrations exceeding 0.1 microg L(-1), which is the EU threshold value for drinking water. The leaching of glyphosate was mainly governed by pronounced macropore flow occurring within the first months after application. AMPA was frequently detected more than 1.5 yr after application, thus indicating a minor release and limited degradation capacity within the soil. Leaching has so far been confined to the depth of the tile drains, and the pesticides have rarely been detected in monitoring screens located at lower depths. This study suggests that as both glyphosate and AMPA can leach through structured soils, they thereby pose a potential risk to the aquatic environment.

  16. Agricultural and Science Education: A Socio-Analysis of Their Intersection and Positions within the Educational Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hains, Bryan J.; Hansen, Gary L.; Hustedde, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    It can be argued that agricultural science is one of the original forms of science education. However, over the past century, agricultural science education has habitually been perceived as an educational venue meant solely for production agriculturalists. When examining modern agricultural education we find it to be a minority within the broader…

  17. Temporal variation in earthworm abundance and diversity along hedgerow-to-field transects in contrasting agricultural land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T.; Jones, David; Hodson, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms are regarded as ecosystem engineers, integral to soil processes such as aggregation, nutrient cycling, water infiltration, plant growth and microbial function. Earthworm surveys were conducted for one year on hedge-to-field transects in arable and pasture fields (Yorkshire, UK). The transects incorporated hedgerow and field margin habitats and extended 60 m into the arable or pasture field. At defined distances, earthworm abundance and biomass were recorded, and earthworms were identified to species and ecological group. Soil density, moisture and temperature were also measured. Additional transects were surveyed on experimental plots with arable-to-ley conversions in the arable fields (wheat crop to grass-clover ley), and tilled plots in the pasture fields (grass-clover ley to wheat crop). The conversion plots were established to determine the benefit of grass-clover leys on soil function; and the tilled pasture plots were established to compare the impact of conventional or minimum tillage practices on earthworm abundance and diversity. A baseline survey was conducted before establishment of the experimental ley and tillage plots. The results showed differences in earthworm abundance, with greater earthworm numbers in the pasture soils compared to arable soils. In both soils, abundance of ecological group was endogeic > epigeic > anecic, and each group was dominated by the same species: Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus castaneus and Apporectodea longa. After one year of treatment, there was some indication of increased earthworm abundance in the arable-to-ley conversion strips. Conversely, tillage in the pasture plots tended to reduce earthworm abundance, and conventional tillage tended to have the greater impact. However, within these major changes, there was also evidence of spatial (distance along transect; field location) and temporal (seasonal) variation on earthworm abundance. Although conversion to ley or tillage did not alter the pattern of

  18. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in soil records of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological research is fundamental in the process of obtaining a greater understanding on the intricate dynamics between the human species and the 'natural' environment. Deep historical processes can evaluate the complex interactions that eventually led to the human species as the dominating agent, in terms of the Earth's biotic and abiotic processes. Regional landscape studies can determine whether the human species can be evaluated as a formative element in soil formation processes during the Holocene. This study is directed to examine early anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium, between the Late Bronze Age and Early Roman Period (1050-200 AD). The introduction of an extensive agricultural system, the Celtic field system, in co-relation with demographic rise, led to increased anthropogenic pressure on the MDS landscape. Throughout the Holocene, demographic rise pressured farmers to develop increasingly efficient and innovative methods of extracting more yields per unit area farmed resulting in a decrease in land use per capita over time (Kaplan et al. 2010; Boserup, 1965,1981)). The land use per capita under Celtic field technology was relatively high compared to contemporary numbers, based on the assumption that land use per capita did not remain constant. The MDS region is a clear example of early Holocene ALCC and modification of terrestrial ecosystems due to excessive clearance of vegetation. Early Holocene ALCC resulted in ecological deficiencies in the landscape, e.g. deforestation, acceleration of podzolisation and a decrease in terrestrial carbon storage as well as water retention capacity. ALCC can impact climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to the atmosphere, and result in regional negative radiative forcing. Here we hypothesize that the previously presumed fundamental restructuring that led to a structural bipartition in the landscape due to

  19. Effects of industrial and agricultural waste amendment on soil greenhouse gas production in a paddy field in Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqi; Neogi, Suvadip; Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Zeng, Congsheng; Wang, Chun; Zeng, Dongping

    2017-09-01

    Controlling the production and subsequent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from paddy fields is crucial to minimize the climatic impacts arising from crop production. The application of chemical or biological amendments is one possible way to limit the production of GHGs in paddy soils. Yet, few existing studies have examined the impacts of applying fertilizers originated from industrial and agricultural wastes on soil GHG production and its governing factors in subtropical paddy fields. In this study, we examined the effects of various agricultural and industrial amendments, including biochar, steel slag, shell slag, gypsum slag, and slag-derived silicate and calcium fertilizers, on the production potential of GHGs in an early paddy field in southeast China. The mean CO2 production rates from soils amended with steel slag as well as silicate and calcium fertilizers were significantly higher than those of the controls by 13.4% and 18.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Mean soil CH4 production rates from the plots amended with steel slag, biochar, shell slag, and gypsum slag were significantly lower than those of the controls by 42.5%, 36.1%, 60.8%, and 61.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, we found no significant difference in mean soil N2O production rates between the control and any of the treatments (P > 0.05). Overall, the soil production rate of CO2 was positively correlated with that of CH4 (P < 0.05), but negatively correlated with that of N2O (P < 0.05). When compared to the controls, the ratio of soil CO2:CH4 production increased significantly in the plots receiving biochar, and silicate and calcium fertilizer amendments (P < 0.05), while that of CO2:N2O production increased significantly only in the biochar-amended plots. Soil CH4:N2O production ratio decreased significantly in the plots amended with steel slag and gypsum slag, as compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the application of biochar, shell slag and gypsum slag would

  20. Field and laboratory tests for assessing the feasibility on the use of municipal treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Helena; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Tapias, Josefina C.; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    he scarcity of water resources in many regions of the planet in the XXIst century is a challenge which concerns the current societies. Water use has been growing during the last decades. Therefore, different strategies of water management in many water-deficient regions are being carried out, especially in densely populated areas, in coastal zones or in regions under arid or semi-arid climate. During the last years, there has been a growing interest in the use of the subsurface for water storage though shallow percolating ponds. Moreover, on a best-practices basis, the use of reclaimed wastewater for different purposes is becoming more usual. The irrigation with municipal treated wastewater (MTWW) is an interesting strategy especially in the agricultural sector, which represents the main water user in contrast with other socioeconomic activities. The study area is located near Castellbisbal, on the lower stretches of the Llobregat River close to the Metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The site consists on a percolating pond and agricultural fields around. In order to assess the feasibility of using reclaimed wastewater for different uses in this site, several experiments both on field and at the laboratory were carried out. First of all, a detailed non-destructive geophysical survey was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Geophysical data were constrained by geological and hydrogeological properties from boreholes and water wells. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were carried out through batch and column assays, focused on the detailed water-mineral particles interrelationships that can occur at the vadose zone. Soil samples from the crop fields around and water samples from the nearest well, as from the municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils were determined by using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray powder

  1. DeepAnomaly: Combining Background Subtraction and Deep Learning for Detecting Obstacles and Anomalies in an Agricultural Field

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Lars N.; Steen, Kim A.; Jørgensen, Rasmus N.; Karstoft, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based systems are increasingly used in autonomous vehicles for detecting obstacles. CNN-based object detection and per-pixel classification (semantic segmentation) algorithms are trained for detecting and classifying a predefined set of object types. These algorithms have difficulties in detecting distant and heavily occluded objects and are, by definition, not capable of detecting unknown object types or unusual scenarios. The visual characteristics of an agriculture field is homogeneous, and obstacles, like people, animals and other obstacles, occur rarely and are of distinct appearance compared to the field. This paper introduces DeepAnomaly, an algorithm combining deep learning and anomaly detection to exploit the homogenous characteristics of a field to perform anomaly detection. We demonstrate DeepAnomaly as a fast state-of-the-art detector for obstacles that are distant, heavily occluded and unknown. DeepAnomaly is compared to state-of-the-art obstacle detectors including “Faster R-CNN: Towards Real-Time Object Detection with Region Proposal Networks” (RCNN). In a human detector test case, we demonstrate that DeepAnomaly detects humans at longer ranges (45–90 m) than RCNN. RCNN has a similar performance at a short range (0–30 m). However, DeepAnomaly has much fewer model parameters and (182 ms/25 ms =) a 7.28-times faster processing time per image. Unlike most CNN-based methods, the high accuracy, the low computation time and the low memory footprint make it suitable for a real-time system running on a embedded GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). PMID:27845717

  2. DeepAnomaly: Combining Background Subtraction and Deep Learning for Detecting Obstacles and Anomalies in an Agricultural Field.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Lars N; Steen, Kim A; Jørgensen, Rasmus N; Karstoft, Henrik

    2016-11-11

    Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based systems are increasingly used in autonomous vehicles for detecting obstacles. CNN-based object detection and per-pixel classification (semantic segmentation) algorithms are trained for detecting and classifying a predefined set of object types. These algorithms have difficulties in detecting distant and heavily occluded objects and are, by definition, not capable of detecting unknown object types or unusual scenarios. The visual characteristics of an agriculture field is homogeneous, and obstacles, like people, animals and other obstacles, occur rarely and are of distinct appearance compared to the field. This paper introduces DeepAnomaly, an algorithm combining deep learning and anomaly detection to exploit the homogenous characteristics of a field to perform anomaly detection. We demonstrate DeepAnomaly as a fast state-of-the-art detector for obstacles that are distant, heavily occluded and unknown. DeepAnomaly is compared to state-of-the-art obstacle detectors including "Faster R-CNN: Towards Real-Time Object Detection with Region Proposal Networks" (RCNN). In a human detector test case, we demonstrate that DeepAnomaly detects humans at longer ranges (45-90 m) than RCNN. RCNN has a similar performance at a short range (0-30 m). However, DeepAnomaly has much fewer model parameters and (182 ms/25 ms =) a 7.28-times faster processing time per image. Unlike most CNN-based methods, the high accuracy, the low computation time and the low memory footprint make it suitable for a real-time system running on a embedded GPU (Graphics Processing Unit).

  3. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m-2 h-1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m-2 h-1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately.

  4. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Historical U.S. cropland areas and the potential for bioenergy production on abandoned croplands.

    PubMed

    Zumkehr, A; Campbell, J E

    2013-04-16

    Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be driven by growing demand for food and biofuels. While these impacts have been explored using global gridded maps of croplands, such maps are based on relatively coarse spatial data. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories for the conterminous U.S. with a land-use model to develop historical gridded cropland areas for the years 1850-2000 and year 2000 abandoned cropland maps. While the historical cropland maps are consistent with generally accepted land-use trends, our U.S. abandoned cropland estimates of 68 Mha are as much as 70% larger than previous gridded estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. Renewed cultivation on the subset of abandoned croplands that have not become forests or urban lands represents one approach to mitigating the future expansion of agriculture. Potential bioenergy production from these abandoned lands using a wide range of biomass yields and conversion efficiencies has an upper-limit of 5-30% of the current U.S. primary energy demand or 4-30% of the current U.S. liquid fuel demand.

  6. Demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data for the majority of United States harvested cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning, and may be indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization, and labor intensity. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints, the complexity of the extraction task, and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields from weekly 30 m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series was refined and applied to 14 states that cover 70% of harvested U.S. cropland (USDA 2012 Census). The methodology was applied to 2010 combined weekly Landsat 5 and 7 WELD data. The field extraction and quantitative validation results are presented for the following 14 states: Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, South Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and Michigan (sorted by area of harvested cropland). These states include the top 11 U.S states by harvested cropland area. Implications and recommendations for systematic application to global coverage Landsat data are discussed.

  7. Study on the quantitative relationship between Agricultural water and fertilization process and non-point source pollution based on field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, K.; Wu, Z.; Guan, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, with the prominent of water environment problem and the relative increase of point source pollution governance, especially the agricultural non-point source pollution problem caused by the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides has become increasingly aroused people's concern and attention. In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between agriculture water and fertilizer and non-point source pollution, on the basis of elm field experiment and combined with agricultural drainage irrigation model, the agricultural irrigation water and the relationship between fertilizer and fertilization scheme and non-point source pollution were analyzed and calculated by field emission intensity index. The results show that the variation of displacement varies greatly under different irrigation conditions. When the irrigation water increased from 22cm to 42cm, the irrigation water increased by 20 cm while the field displacement increased by 11.92 cm, about 66.22% of the added value of irrigation water. Then the irrigation water increased from 42 to 68, irrigation water increased 26 cm, and the field displacement increased by 22.48 cm, accounting for 86.46% of irrigation water. So there is an "inflection point" between the irrigation water amount and field displacement amount. The load intensity increases with the increase of irrigation water and shows a significant power correlation. Under the different irrigation condition, the increase amplitude of load intensity with the increase of irrigation water is different. When the irrigation water is smaller, the load intensity increase relatively less, and when the irrigation water increased to about 42 cm, the load intensity will increase considerably. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the fertilization and load intensity. The load intensity had obvious difference in different fertilization modes even with same fertilization level, in which the fertilizer field unit load intensity

  8. The hydrological response of a small catchment after the abandonment of terrace cultivation. A study case in northwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente-Adán, Jose A.; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Galilea, Ianire; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificacion

    2015-04-01

    Terrace construction for cultivation results in a complete transformation of the hillslopes to a series of flat sectors and almost vertical steps. This strategy, which involves a redistribution of soils and a re-organization of the drainage network, provides fertile soil over steep slopes, improves infiltration and controls overland flow under conditions of intense rainstorms. In Camero Viejo (north-western Iberian ranges) most of the hillslopes are occupied by terraced fields. During the XXth century, rural population declined and agricultural practices were abandoned. In this area, a small catchment (1.9 km2) was monitored in 2012 for studying how the abandonment of agricultural terraces affect water and sediment transfer from the hillslopes to the channels. Terraces occupy 40% of the catchment and are covered by sparse grass and shrubs. The equipment installed in the catchment registers continuously meteorological data, discharge and water table fluctuations. Data on suspended sediment transport is obtained by means of a rising-stage sampler. Here we present the hydrological results corresponding to the years 2012-13 and 2013-14. The hydrological response of the catchment was moderate (annual runoff coefficient < 0.20), which could be in part explained by the high evapotranspiration rates reported in the area. Lows flows were recorded in summer and autumn, when the water reserves of the catchment were dry, and high flows occurred from January, when the catchment became wetter. The shape of the hydrographs, with slow response times, moderate peakflows and long recession limbs suggested a large contribution of subsurface flow, probably favored by deep and well structured soils in the bench terraces. Soil saturation areas were not observed during the study period, suggesting that soil infiltration processes and subsurface flow are important, and that the drainage system of the terraces is probably well maintained. No suspended sediment has been collected so far

  9. Identification, measurement, and assessment of water cycle of unhusked rice agricultural phases: Case study at Tangerang paddy field, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono, N.; Laurence; Johannes, H. P.

    2017-11-01

    According to one of UN reports, water scarcity has happened all around the world, including Indonesia. Irrigation sector takes up 70% of world water consumption and potentially increases 20% due to the population explosion. Rice is accounted for 69% of agricultural products contributions in Indonesia’s water footprint. Therefore, evaluation of water cycle was essential to raise awareness among practitioners. Data collections were conducted in the functional unit of one-hectare rice field located in Tangerang. This study used CropWat 8.0 and SimaPro software. Identification involved data such as climate, crop, and soil. Nursery became the highest water consumed phase, requiring 419 mm in height. Measurement through water footprint resulted in consumption of green water footprint for 8,183,618.5 liters (62.9%), followed by grey for 4,805,733.2 liters (36.9%) and blue for 23,902.36 liters (0.2%). The grey consumption was exceeding the average, which indicated high doses of pesticides. Life Cycle Assessment showed negative impacts of fertilizers that caused damages like fossil depletion, respiratory health, and eutrophication.

  10. A Combined Approach of Sensor Data Fusion and Multivariate Geostatistics for Delineation of Homogeneous Zones in an Agricultural Field.

    PubMed

    Castrignanò, Annamaria; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Quarto, Ruggiero; Vitti, Carolina; Langella, Giuliano; Terribile, Fabio; Venezia, Accursio

    2017-12-03

    To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management. Such a data fusion approach with geophysical sensors was applied in a soil of an agronomic field cropped with tomato. The synthetic regionalized factors determined, contributed to split the 3D edaphic environment into two main horizontal structures with different hydraulic properties and to disclose two main horizons in the 0-1.0-m depth with a discontinuity probably occurring between 0.40 m and 0.70 m. Comparing this partition with the soil properties measured with a shallow sampling, it was possible to verify the coherence in the topsoil between the dielectric properties and other properties more directly related to agronomic management. These results confirm the advantages of using proximal sensing as a preliminary step in the application of site-specific management. Combining disparate spatial data (data fusion) is not at all a naive problem and novel and powerful methods need to be developed.

  11. A Combined Approach of Sensor Data Fusion and Multivariate Geostatistics for Delineation of Homogeneous Zones in an Agricultural Field

    PubMed Central

    Castrignanò, Annamaria; Quarto, Ruggiero; Vitti, Carolina; Langella, Giuliano; Terribile, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management. Such a data fusion approach with geophysical sensors was applied in a soil of an agronomic field cropped with tomato. The synthetic regionalized factors determined, contributed to split the 3D edaphic environment into two main horizontal structures with different hydraulic properties and to disclose two main horizons in the 0–1.0-m depth with a discontinuity probably occurring between 0.40 m and 0.70 m. Comparing this partition with the soil properties measured with a shallow sampling, it was possible to verify the coherence in the topsoil between the dielectric properties and other properties more directly related to agronomic management. These results confirm the advantages of using proximal sensing as a preliminary step in the application of site-specific management. Combining disparate spatial data (data fusion) is not at all a naive problem and novel and powerful methods need to be developed. PMID:29207510

  12. Assessment of pesticides removal using two-stage Integrated Aerobic Treatment Plant (IATP) by Bacillus sp. isolated from agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Geed, S R; Shrirame, B S; Singh, R S; Rai, B N

    2017-10-01

    The biodegradation of synthetic wastewater containing Atrazine, Malathion and Parathion was studied in two stage Integrated Aerobic Treatment Plant using Bacillus sp. (consortia) isolated from agricultural field. The influent stream containing these pesticides with initial COD of 1232mg/L were fed to first reactor and treated effluent of first reactor was fed to second reactor. The maximum removal of pesticides in IATP was found to be greater than 90%. The various process parameters such as pH, DO, Redox potential and BOD 5 /COD were monitored during the treatment. The degradation of pesticides and its metabolites in the treated effluent were confirmed by GC-MS. Kinetic parameters such as first order rate constant (K obs ), cell yield (Y X/C ) and decay coefficients (K dp ) were evaluated and found to be 0.00425 per hr, 0.696mg of COD/mg MLSS and 0.0010 per hr respectively. This integrated process was found more effective than physico-chemical treatment of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of dicyandiamide on emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and ammonia from agricultural field in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yizhen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tian, Di; Mu, Yujing

    2016-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from an agricultural field in the North China Plain were compared for three treatments during a whole maize growing period from 26 June to 11 October, 2012. Compared with the control treatment (without fertilization, designated as CK), remarkable pulse emissions of N2O, NO and NH3 were observed from the normal fertilization treatment (designated as NP) just after fertilization, whereas only N2O and NH3 pulse emissions were evident from the nitrification inhibitor treatment (designated as ND). The reduction proportions of N2O and NO emissions from the ND treatment compared to those from the NP treatment during the whole maize growing period were 31% and 100%, respectively. A measurable increase of NH3 emission from the ND treatment was found with a cumulative NH3 emission of 3.8 ± 1.2 kg N/ha, which was 1.4 times greater than that from the NP treatment (2.7 ± 0.7 kg N/ha). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Farmers' perception of the role of some wild plants for the predatory coccinellidae (Adalia bipunctata L and Coccinella septempunctata L) in developing refugia in the agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuwiadi, Bagyo

    2017-11-01

    The decreases in plant and animal diversity in intensive agricultural practice have been caused by the application of new and very broad-spectrum pesticides. This situation motivated some researchers to observe the attractiveness of wild plants for some predatory Coccinellids. This was done with a view to improving the agricultural ecosystem. Previous research results showed that Blumea sp. (L), Tagetes erecta L. and Bidens pilosa L. could attract predatory Coccinellidae: Adalia bipunctata L. and Coccinella septempunctata L. But, unfortunately, there were no research results showing how farmers accepted those related new improved strategies for controlling pests. The research was conducted to analyze what they felt about introducing the function of wild plants for attracting beneficial arthropods. To this end, 60 farmers were selected purposively as respondents in the south of Malang and interviewed in depth with the main question focusing on their knowledge of the general function of wild plants in agriculture. Then, more specifically, they were asked about the role of wild plants in the agricultural field for attracting these beneficial arthropods. Their answers were grouped into the following categories: they don't know, they know a little, they know enough, they know a lot about the general function of wild plants in general and more specifically as attractants for some beneficial arthropods. The results showed that the majority of farmers know only a little about the function of wild plants in general. None of the farmers realized that wild plants can be used as ground-covering plants. Most of them knew only about the use of wild plants for cattle feed. The majority of them did not know that some of the wild plants that can be found in their agricultural fields can be used as attractants in looking for beneficial arthropods. Farmers, as the frontier in the agricultural field, must become knowledgeable about the specific use of the wild plants in their fields

  15. Spatiotemporal characterization of soil moisture fields in agricultural areas using cosmic-ray neutron probes and data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Trenton; Wang, Tiejun

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 40% of global food production comes from irrigated agriculture. With the increasing demand for food even greater pressures will be placed on water resources within these systems. In this work we aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at the field-scale (~500 m) using the newly developed cosmic-ray neutron rover near Waco, NE USA. Here we mapped soil moisture of 144 quarter section fields (a mix of maize, soybean, and natural areas) each week during the 2014 growing season (May to September). The 12 by 12 km study domain also contained three stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes for independent validation of the rover surveys. Basic statistical analysis of the domain indicated a strong relationship between the mean and variance of soil moisture at several averaging scales. The relationships between the mean and higher order moments were not significant. Scaling analysis indicated strong power law behavior between the variance of soil moisture and averaging area with minimal dependence of mean soil moisture on the slope of the power law function. In addition, we combined the data from the three stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes and mobile surveys using linear regression to derive a daily soil moisture product at 1, 3, and 12 km spatial resolutions for the entire growing season. The statistical relationships derived from the rover dataset offer a novel set of observations that will be useful in: 1) calibrating and validating land surface models, 2) calibrating and validating crop models, 3) soil moisture covariance estimates for statistical downscaling of remote sensing products such as SMOS and SMAP, and 4) provide daily center-pivot scale mean soil moisture data for optimal irrigation timing and volume amounts.

  16. Root-collar diameter and third-year survival of three bottomland hardwoods planted on former agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Athough the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) has experienced substantial afforestation of former agricultural fields during the past 2 decades, seedling standards that support satisfactory outplanting performance of bottomland hardwood tree species are not available. A series of experimental plantations, established on three afforestation sites in the LMAV,...

  17. Mechanical site preparation and oust XP effects on stem biomass in three-year-old nuttall oak seedlings planted on a former agricultural field

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Dennis Rowe; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. Seeding height and groundline diameter are often used to evaluate effects of site preparation methods, but stem biomass...

  18. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  19. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  20. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  1. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  2. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  3. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  4. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  5. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  6. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  7. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  8. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  9. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  10. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  11. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  12. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned Wells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inv...

  13. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patricia D.; Gano, Kelsey A.; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie R.; Brown, Christopher T.; Giongo, Adriana; Drew, Jennifer C.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Arp, Dan J.; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Daroub, Samira H.; Clark, Ian M.; McGrath, Steve P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA, and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use. PMID:23641242

  14. Third cycle university studies in Europe in the field of agricultural engineering and in the emerging discipline of biosystems engineering.

    PubMed

    Ayuga, F; Briassoulis, D; Aguado, P; Farkas, I; Griepentrog, H; Lorencowicz, E

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of European Thematic Network entitled 'Education and Research in Agricultural for Biosystems Engineering in Europe (ERABEE-TN)' is to initiate and contribute to the structural development and the assurance of the quality assessment of the emerging discipline of Biosystems Engineering in Europe. ERABEE is co-financed by the European Community in the framework of the LLP Programme. The partnership consists of 35 participants from 27 Erasmus countries, out of which 33 are Higher Education Area Institutions (EDU) and 2 are Student Associations (ASS). 13 Erasmus participants (e.g. Thematic Networks, Professional Associations, and Institutions from Brazil, Croatia, Russia and Serbia) are also involved in the Thematic Network through synergies. To date, very few Biosystems Engineering programs exist in Europe and those that are initiated are at a very primitive stage of development. The innovative and novel goal of the Thematic Network is to promote this critical transition, which requires major restructuring in Europe, exploiting along this direction the outcomes accomplished by its predecessor; the USAEE-TN (University Studies in Agricultural Engineering in Europe). It also aims at enhancing the compatibility among the new programmes of Biosystems Engineering, aiding their recognition and accreditation at European and International level and facilitating greater mobility of skilled personnel, researchers and students. One of the technical objectives of ERABEE is dealing with mapping and promoting the third cycle studies (including European PhDs) and supporting the integration of research at the 1st and 2nd cycle regarding European Biosystems Engineering university studies. During the winter 2008 - spring 2009 period, members of ERABEE conducted a survey on the contemporary status of doctoral studies in Europe, and on a possible scheme for promotion of cooperation and synergies in the framework of the third cycle of studies and the European Doctorate

  15. Polyoxyethylene Tallow Amine, a Glyphosate Formulation Adjuvant: Soil Adsorption Characteristics, Degradation Profile, and Occurrence on Selected Soils from Agricultural Fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Tush, Daniel; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-07

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season.

  16. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine, a glyphosate formulation adjuvant: Soil adsorption characteristics, degradation profile, and occurrence on selected soils from agricultural fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tush, Daniel L.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season.

  17. Using a Mobile Device "App" and Proximal Remote Sensing Technologies to Assess Soil Cover Fractions on Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Laamrani, Ahmed; Pardo Lara, Renato; Berg, Aaron A; Branson, Dave; Joosse, Pamela

    2018-02-27

    Quantifying the amount of crop residue left in the field after harvest is a key issue for sustainability. Conventional assessment approaches (e.g., line-transect) are labor intensive, time-consuming and costly. Many proximal remote sensing devices and systems have been developed for agricultural applications such as cover crop and residue mapping. For instance, current mobile devices (smartphones & tablets) are usually equipped with digital cameras and global positioning systems and use applications (apps) for in-field data collection and analysis. In this study, we assess the feasibility and strength of a mobile device app developed to estimate crop residue cover. The performance of this novel technique (from here on referred to as "app" method) was compared against two point counting approaches: an established digital photograph-grid method and a new automated residue counting script developed in MATLAB at the University of Guelph. Both photograph-grid and script methods were used to count residue under 100 grid points. Residue percent cover was estimated using the app, script and photograph-grid methods on 54 vertical digital photographs (images of the ground taken from above at a height of 1.5 m) collected from eighteen fields (9 corn and 9 soybean, 3 samples each) located in southern Ontario. Results showed that residue estimates from the app method were in good agreement with those obtained from both photograph-grid and script methods (R² = 0.86 and 0.84, respectively). This study has found that the app underestimates the residue coverage by -6.3% and -10.8% when compared to the photograph-grid and script methods, respectively. With regards to residue type, soybean has a slightly lower bias than corn (i.e., -5.3% vs. -7.4%). For photos with residue <30%, the app derived residue measurements are within ±5% difference (bias) of both photograph-grid- and script-derived residue measurements. These methods could therefore be used to track the recommended

  18. Thresholds of arsenic toxicity to Eisenia fetida in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Víctor; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdejo, José; Sauvé, Sébastien; Gaete, Hernán; Celis-Diez, Juan L; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the importance of using field-collected soils-and not artificially-contaminated soils-for ecotoxicity tests. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation of results, due to the presence of various contaminants and unavoidable differences in the physicochemical properties of the tested soils. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of metal toxicity in topsoils of 24 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed standardized earthworm reproduction tests (OECD 222 and ISO 11268-2) with Eisenia fetida. Total soil concentrations of Cu, As, Zn, and Pb were in the ranges of 82-1295 mg kg(-1), 7-41 mg kg(-1), 86-345 mg kg(-1), and 25-97 mg kg(-1), respectively. In order to differentiate between the effects of different metals, we used regression analysis between soil metal concentrations and earthworm responses, as well as between metal concentrations in earthworm tissues and earthworm responses. Based on regression analysis, we concluded that As was a metal of prime concern for Eisenia fetida in soils affected by Cu mining activities, while Cu exhibited a secondary effect. In contrast, the effects of Zn and Pb were not significant. Soil electrical conductivity was another significant contributor to reproduction toxicity in the studied soils, forcing its integration in the interpretation of the results. By using soils with electrical conductivity ≤ 0.29 dS m(-1) (which corresponds to EC50 of salt toxicity to Eisenia fetida), it was possible to isolate the effect of soil salinity on earthworm reproduction. Despite the confounding effects of Cu, it was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 values for total soil As at 8 mg kg(-1), 14 mg kg(-1) and 22 mg kg(-1), respectively, for the response of the cocoon production. However, it was not possible to determine these threshold values for juvenile production. Likewise, we were able to

  19. Using a Mobile Device “App” and Proximal Remote Sensing Technologies to Assess Soil Cover Fractions on Agricultural Fields

    PubMed Central

    Laamrani, Ahmed; Branson, Dave; Joosse, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the amount of crop residue left in the field after harvest is a key issue for sustainability. Conventional assessment approaches (e.g., line-transect) are labor intensive, time-consuming and costly. Many proximal remote sensing devices and systems have been developed for agricultural applications such as cover crop and residue mapping. For instance, current mobile devices (smartphones & tablets) are usually equipped with digital cameras and global positioning systems and use applications (apps) for in-field data collection and analysis. In this study, we assess the feasibility and strength of a mobile device app developed to estimate crop residue cover. The performance of this novel technique (from here on referred to as “app” method) was compared against two point counting approaches: an established digital photograph-grid method and a new automated residue counting script developed in MATLAB at the University of Guelph. Both photograph-grid and script methods were used to count residue under 100 grid points. Residue percent cover was estimated using the app, script and photograph-grid methods on 54 vertical digital photographs (images of the ground taken from above at a height of 1.5 m) collected from eighteen fields (9 corn and 9 soybean, 3 samples each) located in southern Ontario. Results showed that residue estimates from the app method were in good agreement with those obtained from both photograph–grid and script methods (R2 = 0.86 and 0.84, respectively). This study has found that the app underestimates the residue coverage by −6.3% and −10.8% when compared to the photograph-grid and script methods, respectively. With regards to residue type, soybean has a slightly lower bias than corn (i.e., −5.3% vs. −7.4%). For photos with residue <30%, the app derived residue measurements are within ±5% difference (bias) of both photograph-grid- and script-derived residue measurements. These methods could therefore be used to track the

  20. Estimation of Soil Erosion by Using Magnetic Method: A Case Study of an Agricultural Field in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, E.; Grison, H.; Kapicka, A.; Dlouha, S.; Kodesova, R.; Jaksik, O.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we have applied magnetism of soils for estimation of erosion at an agricultural land. The testing site is situated in loess region in Southern Moravia (in Central Europe). The approach is based on well-established method of differentiation of magnetic parameters of the topsoil and the subsoil horizons as a result of in situ formation of strongly magnetic iron oxides. Our founding is established on a simple tillage homogenization model described by Royall (2001) using magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence to estimate soil loss caused by the tillage and subsequent erosion. The original dominant Soil Unit in the investigated area is Haplic Chernozem, which is due to intensive erosion progressively transformed into different Soil Units. The site is characterized by a flat upper part while the middle part, formed by a substantive side valley, is steeper (up to 15°). The side valley represents a major line of concentrated runoff emptying into a colluvial fan. Field measurements of the topsoil volume magnetic susceptibility were carried out by the Bartington MS2D probe. Data are resulting in regular grid of 101 data points, where the bulk soil material was gathered for further laboratory investigations. Moreover, vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (deep to 40 cm) was measured on selected transects using the SM400 kappameter. In the laboratory, after drying and sieving of collected soil samples, mass-specific magnetic susceptibility and its frequency-dependent susceptibility was measured. In order to identify magnetic minerals the thermomagnetic analyses were performed using the AGICO KLY-4S Kappabridge with CS-3 furnace. Hysteresis loops were carried out on vibrating magnetometer ADE EV9 to assess the grain-size distribution of ferrimagnetic particles. Hereafter, the isothermal remanent magnetization acqusition followed by D.C. demagnetization were done. All these laboratory magnetic measurements were performed in order to

  1. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Agricultural land-use change in a Mexican oligotrophic desert depletes ecosystem stability

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Becerra, Natali; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Beltrán-Paz, Ofelia; Blaz, Jazmín; Souza, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Background Global demand for food has led to increased land-use change, particularly in dry land ecosystems, which has caused several environmental problems due to the soil degradation. In the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), alfalfa production irrigated by flooding impacts strongly on the soil. Methods In order to analyze the effect of such agricultural land-use change on soil nutrient dynamics and soil bacterial community composition, this work examined an agricultural gradient within the CCB which was comprised of a native desert grassland, a plot currently cultivated with alfalfa and a former agricultural field that had been abandoned for over 30 years. For each site, we analyzed C, N and P dynamic fractions, the activity of the enzyme phosphatase and the bacterial composition obtained using 16S rRNA clone libraries. Results The results showed that the cultivated site presented a greater availability of water and dissolved organic carbon, these conditions promoted mineralization processes mediated by heterotrophic microorganisms, while the abandoned land was limited by water and dissolved organic nitrogen. The low amount of dissolved organic matter promoted nitrification, which is mediated by autotrophic microorganisms. The microbial N immobilization process and specific phosphatase activity were both favored in the native grassland. As expected, differences in bacterial taxonomical composition were observed among sites. The abandoned site exhibited similar compositions than native grassland, while the cultivated site differed. Discussion The results suggest that the transformation of native grassland into agricultural land induces drastic changes in soil nutrient dynamics as well as in the bacterial community. However, with the absence of agricultural practices, some of the soil characteristics analyzed slowly recovers their natural state. PMID:27602304

  3. Agricultural land-use change in a Mexican oligotrophic desert depletes ecosystem stability.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Becerra, Natali; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Beltrán-Paz, Ofelia; Blaz, Jazmín; Souza, Valeria; García-Oliva, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for food has led to increased land-use change, particularly in dry land ecosystems, which has caused several environmental problems due to the soil degradation. In the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), alfalfa production irrigated by flooding impacts strongly on the soil. In order to analyze the effect of such agricultural land-use change on soil nutrient dynamics and soil bacterial community composition, this work examined an agricultural gradient within the CCB which was comprised of a native desert grassland, a plot currently cultivated with alfalfa and a former agricultural field that had been abandoned for over 30 years. For each site, we analyzed C, N and P dynamic fractions, the activity of the enzyme phosphatase and the bacterial composition obtained using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The results showed that the cultivated site presented a greater availability of water and dissolved organic carbon, these conditions promoted mineralization processes mediated by heterotrophic microorganisms, while the abandoned land was limited by water and dissolved organic nitrogen. The low amount of dissolved organic matter promoted nitrification, which is mediated by autotrophic microorganisms. The microbial N immobilization process and specific phosphatase activity were both favored in the native grassland. As expected, differences in bacterial taxonomical composition were observed among sites. The abandoned site exhibited similar compositions than native grassland, while the cultivated site differed. The results suggest that the transformation of native grassland into agricultural land induces drastic changes in soil nutrient dynamics as well as in the bacterial community. However, with the absence of agricultural practices, some of the soil characteristics analyzed slowly recovers their natural state.

  4. Plant pathogens but not antagonists change in soil fungal communities across a land abandonment gradient in a Mediterranean landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosso, L.; Lacatena, F.; Varlese, R.; Nocerino, S.; Cristinzio, G.; Russo, D.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether the presence and abundance of plant pathogens and antagonists change in soil fungal communities along a land abandonment gradient. The study was carried out in the Cilento area (Southern Italy) at a site with three different habitats found along a land abandonment gradient: agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. For all microbiological substrates the colony forming units were about 3.1 × 106 g-1 soil for agricultural land and about 1.1 × 106 g-1 soil for Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. We found the following genera in all habitats: Cladosporium, Mortierella, Penicillium and Trichoderma. In agricultural land, the significantly most abundant fungus genera were Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon and Nectria; in Mediterranean shrubland, Rhizopus and Trichoderma; and in woodland, Bionectria, Mortierella, Cladosporium, Diplodia, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma. We found a total of 8, 8 and 9 species of fungal antagonist, and 16, 6 and 6 species of fungal plant pathogens in agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland respectively. Fungal plant pathogens decreased significantly over a land abandonment gradient, while we no found significant differences among fungal antagonists in the three habitats. We conclude that a decrease in the number of fungal pathogen species occurs when formerly cultivated areas are abandoned. On the other hand, fungal antagonists seem not to be affected by this process.

  5. Digital soil mapping as a basis for climatically oriented agriculture a thematic on the territory of the national crop testing fields of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahabiev, I. A.; Giniyatullin, K. G.; Ryazanov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The concept of climate-optimized agriculture (COA) of the UN FAO implies the transformation of agriculture techniques in conditions of changing climate. It is important to implement a timely transition to the concept of COA and sustainable development of soil resources, accurate digital maps of spatial distribution of soils and soil properties are needed. Digital mapping of soil humus content was carried out on the territory of the national crop testing fields (NCTF) of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation) and the accuracy of the maps obtained was estimated.

  6. Anthropogenic and geogenic Cd, Hg, Pb and Se sources of contamination in a brackish aquifer below agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrocicco, Micòl; Colombani, Nicolò; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is often threatened by industrial, agricultural and land use practices (anthropogenic input). In deltaic areas is however difficult to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic inorganic contaminants pollution, since these phenomena can influence each other and often display a seasonal cycling. The effect of geogenic groundwater ionic strength (>10 g/l) on the mobility of trace elements like Cd, Hg, Pb and Se was studied in combination with the anthropogenic sources of these elements (fertilizers) in a shallow aquifer. The site is located in the Po river plain (Northern Italy) in an agricultural field belonging to a reclaimed deltaic environment, near Codigoro town. It is 6 ha wide and is drained by a subsurface drainage system made of PVC tile drains with a slope of 3‰, which provides gravity drainage towards two ditches that in turn discharge in a main channel. The whole area has been intensively cultivated with cereal rotation since 1960, mainly using synthetic urea as nitrogen fertilizer at an average rate of 180 kg-N/ha/y and pig slurry at an average rate of 60 kg-N/ha/y. The sediments were analyzed for major and trace elements via XRF, while major ions in groundwater were analyzed via IC and trace elements via ICP-MS. Three monitoring wells, with an inner diameter of 2 cm and screened down to 4 m below ground level, were set up in the field and sampled every four month from 2012 to 2014. The use of intensive depth profiles with resolution of 0.5 m in three different locations, gave insights into groundwater and sediment matrix interactions. To characterize the anthropogenic inputs synthetic urea and pig slurry were analyzed for trace elements via ICP-MS. The synthetic urea is a weak source of Cd and Hg (~1 ppb), while Se and Pb are found below detection limits. The pig slurry is a much stronger source of Se (~19 ppb) and Pb (~23 ppb) and a weak source of Cd (~3 ppb) and Hg (~2 ppb). Although, the mass loading rate pig slurry is

  7. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Lyne; Beck, Andrew; Duenk, Peter W; Kleywegt, Sonya; Lapen, David R; Li, Hongxia; Metcalfe, Chris D; Payne, Michael; Topp, Edward

    2009-08-01

    Municipal biosolids are a useful source of nutrients for crop production, and commonly used in agriculture. In this field study, we applied dewatered municipal biosolids at a commercial rate using broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 21 and 34 days following the application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of various pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), namely atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, caffeine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and triclocarban. There was little temporal coherence in the detection of PPCPs in runoff, various compounds being detected maximally on days 1, 3, 7 or 36. Maximum concentrations in runoff ranged from below detection limit (gemfibrozil) to 109.7 ng L(-1) (triclosan). Expressing the total mass exported as a percentage of that applied, some analytes revealed little transport potential (<1% exported; triclocarban, triclosan, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, naproxen and gemfibrozil) whereas others were readily exported (>1% exported; acetaminophen, carbamazepine, caffeine, cotinine, atenolol). Those compounds with little transport potential had log K(ow) values of 3.18 or greater, whereas those that were readily mobilized had K(ow) values of 2.45 or less. Maximal concentrations of all analytes were below toxic concentrations using a variety of endpoints available in the literature. In summary, this study has quantified the transport potential in surface runoff of PPCPs from land receiving biosolids, identified that log K(ow) may be a determinant of runoff transport potential of these analytes, and found maximal concentrations of all chemicals tested to be below toxic concentrations using a variety of endpoints.

  8. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  9. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicants § 2.66 Revival of abandoned applications. (a) The applicant may file a petition to revive an... for filing a petition to revive an application abandoned because the applicant did not timely respond... proposed response. (c) The requirements for filing a petition to revive an application abandoned because...

  10. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  11. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  12. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  13. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  14. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...

  15. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  17. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  4. 32 CFR 1618.1 - Abandonment of rights or privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of rights or privileges. 1618.1... NOTICE TO REGISTRANTS § 1618.1 Abandonment of rights or privileges. If a registrant fails to claim and exercise any right or privilege within the required time, he shall be deemed to have abandoned the right or...

  5. Intermittent spring flooding of agricultural fields will increase net global-warming potential of greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smyth, E. M.; Smith, C. M.; Kantola, I. B.; Krichels, A.; Yang, W. H.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is currently a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous dioxide to the atmosphere but is also a weak sink for methane. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and duration of spring precipitation in the North American Midwest, resulting in intermittent flooding and ponding in agricultural fields. Inundation changes the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of the soil, especially by promoting methanogenesis under anoxic conditions. DNA and 16S cDNA sequencing results of earlier, similar experiments confirmed the presence of methanogens in soil samples, albeit in low abundance (representing <0.01% of reads per sample). We installed collars into bare ground of a central Illinois research field to experiment with flooding conditions and observe changes in gas fluxes, microbial community, and soil chemistry. We established three treatments of five replicates—control, continuously flooded, and intermittently flooded—each with separate collars for gas flux measurements, soil sample collection, and soil probe measurements. A drip irrigation system flooded the headspaces of the collars to produce flooding events. The continuously flooded collars were maintained in a flooded condition for the duration of the experiment, and the intermittently flooded collars were flooded for 72 hours per flooding event and then kept dry for at least 5 days before the next flooding event. We measured net concentrations of N2O, CH4, and CO2 in situ using a static chamber connected to a cavity ringdown spectrometer. We found that the periodicity of wetting and drying events induces hysteresis effects that push GHG shifts to occur rapidly (< 1 hr). Integrating fluxes across the period of the experiment, the intermittently flooded collars showed 88.7% higher global-warming potential of GHG fluxes at the 100-year horizon versus control, with most of change driven by increased net CO2 flux (87.1% higher) and net methane flux (29 times higher). These data indicate that

  6. Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Improving Farm Scale Agricultural Water Management in Agriculture at a Farm Scale. A case study for field crops in the California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Morande, J. A.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Y.; Paw U, K. T.; Viers, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional methods for estimating consumptive water use as evapotranspiration (ET) for agriculture in areas with water limitations such as California have always been a challenge for farmers, water managers, researchers and government agencies. Direct measurement of evapotranspiration (ET) and crop water stress in agriculture can be a cumbersome and costly task. Furthermore, spatial variability of applied water and irrigation and stress level in crops, due to inherent heterogeneity in soil conditions, topography, management practices, and lack of uniformity in water applications may affect estimates water use efficiency and water balances. This situation difficult long-term management of agroecosystems. This paper presents a case study for various areas in California's Central Valley using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for a late portion of the 2016 irrigation season These estimates are compared those obtained by direct measurement (from previously deployed stations), and energy balance approaches with remotely sensed data in a selection of field crop parcels. This research improves information on water use and site conditions in agriculture by enhancing remote sensing-based estimations through the use of higher resolution multi-spectral and thermal imagery captured by UAV. We assess whether more frequent information at higher spatial resolution from UAVs can improve estimations of overall ET through energy balance and imagery. Stress levels and ET are characterized spatially to examine irrigation practices and their performance to improve water use in the agroecosystem. Ground based data such as air and crop temperature and stem water potential is collected to validate UAV aerial measurements. Preliminary results show the potential of UAV technology to improve timing, resolution and accuracy in the ET estimation and assessment of crop stress at a farm scales. Side to side comparison with ground level stations employing surface renewal, eddy covariance and

  7. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  8. Enhanced levels of atmospheric low-molecular weight monocarboxylic acids in gas and particulates over Mt. Tai, North China, during field burning of agricultural wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Nakamura, Shinnosuke; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2017-12-01

    To understand the source and atmospheric behaviour of low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (monoacids), gaseous (G) and particulate (P) organic acids were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai in the North China Plain (NCP) during field burning of agricultural waste (wheat straw). Particulate organic acids were collected with neutral quartz filter whereas gaseous organic acids were collected with KOH-impregnated quartz filter. Normal (C1-C10), branched (iC4-iC6), hydroxy (lactic and glycolic), and aromatic (benzoic) monoacids were determined with a capillary gas chromatography employing p-bromophenacyl esters. We found acetic acid as the most abundant gas-phase species whereas formic acid is the dominant particle-phase species. Concentrations of formic (G/P 1 570/1 410 ng m-3) and acetic (3 960/1 120 ng m-3) acids significantly increased during the enhanced field burning of agricultural wastes. Concentrations of formic and acetic acids in daytime were found to increase in both G and P phases with those of K+, a field-burning tracer (r = 0.32-0.64). Primary emission and secondary formation of acetic acid is linked with field burning of agricultural wastes. In addition, we found that particle-phase fractions (Fp = P/(G + P)) of formic (0.50) and acetic (0.31) acids are significantly high, indicating that semi-volatile organic acids largely exist as particles. Field burning of agricultural wastes may play an important role in the formation of particulate monoacids in the NCP. High levels (917 ng m-3) of particle-phase lactic acid, which is characteristic of microorganisms, suggest that microbial activity associated with terrestrial ecosystem significantly contributes to the formation of organic aerosols.

  9. Factors of land abandonment in mountainous Mediterranean areas: the case of Montenegrin settlements.

    PubMed

    Kerckhof, Annelies; Spalevic, Velibor; Van Eetvelde, Veerle; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes have been investigated in the surroundings of 14 rural Montenegrin settlements in order to get specific information about trends in land abandonment since around 1950. Permanently, seasonally and less inhabited settlements with different geographic conditions were studied. This was done by interviewing local inhabitants, which enabled a holistic approach to reveal the underlying processes of land abandonment. According to the observed patterns of land use change, the study sites can be categorized into intensified, urbanized, extensified, overgrown and forested cases. The category of extensified settlements is characterized by a highly reduced agricultural management intensity, resulting in an increase in grasslands and fruit trees at the expense of cropland. This land use change is mainly related to emigrating and aging inhabitants, having less livestock. Such extensive land use is found in both permanently inhabited and abandoned villages. Only some studied settlements became largely overgrown by bushes and forest. The steep average slope gradients and a large distance to the nearest city are explanatory factors of such land abandonment. Land use intensification takes place in low-lying areas located nearby towns.

  10. Diversity of mitochondrial large subunit rDNA haplotypes of Glomus intraradices in two agricultural field experiments and two semi-natural grasslands.

    PubMed

    Börstler, Boris; Thiéry, Odile; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Berner, Alfred; Redecker, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    Glomus intraradices, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), is frequently found in a surprisingly wide range of ecosystems all over the world. It is used as model organism for AMF and its genome is being sequenced. Despite the ecological importance of AMF, little has been known about their population structure, because no adequate molecular markers have been available. In the present study we analyse for the first time the intraspecific genetic structure of an AMF directly from colonized roots in the field. A recently developed PCR-RFLP approach for the mitochondrial rRNA large subunit gene (mtLSU) of these obligate symbionts was used and complemented by sequencing and primers specific for a particularly frequent mtLSU haplotype. We analysed root samples from two agricultural field experiments in Switzerland and two semi-natural grasslands in France and Switzerland. RFLP type composition of G. intraradices (phylogroup GLOM A-1) differed strongly between agricultural and semi-natural sites and the G. intraradices populations of the two agricultural sites were significantly differentiated. RFLP type richness was higher in the agricultural sites compared with the grasslands. Detailed sequence analyses which resolved multiple sequence haplotypes within some RFLP types even revealed that there was no overlap of haplotypes among any of the study sites except between the two grasslands. Our results demonstrate a surprisingly high differentiation among semi-natural and agricultural field sites for G. intraradices. These findings will have major implications on our views of processes of adaptation and specialization in these plant/fungus associations.

  11. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  12. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  13. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  14. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter E; Nybroe, Ole; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have implications for previously published PICT field studies and demonstrate that stringent PICT detection criteria are needed for field identification of specific toxicants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the ecological background of rice agriculture on the Ningshao Plain during the Neolithic Age: pollen evidence from a buried paddy field at the Tianluoshan cultural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhai; Zheng, Yunfei; Yu, Shiyong; Li, Yongxiang; Shen, Huadong

    2012-03-01

    The progressive rise of atmospheric CH4 level since 5 ka has been hypothesized to result from human agricultural activities that turned forested lands, which would otherwise be a carbon sink, into paddy fields. Increasing numbers of Neolithic cultural sites unearthed in coastal eastern China, providing unique opportunities to test this hypothesis. Here, we present detailed pollen data from a buried paddy field at Tianluoshan cultural site on the Ningshao Plain, eastern China, to reconstruct the ecological conditions associated with the establishment of paddy fields. Stratigraphic data, radiocarbon ages, and pollen analyses show that vegetation underwent six phases of evolution and paddy fields were developed from 7000 to 4200 cal. yr BP. We found no evidence of slash-and-burn agriculture at the study site. Together with no presence of the irrigation system, our pollen data suggest the paddy fields at this site originated from wetlands. Hence, our findings do not support the hypothesis that anthropogenic-induced deforestation play ed a significant role in the rise of the atmospheric CH4 rise since the middle Holocene.

  16. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  17. Assessing edge-of-field nutrient runoff from agricultural lands in the United States: How clean is clean enough?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excess nutrients from numerous sources (e.g., agricultural and urban runoff, treatment plant discharge, streambank erosion) continue to adversely impact water resources in spite of improved treatment technologies and management practices. In fact, determination of cause(s) of accelerated nutrient e...

  18. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  19. Acceleration of Enzymatic conversion of Agricultural Waste Biomass into Bio-fuels by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound Field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the most critical stages of conversion of agricultural waste biomass into biofuels employs hydrolysis reactions between highly specific enzymes and matching substrates (e.g. corn stover cellulose with cellulase) that produce soluble sugars, which then could be converted into ethanol. Despite ...

  20. Evaluation of the APEX model to simulate runoff quality from agricultural fields in the southern region of the US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phosphorus (P) Index (PI) is the risk assessment tool approved in the NRCS 590 standard used to target critical source areas and practices to reduce P losses. A revision of the 590 standard, suggested using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model to assess the risk of nitroge...

  1. Getting cold feet?: Why health care mergers are abandoned.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anne-Fleur; Postma, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence and sizeable consequences of merger abandonment in other sectors, there is no thorough understanding of merger abandonment in health care. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of determinants of health care merger abandonment. On the basis of the literature on merger abandonment, we formulated a framework on potential determinants of health care merger abandonment. We then constructed a survey that was sent to 70% of all executives of Dutch health care organizations (response rate = 35%, n = 291). We provide descriptive overviews of open, multiple-response, and multiple-choice questions on merger abandonment and use chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests to test whether abandoned and completed merger processes differ. About 62% of the respondents were involved in at least one merger process during the period of 2005-2012. Thirty-eight percent of these respondents reported that their last merger case ended prematurely (n = 53). The most frequently mentioned determinants of merger abandonment are changing insights on the desirability and feasibility during merger processes, incompatibilities between executives, and insufficient support for the merger from internal stakeholders. We did not find significant relationships between merger abandonment and executives' previous merger experience, degree of organizational diversification, health care sector, size differences, or other organizational differences. Our findings partially confirm results from previous studies, especially with regard to the importance of changing insights and incompatibilities between the involved executives in merger abandonment. We also find that pressure from internal stakeholders, particularly nonexecutive directors, and distrust, fear, and animosity play an important role in merger abandonment. To minimize the organizational and societal costs of abandoned mergers, we advise executives who engage in mergers to construct backup plans with

  2. Semi-automated Approach to Mapping Sub-hectare Agricultural Fields using Very High Resolution Data in a High-Performance Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, M.; Neigh, C. S. R.; Carroll, M.; McCarty, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    In areas susceptible to drought such as sub-Saharan Africa, Crop Area (CA) and agricultural mapping have become increasingly important as strain on natural ecosystems increases. In Ethiopia alone, the population has grown four-fold in the last 70 years, and rapidly growing human populations bring added stress to ecosystems as more wildlands are converted to pastures and subsistence agriculture. Monitoring change in agriculture is one of the more essential goals of famine early warning systems. However, due to the sub-hectare size of rainfed agricultural fields in regions such as Tigray, Ethiopia, moderate resolution satellite imagery is insufficient at capturing these smallholder farms. Thanks to the increasing density of observations and ease of access to very high resolution (VHR) data, we have developed a generalized method for mapping CA with VHR data and have used this to generate wall-to-wall CA map for the entire Tigray region and samples in Myanmar, Senegal, and Vietnam. Here we present the methodology and early results as well as potential future applications.

  3. A field study of exposure to whole-body vibration due to agricultural machines in a full-time rice farmer over one year.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Hiroji; Taoda, Kazushi; Kitahara, Teruyo

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify in detail the levels of whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure from a variety of agricultural machines in a rice farmer over one year, and to evaluate the daily level of exposure compared with European and Japanese threshold limits. The subject was a full-time, male rice farmer. We measured vibration accelerations on the seat pan and at the seat base of four tractors with various implements attached, one rice-planting machine, two combine harvesters, produced by the same manufacturer, and one truck used for transportation of agricultural machines. The position and velocity of the machines were recorded in parallel with WBV measurements. In addition, during the year starting in April 2010, the subject completed a questionnaire regarding his work (date, place, content, hours worked, machines used). We calculated the daily exposure to WBV, A(8), on all the days on which the subject used the agricultural machines. The WBV magnitude in farm fields was relatively high during tasks with high velocity and heavy mechanical load on the machine, and had no dominant axis. The subject worked for 159 days using the agricultural machines during the year, and the proportion of days on which A(8) values exceeded the thresholds was 90% for the Japan occupational exposure limit and 24% for the EU exposure action value. Our findings emphasize the need for rice farmers to have health management strategies suited to the farming seasons and measures to reduce WBV exposure during each farm task.

  4. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of agricultural practices on NO and N2O emissions from corn fields at Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions. Historically, the most common agricultural practice in these regions has been mono cropping. Tillage (T) and non-tillage (NT) of soils represent approximately 30 and 70% of the planted area, respectively. Comparative studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these agricultural practices are not available for these regions. This study was conducted at the farm "Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9° 23' 33'' N, 66° 38' 30'' W) in two corn fields under tillage and non-tillage agricultural practice during the growing season (June-August 2006). A dry tropical forest, the primary ecosystem of the region, was evaluated for the same period of time. The corn and the forest fields were adjacent; therefore, they were exposed to the same meteorological conditions. The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). Nutrient soil concentrations (as nitrate and ammonium), water soil content and pH soil were measured in the fields for the same period of time. Soils were fertilized and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depths. Tillage soils were fertilized on June 1st 2006 with 65 kgN/ha of NPK (13:18:16/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl), whereas non-tillage soils were fertilized the next day with 56 kgN/ha of NPK (12:25:12/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl). Second fertilization of both fields was done thirty-seven days later by broadcast adding 58 kgN/ha approximately, using nitrophosphate as fertilizer (NP 33-3: 33% N total; 16.7% N- NO3- and 16.6% N- NH4+). In general, NO and N2O soil emissions from both corn fields increased after fertilization events, and depend on water soil content and nutrient soil concentration. N2O soil emissions were 11 and 9 times larger in

  5. Stable isotopes in nitrous oxide emitted from tropical rain forest soils and agricultural fields: Implications for the global atmospheric nitrous oxide budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Tibisay Josefina

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and is the primary source of NOx in the stratosphere. Large uncertainties exist in the global N2O budget, mainly due to the high uncertainty associated with source estimates. Recently, stable isotopes of 15N and 18O have been proposed as a tool to better constrain the N2O global budget. This thesis develops analytical methods for constraining and measuring stable isotopes in N2O emitted from soils and reports initial investigations of N2O isotopes from the largest sources in the global N2O budget: tropical rain forest soils and agricultural fields. We found significant differences in the isotopic composition of N 2O emitted from tropical rain forest soils and fertilized agricultural fields. Differences were largest for 15N. Emission-weighted δ 15N-N2O were -26 +/- 2.5‰ s.d., n = 3 (Costa Rican forest), -6.6 +/- 11.3‰ s.d. n = 14 (Brazilian forest) and -36.7 +/- 9.2‰ s.d. n = 19 (Mexican agricultural field and Costa Rican Papaya plantation). We attribute the large range in δ 15N from tropical rain forests, where denitrification is the main source of N2O, to differences in the degree of N2O to N2 reduction. We attribute the very light δ15N values in fertilized agricultural fields to the enhanced nitrogen availability in the soils which facilitates higher fractionation between substrates and products. Similarly, in the Brazilian tropical forest lighter δ 15N-N2O from a local area of enhanced emission is attributed to locally more abundant N- substrate in that particular soil site. If the increase of N2O in the troposphere over the past 100 years is attributable to increased use of N fertilizer, and assuming that light δ 15N- N2O isotopic values are associated with agricultural practices, we expect the δ15N-N2O in the troposphere to have decreased since pre-industrial times. Theoretically, comparison of 15N and 18O signature of emitted N2O with precursors species (NO3 -, NH4+, H2O and O 2) should uniquely

  6. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  7. Parcels versus pixels: modeling agricultural land use across broad geographic regions using parcel-based field boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Sayler, Kristi L.; Quenzer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) change occurs at a local level within contiguous ownership and management units (parcels), yet LULC models primarily use pixel-based spatial frameworks. The few parcel-based models being used overwhelmingly focus on small geographic areas, limiting the ability to assess LULC change impacts at regional to national scales. We developed a modified version of the Forecasting Scenarios of land use change model to project parcel-based agricultural change across a large region in the United States Great Plains. A scenario representing an agricultural biofuel scenario was modeled from 2012 to 2030, using real parcel boundaries based on contiguous ownership and land management units. The resulting LULC projection provides a vastly improved representation of landscape pattern over existing pixel-based models, while simultaneously providing an unprecedented combination of thematic detail and broad geographic extent. The conceptual approach is practical and scalable, with potential use for national-scale projections.

  8. Association between Pesticide Profiles Used on Agricultural Fields near Maternal Residences during Pregnancy and IQ at Age 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Coker, Eric; Gunier, Robert; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Molitor, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-05-09

    We previously showed that potential prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, yet the effects of joint exposure to multiple pesticides is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate associations between the joint distribution of agricultural use patterns of multiple pesticides (denoted as "pesticide profiles") applied near maternal residences during pregnancy and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) at 7 years of age. Among a cohort of children residing in California's Salinas Valley, we used Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data to characterize potential exposure from use within 1 km of maternal residences during pregnancy for 15 potentially neurotoxic pesticides from five different chemical classes. We used Bayesian profile regression (BPR) to examine associations between clustered pesticide profiles and deficits in childhood FSIQ. BPR identified eight distinct clusters of prenatal pesticide profiles. Two of the pesticide profile clusters exhibited some of the highest cumulative pesticide use levels and were associated with deficits in adjusted FSIQ of -6.9 (95% credible interval: -11.3, -2.2) and -6.4 (95% credible interval: -13.1, 0.49), respectively, when compared with the pesticide profile cluster that showed the lowest level of pesticides use. Although maternal residence during pregnancy near high agricultural use of multiple neurotoxic pesticides was associated with FSIQ deficit, the magnitude of the associations showed potential for sub-additive effects. Epidemiologic analysis of pesticides and their potential health effects can benefit from a multi-pollutant approach to analysis.

  9. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they requiredmore » that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.« less

  10. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others.

  11. AmeriFlux US-KFS Kansas Field Station

    DOE Data Explorer

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [Kansas University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KFS Kansas Field Station. Site Description - The study is an abandoned grassland at the Kansas Field Station and Ecological Reserves. The site is located within the tallgrass prairie-deciduous forest ecotonal area. The site was subjected to intensive agriculture from the 1940s through the late 1960s. In the mid-1970s, the site was planted with the cool-season grass Bromus inermis and used as a hay meadow until 1987. Then, mowing and burning approximately every five years maintained it as a grassland until 2007, when the eddy flux tower was installed.

  12. Model-based coefficient method for calculation of N leaching from agricultural fields applied to small catchments and the effects of leaching reducing measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyllmar, K.; Mårtensson, K.; Johnsson, H.

    2005-03-01

    A method to calculate N leaching from arable fields using model-calculated N leaching coefficients (NLCs) was developed. Using the process-based modelling system SOILNDB, leaching of N was simulated for four leaching regions in southern Sweden with 20-year climate series and a large number of randomised crop sequences based on regional agricultural statistics. To obtain N leaching coefficients, mean values of annual N leaching were calculated for each combination of main crop, following crop and fertilisation regime for each leaching region and soil type. The field-NLC method developed could be useful for following up water quality goals in e.g. small monitoring catchments, since it allows normal leaching from actual crop rotations and fertilisation to be determined regardless of the weather. The method was tested using field data from nine small intensively monitored agricultural catchments. The agreement between calculated field N leaching and measured N transport in catchment stream outlets, 19-47 and 8-38 kg ha -1 yr -1, respectively, was satisfactory in most catchments when contributions from land uses other than arable land and uncertainties in groundwater flows were considered. The possibility of calculating effects of crop combinations (crop and following crop) is of considerable value since changes in crop rotation constitute a large potential for reducing N leaching. When the effect of a number of potential measures to reduce N leaching (i.e. applying manure in spring instead of autumn; postponing ploughing-in of ley and green fallow in autumn; undersowing a catch crop in cereals and oilseeds; and increasing the area of catch crops by substituting winter cereals and winter oilseeds with corresponding spring crops) was calculated for the arable fields in the catchments using field-NLCs, N leaching was reduced by between 34 and 54% for the separate catchments when the best possible effect on the entire potential area was assumed.

  13. Association between Pesticide Profiles Used on Agricultural Fields near Maternal Residences during Pregnancy and IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Eric; Gunier, Robert; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Molitor, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that potential prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, yet the effects of joint exposure to multiple pesticides is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate associations between the joint distribution of agricultural use patterns of multiple pesticides (denoted as “pesticide profiles”) applied near maternal residences during pregnancy and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) at 7 years of age. Among a cohort of children residing in California’s Salinas Valley, we used Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data to characterize potential exposure from use within 1 km of maternal residences during pregnancy for 15 potentially neurotoxic pesticides from five different chemical classes. We used Bayesian profile regression (BPR) to examine associations between clustered pesticide profiles and deficits in childhood FSIQ. BPR identified eight distinct clusters of prenatal pesticide profiles. Two of the pesticide profile clusters exhibited some of the highest cumulative pesticide use levels and were associated with deficits in adjusted FSIQ of −6.9 (95% credible interval: −11.3, −2.2) and −6.4 (95% credible interval: −13.1, 0.49), respectively, when compared with the pesticide profile cluster that showed the lowest level of pesticides use. Although maternal residence during pregnancy near high agricultural use of multiple neurotoxic pesticides was associated with FSIQ deficit, the magnitude of the associations showed potential for sub-additive effects. Epidemiologic analysis of pesticides and their potential health effects can benefit from a multi-pollutant approach to analysis. PMID:28486423

  14. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    bound, dissolved, and precipitated CO2 in form of specific mineral phases. Useful results, partly supported by laboratory and field experiments, can be gained by process simulations considering periods of hundreds or thousands of years. Risk management for the post-operational phases is another essential part of the workflow. A first version of a decision support system has been created by means of a number of high-level and low-level criteria, most of which had to be defined in advance. The system provides instructions for the operators on how to act in case of irregularities after site closure. A compilation of all relevant results will be available at the end of the project in form of best practice guidelines. However, dissemination of information about the latest results and developments in the field of site abandonment are given via the CO2CARE-website (www.co2care.org) and also in conferences, workshops or radio and TV interviews.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules in soils from a tropical forest and an abandoned cornfield in Quintana Roo, Mexico: visual comparison of most-probable-number estimates.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Guadarrama, Patricia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge; Orellana, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing the number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) propagules found in soil from a mature tropical forest and that found in an abandoned cornfield in Noh-Bec Quintana Roo, Mexico, during three seasons. Agricultural practices can dramatically reduce the availability and viability of AMF propagules, and in this way delay the regeneration of tropical forests in abandoned agricultural areas. In addition, rainfall seasonality, which characterizes deciduous tropical forests, may strongly influence AMF propagules density. To compare AMF propagule numbers between sites and seasons (summer rainy, winter rainy and dry season), a "most probable number" (MPN) bioassay was conducted under greenhouse conditions employing Sorgum vulgare L. as host plant. Results showed an average value of 3.5 ± 0.41 propagules in 50 ml of soil for the mature forest while the abandoned cornfield had 15.4 ± 5.03 propagules in 50 ml of soil. Likelihood analysis showed no statistical differences in MPN of propagules between seasons within each site, or between sites, except for the summer rainy season for which soil from the abandoned cornfield had eight times as many propagules compared to soil from the mature forest site for this season. Propagules of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi remained viable throughout the sampling seasons at both sites. Abandoned areas resulting from traditional slash and burn agriculture practices involving maize did not show a lower number of AMF propagules, which should allow the establishment of mycotrophic plants thus maintaining the AMF inoculum potential in these soils.

  16. Causes, outcome and prevention of abandonment in retinoblastoma in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Archana; Moulik, Nirmalya Roy; Mishra, Ravi Krishna; Kumar, Dipak

    2013-05-01

    The high-cure rates of 90% in retinoblastoma are not replicated in developing countries due to late presentation and poor compliance to treatment. The present study takes a closer look at causes of abandonment of therapy and effectiveness of counselling in reducing abandonment. A retrospective study of children with retinoblastoma registered at our centre from March 2008 through August 2011. Fifty (49.50%) of 101 children registered for treatment abandoned therapy. Abandonment rates were significantly higher in rural as compared to urban children (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in rate of abandonment between stages or laterality of disease and other socio-demographic factors. Telephone calls were more effective than letters in tracing patients (31.2% vs. 2.4%). Major reasons cited behind abandonment were financial problems (30%) and unwillingness to enucleate (20%). Of the 12 children who returned and were retreated 6 (50%) died of progressive disease. Nineteen (73%) of those who did not return died at home. Abandonment rates steadily declined from 71.42% in 2008 to 16.66% in 2011 (P = 0.01) due to effective pre-abandonment counselling by a support team under the National Retinoblastoma Registry of India from 2009. Abandonment rates for children with retinoblastoma continue to be unacceptably high. Rural background, financial constraints and hesitancy to enucleate were important causes behind abandonment. Outcome of patients who abandoned treatment was uniformly dismal. Inclusion of support team and intensified initial counselling helped in improving compliance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  18. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field scales over rainfed and irrigated agricultural areas using remote sensing data fusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) at field scale can be achieved by combining thermal infrared remote sensing data information from multiple satellite platforms. Here, an integrated approach to field scale ET mapping is described, combining multi-scale surface energy balance e...

  19. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy W

    2013-02-01

    A leading idea about how disturbances and other environmental fluctuations affect species diversity is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). The IDH states that diversity of competing species is, or should be expected to be, maximized at intermediate frequencies and/or intensities of disturbance or environmental change. I argue that the IDH has been refuted on both empirical and theoretical grounds, and so should be abandoned. Empirical studies only rarely find the predicted humped diversity-disturbance relationship. Theoretically, the three major mechanisms thought to produce humped diversity-disturbance relationships are logically invalid and do not actually predict what they are thought to predict. Disturbances and other environmental fluctuations can affect diversity, but for different reasons than are commonly recognized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heim, Wesley A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007–2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed — drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay — led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands — slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife — may enhance microbial

  1. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study.

    PubMed

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Stricker, Craig A; Heim, Wesley A; Bachand, Philip A M; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N

    2014-06-15

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007-2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed - drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay - led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands - slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife - may enhance microbial methylation

  2. Accelerating Planted Green Ash Establishment on an Abandoned Soybean Field

    Treesearch

    John W. Groninger; Didier A. Babassana

    2002-01-01

    Planted green ash seedlings exhibit high survival rates on most bottomland sites that have recently come out of row crop production, making this species a popular choice for afforestation. Sub-optimal growth of planted hardwood tree species, including green ash, often delays the realization of many of the economic and environmental benefits that are used to justify the...

  3. Urban Expansion and the Loss of Prime Agricultural Lands in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    T. Mitchell Aide Tania del Mar López

    2001-01-01

    In many countries where the economy has shifted from mainly agricultural to industrial, abandoned agricultural lands are lost to urbanization. For more than 4 centuries the Puerto Rican economy depended almost entirely on agriculture, but sociopolitical changes early in the 20th century resulted in a shift to industry. This shift in the economy, and an increase in...

  4. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  5. NO X fluxes from several typical agricultural fields during summer-autumn in the Yangtze Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangxi; Yujing, Mu

    NO X fluxes from three kinds of vegetable lands and a rice field were measured during summer-autumn in the Yangtze Delta, China. The average NO fluxes from the rice fields (RF), celery field (CE), maize field (MA) and cowpea field (CP) were 4.1, 30.8, 54 and 32.2 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively; and the average NO 2 fluxes were -2.12, 0.68, 1.33 and 0.5 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively. The liquid N fertilizer (the mixture of swine excrement and urine) which is widely applied to vegetable lands by Chinese farmers was found to quickly stimulate NO emission, and have significant contribution to NO emission from the investigated vegetable lands. Apparent linearity correlations were found between NO 2 fluxes and the ambient concentrations of the rice fields, with a compensation point of about 2.84 μg m -3. Total emissions of NO during summer-autumn time from this area were roughly estimated to be 4.1 and 8.4 Gg N for rice field and vegetable lands, respectively.

  6. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  7. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  11. 32 CFR 635.31 - Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. 635.31 Section 635.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.31 Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. This is...

  12. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  13. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  14. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  16. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be withdrawn...

  17. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and the...

  18. Fate and transport of antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While previous studies have examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known about their release and transport from artificially drained fields receiving swine manure application. Much of the...

  19. Preliminary assessment of DOC and THM precursor loads from a freshwater restored wetland, an agricultural field, and a tidal wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, R.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Ganju, N.K.; Fleck, J.A.; Burow-Fogg, K.R.; Schoellhamer, D.; Deverel, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta supplies drinking water to more than 22 million people in California. At certain times of the year, Delta waters contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bromide. During these times, chlorination of Delta water for drinking water disinfection will form disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), that can exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for THMs of 80 mg/L. Important sources of DOC and THM precursors (types of DOC that form THMs when chlorinated) to the Delta include rivers, drainage water from peat islands, water from wetlands and areas with extensive riparian vegetation, and in-channel growth of algae and macrophytes. Due to proposed ecosystem restoration and creation of wetlands in the Delta, there is an urgent need for information on the relative loads of DOC and THM precursors produced from three different land uses: restored wetlands constructed for subsidence mitigation, tidal wetlands, and agricultural operations. We have been conducting research in the Delta to provide this information. A restored wetland and agricultural field located on Twitchell Island, and a tidal wetland on Browns Island have been monitored for flow, DOC, and THM precursors. Initial results indicate that the loads of DOC and THM precursors are similar for the restored wetland (surface water only) and the agricultural field. These land uses produce DOC loads of about 14 and 11 g C/m2/yr, respectively, and THM precursor loads of about 1.7 and 1.0 g THM/m2/yr, respectively. Estimates of DOC and THM precursor loads for the tidal wetland site on Browns Island and seepage associated with the restored wetland are being developed.

  20. Impact of runoff water from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec® 18EC (abamectin) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of zebrafish juveniles.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Andréa; Vieira, Bruna Horvath; Braun, Andréa Simone; Mendes, Lucas Bueno; Daam, Michiel Adriaan; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2016-02-01

    Edge-of-field waterbodies in tropical agroecosystems have been reported to be especially prone to pesticide contamination through runoff resulting from intensive irrigation practices and tropical rainfall. In the present study, the effects of runoff from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec(®) 18EC (active ingredient: abamectin) on zebrafish were evaluated. To this end, the experimental field was applied with the Vertimec(®) 18EC dose recommended for strawberry crop in Brazil, whereas another field was treated with water only to serve as control. No effects of runoff water from either plot were recorded on survival. Water from the treated field led to increased growth and gill alterations. In general, these alterations were of the first and second degree, including proliferation of cells between the secondary lamellae, dilation at the lamellar apex, detachment of the respiratory epithelium and aneurism. These results confirm the high toxic potential of Vertimec(®) 18EC and provide evidence that environmental risks are likely to occur in areas subject to runoff containing this pesticide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen Cycling throughout Secondary Succession following Agricultural Disturbance in North-Central Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisien, A.; Epstein, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    While much is known about the carbon cycle during succession that follows agricultural disturbance, less understood are the dynamics of the nitrogen cycle throughout secondary succession, and how plant-available nitrogen may or may not limit vegetation transitions and net primary productivity over time. Two chronosequences at the Blandy Experimental Farm in Boyce, north-central Virginia were examined to elucidate the complexities of the nitrogen cycle over a temporal successional gradient. Each chronosequence consists of one early, one mid, and one late secondary successional field ( 15 years, 30 years, and 100 years post agricultural abandonment, respectively). Five 10x10 m plots were established in each of the 6 fields for a total of 30 plots. Total soil nitrogen (and carbon) data were collected from soils to 30 cm depth at 10-cm intervals, and net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification were estimated using an in situ soil core with anion-cation exchange resin bag technique. Previous studies of carbon cycling at this location have indicated relatively constant soil CO2 efflux of approximately 1100 g C/m2, as well as increasing net primary production and therefore net ecosystem production, with time since abandonment. In addition, soil C and N, and the soil C:N ratio have been shown to increase from the early to late successional plots. Our current study marks the first comprehensive examination of soil nitrogen dynamics including mineralization and nitrification over a successional gradient at Blandy Farm. A thorough understanding of nitrogen dynamics during secondary succession is especially important in the southeastern United States, where a large portion of previously cultivated land has been abandoned over the past century, due to advances in farming efficiency and the move westward to more fertile soils. Much of the southeastern U.S. is now undergoing secondary succession, and quality data on the dynamics of nitrogen cycling during this procession can

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  3. Agricultural Products | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to main content Home National Agricultural Library United States Department of Agriculture Ag News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Agricultural Products NEWT: National Extension Web , tables, graphs), Agricultural Products html National Animal Nutrition Program (NANP) Feed Composition

  4. RMA Abandoned Well Closure Program. Final Task Plan, Version 3.0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    20503. 1 . AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE" 0 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED _T 05/00/89 __________________ 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S...AQUIFERS. THE SCOPE OF WORK INCLUDES: 1 . COMPILATION OF A WELL INVENTORY AND DATABASE 2. FIELD LOCATION OF WELLS 3. CLEANING AND CLOSURE OF...APPROXIMATELY 350 WELT- 4. DOCUMENTATION OF CLOSURE ACTIVITIES. SECTIONS OF THIS TASK PLAN DETAIL-INFORMATION ON: 1 . ABANDONED WELL IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION

  5. Thermal microwave emissions from vegetated fields: A comparison between theory and experiment. [Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Shiue, J.; Chuang, S. L.; Dombrowski, M.

    1980-01-01

    The radiometric measurements over bare field and fields covered with grass, soybean, corn, and alfalfa were made with 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz microwave radiometers during August - October 1978. The measured results are compared with radiative transfer theory treating the vegetated fields as a two layer random medium. It is found that the presence of a vegetation cover generally gives a higher brightness temperature T(B) than that expected from a bare soil. The amount of this T(B) excess increases in the vegetation biomass and in the frequency of the observed radiation. The results of radiative transfer calculations generally match well with the experimental data, however, a detailed analysis also strongly suggests the need of incorporating soil surface roughness effect into the radiative transfer theory in order to better interpret the experimental data.

  6. Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuguang; Schumacher, Joseph A.; Schumacher, Thomas E.; Kaspar, Thomas C.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Napton, Darrell; Jaynes, Dan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic exponents (m = 1.0–1.6 and n = 1.0–1.3) using soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that the aggregated 24-m DEM, m = 1.4 and n = 1.0 for rill erosion, and m = 1.0 and n = 1.0 for sheet erosion, provided the best fit with the observation data at both sites. Moreover, estimated average SOC redistributions were 1.3 ± 9.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 1 and 3.6 ± 14.3 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 2. Spatial distribution patterns showed SOC loss (negative values) in the eroded areas and SOC gain (positive value) in the deposition areas. This study demonstrated the importance of the spatial resolution and the topographic exponents to estimate and map soil redistribution and the SOC dynamics throughout the landscape, helping to identify places where erosion and deposition from water and tillage are occurring at high rates. Additional research is needed to improve the application of the model framework for use in local and regional studies where rainfall erosivity and cover management factors vary. Therefore, using this model framework can help to improve the information about the spatial distribution of soil erosion across agricultural landscapes and to gain a better understanding of SOC

  7. Per-field crop classification in irrigated agricultural regions in middle Asia using random forest and support vector machine ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löw, Fabian; Schorcht, Gunther; Michel, Ulrich; Dech, Stefan; Conrad, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Accurate crop identification and crop area estimation are important for studies on irrigated agricultural systems, yield and water demand modeling, and agrarian policy development. In this study a novel combination of Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers is presented that (i) enhances crop classification accuracy and (ii) provides spatial information on map uncertainty. The methodology was implemented over four distinct irrigated sites in Middle Asia using RapidEye time series data. The RF feature importance statistics was used as feature-selection strategy for the SVM to assess possible negative effects on classification accuracy caused by an oversized feature space. The results of the individual RF and SVM classifications were combined with rules based on posterior classification probability and estimates of classification probability entropy. SVM classification performance was increased by feature selection through RF. Further experimental results indicate that the hybrid classifier improves overall classification accuracy in comparison to the single classifiers as well as useŕs and produceŕs accuracy.

  8. Stabilization of Cd-, Pb-, Cu- and Zn-contaminated calcareous agricultural soil using red mud: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Fangfang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Ruiyang; Luo, Lin; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2018-04-12

    Red mud (RM) was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils. Experiments with two different dosages of RM added to soils were carried out in this study. It was found that soil pH increased 0.3 and 0.5 unit with the dosage of 3 and 5% (wt%), respectively. At the dosage of 5%, the highest stabilization efficiencies for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn reached 67.95, 64.21, 43.73 and 63.73%, respectively. The addition of RM obviously transferred Cd from the exchangeable fraction to the residual fraction. Meanwhile, in comparison with the control (no RM added), it reduced 24.38, 49.20, 19.42 and 8.89% of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in wheat grains at the RM addition dosage of 5%, respectively. At the same time, the yield of wheat grains increased 17.81 and 24.66% at the RM addition dosage of 3 and 5%, respectively. Finally, the addition of RM did not change the soil bacterial community. These results indicate that RM has a great potential in stabilizing heavy metals in calcareous agricultural soils.

  9. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C; Arora, Ramandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Treatment abandonment (TxA) is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC). However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data. Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists), nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted. 602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%), practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83%) in general or children's hospitals (79%). Results suggested, 23,854 (15%) of 155,088 children <15 years old newly diagnosed with cancer annually in the countries analyzed, abandon therapy. Importantly, 83% of new childhood cancer cases and 99% of TxA were attributable to LMC. The annual number of cases of TxA expected in LMC worldwide (26,166) was nearly equivalent to the annual number of cancer cases in children <15 years expected in HIC (26,368). Approximately two thirds of LMC had median TxA ≥ 6%, but TxA ≥ 6% was reported in high- (9%), upper-middle- (41%), lower-middle- (80%), and low-income countries (90%, p<0.001). Most LMC centers reporting TxA > 6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥ 6% (p<0.001). Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC. Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally), confirm the suspected high burden of TxA in LMC, and

  10. A Field-Scale Sensor Network Data Set for Monitoring and Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Water Content in a Dryland Agricultural Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasch, C. K.; Brown, D. J.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.; Brooks, E. S.; Chahal, M.; Poggio, M.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a soil water content monitoring data set and auxiliary data collected at a 37 ha experimental no-till farm in the Northwestern United States. Water content measurements have been compiled hourly since 2007 by ECH2O-TE and 5TE sensors installed at 42 locations and five depths (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 m, 210 sensors total) across the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm, a Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research Site stationed on complex terrain in a Mediterranean climate. In addition to soil water content readings, the data set includes hourly and daily soil temperature readings, annual crop histories, a digital elevation model, Bt horizon maps, seasonal apparent electrical conductivity, soil texture, and soil bulk density. Meteorological records are also available for this location. We discuss the unique challenges of maintaining the network on an operating farm and demonstrate the nature and complexity of the soil water content data. This data set is accessible online through the National Agriculture Library, has been assigned a DOI, and will be maintained for the long term.

  11. Overview of the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08): A field experiment evaluating methods for quantifying ET at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evett, Steven R.; Kustas, William P.; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Anderson, Martha C.; Prueger, John H.; Howell, Terry A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, scientists from seven federal and state institutions worked together to investigate temporal and spatial variations of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy balance in a semi-arid irrigated and dryland agricultural region of the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. This Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08) involved determination of micrometeorological fluxes (surface energy balance) in four weighing lysimeter fields (each 4.7 ha) containing irrigated and dryland cotton and in nearby bare soil, wheat stubble and rangeland fields using nine eddy covariance stations, three large aperture scintillometers, and three Bowen ratio systems. In coordination with satellite overpasses, flux and remote sensing aircraft flew transects over the surrounding fields and region encompassing an area contributing fluxes from 10 to 30 km upwind of the USDA-ARS lysimeter site. Tethered balloon soundings were conducted over the irrigated fields to investigate the effect of advection on local boundary layer development. Local ET was measured using four large weighing lysimeters, while field scale estimates were made by soil water balance with a network of neutron probe profile water sites and from the stationary flux systems. Aircraft and satellite imagery were obtained at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Plot-scale experiments dealt with row orientation and crop height effects on spatial and temporal patterns of soil surface temperature, soil water content, soil heat flux, evaporation from soil in the interrow, plant transpiration and canopy and soil radiation fluxes. The BEAREX08 field experiment was unique in its assessment of ET fluxes over a broad range in spatial scales; comparing direct and indirect methods at local scales with remote sensing based methods and models using aircraft and satellite imagery at local to regional scales, and comparing mass balance-based ET ground truth with eddy covariance

  12. Isotopologue data reveal denitrification as the primary source of nitrous oxide along a fertilization gradient in a temperature agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrom, N. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; Gandhi, H.; Millar, N.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    The microbial source of nitrous oxide in terrestrial ecosystems has long been debated. Both nitrification and denitrification produce nitrous oxide but their relative importance remains uncertain. Here we apply site preference, SP, (the difference in δ15N between the central and outer N atom in nitrous oxide), to estimate production of nitrous oxide from bacterial denitrification (including nitrifier denitrification). Soil flux chambers were deployed within 3 agricultural plots planted with wheat in corn-soybean wheat rotation as part of ongoing studies at the Kellogg Biological Stations Long-Term Ecosystem Research site. Distinct levels of urea-ammonium nitrate (28%) fertilizer were applied to each plot in the spring of 2007 to obtain totals of 0, 134, and 246 kg-N ha-1. Samples for nitrous oxide flux and isotopologue composition were collected approximately 4 times per week from May through December, 2007, in each of the plots. The average annual nitrous oxide flux weighted N isotope values increased along the fertilization gradient (-14.7, -12.3 and -9.1 ‰, for the no, medium and high N additions, respectively) whereas O isotope values decreased (33.2, 28.7 and 25.3 ‰, respectively). Flux weighted SP values along the fertilization gradient (0.7, 4.0 and 3.8 ‰, respectively) were low and consistent with an origin predominantly from denitrification based on SP values found for nitrification and denitrification in pure culture studies. Consequently, we find that irregardless of the level of fertilizer applied denitrification was the predominant source of nitrous oxide.

  13. Agriculture: Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  14. Grassland agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  15. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.

  16. Spatial distribution of arable and abandoned land across former Soviet Union countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesiv, Myroslava; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Moltchanova, Elena; Bun, Rostyslav; Dürauer, Martina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo; Kussul, Natalia; Shchepashchenko, Maria; Kutovaya, Olga; Martynenko, Olga; Karminov, Viktor; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Havlik, Petr; Kraxner, Florian; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of agricultural abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union is highly uncertain. To help improve this situation, we have developed a new map of arable and abandoned land for 2010 at a 10 arc-second resolution. We have fused together existing land cover and land use maps at different temporal and spatial scales for the former Soviet Union (fSU) using a training data set collected from visual interpretation of very high resolution (VHR) imagery. We have also collected an independent validation data set to assess the map accuracy. The overall accuracies of the map by region and country, i.e. Caucasus, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine, are 90±2%, 84±2%, 92±1%, 78±3%, 95±1%, 83±2%, respectively. This new product can be used for numerous applications including the modelling of biogeochemical cycles, land-use modelling, the assessment of trade-offs between ecosystem services and land-use potentials (e.g., agricultural production), among others.

  17. Spatial distribution of arable and abandoned land across former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Lesiv, Myroslava; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Moltchanova, Elena; Bun, Rostyslav; Dürauer, Martina; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Schierhorn, Florian; Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo; Kussul, Natalia; Shchepashchenko, Maria; Kutovaya, Olga; Martynenko, Olga; Karminov, Viktor; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Havlik, Petr; Kraxner, Florian; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen

    2018-04-03

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of agricultural abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union is highly uncertain. To help improve this situation, we have developed a new map of arable and abandoned land for 2010 at a 10 arc-second resolution. We have fused together existing land cover and land use maps at different temporal and spatial scales for the former Soviet Union (fSU) using a training data set collected from visual interpretation of very high resolution (VHR) imagery. We have also collected an independent validation data set to assess the map accuracy. The overall accuracies of the map by region and country, i.e. Caucasus, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine, are 90±2%, 84±2%, 92±1%, 78±3%, 95±1%, 83±2%, respectively. This new product can be used for numerous applications including the modelling of biogeochemical cycles, land-use modelling, the assessment of trade-offs between ecosystem services and land-use potentials (e.g., agricultural production), among others.

  18. Spatial distribution of arable and abandoned land across former Soviet Union countries

    PubMed Central

    Lesiv, Myroslava; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Moltchanova, Elena; Bun, Rostyslav; Dürauer, Martina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo; Kussul, Natalia; Shchepashchenko, Maria; Kutovaya, Olga; Martynenko, Olga; Karminov, Viktor; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Havlik, Petr; Kraxner, Florian; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of agricultural abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union is highly uncertain. To help improve this situation, we have developed a new map of arable and abandoned land for 2010 at a 10 arc-second resolution. We have fused together existing land cover and land use maps at different temporal and spatial scales for the former Soviet Union (fSU) using a training data set collected from visual interpretation of very high resolution (VHR) imagery. We have also collected an independent validation data set to assess the map accuracy. The overall accuracies of the map by region and country, i.e. Caucasus, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine, are 90±2%, 84±2%, 92±1%, 78±3%, 95±1%, 83±2%, respectively. This new product can be used for numerous applications including the modelling of biogeochemical cycles, land-use modelling, the assessment of trade-offs between ecosystem services and land-use potentials (e.g., agricultural production), among others. PMID:29611843

  19. A field experiment with variable-suction multi-compartment samplers to measure the spatio-temporal distribution of solute leaching in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Bloem, E; Hogervorst, F A N; de Rooij, G H

    2009-04-01

    Solutes spread out in time and space as they move downwards from the soil surface with infiltrating water. Solute monitoring in the field is often limited to observations of resident concentrations, while flux concentrations govern the movement of solutes in soils. A recently developed multi-compartment sampler is capable of measuring fluxes at a high spatial resolution with minimal disturbance of the local pressure head field. The objective of this paper is to use this sampler to quantify the spatial and temporal variation of solute leaching below the root zone in an agricultural field under natural rainfall in winter and spring. We placed two samplers at 31 and 25 cm depth in an agricultural field, leaving the soil above undisturbed. Each sampler contained 100 separate cells of 31x31 mm. Water fluxes were measured every 5 min for each cell. We monitored leaching of a chloride pulse under natural rainfall by frequently extracting the collected leachate while leaving the samplers buried in situ. This experiment was followed by a dye tracer experiment. This setting yielded information that widely surpassed the information that can be provided by separate anionic and dye tracer trials, and solute transport monitoring by coring or suction cups. The detailed information provided by the samplers showed that percolation at the sampling depth started much faster (approximately 3 h after the start of rainfall) in initially wet soil (pressure head above -65 cm) than in drier soil (more than 14 h at pressure heads below -80 cm). At any time, 25% of the drainage passed through 5-6% of the sampled area, reflecting the effect of heterogeneity on the flow paths. The amount of solute carried by individual cells varied over four orders of magnitude. The lateral concentration differences were limited though. This suggests a convective-dispersive regime despite the short vertical travel distance. On the other hand, the dilution index indicates a slight tendency towards stochastic

  20. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  2. Multi-scale variation in spatial heterogeneity for microbial community structure in an eastern Virginia agricultural field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Rima B.; Mills, Aaron L.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the distribution of soil microbial communities at multiple spatial scales, a survey was conducted to examine the spatial organization of community structure in a wheat field in eastern Virginia (USA). Nearly 200 soil samples were collected at a variety of separation distances ranging from 2.5 cm to 11 m. Whole-community DNA was extracted from each sample, and community structure was compared using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting. Relative similarity was calculated between each pair of samples and compared using geostatistical variogram analysis to study autocorrelation as a function of separation distance. Spatial autocorrelation was found at scales ranging from 30 cm to more than 6 m, depending on the sampling extent considered. In some locations, up to four different correlation length scales were detected. The presence of nested scales of variability suggests that the environmental factors regulating the development of the communities in this soil may operate at different scales. Kriging was used to generate maps of the spatial organization of communities across the plot, and the results demonstrated that bacterial distributions can be highly structured, even within a habitat that appears relatively homogeneous at the plot and field scale. Different subsets of the microbial community were distributed differently across the plot, and this is thought to be due to the variable response of individual populations to spatial heterogeneity associated with soil properties. c2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on Reuse Strategy of Abandoned Industrial Square - in the case of Jingxi Wang Ping Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Zhiting; Jia, Lijun; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Hailiang; Ma, Tianyi; Wang, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Wangping Coal Mine, whose industrial heritage is of great value, was one of the eight coal mines in Beijing. A large number of field surveys and analysis of the abandoned industrial facilities of Wangping Coal Mine were carried out in this paper. From the perspective of protecting industrial heritage culture and sustainable development, this paper studies the ideas and strategies for reusing the abandoned facilities of the Wangping Coal Mine. In order to protect its industrial heritage as much as possible, it is suggested to reuse the industrial square of Wangping Coal Mine as a community park.

  4. Impact of agronomy practices on the effects of reduced tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields: A global meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinfei; Li, Fengbo; Zhou, Xiyue; Xu, Chunchun; Ji, Long; Chen, Zhongdu; Fang, Fuping

    2018-01-01

    The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields. The results showed that NT/RT significantly mitigated the overall global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions by 6.6% as compared with conventional tillage (CT). Rotation cropping systems and crop straw remove facilitated no-tillage (NT) to reduce the CH4, N2O, or overall GWP both in upland and paddy field. NT significantly mitigated the overall GWP when the percentage of basal N fertilizer (PBN) >50%, when tillage duration > 10 years or rainfed in upland, while when PBN <50%, when duration between 5 and 10 years, or with continuous flooding in paddy field. RT significantly reduced the overall GWP under single crop monoculture system in upland. These results suggested that assessing the effectiveness of NT/RT on the mitigation of GHG emission should consider the interaction of NT/RT with other agronomy practices and land use type.

  5. Impact of agronomy practices on the effects of reduced tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields: A global meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiyue; Xu, Chunchun; Ji, Long; Chen, Zhongdu

    2018-01-01

    The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields. The results showed that NT/RT significantly mitigated the overall global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions by 6.6% as compared with conventional tillage (CT). Rotation cropping systems and crop straw remove facilitated no-tillage (NT) to reduce the CH4, N2O, or overall GWP both in upland and paddy field. NT significantly mitigated the overall GWP when the percentage of basal N fertilizer (PBN) >50%, when tillage duration > 10 years or rainfed in upland, while when PBN <50%, when duration between 5 and 10 years, or with continuous flooding in paddy field. RT significantly reduced the overall GWP under single crop monoculture system in upland. These results suggested that assessing the effectiveness of NT/RT on the mitigation of GHG emission should consider the interaction of NT/RT with other agronomy practices and land use type. PMID:29782525

  6. Evapotranspiration from selected fallowed agricultural fields on the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, California, during May to October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of evapotranspiration, vegetation quantity and composition, and depth to the water table below the land surface was made at three sites in two fallowed agricultural lots on the 15,800-hectare Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge in northern California during the 2000 growing season. All three sites had been farmed during 1999, but were not irrigated since the 1999 growing season. Vegetation at the lot C1B and lot 6 stubble sites included weedy species and small grain plants. The lot 6 cover crop site supported a crop of cereal rye that had been planted during the previous winter. Percentage of coverage by live vegetation ranged from 0 to 43.2 percent at the lot C1B site, from approximately 0 to 63.2 percent at the lot 6 stubble site, and it was estimated to range from 0 to greater than 90 percent at the lot 6 cover crop site. Evapotranspiration was measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique and it was estimated using a model that was based on the Priestley-Taylor equation and a model that was based on reference evapotranspiration with grass as the reference crop. Total evapotranspiration during May to October varied little among the three evapotranspiration measurement sites, although the timing of evapotranspiration losses did vary among the sites. Total evapotranspiration from the lot C1B site was 426 millimeters, total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 stubble site was 444 millimeters, and total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 cover crop site was 435 millimeters. The months of May to July accounted for approximately 78 percent of the total evapotranspiration from the lot C1B site, approximately 63 percent of the evapotranspiration from the lot 6 stubble site, and approximately 86 percent of the total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 cover crop site. Estimated growing season precipitation accounted for 16 percent of the growing-season evapotranspiration at the lot C1B site and for 17 percent of the growing-season evapotranspiration

  7. Processes affecting the dissipation of the herbicide isoxaflutole and its diketonitrile metabolite in agricultural soils under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R; Koskinen, William C; Barber, Brian

    2007-10-17

    Two-year field dissipation studies were conducted in three soil types in Minnesota to examine the processes affecting the dissipation of the herbicide isoxaflutole and its phytotoxic diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) under relatively cool, wet soil conditions. Plots of cuphea were treated with isoxaflutole and potassium bromide, a nonsorbed, nondegraded tracer. Replicate soil cores were collected six times during the growing season to a depth of 1 m, and the bromide or herbicide concentration was measured in each of five depth increments. The dissipation half-life (DT50) of isoxaflutole + DKN was 8-18 days in each soil. Bromide and herbicide concentrations were low at depths >40 cm throughout the study, and herbicide concentrations in soil 100 days after application were usually undetectable. Simulation modeling using Hydrus-1D for the loam soil suggested that plant uptake was an important mechanism of dissipation.

  8. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  9. Spatial variability of isoproturon mineralizing activity within an agricultural field: geostatistical analysis of simple physicochemical and microbiological soil parameters.

    PubMed

    El Sebai, T; Lagacherie, B; Soulas, G; Martin-Laurent, F

    2007-02-01

    We assessed the spatial variability of isoproturon mineralization in relation to that of physicochemical and biological parameters in fifty soil samples regularly collected along a sampling grid delimited across a 0.36 ha field plot (40 x 90 m). Only faint relationships were observed between isoproturon mineralization and the soil pH, microbial C biomass, and organic nitrogen. Considerable spatial variability was observed for six of the nine parameters tested (isoproturon mineralization rates, organic nitrogen, genetic structure of the microbial communities, soil pH, microbial biomass and equivalent humidity). The map of isoproturon mineralization rates distribution was similar to that of soil pH, microbial biomass, and organic nitrogen but different from those of structure of the microbial communities and equivalent humidity. Geostatistics revealed that the spatial heterogeneity in the rate of degradation of isoproturon corresponded to that of soil pH and microbial biomass.

  10. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress. PMID:26212690

  11. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. Working with Communities on Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the EPA's work to inform and include communities in the cleanup of abandoned mines, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  13. Economic impacts of railroad abandonment on rural Kansas communities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-07-01

    Increasing railroad abandonment and other changes in the Kansas grain transportation system have led to increased trucking of grain. Further losses of shortline railroads would have negative effects on rural Kansas communities, including increased ro...

  14. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of...

  15. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of...

  16. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    SciTech Connect

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina; Quinn, John

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1)more » soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha-1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha-1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits.« less

  17. Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting abandoned oil and gas wells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Christian, Shanna; Celia, Michael A.; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Bill, Markus; Miller, Alana R.; Chen, Yuheng; Conrad, Mark E.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil/gas wells show that these wells can be a substantial source of methane to the atmosphere, particularly from a small proportion of high-emitting wells. However, identifying high emitters remains a challenge. We couple 163 well measurements of methane flow rates; ethane, propane, and n-butane concentrations; isotopes of methane; and noble gas concentrations from 88 wells in Pennsylvania with synthesized data from historical documents, field investigations, and state databases. Using our databases, we (i) improve estimates of the number of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania; (ii) characterize key attributes that accompany high emitters, including depth, type, plugging status, and coal area designation; and (iii) estimate attribute-specific and overall methane emissions from abandoned wells. High emitters are best predicted as unplugged gas wells and plugged/vented gas wells in coal areas and appear to be unrelated to the presence of underground natural gas storage areas or unconventional oil/gas production. Repeat measurements over 2 years show that flow rates of high emitters are sustained through time. Our attribute-based methane emission data and our comprehensive estimate of 470,000–750,000 abandoned wells in Pennsylvania result in estimated state-wide emissions of 0.04–0.07 Mt (1012 g) CH4 per year. This estimate represents 5–8% of annual anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. Our methodology combining new field measurements with data mining of previously unavailable well attributes and numbers of wells can be used to improve methane emission estimates and prioritize cost-effective mitigation strategies for Pennsylvania and beyond. PMID:27849603

  18. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Harling, Guy; Lima Neto, Antonio S; Sousa, Geziel S; Machado, Marcia M T; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-05-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil), the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT). These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%), a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not. Low socioeconomic status areas have higher tuberculosis

  19. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  20. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  1. Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W; Visser, Johnny H M; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-09-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment.

  2. Chitin Amendment Increases Soil Suppressiveness toward Plant Pathogens and Modulates the Actinobacterial and Oxalobacteraceal Communities in an Experimental Agricultural Field

    PubMed Central

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W.; Visser, Johnny H. M.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment. PMID:23811512

  3. Mass movements and infiltration on abandoned terraces in the Iberian Range, Northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnáez, José; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Pascual, Nuria; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Terraced slopes were one of the most common agricultural landscapes in mountain areas of the Mediterranean region. Built to ensure agricultural production, terraces have acted as an effective soil conservation system at both slope and catchment scale. Demographic and socioeconomic changes in the last 60 years in the Mediterranean mountains have led to the abandonment of terraces. The consequent lack of maintenance of such agricultural structures has triggered diverse erosion processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the upper valleys of the Leza, Jubera and Cidacos rivers, in the Iberian range (northern Spain), held more than 10,000 inhabitants and a cultivated area of 21,021 ha, of which 13,274 ha were farming terraces (63% of the agricultural space). At present, these terraces are abandoned. The most common erosion processes on the walls of abandoned terraces are stone collapses, which leave the riser completely unprotected, and small mass movements. A total amount of 240 terrace failures with mass movement were identified in the 53 studied plots, which means an average number of 4.5 per plot and 10.6 per 100 m of wall. At plot scale, the average volume of debris was 15.1 m3 (33.1 m3 for every 100 m of wall). Soil infiltration capacity and the way the water flows downslope may be the main triggers for mass movements. Rainfall simulations carried out in the study area showed an average infiltration coefficient above 75%. Infiltration coefficients were higher on concave hillslopes (above 85%), probably because the plots in these sectors were intensively tilled in the past, with plowed and permeable anthropogenic soils. The infiltrated water becomes a destabilizing factor for the terrace wall. The lack of deep percolation due to a more impermeable substrate (e.g., the original soil of the slope) favours the accumulation of water within the artificial soil, behind the stone wall. The increasing weight of the material can cause the activation of mass movements

  4. "The Giver" and "Shade's Children": Future Views of Child Abandonment and Murder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons for child abandonment and murder and how it relates to abandonment in traditional literature. Considers new views of child abandonment and murder (focusing not on overcoming their abandonment, but changing and restructuring their entire society) presented in "The Giver" and "Shade's Children." Discusses the…

  5. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... days after receiving bills for plugging and abandonment activities, the Regional Administrator will... abandonment activities, the Regional Administrator will determine whether the plugging and abandonment...

  6. Robust spatialization of soil water content at the scale of an agricultural field using geophysical and geostatistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henine, Hocine; Tournebize, Julien; Laurent, Gourdol; Christophe, Hissler; Cournede, Paul-Henry; Clement, Remi

    2017-04-01

    Research on the Critical Zone (CZ) is a prerequisite for undertaking issues related to ecosystemic services that human societies rely on (nutrient cycles, water supply and quality). However, while the upper part of CZ (vegetation, soil, surface water) is readily accessible, knowledge of the subsurface remains limited, due to the point-scale character of conventional direct observations. While the potential for geophysical methods to overcome this limitation is recognized, the translation of the geophysical information into physical properties or states of interest remains a challenge (e.g. the translation of soil electrical resistivity into soil water content). In this study, we propose a geostatistical framework using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) approach to assimilate geophysical and point-scale data. We especially focus on the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil water content using (1) TDR point-scale measurements of soil water content, which are considered as accurate data, and (2) soil water content data derived from electrical resistivity measurements, which are uncertain data but spatially dense. We used a synthetic dataset obtained with a vertical 2D domain to evaluate the performance of this geostatistical approach. Spatio-temporal simulations of soil water content were carried out using Hydrus-software for different scenarios: homogeneous or heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, and continuous or punctual infiltration pattern. From the simulations of soil water content, conceptual soil resistivity models were built using a forward modeling approach and point sampling of water content values, vertically ranged, were done. These two datasets are similar to field measurements of soil electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography, ERT) and soil water content (using TDR probes) obtained at the Boissy-le-Chatel site, in Orgeval catchment (East of Paris, France). We then integrated them into a specialization

  7. Nitrogen Losses as N2O and NO After Non-tillage Agricultural Practice in a Tropical Corn Field at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, T. J.; Gil, J. A.; Marquina, S.; Donoso, L. E.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.

    2005-12-01

    Historically, the most common agricultural practice in Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions, has been mono cropping, with extensive tillage operations that usually causes rapid soil degradation and nitrogen losses. Alternative production systems, such as non-tillage agricultural practices, have been extensively implemented during the last few years. However, studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these alternative practices are not widely available. This study was conducted at "Fundo Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9°23'33" N, 66° 38'30" W) in a corn field under the non-tillage agricultural practice, during the growing season June-August 2005. The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). The area has two well defined precipitation seasons: wet (May-October) and dry (November-April). The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). Because the irrigation of the crop depends on precipitation, the planting is scheduled during the months of highest precipitation in June-July. We measured nitrogenous gas emissions (N2O and NO), concentrations of total nitrogen (NT), NH4+ and NO3- in soil (0-100 cm) after fertilization to estimate the nitrogen losses. We also measured CO2 emissions to evaluate the relationship of microbial respiration to the emissions of nitrogenous trace gases. Soils were fertilized with 54 kgN/ha (NPK 12:24:12, nitrogen as NH4Cl) and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depth. Thirty days later, soils were fertilized by broadcast addition of 18 kgN/ha (as ammonium nitrate). Nitrous oxide emissions were highly dependant on the water content. Prior to fertilization N2O emissions were very low. Right after fertilization the emissions increased by a factor of 5 compared to pre-fertilization levels and increased to 100 times larger after the first heavy rain. NO emissions did not increase

  8. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  9. Groundwater-quality data associated with abandoned underground coal mine aquifers in West Virginia, 1973-2016: Compilation of existing data from multiple sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAdoo, Mitchell A.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2017-11-14

    This report describes a compilation of existing water-quality data associated with groundwater resources originating from abandoned underground coal mines in West Virginia. Data were compiled from multiple sources for the purpose of understanding the suitability of groundwater from abandoned underground coal mines for public supply, industrial, agricultural, and other uses. This compilation includes data collected for multiple individual studies conducted from July 13, 1973 through September 7, 2016. Analytical methods varied by the time period of data collection and requirements of the independent studies.This project identified 770 water-quality samples from 294 sites that could be attributed to abandoned underground coal mine aquifers originating from multiple coal seams in West Virginia.

  10. Effect of reclamation of abandoned salinized farmland on soil bacterial communities in arid northwest China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhibo; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Fenghua

    2018-07-15

    Understanding the impact of reclamation of abandoned salinized farmland on soil bacterial community is of great importance for maintaining soil health and sustainability in arid regions. In this study, we used field sampling and 454 pyrosequencing methods to investigate the effects of 5-year reclamation treatments on soil properties, bacterial community composition and diversity. The four reclamation treatments are: abandoned salinized farmland (CK), cropland (CL), grassland (GL) and woodland (WL). We have found soil properties are significantly altered by abandoned salinized farmland reclamation. In particular, the lowest soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC) values are observed in CL (P<0.05). The dominant phyla are Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria in all treatments. At the genus levels, the relative abundance of Bacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus in CK, GL and WL is significantly higher than in CL. Bacterial diversity indices (i.e. ACE, Chao and Shannon) dramatically increase after the reclamation, with the highest in CL. Similar patterns of bacterial communities have been observed in CK, GL and WL soils, but significantly different from CL. Regression analyses indicate that the relative abundance of these phyla are significantly correlated with soil Fe, pH and EC. Results from non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and redundancy analysis (RDA) indicate that soil Fe content, EC and pH are the most important factors in shaping soil bacterial communities. Overall, results indicate that abandoned salinized farmland reclaimed for CL significantly decrease soil pH and EC, and increase soil bacterial community diversity. Soil Fe concentration, EC and pH are the dominant environmental factors affecting soil bacterial community composition. The important role of Fe concentration in shaping bacterial community composition is a new discovery among the similar studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  11. Historical cropland expansion and abandonment in the continental U.S. during 1850 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Lu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LCLUC) are among the most important driving forces that alter terrestrial ecosystem functions and their feedbacks to climate system, but reliable spatially explicit dataset over century long period is still lacking for fine-scale earth system modeling. In this study, by harmonizing multiple sources of inventory data and high-resolution satellite images, we reconstructed cropland density maps to depict the annual percentage and distribution pattern of cultivated land (excluding summer idle/fallow, cropland pasture) in the conterminous U.S. during 1850 to 2016. We further examined the cropland expansion and abandonment in the U.S. using the newly-developed LCLUC data. In total, national cropland expansion is 104 million hectares (Mha) from 1850 to 2016 and peaked at about 127 Mha in 1920. Forests and shrublands were the dominant land cover types that croplands were converted from during 1850-1880, which may be primarily attributed to agriculture development in Northeast region. Croplands began to expand into grasslands since 1870 and the encroached area dramatically increased, mainly due to cultivation development in the Great Plain and Midwestern area. In comparison, the abandoned cropland in the U.S. is 65 Mha (34% of the maximum crop density) during the study period. We found cropland abandonment mostly occurred in the Central and Southeast U.S., while cropland expansion centered in the Midwestern states, the Central California, and the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. National cultivated lands have shifted from the Eastern to Midwestern U.S., which contributed to the increasingly important role of Midwest in the rise of food and biofuel productions, enhanced GHGs emission, and intensive nitrogen loads into the Gulf of Mexico. Our study provides a reliable database of historical cropland distribution, which is essential for modeling assessments of LCLUC impacts, crop production estimation, and social-economic analysis.

  12. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  14. Impact assessment and recommendation of alternative conjunctive water use strategies for salt affected agricultural lands through a field scale decision support system - a case study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Paul, Madhumita; Malik, Rashmi

    2007-06-01

    Conjunctive use of saline/non-saline irrigation waters is generally aimed at minimizing yield losses and enhancing flexibility of cropping, without much alteration in farming operations. Recommendation of location-specific suitable conjunctive water use plans requires assessment of their long-term impacts on soil salinization/sodification and crop yield reductions. This is conventionally achieved through long-term field experiments. However such impact evaluations are site specific, expensive and time consuming. Appropriate decision support systems (DSS) can be time-efficient and cost-effective means for such long-term impact evaluations. This study demonstrates the application of one such (indigenously developed) DSS for recommending best conjunctive water use plans for a, rice-wheat growing, salt affected farmer's field in Gurgaon district of Haryana (India). Before application, the DSS was extensively validated on several farmers and controlled experimental fields in Gurgaon and Karnal districts of Haryana (India). Validation of DSS showed its potential to give realistic estimates of root zone soil salinity (with R = 0.76-0.94; AMRE = 0.03-0.06; RMSPD = 0.51-0.90); sodicity (with R = 0.99; AMRE = 0.02; RMSPD = 0.84) and relative crop yield reductions (AMRE = 0.24), under existing (local) resource management practices. Long term (10 years) root zone salt build ups and associated rice/wheat crop yield reductions, in a salt affected farmer's field, under varied conjunctive water use scenarios were evaluated with the validated DSS. It was observed that long-term applications of canal (CW) and tube well (TW) waters in a cycle and in 1:1 mixed mode, during Kharif season, predicted higher average root zone salt reductions (2-9%) and lower rice crop yield reductions (4-5%) than the existing practice of 3-CW, 3-TW, 3-CW. Besides this, long-term application of 75% CW mixed with 25% TW, during Rabi season, predicted about 17% lower average root-zone salt reductions than

  15. Effects of NO3 (-) and PO4 (3-) on the release of geogenic arsenic and antimony in agricultural wetland soil: a field and laboratory approach.

    PubMed

    Rouwane, Asmaa; Rabiet, Marion; Grybos, Malgorzata; Bernard, Guillaume; Guibaud, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in wetland soil periodically submitted to agricultural pressure as well as the impact of soil enrichment with NO3 (-) (50 mg L(-1)) and PO4 (3-) (20 mg L(-1)) on As and Sb release were evaluated at both field and laboratory scales. The results showed that As and Sb exhibited different temporal behaviors, depending on the study scale. At field scale, As release (up to 93 μg L(-1)) occurred under Fe-reducing conditions, whereas Sb release was favored under oxidizing conditions (up to 5 μg L(-1)) and particularity when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased in soil pore water (up to 92.8 mg L(-1)). At laboratory scale, As and Sb release was much higher under reducing conditions (up to 138 and 1 μg L(-1), respectively) compared to oxic conditions (up to 6 and 0.5 μg L(-1), respectively) and was enhanced by NO3 (-) and PO4 (3-) addition (increased by a factor of 2.3 for As and 1.6 for Sb). The higher release of As and Sb in the enriched reduced soil compared to the non-enriched soil was probably induced by the combined effect of PO4 (3-) and HCO3 (-) which compete for the same binding sites of soil surfaces. Modeling results using Visual Minteq were in accordance with experimental results regarding As but failed in simulating the effects of PO4 (3-) and HCO3 (-) on Sb release.

  16. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  17. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  18. Risk Factors For Abandonment of Wilms Tumor Therapy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Libes, Jaime; Oruko, Oliver; Abdallah, Fatmah; Githanga, Jessie; Ndung’u, James; Musimbi, Joyce; Njuguna, Festus; Patel, Kirtika; White, John; Axt, Jason R.; O’Neill, James A.; Shrubsole, Martha; Li, Ming; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival from Wilms tumor (WT) in sub-Saharan Africa remains dismal as a result of on-therapy mortality and treatment abandonment. Review of patients diagnosed from 2008–2011 in our Kenyan Wilms Tumor Registry showed a loss to follow up (LTFU) rate approaching 50 percent. The purpose of this study was to trace those LTFU, estimate the survival rate, and identify risk factors for treatment abandonment. Procedure We administered a comprehensive survey to parents of patients with WT at the two largest referral hospitals in Kenya to identify barriers to care. We also telephoned families who had abandoned care to determine vital status and identify risk factors for treatment abandonment. Results Of 136 registered patients, 77 were confirmed dead (56.7%), 38 remained alive (27.9%), and the vital status of 21 patients remains unknown (15.4%). After contacting 33 of the patients who either abandoned curative treatment (n=34) or did not attend off-therapy visits (n=20), the best estimate of 2-year overall survival of patients with WT in Kenya approaches 36%. Sixty-three percent of parents misunderstood treatment plans and 55% encountered financial barriers. When asked how to increase comfort with the child’s treatment, 27% of parents volunteered improving inefficient services and 26% volunteered reducing drug-unavailability. Conclusions Treatment abandonment remains a significant problem contributing to increased mortality from WT in developing countries. This multi-center survey identified the barriers to treatment completion from the parental perspective to be lack of education about WT and treatment, financial constraints, need for quality improvement, and drug-unavailability. PMID:25382257

  19. Integrated economic and environmental analysis of agricultural straw reuse in edible fungi industry

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wencong; Yu, Shuao; Huang, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    Background China currently faces severe environmental pollution caused by burning agricultural straw; thus, resource utilization of these straws has become an urgent policy and practical objective for the Chinese government. Methods This study develops a bio-economic model, namely, “straw resource utilization for fungi in China (SRUFIC),” on the basis of a field survey of an edible fungi plant in Zhejiang, China, to investigate an integrated economic and environmental performance of straw reuse in fungi production. Five scenarios, which cover changes in the production scale, wage level, and price fluctuations of the main product and inputs, are simulated. Results Results reveal that (1) the pilot plant potentially provides enhanced economic benefits and disposes added agricultural residues by adjusting its production strategy; (2) the economic performance is most sensitive to fungi price fluctuations, whereas the environmental performance is more sensitive to production scale and price of fungi than other factors; (3) expanding the production scale can be the most efficient means of improving the performance of a plant economically and environmentally. Discussion Overall, agricultural straw reuse in the edible fungi industry can not only reduce the environmental risk derived from burning abandoned straws but also introduce economic benefits. Thus, the straw reuse in the fungi industry should be practiced in China, and specific economic incentive policies, such as price support or subsidies, must be implemented to promote the utilization of agricultural straws in the fungi industry. PMID:29682417

  20. Integrating depth functions and hyper-scale terrain analysis for 3D soil organic carbon modeling in agricultural fields at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L.; van Wesemael, B.; Stevens, A.; Doetterl, S.; Van Oost, K.; Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) represents a key component in the global C cycle and has an important influence on the global CO2 fluxes between terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere. In the context of agricultural landscapes, SOC inventories are important since soil management practices have a strong influence on CO2 fluxes and SOC stocks. However, there is lack of accurate and cost-effective methods for producing high spatial resolution of SOC information. In this respect, our work is focused on the development of a three dimensional modeling approach for SOC monitoring in agricultural fields. The study area comprises ~420 km2 and includes 4 of the 5 agro-geological regions of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. The soil dataset consist of 172 profiles (1033 samples) which were not sampled specifically for this study. This dataset is a combination of profile samples collected in previous soil surveys and soil profiles sampled for other research purposes. The proposed strategy comprises two main steps. In the first step the SOC distribution within each profile (vertical distribution) is modeled. Depth functions for are fitted in order to summarize the information content in the profile. By using these functions the SOC can be interpolated at any depth within the profiles. The second step involves the use of contextual terrain (ConMap) features (Behrens et al., 2010). These features are based on the differences in elevation between a given point location in the landscape and its circular neighbourhoods at a given set of different radius. One of the main advantages of this approach is that it allows the integration of several spatial scales (eg. local and regional) for soil spatial analysis. In this work the ConMap features are derived from a digital elevation model of the area and are used as predictors for spatial modeling of the parameters of the depth functions fitted in the previous step. In this poster we present some preliminary results in which we analyze: i. The use of

  1. Microbial adaption to a pesticide in agricultural soils: Accelerated degradation of 14C-atrazine in field soils from Brazil and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, Nicolai David; Martinazzo, Rosane; Hamacher, Georg; Accinelli, Cesare; Köppchen, Stephan; Langen, Ulrike; Linden, Andreas; Krause, Martina; Burauel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An increasing demand for food, feed and bioenergy, and simultaneously a decline of arable land will require an intensive agricultural production including the use of pesticides. With an increasing use of pesticides the occurrence of an accelerated degradation potential has to be assessed. Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Even though its use was banned in several countries it is still widely used throughout America and the Asia-Pacific region. Atrazine is the most widely used herbicide in maize plantations in Brazil and the US. The use of atrazine in Belgium and all EU member states was banned in September 2004, with the permission to consume existing stocks until October 2005. Atrazine and its residues are still regularly detected in soil, ground and surface waters even years after its prohibition. Its persistence in soil and in association with organic particles might become crucial in terms of erosion due to climate and environmental changes. Due to its potential microbiological accessibility, the microbial mineralization of atrazine competes with chemical/physical interaction such as sorption and binding processes of the chemical molecule in the soil matrix. Binding or intrusion of the chemical on soil components results in a decrease of its accessibility for soil microbes, which does not necessarily exclude the molecule from environmental interactions. In the present study the accelerated atrazine degradation in agriculturally used soils was examined. Soil samples were collected from a Rhodic Ferralsol, Campinas do Sul, South Brazil, and Geric Ferralsol, Correntina, Northeastern Brazil. The sampling site of the Rhodic Ferralsol soil has been under crop rotation (soybean/wheat/maize/oat) since 1990. The Geric Ferralsol site has alternately been cultivated with maize and soybean since 2000. Both areas have been treated biennially with atrazine at recommended doses of 1.5 - 3

  2. Exploring Factors Associated with Educational Outcomes for Orphan and Abandoned Children in India

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Aakanksha; Lombe, Margaret; Saltzman, Leia Y.; Whetten, Kathryn; Whetten, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    India has more than 25 million orphan and abandoned children (UNICEF, 2012). The burden of care for these OAC is on caregivers that are often ill equipped to meet their needs due to inadequate assets. Previous studies suggest that in communities with limited resources, OAC residing with non-biological caregivers are more at risk than those fostered by a biological parent. This study explores the association of caregiver and child characteristics with OAC educational outcome in India. The analysis was conducted using hierarchical logistic regression. The findings have implications for practice and policy in the global child welfare field. PMID:27088068

  3. Palaeolimnological evidence of late-Holocene settlement and abandonment in the Mirador Basin, Peten, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, D.; Byrne, R.; Schreiner, T.; Hansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen, loss on ignition and magnetic susceptibility analyses provide a high-resolution palaeoenvironmental record from Lago Puerto Arturo, Peten, Guatemala. The presence of Zea pollen -2650 BC provides a latest date for the arrival of maize agriculture to the region. The following 3600 years are marked by significant opening of the forest and episodic pulses of erosion. During the early Preclassic, around 1450 BC, all proxies indicate an abrupt increase in human activity, coincident with archaeological evidence of early settlement. Three discrete periods of decreased human activity are indicated by cessations of landscape disturbance. Such decreased human activity likely reflects periodic local population decline. These events coincide with times of cultural transition in the Maya lowlands and correspond to the terminal phases of the middle Preclassic, late Preclassic and late Classic periods. There is no evidence for human activity in the area following the late Classic abandonment. ?? 2007 SAGE Publications.

  4. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  5. Agricultural Geophysics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  6. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  7. The effect of changes in agricultural practices on the density of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-07-30

    The impact of agricultural practices/ activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe due to the widespread exodus of inhabitants from rural areas. The associated abandonment of agricultural lands has enabled a wide range of wild animals to prosper in the countryside, including birds, ungulates and large carnivores. One consequence has been the increase in ticks and associated tick-borne diseases which now constitute a greater threat for public health than earlier. The aim of the present study was to compare tick densities in different habitats (pasture, meadow, fallow land, post-fire areas) to assess the impact of different agricultural practices on tick densities in vicinities close to human habitation. Between September 2011 and June 2014, 2985 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by conventional dragging, in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) and Warmińsko-Mazurskie (Masuria) regions of Poland. In each region, 3 study sites were selected, each situated near surface water sources (i.e., ponds or canals). At each site, three neighboring habitats of surface area 150-600 m(2) were dragged: one on a cattle/horse pasture; the second on meadow; the third on fallow land (abandoned field or meadow), at least twice during each spring and autumn. Additionally, four post-fire areas (one in 2013 and three in 2014) were identified in the Mazowieckie region, and dragging was conducted there in spring and autumn, including in each case a 'control area' comprising intact unburned fallow land situated in close vicinity to the burned areas. Eight hundred D. reticulatus ticks were collected and the densities were compared by multifactorial ANOVA. The highest tick densities were recorded on the fallow lands, and the lowest - on the grazed pastures. Tick densities were up to 10 × times higher on the control sites compared to neighboring post-fire sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  9. Soil changes after hay meadow abandonment in southwestern Wisconsin.

    Treesearch

    M. Dean Knighton

    1977-01-01

    Soil properties were monitored in early spring and late fall for 3 years following hay meadow abandonment. Bulk density decreased, organic carbon increased, total porosity increased in the large pore fraction, and infiltration rate increased 100%. Earthworm activity was considered to be primarily responsible for the improvement.

  10. Abandoned rail corridors in Texas : a policy and infrastructure evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-01

    The use of existing and abandoned railroad rights-of-way has been a proven method of acquiring linear : corridors for the construction of roadways since the formation of the Texas Highway Department. Either : paralleling existing rail lines or re-usi...

  11. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 942... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment period and... amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation Plan under the Surface Mining Control and...

  12. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ..., dangerous impoundments, abandoned structures/equipment, open mine portals, and open mine shafts and refuse..., policy, procedural, and organizational changes that have occurred since 1984. DATES: Effective Date... procedures to manage their financial management, equipment, and procurement systems. OMB Circular A-102 was...

  15. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  16. Why We Should Abandon the Idea of the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieves, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the idea of the learning organization should be abandoned on the grounds that it was an imaginative idea that has now run its course. The paper seeks to explore the roots of the definition and provoke debate about the wisdom of retaining the concept. The argument is a challenge to readers to…

  17. Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

    1993-01-22

    This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

  18. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW Review...

  19. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review...

  20. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  1. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  3. Predicting Abandonment of School-Wide Behavior Support Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Rhonda N. T.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Ghemraoui, Adam; Bloom, Jerry; Johnson, Nanci W.; Phillips, Danielle; Richter, Mary F.; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictors of abandonment of evidence-based practices through descriptive analyses of extant state-level training data, fidelity of implementation data, and nationally reported school demographic data across 915 schools in 3 states implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). Schools…

  4. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL...

  5. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL...

  6. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL...

  7. View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been removed (note the steel frame structure that supported the traveling crane); looking south - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  8. PRECONSTRUCTION IMAGE OF THE MTR SITE. ABANDONED IRRIGATION CANAL (FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRE-CONSTRUCTION IMAGE OF THE MTR SITE. ABANDONED IRRIGATION CANAL (FROM EARLY 1900s) ILLUSTRATES FLATNESS OF MTR/TRA TERRAIN. FEATURE ON HORIZON IN LEFT OF VIEW IS EXPLORATORY WATER DRILLING EQUIPMENT. CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 136. Unknown Photographer, 12/5/1949 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning arrester houses on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and...

  11. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and...

  12. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and...

  13. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE PAGES

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R 2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha -1 showed reduction of tile NO 3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  14. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R 2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha -1 showed reduction of tile NO 3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  15. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following surface spreading and injection of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C D; Li, H; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Curnoe, W; Payne, M; Beck, A; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, D R

    2009-07-01

    Land application of municipal biosolids can be a source of environmental contamination by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined PPCP concentrations/temporally discrete mass loads in agricultural tile drainage systems where two applications of biosolids had previously taken place. The field plots received liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) in the fall of 2005 at an application rate of approximately 93,500 L ha (-1), and a second land application was conducted using dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) applied at a rate of approximately 8Mg dw ha (-1) in the summer of 2006 [corrected].The DMB land application treatments consisted of direct injection (DI) of the DMB beneath the soil surface at a nominal depth of approximately 0.11 m, and surface spreading (SS) plus subsequent tillage incorporation of DMB in the topsoil (approximately 0.10 m depth). The PPCPs examined included eight pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethoxazole), the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and two antibacterial personal care products triclosan and triclocarban. Residues of naproxen, cotinine, atenolol and triclosan originating from the fall 2005 LMB application were detected in tile water nearly nine months after application (triclocarban was not measured in 2005). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in PPCP mass loads among the two DMB land application treatments (i.e., SS vs. DI); although, average PPCP mass loads late in the study season (>100 days after application) were consistently higher for the DI treatment relative to the SS treatment. While the concentration of triclosan (approximately 14,000 ng g(-1) dw) in DMB was about twice that of triclocarban (approximately 8000 ng g(-1) dw), the average tile water concentrations for triclosan were much higher (43+/-5 ng L(-1)) than they were for triclocarban (0.73+/-0.14 ng L(-1)). Triclosan concentrations (maximum observed in 2006

  16. Curriculum Guide for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem. Div. of Community Colleges and Career Education.

    Developed through a cooperative effort by industry and education, this curriculum guide outlines the basic knowledge and skills necessary for entry-level competencies in the broad field of agriculture, or for entrance into a post-high school program. This guide is one of several developed for Oregon's new approach to secondary education called…

  17. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  18. Carbon pool and biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, land use, and agricultural abandonment in the neotropics

    Treesearch

    J.B. Kauffman; R.F. Hughes; C. Heider

    2009-01-01

    Current rates of deforestation and the resulting C emissions in the tropics exceed those of secondary forest regrowth and C sequestration. Changing land-use strategies that would maintain standing forests may be among the least expensive of climate change mitigation options. Further, secondary tropical forests have been suggested to have great value for their potential...

  19. Temporal variability of CO2 and N2O emissions in an agricultural long-term field trial regarding effects of different management practices and extreme weather effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2016-04-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, where the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices of an integrated farming system as well as the impacts of extreme weather conditions are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, is enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term integrated farming system trial was started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years have been examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for the experimental field to include weather effects. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions influenced by management

  20. Integrating Geomorphic and Social Dynamics in the Analysis of Anthropogenic Landforms: Examining Landscape Evolution of Terrain Modified by Agricultural Terracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaubius, J.; Maerker, M.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic landforms, such as mines and agricultural terraces, are impacted by both geomorphic and social processes at varying intensities through time. In the case of agricultural terraces, decisions regarding terrace maintenance are intertwined with land use, such as when terraced fields are abandoned. Furthermore, terrace maintenance and land use decisions, either jointly or separately, may be in response to geomorphic processes, as well as geomorphic feedbacks. Previous studies of these complex geomorphic systems considered agricultural terraces as static features or analyzed only the geomorphic response to landowner decisions. Such research is appropriate for short-term or binary landscape scenarios (e.g. the impact of maintained vs. abandoned terraces), but the complexities inherent in these socio-natural systems requires an approach that includes both social and geomorphic processes. This project analyzes feedbacks and emergent properties in terraced systems by implementing a coupled landscape evolution model (LEM) and agent-based model (ABM) using the Landlab and Mesa modeling libraries. In the ABM portion of the model, agricultural terraces are conceptualized using a life-cycle stages schema and implemented using Markov Decision Processes to simulate the changing geomorphic impact of terracing based on human decisions. This paper examines the applicability of this approach by comparing results from a LEM-only model against the coupled LEM-ABM model for a terraced region. Model results are compared by quantify and spatial patterning of sediment transport. This approach fully captures long-term landscape evolution of terraced terrain that is otherwise lost when the life-cycle of terraces is not considered. The coupled LEM-ABM approach balances both environmental and social processes so that the socio-natural feedbacks in such anthropogenic systems can be disentangled.