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Sample records for abandoned channel fill

  1. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  2. Human-induced stream channel abandonment/capture and filling of floodplain channels within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroes, Daniel E.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The Atchafalaya River Basin is a distributary system of the Mississippi River containing the largest riparian area in the lower Mississippi River Valley and the largest remaining forested bottomland in North America. Reductions in the area of open water in the Atchafalaya have been occurring over the last 100 years, and many historical waterways are increasingly filled by sediment. This study examines two cases of swamp channels (3/s) that are filling and becoming unnavigable as a result of high sediment loads and slow water velocities. The water velocities in natural bayous are further reduced because of flow capture by channels constructed for access. Bathymetry, flow, suspended sediment, deposited bottom-material, isotopes, and photointerpretation were used to characterize the channel fill. On average, water flowing through these two channels lost 23% of the suspended sediment load in the studied reaches. Along one of the studied reaches, two constructed access channels diverted significant flow out of the primary channel and into the adjacent swamp. Immediately downstream of each of the two access channels, the cross-sectional area of the studied channel was reduced. Isotopic analyses of bottom-material cores indicate that bed filling has been rapid and occurred after detectable levels of Cesium-137 were no longer being deposited. Interpretation of aerial photography indicates that water is bypassing the primary channels in favor of the more hydraulically efficient access channels, resulting in low or no-velocity flow conditions in the primary channel. These swamp channel conditions are typical in the Atchafalaya River Basin where relict large channel dimensions result in flow velocities that are normally too low to carry fine-grained sediment. Constructed channels increase the rate of natural channel avulsion and abandonment as a result of flow capture.

  3. Human-induced stream channel abandonment/capture and filling of floodplain channels within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroes, Daniel E.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    2013-11-01

    The Atchafalaya River Basin is a distributary system of the Mississippi River containing the largest riparian area in the lower Mississippi River Valley and the largest remaining forested bottomland in North America. Reductions in the area of open water in the Atchafalaya have been occurring over the last 100 years, and many historical waterways are increasingly filled by sediment. This study examines two cases of swamp channels (< 85 m3/s) that are filling and becoming unnavigable as a result of high sediment loads and slow water velocities. The water velocities in natural bayous are further reduced because of flow capture by channels constructed for access. Bathymetry, flow, suspended sediment, deposited bottom-material, isotopes, and photointerpretation were used to characterize the channel fill. On average, water flowing through these two channels lost 23% of the suspended sediment load in the studied reaches. Along one of the studied reaches, two constructed access channels diverted significant flow out of the primary channel and into the adjacent swamp. Immediately downstream of each of the two access channels, the cross-sectional area of the studied channel was reduced. Isotopic analyses of bottom-material cores indicate that bed filling has been rapid and occurred after detectable levels of Cesium-137 were no longer being deposited. Interpretation of aerial photography indicates that water is bypassing the primary channels in favor of the more hydraulically efficient access channels, resulting in low or no-velocity flow conditions in the primary channel. These swamp channel conditions are typical in the Atchafalaya River Basin where relict large channel dimensions result in flow velocities that are normally too low to carry fine-grained sediment. Constructed channels increase the rate of natural channel avulsion and abandonment as a result of flow capture.

  4. A Lower Rhine flood chronology based on the sedimentary record of an abandoned channel fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, W. H. J.; Winkels, T. G.; Prins, M. A.; de Groot, L. V.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cohen, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bienener Altrhein is an abandoned channel of the Lower Rhine (Germany). Following a late 16th century abandonment event, the channel was disconnected from the main stream and the oxbow lake gradually filled with 8 meters of flood deposits. This process still continues today. During annual floods, a limited proportion of overbank discharge is routed across the oxbow lake. Large floods produce individual flood layers, which are visually recognized in the sedimentary sequence. Based on the sedimentary characteristics of these event layers, we created a ~450-year flood chronology for the Lower Rhine. Laser-diffraction grain size measurements were used to assess relative flood magnitudes for individual flood event layers. Continuous sampling at a ~2 cm interval provided a high-resolution record, resolving the record at an annual scale. Standard descriptive techniques (e.g., mean grain size, 95th percentile, % sand) and the more advanced 'end member modelling' were applied to zoom in on the coarse particle bins in the grain size distributions, which are indicative of higher flow velocities. The most recent part of the record was equated to modern discharge measurements. This allows to establish relations between deposited grain size characteristics in the abandoned channel and flood magnitudes in the main river. This relation can also be applied on flood event layers from previous centuries, for which only water level measurements and historical descriptions exist. This makes this method relevant to expand data series used in flood frequency analysis from 100 years to more than 400 years. To date event-layers in the rapidly accumulated sequence, we created an age-depth model that uses organic content variations to tune sedimentation rates between the known basal and top ages. No suitable identifiable organic material for radiocarbon dating was found in the cores. Instead, palynological results (introduction of agricultural species) and palaeomagnetic secular

  5. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely

  6. Filling abandoned mines with fluidized bed combustion ash grout

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.D.; Reddy, T.P.; Black, D.C.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1998-10-01

    The hydraulic backfilling of abandoned room and pillar coal mines with ash-based grout holds promise as an environmentally beneficial method of ash disposal, capable of preventing acid mine drainage and subsidence. For this scheme to be economically viable, the grout must be sufficiently flowable so that mines can be filled from a small number of boreholes. This paper describes the development and testing of a water-ash-bentonite grout using ash from a coal and gob burning atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor. Bentonite was needed to prevent settling which would limit the ability of the grout to spread. Laboratory techniques were devised to measure the rheological parameters of the grout. A static model was developed to predict the maximum distance of spread due to gravity. A field injection of 765 m{sup 3} of grout into an inactive mine panel showed that the grout flows well enough to make hydraulic backfilling feasible.

  7. Channel morphology and flow structure of an abandoned channel under varying stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigan, Katie H.; Gerken, Joseph E.

    2016-07-01

    Abandoned channels are those channels left behind as meandering rivers migrate over their floodplains and remain among the most enigmatic features of the riverscape, especially related to their hydraulics and geomorphology. Abandoned channels are being considered and implemented as restoration and rehabilitation strategies for large rivers but we do not yet have a sound understanding of their hydromorphodynamics. The overall objectives of this work were to assess the bed morphology and flow structure of a large, dynamically connected abandoned channel (e.g., the channel is inundated during annual or decadal floods through bank overflow) under varying stages. Here we document the hydromorphodynamics of an abandoned channel during 3.4, 9.2, and 37.9 return interval discharges using an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Flow separation was observed along the channel entrance during the lowest flow surveying campaign but was not seen during the higher flow campaign. Width to depth ratio and channel width at the exit both progressively decreased from the first surveying campaign, despite the final campaign having the highest measured discharge. Large zones of flow stagnation and recirculation were observed, with depth-averaged velocity vectors not aligning in one direction, in the abandoned channel where water from the entrance was meeting water coming up from the exit during moderate discharges. The abandoned channel has been maintained for at least 25 years due to its low diversion angle and it being perched above the Kansas River. Results of this study provide insights of how flow hydraulics and physical characteristics of abandoned channel change under varying stages.

  8. Liquid-Filled Channels On Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggiali, V.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Hayes, A.; Seu, R.; Birch, S. P.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Flamini, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Grima, C.; Kargel, J. S.; Mullen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, has an active methane-based hydrologic cycle that drives processes and formation of landforms bearing striking similarities to hydrogeologic and meteorological processes and features on Earth. During a close flyby (~1400 km) in May 2013, Cassini's RADAR instrument observed the hydrocarbon sea Ligeia Mare using its altimetry mode. In addition to observing the sea, these observations also covered a sequence of channels pertaining to the Vid Flumina drainage basin. While radar images have been used to identify fluvial valleys in networks that extend for hundreds of kilometers, these images do not directly probe the existence or extent of any liquid-filled channels in the valleys. Herein, we use the Cassini altimetry over Vid Flumina to, for the first time, directly detect the presence of liquid-filled channels on Titan and characterize their width and geomorphologic context. Our discovery confirms that Titan does indeed have liquid filled channels in the present epoch. Steep-sided channels extend hundreds of meters below the surrounding terrain and in some cases exhibit canyon morphology. Liquid elevations in Vid Flumina and its lower tributaries are at the same level of Ligeia Mare to within the instrument vertical accuracy (~15m). We also find higher order tributaries that occur several hundred meters above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.

  9. Channel fill characteristics in submarine fans and deltas

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H.; Goddard, D. )

    1993-02-01

    Excellent data sources may not answer all pertinent questions and multifold seismic data usually cannot resolve internal characteristics of channel fills, even when it can detect the channel. Well log correlations can be wrong, especially when dealing with thin channel fills and outcrops are seldom sufficiently large to reveal a complete channel fill. In the final analysis, integration of all these types of data is necessary. Although not well understood, a lot of similarities exist between the channel fills from submarine fans and those from deltas. It is definitely beneficial to compare data from both environments. Channels and their fills can be: (1) primarily the result of major erosion forming an incisement that becomes gradually filled; (2) primarily the result of deposition, maintaining a channel, gradually filling it and simultaneously building its levees; (3) massive fill; (4) a bedded fill with or without an upward and/or lateral thinning or fining; or (5) a combination of thick bedded and thin bedded. Many channels alternate between erosional and depositional activities. Often an erosional cut is lined with shale, reducing fluid flow between channel sandstones and those of the levees. Also, a thorough knowledge of all of these varied processes is essential for the understanding of why [open quotes]massive[close quotes] channel fills can be wet and [open quotes]thin-bedded levees[close quotes] deposits oil prone.

  10. Interactions in quantum Hall edge channels at filling fraction 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiovanni, Pascal; Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Grenier, Charles; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Plaçais, Bernard; Cavanna, Antonella; Jin, Yong; Fève, Gwendal

    2013-03-01

    Coulomb interactions play a major role in one dimensional electronic transport. They modify the nature of the elementary excitations from Landau quasiparticles in higher dimensions to collective excitations in 1D. We report here on the direct observation of the collective neutral and charge modes of the two chiral co-propagating edge channels of opposite spins of the quantum Hall effect at filling factor ν = 2 . Generating a charge density wave at frequency f in the outer channel, we measure the current induced by inter-channel Coulomb interaction in the inner channel after a 3 microns propagation length. Varying the driving frequency from 0.7 to 11 GHz, we observe damped oscillations in the induced current that results from the phase shift between the fast charge and slow neutral eigenmodes. Measuring the dispersion relation and dissipation of the neutral mode from provides quantitative information on the scattering of quantum edge magnetoplasmons. We will then comment on the consequences of these results on quasi-particle relaxation and decoherence in the ν = 2 quantum Hall edge channel system. ANR Grant 1shot (ANR-2010-BLANC-0412)

  11. Electron occupancy of micro-structured helium-filled channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takita, Maika; Bradbury, F. R.; Lyon, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    The spins of electrons floating on the surface of superfluid helium have been suggested to be promising qubits. High charge transfer efficiency of electrons in a narrow channel clocked with underlying gates, has been previously reported.footnotetextG. Sabouret, F.R. Bradbury, S. Shankar, J.A. Bert, S.A. Lyon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 082104 (2008). We have fabricated similar devices with an array of parallel channels and small gaps between the underlying gates. These channels are filled with superfluid helium by capillary action, onto which electrons are photoemitted. Electrons are initially trapped by a gate (``door''), so that they capacitively couple to a sense gate which is the input of a cold HEMT preamplifier. An oscillatory potential applied to a third gate moves electrons on and off the sense gate to allow lock-in detection. Electrons are allowed to escape the sensing region by slowly ramping down the door barrier. Features in the electron occupancy signal correlate with the oscillatory drive voltage and preamp gain, and show evidence of discrete occupancy as the channels depopulate.

  12. Microchannel Technologies for Artificial Lungs: (2) Screen-filled Wide Rectangular Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kung, MC; Lee, JK; Kung, HH; Mockros, LF

    2009-01-01

    Artificial lungs with blood-side channels on a 10 to 40 μm scale would be characterized, similar to the natural lungs, by tens of thousands to hundreds of millions parallel blood channels, short blood paths, low pressure drops, and low blood primes. A major challenge for developing such devices is the requirement that the multitude of channels must be uniform from channel to channel and along each channel. One possible strategy for developing microchannel artificial lungs is to fill broad rectangular channels with micro scale screens that can provide uniform support and stability. The present work explores the effectiveness of 40 μm screen-filled blood-side channels and, as a comparison, 82 μm screen-filled channels. Small concept-devices, consisting of a single 69 mm wide and 3 or 6 mm long channel, were tested using 30% hematocrit blood and oxygen or air on the gas side. The measured oxygen fluxes in the devices were in the range of 4 to 9×10-7 moles/(min·cm2), with the latter close to the theoretical membrane limit. The pressure drop was in the range of 1 to 6 mmHg. Extrapolating the data to a device designed to process 4 L/min suggests a required blood prime of only 35 mL. PMID:18645355

  13. Single-step fabrication of microfluidic channels filled with nanofibrous membrane using femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, K.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new method of fabricating silicon microfluidic channels filled with a porous nanofibrous structure utilizing a femtosecond laser. The nanofibrous structure can act as a membrane used for microfiltration. This method allows us to generate both the microfluidic channel and the fibrous nanostructure in a single step under ambient conditions. Due to laser irradiation, a large number of nanoparticles ablate from the channel surface, and then aggregate and grow into porous nanofibrous structures and fill the channels. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was conducted to examine the oxygen concentration in the membrane structure. Our results demonstrated that by controlling the laser parameters including pulse repetition, pulse width and scanning speed, different microfluidic channels with a variety of porosity could be obtained.

  14. Vehicle type affects filling of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Uffe Høgh; Mogensen, Mette; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-04-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is an emerging method that enhances topical drug delivery. Penetrating the skin in microscopic, vertical channels, termed microscopic treatment zones (MTZs), the fractional technique circumvents the skin barrier and allows increased uptake of topically applied drugs. This study aims to elucidate the impact of vehicle type on the filling of MTZs from application of liquid, gel, and cream vehicles. Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser at 5% density, 120 μm beam diameter, and fluences of 40 and 80 mJ/microbeam (mJ/mb). Six repetitions were performed for each of six interventions (2 fluences and 3 vehicle types, n = 36). MTZ dimensions and filling by vehicle type were evaluated by optical coherence tomography, using blue tissue dye as a contrast-enhancing agent. Outcome measure was degree of MTZ filling assessed as percentages of empty, partially filled, and completely filled MTZs (108-127 MTZs/intervention analyzed) and evaluated statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. MTZs reached mid-dermal levels of 225 μm (40 mJ/mb) and 375 μm (80 mJ/mb) penetration depths (p < 0.0001). Filling of MTZs depended on type of applied vehicle. At 80 mJ/mb, liquid (67% completely filled, p < 0.01) and gel (60%, p < 0.05) formulations filled MTZs significantly better than cream formulation (31%). At 40 mJ/mb, liquid and gel formulations filled 90% (p < 0.05) and 77% (p > 0.05) of MTZs completely versus 55% for cream formulation. Thus, filling was overall greater for more superficial MTZs. In conclusion, vehicle type affects filling of MTZs, which may be of importance for AFXL-assisted drug delivery.

  15. Seismic facies of incised-channel fill deposits of paleo-Seomjin River in the South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung Ho; Kong, Gee Soo; Choul Kim, Dae; Lee, Gwang Soo; Yoo, Dong Geun

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution (Chirp and Sparker system) seismic profiles and piston core samples were analyzed to investigate the depositional environment of paleo-channel in the continental shelf of South Sea. Approximately 1,940 line-km data of chirp and sparker profiles was acquired. Along with seismic profiles, 20 piston core and 10 box core samples collected in 2015. The paleo-channel of Seomjin River is distributed in the continental shelf, with approximately 109 km long, 800-5,000 m wide, and more than 890 km2. The paleo-channel of meandering and straight type is dominant in the inner shelf while changed to braided type in the outer shelf. The paleo-channels in sparker seismic data formed presumably as fluvial systems when the shelf was exposed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The seismic facies of incision fill divided into five types basis of an erosional surface and internal seismic reflectors: (1) transparent to semi-transparent incised channel fill, (2) parallel to sub-parallel incised channel fill, (3) complex incised channel fill, (4) divergent incised channel fill, and (5) chaotic incised channel fill. The chaotic incised channel fill deposits are consists of gravel with shell fragments in the outer shelf and indicate the LGM to early transgressive (fluvial lag deposits). The complex incised channel fill deposits are dominated by sand and gravel with shell fragments in the mid to outer shelf. The cores which were obtained above the transparent to semi-transparent and parallel to sub-parallel incised channel fill deposits are dominated by mud. These types are dominant in the upstream (inner shelf). The acoustically transparent zones of this type with low-energy, passively infilling depositional environment, suggest the presence of basin muddy deposits. These muddy sediments were likely deposited during a more advanced stage of the Holocene transgression. Thus, the paleo-channel of Seomjin River is strongly controlled by sea-level change and sediment

  16. Pulsed submicrosecond multichannel sliding discharges of opposite polarities: Filling of the discharge gap with spark channels

    SciTech Connect

    Trusov, K. K.

    2012-05-15

    Results are presented from measurements of the discharge current and the factor of the discharge gap filling with spark channels during pulsed sliding discharges of opposite polarities in Ne, Ar, and Xe on an aluminum oxide ceramic surface. The measurements were performed in the regime of single pulses of submi-crosecond duration at discharge voltages of 0-12 kV with two discharge chambers with different thicknesses of the ceramic plate (0.4 and 0.17 cm) and different electrode gap lengths (4 and 10.3 cm) at gas pressures of 30 and 100 kPa. The results obtained for discharges of opposite polarities are compared with one another, and common features of discharges in three gases are revealed. It is shown that the filling of the discharge gap with spark channels in the gases under study is more efficient in the case of the positive polarity of the discharge voltage, except Xe at a pressure of 100 kPa in the electrode gap of length 10.3 cm. The quasi-homogeneous regime of discharge in each of the three gases is attained easier at lower gas pressures. Comparison of the data on the filling factors of the discharge gap and the peak currents of opposite-polarity discharges for each gas at a given pressure indicates that the higher the discharge current, the more densely the discharge gap is filled with spark channels.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Solvent-Filled Channels in Human Ferrochelatase

    SciTech Connect

    Medlock, Amy E.; Najahi-Missaoui, Wided; Ross, Teresa A.; Dailey, Tamara A.; Burch, Joseph; O’Brien, Jessica R.; Lanzilotta, William N.; Dailey, Harry A.

    2012-08-31

    Ferrochelatase catalyzes the formation of protoheme from two potentially cytotoxic products, iron and protoporphyrin IX. While much is known from structural and kinetic studies on human ferrochelatase of the dynamic nature of the enzyme during catalysis and the binding of protoporphyrin IX and heme, little is known about how metal is delivered to the active site and how chelation occurs. Analysis of all ferrochelatase structures available to date reveals the existence of several solvent-filled channels that originate at the protein surface and continue to the active site. These channels have been proposed to provide a route for substrate entry, water entry, and proton exit during the catalytic cycle. To begin to understand the functions of these channels, we investigated in vitro and in vivo a number of variants that line these solvent-filled channels. Data presented herein support the role of one of these channels, which originates at the surface residue H240, in the delivery of iron to the active site. Structural studies of the arginyl variant of the conserved residue F337, which resides at the back of the active site pocket, suggest that it not only regulates the opening and closing of active site channels but also plays a role in regulating the enzyme mechanism. These data provide insight into the movement of the substrate and water into and out of the active site and how this movement is coordinated with the reaction mechanism.

  18. Giant scour-fills in ancient channel-lobe transition zones: Formative processes and depositional architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstra, M.; Hodgson, D. M.; Peakall, J.; Flint, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    Scours are common features of modern deep-marine seascapes, particularly downstream of the mouths of slope channels within channel-lobe transition zones (CLTZs). Their dimensions can exceed hundreds of metres in width and length, and tens of metres in depth. However, the stratigraphic architecture of large (> 100 m width) scours have not been described in detail from exhumed CLTZs. Here, the infill of two erosional features (0.5-1 km long and 15-20 m thick) from the Permian Karoo Basin succession, South Africa, are presented from palaeogeographically well-constrained CLTZs; one from Fan 3 in the Tanqua depocentre and one from Unit A5 in the Laingsburg depocentre. The basal erosion surfaces of the features are asymmetric with steep, undulating, and composite upstream margins, and low gradient simple downstream margins. The basal infill consists of thin-bedded siltstone and sandstone beds cut by closely-spaced scours; these beds are interpreted as partially reworked fine grained tails of bypassing flows with evidence for flow deflection. The erosional features are interpreted as giant scour-fills. The Unit A5 scour-fill shows a simple cut-and-fill history with lateral and upward transitions from siltstone- to sandstone-prone deposits. In contrast, the Fan 3 scour-fill shows headward erosion and lengthening of the scour surface suggesting temporal changes in the interaction between turbidity currents and the scour surface. This relationship could support the occurrence of a hydraulic jump during scour formation, whilst the majority of the fill represents deposition from subcritical flows. Different scour preservation mechanisms can be used to explain the style of infill. The architecture, sedimentary facies and palaeoflow patterns of the scour-fills are distinctly different from well documented adjacent basin-floor channel-fills at the same stratigraphic levels. The recognition of scour-fills helps to constrain their sedimentological and stratigraphic expression in

  19. Darcy Flow in a Wavy Channel Filled with a Porous Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Donald D; Ogretim, Egemen; Bromhal, Grant S

    2013-05-17

    Flow in channels bounded by wavy or corrugated walls is of interest in both technological and geological contexts. This paper presents an analytical solution for the steady Darcy flow of an incompressible fluid through a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium filling a channel bounded by symmetric wavy walls. This packed channel may represent an idealized packed fracture, a situation which is of interest as a potential pathway for the leakage of carbon dioxide from a geological sequestration site. The channel walls change from parallel planes, to small amplitude sine waves, to large amplitude nonsinusoidal waves as certain parameters are increased. The direction of gravity is arbitrary. A plot of piezometric head against distance in the direction of mean flow changes from a straight line for parallel planes to a series of steeply sloping sections in the reaches of small aperture alternating with nearly constant sections in the large aperture bulges. Expressions are given for the stream function, specific discharge, piezometric head, and pressure.

  20. Use of the channel fill level in defining a design space for twin screw wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, L J; Kee, G S; Saleh, M F; Fa, N H; Elkes, R G

    2017-03-15

    Twin screw wet granulation is a key process in the continuous manufacture of oral solid dosage forms. Previous research has qualitatively suggested that the channel fill level influences the granules produced. In this paper a quantitative measure of the total volumetric fraction of the conveying element channels of the screw filled with powder (φ) was used. Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that very similar particle size distributions can be obtained at the same φ with the same material and screw configuration but radically different solids feed rates and screw speeds. Morphology of the granules also correlates with φ. This is consistent with previous observations in the literature correlating granule attributes with powder feed rate and screw speed but also considers the two parameters in combination. A process design space approach based on φ is proposed. This can be determined empirically, and potentially has value in setting process control strategies, assuring process robustness and allowing process flexibility during the product lifecycle.

  1. Studies of a gas-filled helical muon beam cooling channel

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Derbenev, Y.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.J.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2006-06-01

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) can quickly reduce the six dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. The HCC is composed of solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole magnetic fields to provide the focusing and dispersion needed for emittance exchange as the beam follows an equilibrium helical orbit through a continuous homogeneous absorber. The beam dynamics of a gas-filled helical muon beam cooling channel is studied by using Monte Carlo simulations. The results verify the cooling theory [1] of the helical magnet. The cooling performance has been improved by correcting chromatic aberration and the non-linear effects caused by the ionization energy loss process. With these improvements, a simulated cooling channel of 160 meters length has achieved a reduction of 6-dimensional (6D) phase space by a factor of 50,000.

  2. Bubble absorption by an air-filled helically-supported capillary channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Negar; Thiessen, David

    2016-11-01

    Gas-liquid phase separation under microgravity conditions where buoyancy is not active represents a challenge for two-phase liquid-continuous space systems. Similar challenges are present in micro-scale electrochemical systems on Earth that generate gas bubbles in geometries where surface tension prevails over gravity. A possible ground-based application would be the removal of carbon dioxide bubbles from large aspect ratio channels in a direct-methanol fuel cell that could otherwise occlude the channel. In this study we use a 3-mm diameter stretched stainless-steel spring coated with a superhydrophobic layer to create a helically-supported capillary channel. Such a channel that is submerged in water and filled with air while vented to the atmosphere was found to absorb a stream of 2.5-mm diameter air bubbles at a rate of at least 36 bubbles/s. An optical detector and high-speed imaging system have been used to study bubble absorption dynamics. A significant finding is that the initial attachment of the bubble to the channel that involves the rupture of a thin film of water happens in less than 1 ms. The rapid rupture of the water film separating the bubble from the channel might be attributed to the roughness of the hydrophobic coating.

  3. Dynamics of Elastic Beams with Embedded Fluid-Filled Parallel-Channel Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gat, Amir D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A pressurized fluid-filled parallel-channel network embedded in an elastic beam, asymmetrically to the neutral plane, will create a deformation field within the beam. Deformation due to embedded fluidic networks is currently studied in the context of soft actuators and soft-robotic applications. Expanding on this concept, configurations can be designed so that the pressure in the channel network is created directly from external forces acting on the beam, and thus can be viewed as passive solid–fluid composite structures. We approximate the deformation of such structures and relate the fluid pressure and geometry of the network to a continuous deformation-field function. This enables the design of networks creating steady arbitrary deformation fields as well as to eliminate deformation created by external time-varying forces, thus increasing the effective rigidity of the beam. In addition, by including the effects of the deformation created by the channel network on the beam inertia, we can modify the response of the beam to external time-varying forces. We present a scheme to design channel networks that create predefined oscillating deformation patterns in response to external oscillating forces. The ability to include inertial effects is relevant to the design of dynamic soft robots and soft actuators. Our results are illustrated and validated by numerical computations. PMID:27625914

  4. Combustion in a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, C.; Ciccarelli, G.

    2008-07-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the combustion propagation phenomenon in a horizontal channel partially filled with ceramic-oxide spherical beads. A 1.22 m long, 43 mm nominally thick layer of spherical beads is located at the ignition end of a 2.44 m long, 76 mm square channel. Tests were performed with 6.4 and 12.7 mm diameter beads. A flame is ignited at the bead end wall by an automotive spark ignition system. Flame propagation and pressure measurements are obtained via ionization probes and piezoelectric pressure transducers mounted on the top and bottom surfaces of the channel. High-speed schlieren video was used to visualize the structure of the explosion front. Experiments were performed with a 31% nitrogen diluted stoichiometric methane oxygen mixture at room temperature and at an initial pressure in the range of 15 50 kPa. For initial pressures of 15 and 20 kPa the flame accelerates to a velocity close to the speed of sound in the combustion products. For initial pressure of 30 kPa and higher DDT occurs in the gap above the bead layer. An explosion front propagating at a velocity just under the CJ detonation velocity is detected in the bead layer even though the bead layer pore size is much smaller than the detonation cell size. It is demonstrated that flame propagation within the bead layer is the driving force behind the very rapid flame acceleration observed, however the DDT event occurring in the gap above the bead layer is not affected by the bead layer porosity. Schlieren video indicates that the structure of the explosion front varies across the channel height and with propagation distance down the channel.

  5. Mathematical simulation of nonisothermal filling of plane channel with non-Newtonian fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzenko, E.; Ryltseva, K.; Frolov, O.; Shrager, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the fountain flow of a non-Newtonian fluid during the filling of a plane vertical channel with due account of dissipative heating is investigated. The rheological features of the medium are defined by Ostwald de Waele power-law with exponential temperature dependence of viscosity. The numerical solution of the problem is obtained using a finite-difference method, based on the SIMPLE algorithm, and the method of invariants for compliance with the natural boundary conditions on free surface. It was shown that the flow separates into a two-dimensional flow zone in the vicinity of the free surface and a onedimensional flow zone away from it. The parametrical investigations of kinematic and thermophysical properties of the flow and the dependence of the free surface behavior on the basic criteria and rheological parameters are implemented.

  6. Nd:YAG laser in endodontics: filling-material edge bordering on a root channel laser cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrei V.; Sinelnik, Yuri A.; Moroz, Boris T.; Pavlovskaya, Irina V.

    1997-12-01

    For the very first time it is represented a study of filling material edge bordering upon root channel cavity modified with a laser. As a filling material it is used a glass ionomer cement. It is demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser radiation effects on increase of grade of edge bordering on the average of 20 - 30% at temperature rise of no more than 2 - 3 degrees in periodontium area in a period of operation.

  7. Unsteadiness and transition to turbulence in woven spacer filled channels for Membrane Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofalo, M.; Ponzio, F.; Tamburini, A.; Cipollina, A.; Micale, G.

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the performance of Membrane Distillation (MD) modules, channels filled with woven spacers were investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (including Direct Numerical Simulations and the use of the SST k-ω turbulence model) and by parallel experiments with Thermochromic Liquid Crystals. The cases considered here regard mutually orthogonal filaments with a spacer pitch to channel height ratio P/H=2, two spacer orientations θ with respect to the main flow (0° and 45°), and bulk Reynolds numbers Re from ∼200 to ∼2000, an interval of great interest in practical MD applications. For both values of θ, CFD predicted steady-state flow for Re up to ∼300, and chaotic flow for Re larger than ∼400. In the intermediate range Re≈300-400, periodic flow regimes were predicted for both orientations. These regimes were of particular interest and complexity, as they exhibited a slow global oscillation of the flow superimposed on high order harmonics corresponding to fast local oscillations. Experiments confirmed the appearance of unsteadiness for Re>∼300. Heat transfer and friction were little affected by unsteadiness and exhibited a smooth behaviour with Re. The agreement with the experimental results was good using DNS, and acceptable using RANS.

  8. [Eru somparative analysis of efficiency of various methods of operative access in cases of complications after filling material extrusion into mandibular channel].

    PubMed

    Grigor'iants, L A; Sirak, S V

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of efficiency of various methods of operative access to mandibular channel is presented in the framework of the surgical help to the patients with complications endodontic treatment in the form of some filling material extrusion into mandibular channel.

  9. Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the United States. The goals of this study were to 1) compare the structure and function of natural and constructed stream channels in forested and MTR/VF catch...

  10. Effect of oscillation on semi-infinite bubble motion in a liquid filled channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Harvey; Smith, Bryan; Zimmer, Maximillian, IV; Gaver, Donald, III

    2001-11-01

    In premature neonates who have respiratory distress syndrome it is frequently necessary to artificially ventilate the lungs. This involves oscillatory driving of air into liquid-occluded airways. We present a computational study of the oscillatory motion of a semi-infinite gas bubble in a horizontal channel of width 2a filled with a Newtonian liquid of viscosity μ and constant surface tension γ assuming small inertia. The unsteady bubble motion is studied by prescribing an unsteady volume flux Q(t)=Q_m+Q_Ωsin(ω t). The nondimensional system is governed by two capillary numbers Ca_m=μ Q_m/(2γ a) and Ca_Ω=μ Q_Ω/(2γ a) and a frequency Ω=μω a/γ. We investigate the dynamics for fixed stroke length A=2Ca_Ω/Ω at different frequencies Ω. For Ca_m>0 and Ca_Ω>0, we report a frequency dependent increase in the cycle-averaged thin film height compared to the equivalent steady-state result. For Ca_m=0 and Ca_Ω > 0 we report that oscillation stabilizes the thin liquid film surrounding the bubble. Here, we demonstrate how small stroke-length-oscillation dynamics can be decomposed into a time-dependent mean; and a frequency dependent oscillatory component.

  11. Kinetics of water filling the hydrophobic channels of narrow carbon nanotubes studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kefei; Zhou, Bo; Xiu, Peng; Qi, Wenpeng; Wan, Rongzheng; Fang, Haiping

    2010-11-01

    The kinetics of water filling narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The time required to fully fill a nanotube was linear with respect to the tube length. We observed that water molecules could enter into nanotubes of different lengths, either from one end or from both ends. The probability of having a nanotube filled completely from both ends increased exponentially with the tube length. For short tubes, filling usually proceeded from only one end. For long tubes, filling generally proceeded from both tube ends over three stages, i.e., filling from one end, filling from both ends, and filling from both ends with the dipole reorientation of water molecules to give a concerted ordering within the fully filled tube. The water molecules in the partially filled nanotube were hydrogen bonded similarly to those in the fully filled nanotube. Simulations for the reference Lennard-Jones fluid without hydrogen bonds were also performed and showed that the filling behavior of water molecules can be attributed to strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  12. Experimental and numerical characterization of the water flow in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membranes.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Szilard S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Marston, Jeremy O; Radu, Andrea I; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-12-15

    Micro-scale flow distribution in spacer-filled flow channels of spiral-wound membrane modules was determined with a particle image velocimetry system (PIV), aiming to elucidate the flow behaviour in spacer-filled flow channels. Two-dimensional water velocity fields were measured in a flow cell (representing the feed spacer-filled flow channel of a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module without permeate production) at several planes throughout the channel height. At linear flow velocities (volumetric flow rate per cross-section of the flow channel considering the channel porosity, also described as crossflow velocities) used in practice (0.074 and 0.163 m·s(-1)) the recorded flow was laminar with only slight unsteadiness in the upper velocity limit. At higher linear flow velocity (0.3 m·s(-1)) the flow was observed to be unsteady and with recirculation zones. Measurements made at different locations in the flow cell exhibited very similar flow patterns within all feed spacer mesh elements, thus revealing the same hydrodynamic conditions along the length of the flow channel. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using the same geometries and flow parameters as the experiments, based on steady laminar flow assumption. The numerical results were in good agreement (0.85-0.95 Bray-Curtis similarity) with the measured flow fields at linear velocities of 0.074 and 0.163 m·s(-1), thus supporting the use of model-based studies in the optimization of feed spacer geometries and operational conditions of spiral wound membrane systems.

  13. Channel-fill coal beds along the western margin of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eble, C.F.; Greb, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Four channel-filling coal beds from the lower part of the Breathitt Formation (lower Middle Pennsylvanian, late Westphalian A) were examined palynologically, petrographically and geochemically to determine the paleoenvironmental conditions under which these peats accumulated. These results were then compared with detailed sedimentological analyses of the strata overlying the coal in the channels to see if any genetic relationship between coal composition and the origin of the overburden could be drawn. All four of the coal beds used in this study are located in the western-most part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field and occur at, or near, the Early Pennsylvanian unconformity (0-30 m). Lycospora and Densosporites (and related crassicingulate taxa, e.g. Cristatisporites, Cingulizonates and Radiizonates) dominate the studied assemblages, with Granulatisporites (and related trilete, sphaerotriangular genera, e.g. Leiotriletes and Lophotriletes), Laevigatosporites and Schulzospora being common accessory genera. Petrographically, all four coals contain high percentages of vitrinite macerals (avg. 78.6% mineral matter free), moderate amounts of liptinite (or exinite) macerals (avg. 14.9%, mmf) and low percentages of inertinite macerals (avg. 6.5%, mmf). Strata above the coals consist of dark, carbonaceous shales, and heterolithic strata that exhibit varying degrees of bioturbation. Commonly occurring trace fossils include Arenicolites, Monocraterion, Planolites and Skolithos. Although marine-influenced strata, as determined from detailed sedimentology and ichnology (the study of trace fossils), covers all four coal beds, they are not uniformly high in total total sulfur content as might be expected. Rather they are extremely variable, ranging from 1-9% (dry basis) total sulfur. Ash yields are also variable ranging from 6.2-54.3% (dry basis). It is probable that the origin of the very first sediments covering the peat, as well as the amount of brackish water influence

  14. Safety analysis of high pressure 3He-filled micro-channels for thermal neutron detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferko, Scott M.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2008-11-01

    This document is a safety analysis of a novel neutron detection technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories. This technology is comprised of devices with tiny channels containing high pressure {sup 3}He. These devices are further integrated into large scale neutron sensors. Modeling and preliminary device testing indicates that the time required to detect the presence of special nuclear materials may be reduced under optimal conditions by several orders of magnitude using this approach. Also, these devices make efficient use of our {sup 3}He supply by making individual devices more efficient and/or extending the our limited {sup 3}He supply. The safety of these high pressure devices has been a primary concern. We address these safety concerns for a flat panel configuration intended for thermal neutron detection. Ballistic impact tests using 3 g projectiles were performed on devices made from FR4, Silicon, and Parmax materials. In addition to impact testing, operational limits were determined by pressurizing the devices either to failure or until they unacceptably leaked. We found that (1) sympathetic or parasitic failure does not occur in pressurized FR4 devices (2) the Si devices exhibited benign brittle failure (sympathetic failure under pressure was not tested) and (3) the Parmax devices failed unacceptably. FR4 devices were filled to pressures up to 4000 + 100 psig, and the impacts were captured using a high speed camera. The brittle Si devices shattered, but were completely contained when wrapped in thin tape, while the ductile FR4 devices deformed only. Even at 4000 psi the energy density of the compressed gas appears to be insignificant compared to the impact caused by the incoming projectile. In conclusion, the current FR4 device design pressurized up to 4000 psi does not show evidence of sympathetic failure, and these devices are intrinsically safe.

  15. Irreversibility analysis of hydromagnetic flow of couple stress fluid with radiative heat in a channel filled with a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eegunjobi, A. S.; Makinde, O. D.

    Numerical analysis of the intrinsic irreversibility of a mixed convection hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting couple stress fluid through upright channel filled with a saturated porous medium and radiative heat transfer was carried out. The thermodynamics first and second laws were employed to examine the problem. We obtained the dimensionless nonlinear differential equations and solves numerically with shooting procedure joined with a fourth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme. The temperature and velocity obtained, used to analyse the entropy generation rate together with some various physical parameters of the flow. Our results are presented graphically and talk over.

  16. The Deformation of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Microfluidic Channels Filled with Embedded Circular Obstacles under Certain Circumstances.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun; Lee, Jaewoong; Kang, Chankyu

    2016-06-18

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the influence of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels containing aligned circular obstacles (with diameters of 172 µm and 132 µm) on the flow velocity and pressure drop under steady-state flow conditions. A significant PDMS bulging was observed when the fluid flow initially contacted the obstacles, but this phenomenon decreased in the 1 mm length of the microfluidic channels when the flow reached a steady-state. This implies that a microfluidic device operating with steady-state flows does not provide fully reliable information, even though less PDMS bulging is observed compared to quasi steady-state flow. Numerical analysis of PDMS bulging using ANSYS Workbench showed a relatively good agreement with the measured data. To verify the influence of PDMS bulging on the pressure drop and flow velocity, theoretical analyses were performed and the results were compared with the experimental results. The measured flow velocity and pressure drop data relatively matched well with the classical prediction under certain circumstances. However, discrepancies were generated and became worse as the microfluidic devices were operated under the following conditions: (1) restricted geometry of the microfluidic channels (i.e., shallow channel height, large diameter of obstacles and a short microchannel length); (2) operation in quasi-steady state flow; (3) increasing flow rates; and (4) decreasing amount of curing agent in the PDMS mixture. Therefore, in order to obtain reliable data a microfluidic device must be operated under appropriate conditions.

  17. Growth and Filling Regularities of Filamentary Channels in Non-Metallic Inorganic Coatings Under Anodic Oxidation of Valve Metals. Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Kolenchin, N. F.; Chubenko, A. K.; Kovalskaya, Ya. B.; Dolgova, Yu. N.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical models are developed for growth and filling processes in filamentary channels of nanostructured non-metallic coatings produced by anodizing and microplasma oxidation. Graphical concentration distributions are obtained for channel-reacting anions, cations, and sparingly soluble reaction products depending on the time of electric current transmission and the length of the filamentary channel. Graphical distributions of the front moving velocity for the sparingly soluble compound are presented. The resulting model representation increases the understanding of the anodic process nature and can be used for a description and prediction of porous anodic film growth and filling. It is shown that the character of the filamentary channel growth and filling causes a variety of processes determining the textured metal - nonmetallic inorganic coating phase boundary formation.

  18. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  19. Multiplexed hydraulic valve actuation using ionic liquid filled soft channels and Braille displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wei; Chen, Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung; Meiners, Jens-Christian; Takayama, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic actuation with multilayer soft lithography enables operation of up to thousands of valves in parallel using far fewer control lines. However, it is dependent on macroscopic switches and external pressure sources that require interconnects and limit portability. The authors present a more portable and multiplexed valve actuation strategy that uses a grid of mechanically actuated Braille pins to hydraulically, rather than pneumatically, deform elastic actuation channels that act as valves. Experimental and theoretical analyses show that the key to reliable operation of the hydraulic system is the use of nonvolatile ionic liquids as the hydraulic fluid.

  20. Heat and mass transfer in a vertical double passage channel filled with electrically conducting fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umavathi, Jawali C.; Kumar, J. Prathap; Sheremet, Mikhail A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of first order chemical reaction in a vertical double passage channel in the presence of applied electric field. The wall and ambient medium are maintained at constant but different temperatures and concentrations and the heat and mass transfer occur from the wall to the medium. The channel is divided into two passages by means of a thin perfectly conducting baffle. The coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved analytically by using regular perturbation method (PM) valid for small values of Brinkman number. To understand the flow structure for large values of Brinkman number the governing equations are also solved by differential transform method (DTM) which is a semi-analytical method. The effects of thermal Grashof number (GrT = 1 , 5 , 10 , 15), mass Grashof number (GrC = 1 , 5 , 10 , 15), Brinkman number (Br = 0 , 0.1 , 0.5 , 1), first order chemical reaction parameter (α = 0.1 , 0.5 , 1 , 1.5), Hartmann number (M = 4 , 6 , 8 , 10) and electrical field load parameter (E = - 2 , - 1 , 0 , 1 , 2) on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles, volumetric flow rate, total heat rate, skin friction and Nusselt number are analyzed. It was found that the thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and Brinkman number enhances the flow whereas the Hartmann number and chemical reaction parameter suppresses the flow ​field. Also the obtained results have revealed that the heat transfer enhancement depends on the baffle position.

  1. In-situ biofouling assessment in spacer filled channels using optical coherence tomography (OCT): 3D biofilm thickness mapping.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Luca; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-04-01

    Membrane systems for water purification can be seriously hampered by biofouling. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate biofilms in membrane systems has recently increased due to the ability to do the characterization in-situ and non-destructively. The OCT biofilm thickness map is presented for the first time as a tool to assess biofilm spatial distribution on a surface. The map allows the visualization and evaluation of the biofilm formation and growth in membrane filtration systems through the use of a false color scale. The biofilm development was monitored with OCT to evaluate the suitability of the proposed approach. A 3D time series analysis of biofilm development in a spacer filled channel representative of a spiral-wound membrane element was performed. The biofilm thickness map enables the time-resolved and spatial-resolved evaluation and visualization of the biofilm deposition pattern in-situ non-destructively.

  2. Studies of a Gas-filled Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Johnson; K. Paul; T.J. Roberts; Y.S. Derbenev; K. Yonehara

    2006-06-26

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) can quickly reduce the six dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. The HCC is composed of solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole magnetic fields to provide the focusing and dispersion needed for emittance exchange as the beam follows an equilibrium helical orbit through a continuous homogeneous absorber. We consider liquid helium and liquid hydrogen absorbers in HCC segments that alternate with RF accelerating sections and we also consider gaseous hydrogen absorber in pressurized RF cavities imbedded in HCC segments. In the case of liquid absorber, the possibility of using superconducting RF in low magnetic field regions between the HCC segments may provide a cost effective solution to the high repetition rate needed for an intense neutrino factory or high average luminosity muon collider. In the gaseous hydrogen absorber case, the pressurized RF cavities can be operated at low temperature to improve their efficiency for higher repetition rates. Numerical simulations are used to optimize and compare the liquid and gaseous HCC techniques.

  3. Incised channel fills containing conifers indicate that seasonally dry vegetation dominated Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.; Looy, C.V.; Ames, P.R.; DiMichele, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The idea that the Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands were temporally dominated by rainforest (i.e., the Coal Forest) is deeply ingrained in the literature. Here we challenge two centuries of research by suggesting that this concept is based on a taphonomic artifact, and that seasonally dry vegetation dominated instead. This controversial finding arises from the discovery of a new middle Pennsylvanian (Moscovian) fossil plant assemblage in southeast Illinois, United States. The assemblage, which contains xerophytic walchian conifers, occurs in channels incised into a calcic Vertisol below the Baker Coal. These plants grew on seasonally dry tropical lowlands inferred to have developed during a glacial phase. This xerophytic flora differs markedly from that of the typical clubmoss-dominated Coal Forest developed during deglaciation events. Although preserved only very rarely, we argue that such xerophytic floras were temporally as dominant, and perhaps more dominant, than the iconic Coal Forests, which are overrepresented in the fossil record due to taphonomic megabias. These findings require the iconography of Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands to be redrawn. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  4. Constructing Ionic Liquid-Filled Proton Transfer Channels within Nanocomposite Membrane by Using Functionalized Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjia; Li, Yifan; Chen, Pingping; Liu, Jindun; Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Haoqin

    2016-01-13

    Herein, nanocomposite membranes are fabricated based on functionalized graphene oxides (FGOs) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), followed by being impregnated with imidazole-type ionic liquid (IL). The functional groups (acidic group or basic group) on FGOs generate strong interfacial interactions with SPEEK chains and then adjust their motion and stacking. As a result, the nanocomposite membranes possess tunable interfacial domains as determined by its free volume characteristic, which provides regulated location for IL storage. The stored ILs act as hopping sites for water-free proton conduction along the FGO-constructed interfacial channels. The microstructure at SPEEK-FGO interface governs the IL uptake and distribution in nanocomposite membrane. Different from GO and vinyl imidazole functionalized GO (VGO), the presence of acidic (-SO3H) groups confers the p-styrenesulfonic acid functionalized GO (SGO) incorporated nanocomposite membrane loose interface and strong electrostatic attraction with imidazole-type IL, imparting an enhanced IL uptake and anhydrous proton conductivity. Nanocomposite membrane containing 7.5% SGO attains the maximum IL uptake of 73.7% and hence the anhydrous conductivity of 21.9 mS cm(-1) at 150 °C, more than 30 times that of SPEEK control membrane (0.69 mS cm(-1)). In addition, SGOs generate electrostatic attractions to the ILs confined within SGO-SPEEK interface, affording the nanocomposite membrane enhanced IL retention ability.

  5. Influence of filling ratio and working fluid thermal properties on starting up and heat transferring performance of closed loop plate oscillating heat pipe with parallel channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Weixiu; Pan, Lisheng

    2017-02-01

    Using ethanol or acetone as the working fluid, the performance of starting up and heat transfer of closed-loop plate oscillating heat pipe with parallel channels (POHP-PC) were experimentally investigated by varying filling ratio, inclination, working fluids and heating power. The performance of the tested pulsating heat pipe was mainly evaluated by thermal resistance and wall temperature. Heating copper block and cold water bath were adopted in the experimental investigations. It was found that oscillating heat pipe with filling ratio of 50% started up earlier than that with 70% when heating input was 159.4 W, however, it has similar starting up performance with filling ratio of 50% as compared to 70% on the condition of heat input of 205.4 W. And heat pipe with filling ratio of 10% could not start up but directly transit to dry burning. A reasonable filling ratio range of 35%‒70% was needed in order to achieve better performance, and there are different optimal filling ratios with different heating inputs - the more heating input, the higher optimal filling ratio, and vice versa. However, the dry burning appeared easily with low filling ratio, especially at very low filling ratio, such as 10%. And higher filling ratio, such as 70%, resulted in higher heat transfer ( dry burning ) limit. With filling ratio of 70% and inclination of 75°, oscillating heat pipe with acetone started up with heating input of just 24W, but for ethanol, it needed to be achieved 68 W, Furthermore, the start time with acetone was similar as compared to that with ethanol. For steady operating state, the heating input with acetone was about 80 W, but it transited to dry burning state when heating input was greater than 160 W. However, for ethanol, the heating input was in vicinity of 160 W. Furthermore, thermal resistance with acetone was lower than that with ethanol at the same heating input of 120 W.

  6. Selective filling for patterning in microfluidic channels and integration of chromatography in "lab-on-a-chip" devices using sol-gel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Rohit

    The last decade has seen tremendous advancement in the development of miniaturized chemical analysis system also known as "lab-on-a-chip". It is believed that the true potential of these devices will be achieved by integrating various functions such as separation, reaction, sensing, mixing, pumping, injection and detection onto a single chip. The ability to pattern different functionalities is indispensable for the development of highly integrated devices. In this work, a simple method based on the concept of selective filling is described for patterning in the microfluidic channels. It is based on the difference in the free energy of filling between an open and a covered part of the channel. This method was used for the integration of chromatography in the microfluidic devices. A chromatographic column was realized by utilizing sol-gel as an immobilization matrix for entrapping reversed phase chromatographic particles. Localization of the stationary phase was achieved using the selective filling technique. Channels were fabricated in quartz using photolithography and wet etching. Electroosmotic flow was used for manipulating fluid movement in the channels. Cross channel design was used for making a pulse injection of the solutes in the separation channel. An optical fiber setup was developed for carrying out on-chip UV absorbance detection. Stationary phase was created under different sol-gel synthesis conditions. It was established that the sol-gel synthesis carried out under acidic conditions provides the optimum synthesis conditions for creating separation column. Chromatographic performance of the stationary phase material was demonstrated by separating peptides present in a mixture. The sol-gel immobilization method was extended for the integration of micropump in the chip. The micropump enables pumping of the fluid in field free channels. Preliminary results, demonstrating the potential of carbon nanotubes as a support material in the microfluidic channels

  7. Morphodynamic modeling of fluvial channel fill and avulsion time scales during early Holocene transgression, as substantiated by the incised valley stratigraphy of the Trinity River, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Kaitlin E.; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Perillo, Mauricio M.; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Anderson, John B.

    2017-01-01

    The Trinity River system provides a natural laboratory for linking fluvial morphodynamics to stratigraphy produced by sea-level rise, because the sediments occupying the Trinity incised valley are well constrained in terms of timing of deposition and facies distribution. Herein, the Trinity River is modeled for a range of base-level rise rates, avulsion thresholds, and water discharges to explore the effects of backwater-induced in-channel sedimentation on channel avulsion. The findings are compared to observed sediment facies to evaluate the capability of a morphodynamic model to reproduce sediment deposition patterns. Base-level rise produces mobile locations of in-channel sedimentation and deltaic channel avulsions. For scenarios characteristic of early Holocene sea-level rise (4.3 mm yr-1), the Trinity fluvial-deltaic system progrades 13 m yr-1, followed by backstepping of 27 m yr-1. Avulsion is reached at the position of maximum sediment deposition (located 108 km upstream of the outlet) after 3,548 model years, based on sedimentation filling 30% of the channel. Under scenarios of greater base-level rise, avulsion is impeded because the channel fill threshold is never achieved. Accounting for partitioning of bed-material sediment between the channel and floodplain influences the timing and location of avulsion over millennial time scales: the time to avulsion is greatly increased. Sedimentation patterns within the valley, modeled and measured, indicate preference toward sandy bed material, and the rates of deposition are substantiated by previous measurements. Although the results here are specific to the Trinity River, the analysis provides a framework that is adaptable to other lowland fluvial-deltaic systems.

  8. Numerical investigation on laminar round-jet impinging on a surface at uniform heat flux in a channel partially filled with a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonomo, B.; Diana, A.; Manca, O.; Nardini, S.

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal channel partially filled with porous media and a single round jet impinging on the porous medium are numerically investigated. The wall facing the round jet is partially heated at uniform heat flux. A two-dimensional axial symmetric flow in the channel is assumed to evaluate the thermal behavior within the channel. The analysis in the porous medium is accomplished in local thermal equilibrium conditions and under the Brinkman–Forchheimer-extended Darcy law assumption. The problem is solved employing the Ansys-Fluent code. Results are given in terms of stream function and temperature fields of fluid and solid matrix, wall temperature profiles, air velocity and temperature profiles along the transversal section of channel. The Peclet number ranges from 1 to 1000 and Rayleigh number values are 10, 50, 100 and 1000. Reynolds jet number, solid wall distance and wall heat flux effects on thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors are investigated. Results indicate that Nusselt number has the highest value for the channel with a porous medium of thickness equal to the channel gap, whereas it presents very small changes increasing the porous medium length on the heated wall. Correlations among average Nusselt, Peclet and Rayleigh numbers are proposed.

  9. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  10. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  11. Structural and Functional Characteristics of Natural and Constructed Channels Draining a Reclaimed Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the USA. Among the changes are large-scale topographic recontouring, burial of headwater streams, and degradation of downstream water quality. The goals of our ...

  12. The Fusobacterium nucleatum major outer-membrane protein (FomA) forms trimeric, water-filled channels in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Kleivdal, H; Benz, R; Jensen, H B

    1995-10-01

    The pore-forming activity of the major outer-membrane protein FomA of the anaerobic Fusobacterium nucleatum was studied in artificial lipid bilayer membranes. FomA was isolated from F. nucleatum strains Fev1, ATCC 10953, and ATCC 25586 by extraction with lithium dodecyl sulfate and lithium chloride and had an apparent molecular mass of about 40 kDa. When solubilized at low temperatures, the protein ran with an apparent molecular mass of about 62 kDa on SDS/PAGE. Cross-linking experiments and two-dimensional SDS/PAGE gave evidence that the 62-kDa protein band represented the trimeric form of FomA. The protein trimers were susceptible to SDS and temperature. The stability of the porin trimers varied among the strains. The properties of the FomA channels were studied in reconstitution experiments with black lipid bilayer membranes. The F. nucleatum porins formed channels with single-channel conductances in the range 0.66-1.30 nS in M KCl. The single-channel conductance was a function of the mobilities of the ions present in the aqueous solution bathing the bilayer membrane. This means that FomA forms general diffusion channels since (a) the conductance showed a linear dependence on the salt concentration, (b) the ion selectivity was small and varied for the three strains, and (c) the channels did not exhibit any binding site for maltotriose or triglycine. The water-filled channel was voltage dependent, and conductance decrements were observed at transmembrane potentials of +/- 50 mV. The conductance decrement steps were about one-third of the total conductance of a functional unit in its fully 'open' state. This strongly suggests that the trimer is the functional unit of the porin.

  13. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  14. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  15. Abandoning the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Barton, R

    1975-12-01

    Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.

  16. Magnetic field effect on Poiseuille flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes along a vertical channel filled with Casson fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, Sidra; Khan, Ilyas; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alghamdi, Metib Said

    2017-01-01

    Applications of carbon nanotubes, single walls carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiple walls carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in thermal engineering have recently attracted significant attention. However, most of the studies on CNTs are either experimental or numerical and the lack of analytical studies limits further developments in CNTs research particularly in channel flows. In this work, an analytical investigation is performed on heat transfer analysis of SWCNTs and MWCNTs for mixed convection Poiseuille flow of a Casson fluid along a vertical channel. These CNTs are suspended in three different types of base fluids (Water, Kerosene and engine Oil). Xue [Phys. B Condens. Matter 368, 302-307 (2005)] model has been used for effective thermal conductivity of CNTs. A uniform magnetic field is applied in a transverse direction to the flow as magnetic field induces enhancement in the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The problem is modelled by using the constitutive equations of Casson fluid in order to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Using appropriate non-dimensional variables, the governing equations are transformed into the non-dimensional form, and the perturbation method is utilized to solve the governing equations with some physical conditions. Velocity and temperature solutions are obtained and discussed graphically. Expressions for skin friction and Nusselt number are also evaluated in tabular form. Effects of different parameters such as Casson parameter, radiation parameter and volume fraction are observed on the velocity and temperature profiles. It is found that velocity is reduced under influence of the exterior magnetic field. The temperature of single wall CNTs is found greater than MWCNTs for all the three base fluids. Increase in volume fraction leads to a decrease in velocity of the fluid as the nanofluid become more viscous by adding CNTs.

  17. Characteristics of some submarine fan channels, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H. ); Dev Wickens, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The vary well exposed submarine fan complex in the southwestern part of the Karoo basin permits close examination of channel-fills and in places their associated overbank deposits. The complex comprises five arenaceous fan systems some of which attain 60 m in thickness. The fans are vertically stacked and separated by basinal shale deposits; each system with its own direction of growth. The association of channelized sandstone bodies and thin-bedded sandstone and shale packages in an updip position from predominantly stacked lobe deposits suggest preservation of middle fan settings. A 500 m wide, 20 m thick channel-fill consisting massive amalgamated sandstone beds occupying the channel thalweg occurs in a setting dominated by thin-bedded, ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Gradual thinning of the channel-fill beds toward the channel edges, lack of internal lateral accretion, and a high width to depth ratio suggests a low sinuous to straight channel. The channel-fill is capped by an abandonment facies characterized by ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Stacked, laterally offset channel-fill deposits with highly erosional contacts and typical well-bedded overbank deposits form channel-overbank complexes and characterize the mid-fan region of the uppermost fan system. Palaeocurrent directions and gradual diminishing of bed-thickness away from the generally massively bedded, amalgamated channel-fill sandstones confirm a simultaneous channel/overbank origin for these deposits. Levee morphology has not been recognized. Both examples of channel-fills cited reveal part of the complexity of the channelized portions of submarine fans and hence the implications thereof in exploring for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  18. Methodology for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: Applications to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    This research was carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Sea level is a key variable in marine, climate, and coastal process studies. In this research, a new methodology was implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the sea level by combining classical harmonic models to high statistical methods. In agreement with previous studies, this work indicates that sea level heights are correlated to climate conditions of sea level pressures (SLP). After averaging out surface waves from the mean sea level, the deterministic tides and the stochastic processes of residual surges were investigated using classical harmonic analyses and a statistical model of autoregressive moving average (ARMA), respectively. The estimation of the residual surges was also investigated together with the SLP. This new methodology was applied to the Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel (western France). Results have shown that the developed model reproduces the observations with RMSE of 4.5 cm and 7 cm for 12 days and 30 days of gaps, respectively. For medium scales of 6 months, the RMSE reaches 9,2 cm. Larger scales more than 10 months were also statistically reproduced. Accordingly, the proposed model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at short- to large- time scales. This new methodology presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the deterministic nature of tidal processes and the stochastic framework of residual surges. Key words: sea level forecast, astronomical tides, residual surges, ARMA, sea level pressure.

  19. A new hybrid model for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: application to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    This research is carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Here, a new hybrid model is implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the hourly sea level variability by combining classical harmonic analyses to high statistical methods to reproduce the deterministic and stochastic processes, respectively. After simulating the mean trend sea level and astronomical tides, the nontidal residual surges are investigated using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods by two ways: (1) applying a purely statistical approach and (2) introducing the SLP in ARMA as a main physical process driving the residual sea level. The new hybrid model is applied to the western Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel. Using ARMA model and considering the SLP, results show that the hourly sea level observations of gauges with are well reproduced with a root mean square error (RMSE) ranging between 4.5 and 7 cm for 1 to 30 days of gaps and an explained variance more than 80 %. For larger gaps of months, the RMSE reaches 9 cm. The negative and the positive extreme values of sea levels are also well reproduced with a mean explained variance between 70 and 85 %. The statistical behavior of 1-year modeled residual components shows good agreements with observations. The frequency analysis using the discrete wavelet transform illustrate strong correlations between observed and modeled energy spectrum and the bands of variability. Accordingly, the proposed model presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the total sea level at timescales from days to months. The ARMA model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at larger scales of years by introducing more physical processes driving its stochastic variability.

  20. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  1. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  2. New observations of sinuous channels on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    High-sinuosity submarine fan channels on the Amazon Fan were first observed using long-range (GLORIA) side-scan sonar in 1982 and mapped in greater detail using multibeam sonar in 1984. These data have provided important insights into the nature and evolution of submarine channel systems. Subsequent studies on the Amazon Fan have focused on avulsion patterns, sedimentation patterns, fan growth and the climate record contained in fan sediments, and there has been relatively little additional work on the details of sinuous channel morphology. Channels on the Amazon Fan have been imaged by multibeam sonar on several occasions since 1984 during focused studies, regional mapping and ship transit. These multibeam data are being compiled and studied to better characterize these iconic channels. One observation of particular interest is that, on the Amazon Fan, channel-wall slumps appear to be more common than previously thought. Drilling of a cut-off meander during ODP Leg 155 on the Amazon Fan showed the presence of slumped material deeper in the channel suggesting that failure of the channel wall was in part responsible for the abandonment and filling of that meander loop. The failure also apparently created a sandy debris flow with clasts of fine-grained levee material transported in a sandy matrix. This sandy debris flow may have been able to flow along the channel and deposit at the seaward end where similar sediments can be found. Disturbed zones now visible on the inner walls of channels at several other places along the channels suggest that these kinds of inner-wall slumps may play important roles in channel evolution and fan growth. Channel-blocking slumps can isolate channel loops which can then fill with sandy sediments, and avulsions are likely if this kind of slump fills the channel. The failure of channel walls can also lead to new channel segments that tend to straighten the channel. Dramatic changes to the shape of the channel can likely lead to large and

  3. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  4. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  5. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  6. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  7. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  8. Testing the temporal nature of social disorder through abandoned buildings and interstitial spaces.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Danielle; Schalliol, David

    2015-11-01

    With the recent housing crisis, studying abandoned buildings has once again become important. However, it has been some time since abandoned buildings were the subject of direct study, leaving scholars with scant knowledge about the characteristics of abandoned buildings, how they change, and their relationship to neighborhood processes. To fill this gap, we employed longitudinal photographic and SSO evaluations of 36 abandoned buildings and their immediate surroundings in Chicago for one year (n=587). Results demonstrate the presence and severity of social disorder cues vary across time points and the time of day of observation. There is a relationship between abandoned buildings and social disorder, though the relationship is not a trend. Also, social disorder is diminished around extremely decayed buildings. Lastly, we find that our results are driven by the measurement of places ignored by most SSO studies, including alleys and the rear side of buildings.

  9. REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  10. Inactive and abandoned noncoal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Volume 1 outlines the environmental, health and safety problems at IAMS (Inactive, Abandoned Mine Sites), remediation technologies, remediation costs, the methodology states used in preparing state reports, and state summary tables. It also describes the broad range of policy options for remediation of problems associated with IAMS. Volume 2 gives state reports for inactive and abandoned noncoal mines for the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming. Volume 3 lists the State reports for the inactive and abandoned noncoal mines for the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia. A separate abstract is included for each of the 3 volumes of this set.

  11. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  12. An investigation of reactivity effect due to inadvertent filling of the irradiation channels with water in NIRR-1 Nigeria Research Reactor-1.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, U; Ibrahim, Y V; Umar, Sadiq; Agbo, S A; Jibrin, Y

    2017-02-09

    Investigation of reactivity variation due to flooding of the irradiation channels of Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) a low power miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria using the MCNP code for High Enrich Uranium (HEU) and Low Enrich Uranium (LEU) core has been simulated in this present study. In this work, the excess reactivity worth of flooding HEU core for 1 inner, 2 inner, 3 inner, 4 inner and all inner are 0.318mk, 0.577mk, 0.318mk, 1.204mk and 1.503mk respectively, and outer irradiation channels are 0.119mk, 0.169mk, 0.348mk, 0.438mk and 0.418mk respectively, the highest excess reactivity result from flooding both inner and outer irradiation channels is 2.04mk (±1.72×10(-7)), the excess reactivity for LEU core was 0.299mk, 0.568mk, 0.896mk, 1.195mk and 1.524mk in the inner irradiation channels, and the outer irradiation channels are 0.129mk, 0.189mk, 0.219mk, 0.269mk and 0.548mk where the highest excess reactivity was 1.942mk (±1.64×10(-7)) resulting from flooding inner and outer irradiation channels. The reactivity induced by flooding of the irradiation channels of NIRR-1 with water is within design safety limit enshrined in Safety Analysis Report of NIRR-1. The results also compare well with literature.

  13. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  14. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  15. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.496 Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor...

  16. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  17. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: the exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk M; Shenoy, K T

    2015-02-21

    Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of "two phase thermodynamic (2PT)" model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

  18. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: The exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K. T.

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of "two phase thermodynamic (2PT)" model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

  19. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: The exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M. Shenoy, K. T.

    2015-02-21

    Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of “two phase thermodynamic (2PT)” model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

  20. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 817.43 and to safely pass the runoff from a 100-year,...

  1. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 816.43 and, in addition, to safely pass the runoff from a...

  2. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels.... The maximum slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:1v (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be.... Terraces on the fill shall be graded with a 3 to 5 percent grade toward the fill and a 1 percent...

  3. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels... slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:lv (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be maintained at the... fill shall be graded with a 3 to 5 percent grade toward the fill and a 1 percent slope toward the...

  4. Architectural patterns in a multistorey mixed carbonate siliciclastic submarine channel, Porto Torres Basin, Miocene, Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigorito, Mario; Murru, Marco; Simone, Lucia

    2006-05-01

    In the Sassari area, the analysis of extensive exposures of the Porto Torres sub-basin fill sequences have facilitated a detailed reconstruction of a complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine channel, the Sassari Channel. The exposed sequences, dated as Burdigalian-Serravallian, comprise channel complexes up to 4 km wide and 250-300 m thick fringed by marly sheet deposits. Channels are erosional or mixed erosional-depositional type and show multiple, stacked partly nested channel-fill sequences which relate to different filling phases. Individual channel-fills include sand- to cobble-sized deposits which are locally capped by thin-bedded, intensely bioturbated, hemipelagic marls which are related to temporary abandon of the channel, possibly in relation to sea level rise. Architectural elements recognised at outcrop include distinct mid-channel, margin-levee and overbank complexes as well as sheets and drapes of marly basinal deposits. Channel margins, which are locally characterised by very complex depositional architectures, also include up to 15- to 20-m-high lateral bars. Mid-channel complexes are commonly parallel to concave up stratified and locally exhibit minor order nested channel bodies. These erode, overlap or lie alongside each other and suggest repeated channel thalweg digressions and avulsions. Channel-fill architectures are locally complicated by the presence of megabreccias which include up to a few tens of metres high and hundreds of metres wide displaced and/or tilted blocks. Megabreccias are commonly associated with sand injections and/or minor faults and resulted from channel-margin collapses boosted by tectonics and/or by pore water overpressures generated in horizons hydrologically confined between early-cemented bed packages. Channel-fill sequences consist of carbonate- and siliciclastic-dominated deposits. Carbonate deposits are made up of cobbly to sandy rhodalgal debris and also exhibit 5- to 20-m-thick well

  5. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems.

  6. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  7. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  8. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  9. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  10. Large Illinoisan shelf-margin channel in the South Timbalier and Ewing Bank areas, offshore Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, R.W.; Bowman, P. )

    1991-03-01

    During an Illinoisan lowstand, a major channel became entrenched on the shelf and deposited deltaic sediment of the shelf-slope break in the South Timbalier and Ewing Bank areas. This shelf-edge delta overloaded the margin, creating a major slope failure. This 'channel,' or slump canyon, which was originally deep and narrow, evolved through retrogradational wasting of the shelf into a broader feature during back-filling and abandonment. Mapping with integrated seismic and well data indicates a feature that is 6 mi wide and has 2300 ft of relief, from the base of the channel to the highest margin. Gravel lag fills the deepest portion of the scour and constitutes an excellent, though restricted, gas reservoir. The limits of the reservoir are defined by mapping of a seismic amplitude anomaly. The balance of the back-fill is comprised of thinly bedded silstone and sandstone sequences that generally thin and fine upward; each is capped by marine shales. The fill geometry is primarily nested or stacked channels. Positive topographic features on the outer shelf tower above the channel floor, either as uneroded remnants or as part of channel margin slump mounds. Sand-prone sediment onlapped these highs, thereby creating numerous stratigraphic traps. As sea level rose, the locus of deposition within the channel shifted progressively shoreward, and the fill was capped by a clean, transgressive shale. Further work is necessary to ascertain the location of the submarine fan far down-dip of this shelf-edge channel. Laterally extensive reservoirs can be expected in more distal depositional environments.

  11. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  12. Lava-Filled Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 June 2003

    Craters and hills form high standing streamlined plateaus or islands in a channeled area. The plateaus are rounded in the upstream direction and taper to a point in the downstream direction, indicating that the direction of flow in this area was roughly south to north, or bottom to top. The channels appear to be filled with lava flow deposits that are raised above the channel in some areas. A lava flow diverges around a small streamlined hill near the bottom of the image and then merges again around the northern end of it. Near the top of the image is a crater with a breach on the east (right) side that allowed the lava to flow in, leaving a lobate, high standing deposit. The channels may have been formed by the lava flows that currently fill them or there may have been flow of liquid water that created them before the lava was emplaced.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16, Longitude 183 East (177 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built

  13. Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the progress of EPA's cleanup of abandoned uranium mines on Navajo and Hopi lands and in other areas of Arizona and New Mexico, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  14. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property on behalf of the borrower when such action is in the Agency's financial interest. If the security is...

  15. Asymptomatic bowel perforation by abandoned ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A; Williams, Todd R; Spizarny, David L

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management.

  16. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  17. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inventory impacts of abandoned wells for the U.S. . Available methane emission rate data for abandoned wells is reviewed and some of the ongoing research to better characterize emissions is discussed. Efforts to compile a database of well drilling activities since the 1870’s for each state and each state’s establishment of well plugging standards for abandoned wells is described. Progress towards an estimate of national methane emissions from abandoned wells and major sources of uncertainty are presented. These emissions are put in to context by comparing to other sources of methane emissions from oil and gas production activities. This is an abstract for a presentation at the Natural GasSTAR Annual Implementation Workshop on November 16-18, 2015 in Pittsburgh, PA. The subject is methane emissions fro abandoned wells. This is a report on interim progress on a effort we have with ERG. OAP is involved in the project and will review slides.

  18. Filling of orbital fluid management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Blatt, M. H.; Thies, N. C.

    1978-01-01

    A study was performed with three objectives: (1) analyze fluid management system fill under orbital conditions; (2) determine what experimentation is needed; and (3) develop an experimental program. The fluid management system was a 1.06m (41.7 in) diameter pressure vessel with screen channel device. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of helium and autogenous pressurization systems was considered. Analyses showed that fluid management system fill will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The key to a successful fill with cryogens is in devising techniques for filling without vent liquid, and removing trapped vapor from the screen device at tank fill completion. This will be accomplished with prechill, fill, and vapor condensation processes. Refill will require a vent and purge process, to dilute the residual helium, prior to introducing liquid. Neither prechill, chill, nor purge processes will be required for earth storables.

  19. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application abandoned because the applicant did not timely respond to an Office action or notice of allowance... abandonment, if the applicant did not receive the notice of abandonment, and the applicant was diligent in... for filing a petition to revive an application abandoned because the applicant did not timely...

  20. Microgravity method for detection of abandoned mines in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatge, S.L. )

    1993-03-01

    The microgravity method has been used to detect two shallow, subsurface abandoned mines in northern New Jersey. Synthetic models simulated the expected gravity anomalies in the two areas. The first site, Lawrence Iron Mine, tested the applicability of microgravity for abandoned-mine detection. Two profile lines were laid out at right angles to the strike of the magnetite deposit in an amphibolite host rock. The broad gravity lows (magnitude 0.04 and 0.07 mGals) on the gravity profiles were modeled to show mine workings about 10 ft square and 5 ft deep that were filled with loose soil. Trenching confirmed the location of the buried mine. At the Schuyler Copper Mine, located in an urban area, data were collected along four parallel profile lines spaced 10 ft apart. An anomalous low (magnitude 0.03 mGals) on the gravity map was modeled and interpreted to be due to an empty vertical shaft. The shaft is more than 60 ft deep, about 12 ft long and 8 to 10 ft wide. It is capped by about 10 ft of unconsolidated material overlying sandstone bedrock. Drilling confirmed the results of the gravity model. The success of the method depended on the depth and size of the mine instrument accuracy, station spacing, station location and elevation control. Minimizing errors due to the instrument drift, station location and station elevation maximized the resolution of the technique.

  1. Persistence and Geomorphology of Clearwater Side Channels in a Braided River: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    Clearwater side channel lifespans and geomorphic changes are being examined to guide research on importance of side channels to salmon habitat quantity and quality at the river-long scale and implications for land management. Dynamic patterns of channel formation in braided rivers can result in rapid abandonment of channels within the braid plain. When these channels fill with water from hyporheic, regional ground water, or upland tributary sources, clearwater side channels result that might create a stable environment for spawning salmon. To determine the annual to decadal persistence of these side channels, clearwater channels in the 120 km-long Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska are being identified from color differences on a 0.3 m pixel 2006 color orthophoto prepared from 1:24,000-scale aerial photography. Channel identification is being calibrated with field observations of selected channels. This inventory of modern clearwater side channels is being compared to historical conditions from a black-and-white orthophoto prepared from 1949 1:40,000-scale aerial photography, and selected aerial photography for the 1960s and 1980s. Where photo quality limits detection of water clarity, side channel presence or absence is noted. Initial results show that while individual side channels may persist for many years, they have rarely persisted more than a few decades. Analysis of selected, wide braid plain areas shows that multiple water sources may exist for supplying abandoned braid plain channels, an indication that some locations may host clearwater side channels regardless of mainstem position. For example, a clearwater side channel that has been historically used as a spawning site is fed by a tributary known locally as Yellow Creek. This channel is presently being captured by the active braids of the Matanuska River. A comparable clearwater side channel has formed from tributary flow on the opposite bank. However, in 1949, this condition was reversed, with

  2. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription filled; Drugs - how to get prescription filled; Pharmacy - mail order; Pharmacy - internet; Types of pharmacies ... paper prescription that you take to a local pharmacy Calling or e-mailing a pharmacy to order ...

  3. Unsteady Capillary Filling By Electrocapillarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, In Seok; Lee, Jung A.

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady filling of electrolyte solution inside a nanochannel by the electrocapillarity effect is studied. The filling rate is predicted as a function of the bulk concentration of the electrolyte, the surface potential (or surface charge density), and the cross sectional shape of the channel. Since the driving force of the flow is the electrocapillarity, it is first analyzed by using the solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. From the analysis, it is found that the results for many different cross sectional shapes can be unified with good accuracy if the hydraulic radius is adopted as the characteristic length scale of the problem. Especially in the case of constant surface potential, for both limits of κh -> 0 and κh -> ∞ , it can be shown theoretically that the electrocapillarity is independent of the cross sectional shape if the hydraulic radius is the same. In order to analyze the geometric effects more systematically, we consider the regular N-polygons with the same hydraulic radius and the rectangles of different aspect ratios. Washburn's approach is then adopted to predict the filling rate of electrolyte solution inside a nanaochannel. It is found that the average filling velocity decreases as N increases in the case of regular N-polygons with the same hydraulic radius. This is because of that the regular N-polygons of the same hydraulic radius share the same inscribing circle. This work has been supported by BK21+ program.

  4. Which accesses should be abandoned or revised?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the factors in deciding whether to abandon a functioning access. Strong indications for ligation or excision of an access are infection or severe early-onset steal. Access ligation may also be required for central vein occlusion or high-output cardiac failure. In general, a failing or thrombosed access should be restored to function unless it is no longer required. For failing or thrombosed distal arteriovenous fistulas, it may be easiest to abandon it and create a new fistula a few centimetres proximally rather than perform angioplasty, which is likely to require repeating. Other accesses may be abandoned after repeated treatment of the same stenosis over a short period provided other options exist.

  5. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields.

    PubMed

    Elhottová, D; Szili-Kovács, T; Tríska, J

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological evaluation of sandy grassland soils from two different stages of secondary succession on abandoned fields (4 and 8 years old fallow) was carried out as a part of research focused on restoration of semi-natural vegetation communities in Kiskunság National Park in Hungary. There was an apparent total N and organic C enrichment, stimulation of microbial growth and microbial community structure change on fields abandoned by agricultural practice (small family farm) in comparison with native undisturbed grassland. A successional trend of the microbial community was found after 4 and 8 years of fallow-lying soil. It consisted in a shift of r-survival strategy to more efficient C economy, in a decrease of specific respiration and metabolic activity, forced accumulation of storage bacterial compounds and increased fungal distribution. The composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids mixture of soils abandoned at various times was significantly different.

  6. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  7. Liquid-filled Canyons on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggiali, Valerio; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Hayes, Alexander; Seu, Roberto; Birch, Samuel; Lorenz, Ralph; Grima, Cyril; Kargel, Jeffrey; Hofgartner, Jason

    2016-04-01

    During a close flyby, Cassini's RADAR altimeter observed a system of channels pertaining to the Vid Flumina system that drain into Titan's Ligeia Mare. While SAR images have been used to identify fluvial valleys in networks that extend for hundreds of kilometers, they can't directly prove the presence and/or physical extent of liquid channels filling them. Analysis of altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (~500 m) canyons and have strongly specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid-filled. Liquid elevations in Vid Flumina and its lower tributaries are at the same level of Ligeia Mare to within the altimeter's vertical accuracy of ~15m, which is a function of both the RADAR instrument as well as the precision of Cassini's reconstructed ephemeris. Specular reflections are also observed in higher order tributaries that occur hundred meters above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.

  8. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  9. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned Wells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inv...

  10. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  11. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  12. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  13. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  14. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  16. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  17. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  18. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event that exportation is abandoned at any time after merchandise has been placed under cover of a TIR carnet, the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  20. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  1. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  2. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  13. 76 FR 31008 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Erie County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Abandonments to abandon an approximately 0.56-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Buffalo... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  14. Stream Channel Stability. Appendix E. Geomorphic Controls of Channel Stability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Erosion and Channels Research Unit, USDA Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford, MS. 1,"<Xi i .. i,,< .;,i,<..7 PREFACE This process -oriented study was...organized to investigate three complementary aspects of channel stability including (a) the nature of channel failure processes ; (b) the influences of...valley-fill depositional units on these processes and (c) the properties and distributions of the valley-fill units. The study was process oriented to

  15. A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Space Abandoned Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaohua, Zhang

    Abstract: Influenced by the limited space resources and the increased space debris, it is very exigent to clean the orbital abandoned satellite. The thermal characteristic of the abandoned satellite is a key parameter for the infrared radiation study, and it is also an important gist to estimate whether or not the satellite can be worked correctly. And this paper researched on the thermal analysis of the LEO and GEO abandoned satellite, and has been acquired the temperature variety law for the the space abandoned target, which is very significant for apperceiving the space situation and cleaning the space abandoned satellites and other debris initiatively.    

  16. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  17. Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bétournay, Marc C

    2009-10-01

    The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk.

  18. Why are pharmaceutical companies gradually abandoning vaccines?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    During the past fifty years, the number of pharmaceutical companies making vaccines has decreased dramatically, and those that still make vaccines have reduced resources to make new ones. Pharmaceutical companies are gradually abandoning vaccines because the research, development, testing, and manufacture of vaccines are expensive and because the market to sell vaccines is much smaller than the market for other drug products. Congressional action could assure both a steady supply of existing vaccines and the promise of vaccines for the future.

  19. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  20. Filling a Conical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  1. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  2. Liquid-filled canyons on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggiali, V.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Hayes, A. G.; Seu, R.; Birch, S. P. D.; Lorenz, R.; Grima, C.; Hofgartner, J. D.

    2016-08-01

    In May 2013 the Cassini RADAR altimeter observed channels in Vid Flumina, a drainage network connected to Titan's second largest hydrocarbon sea, Ligeia Mare. Analysis of these altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (up to 570 m), steep-sided, canyons and have strong specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid filled. Elevations of the liquid in these channels are at the same level as Ligeia Mare to within a vertical precision of about 0.7 m, consistent with the interpretation of drowned river valleys. Specular reflections are also observed in lower order tributaries elevated above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.

  3. Assessing the potential of Landsat images to detect and map agricultural land abandonment in Kyzyl-Orda (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliemann, Elisabeth; Löw, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and agricultural land abandonment in the irrigated areas of Central Asia became widespread, in particular after the collapse of the former Soviet Union. It has strong socio-economic and ecological consequences, but unfortunately data and methods to map and monitor abandoned agriculture accurately over many regions in CA, e.g. Kyzyl-Orda in Kazakhstan, are still lacking. Remote sensing (RS) can potentially fill this gap, yet RS detection of agricultural land abandonment, most often characterized by shrub encroachment, is difficult and requires the availability of multiple images during the growing season. Also, sufficient reference data must be available for accurate classifier algorithm training. Hence the major aims of this study were to elaborate the effect of the number of Landsat-5 TM images on the accuracy of classification of land abandonment, and further how the choice of classifier algorithm (Random Forest and Support Vector Machine) and amount of training data affect the accuracy of the results. Multi-seasonal time series of Landsat-5 TM images were classified in pre-abandonment-time (1988) and post-abandonment-times (2000, 2009, 2010, 2011). Five images per year were used as classification input. Generally both algorithms performed equally well, and classification accuracies ranged from 84% to 91%. Classifications with fewer than five image dates resulted in a substantial decreases of overall classification accuracies (from 91% to 66%). Next to the number of images the seasons captured also had an impact. In general, the best image combination contained at least one image in late summer, plus another image in spring. In general, the choice of images (number and season) had a much stronger impact on the results than the choice of the classifier algorithm. The five multi-annual classifications resulted in a temporal sequence of five land uses for each agricultural field, which allowed to back-trace land use change between 1988 and 2011

  4. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  5. Loose-fill insulations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Whether you are increasing the insulation levels in your current home or selecting insulation for a new home, choosing the right insulation material can be challenging. Fibrous loose-fill insulations such as cellulose, fiberglass, and rock wool are options you may wish to consider. This publication will introduce you to these materials--what they are, how they are applied, how they compare with each other, and other considerations regarding their use--so that you can decide whether loose fills are right for your home.

  6. Adjustment of Submarine Channel Architecture to Changes in Sediment Supply, Western Niger Delta Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobe, Z. R.; Sylvester, Z.; Parker, A. O.; Pirmez, C.; Slowey, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional seismic, piston cores, and autonomous underwater vehicle data (chirp sub-bottom profiles, multibeam bathymetry, and sidescan sonar) provide a multi-scale dataset used to examine the evolution of a submarine channel system on the western Niger Delta continental slope. Four phases of channel evolution are documented that are interpreted to relate to changes in the sediment routing system. The first phase is incisional and creates a large valley within which the subsequent phases evolve. The second phase records the development of sinuosity through lateral accretion of the meander bends. Meander cutoffs and channel-bank mass wasting result in terraced and scalloped channel margins. This phase is volumetrically most significant in terms of channel fill. The third phase is characterized by thalweg aggradation with slight channel narrowing; preferential deposition towards the outer banks results in a reduction of sinuosity. This phase likely reflects the updip abandonment of the channel system. The fourth phase is characterized by inner levee deposition that occurs primarily on outer banks, causing a reduction in channel width and sinuosity. These changes are caused by the capture of a small slope channel that is the source for underfit flows that attempt to adjust the channel cross section and thalweg gradient through inner levee deposition. Chirp sub-bottom profiles and piston core data reveal that these sigmoidal inner levees consist of thin-bedded, ripple-laminated turbidites interbedded with mudstones. The channel thalweg consists of amalgamated, sand-rich turbidites with dune-scale bedforms and occasional mass transport deposits. Core transects taken across the channel demonstrate that sand bed thickness decreases with height above the channel thalweg. Laser particle size analyzer data indicate a progressive decrease in grain size with height above the channel thalweg. These vertical trends in grain size and bed thickness distribution are used to

  7. The Band Must Not Be Abandoned.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy A; O'Brien, Paul E

    2017-03-06

    The use of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is on the decline around the world despite the evidence base suggesting that it is a safe, effective and durable short-stay procedure which can be safely revised and is well tolerated by patients when they are appropriately supported. Currently, less than 1% of eligible obese persons are choosing to undergo bariatric surgery. If we are to improve uptake of bariatric surgery we need a raft of therapeutic options, including the LAGB, which sit between the relative impotence of medical therapies and the aggression of stapling procedures. This brief communication discusses what some of the drivers may be that are leading surgeons to abandon the band.

  8. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  9. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  10. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  11. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  12. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section 2.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written...

  13. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  14. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. 904.508 Section 904.508 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner...

  15. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. 904.508 Section 904.508 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner...

  16. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements...

  17. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  18. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  19. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  20. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  1. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  2. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  3. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  4. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  5. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  7. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  11. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE... prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  12. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  13. Method of filling a microchannel separation column

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for packing a stationary phase into a small diameter fluid passageway or flow channel. Capillary action is employed to distribute a stationary phase uniformly along both the length and diameter of the flow channel. The method disclosed here: 1) eliminates the need for high pressure pumps and fittings and the safety hazards associated therewith; 2) allows the use of readily available commercial microparticles, either coated or uncoated, as the stationary phase; 3) provides for different types of particles, different particle sizes, and different particle size distributions to be packed in sequence, or simultaneously; 4) eliminates the need for plugging the flow channel prior to adding the stationary phase to retain the packing particles; and 5) many capillaries can be filled simultaneously.

  14. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  15. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  16. Starburst Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.

    In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  17. Macroscopic electric field inside water-filled biological nanopores.

    PubMed

    Acosta Gutiérrez, Silvia; Bodrenko, Igor; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2016-04-07

    Multi-drug resistance bacteria are a challenging problem of contemporary medicine. This is particularly critical for Gram-negative bacteria, where antibiotics are hindered by the outer membrane to reach internal targets. Here more polar antibiotics make use of nanometric water-filled channels to permeate inside. We present in this work a computational all-atom approach, using water as a probe, for the calculation of the macroscopic electric field inside water-filled channels. The method allows one to compare not only different systems but also the same system under different conditions, such as pH and ion concentration. This provides a detailed picture of electrostatics in biological nanopores shedding more light on how the charged residues of proteins determine the electric field inside, and also how medium can tune it. These details are central to unveil the filtering mechanism behind the permeation of small polar molecules through nanometric water-filled channels.

  18. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  19. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  20. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  1. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  2. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... 1992: This bill revised the AML program in areas of coal remining, and abandoned coal refuse sites, as... Disposal; Reclamation on Private Land; Rights of Entry; Public Participation Policies; Organization... include landslide hazards, highwalls, flooding, erosion, sedimentation, acid drainage, coal...

  4. Community Involvement Plan: Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Factsheets related to the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region, generally located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, and are in the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters.

  5. Working with Communities on Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the EPA's work to inform and include communities in the cleanup of abandoned mines, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  6. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  7. 67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to Lake Trapps. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  8. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  9. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WINGWALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WINGWALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD ABANDONED WATERPUMP FACILITY FOR A SUGAR PROCESSING PLANT SOUTH OF THE BRIDGE. - Winnebago River Bridge, Spanning Winnebago River at U.S. Highway 65, Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, IA

  10. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1996-06-03

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history.

  11. Ephemeral-stream processes: Implications for studies of quaternary valley fills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Peter C.; Schumm, Stanley A.

    1981-01-01

    Three unstable ephemeral-stream channels (arroyos), which drain source areas that have high sediment yields ranging from predominantly sand (Arroyo Calabasas) to a mixture of sand, silt, and clay (Sand Creek) to largely silt and clay (Sage Creek), were resurveyed to provide data on the rates and mechanics of erosion and sedimentation processes during periods ranging from 14 to 22 yr. Channel morphology changed significantly. Erosion occurred through nickpoint recession and bank collapse, but erosional reaches are separated by aggrading or stable-channel reaches. In general, sediment that is eroded, as the nickpoint recedes upstream, is trapped in the widened channel downstream. In this manner sediment is transported episodically out of these basins during a series of cut-and-fill cycles. The manner by which the channels aggrade and the morphology of the aggraded stable channels are controlled by the sediment type. The wide and shallow channel of Arroyo Calabasas is filled by vertical accretion of sand-size sediment. The narrow and deep channels of Sage Creek and Sand Creek are created by the lateral accretion of cohesive fine-grained sediment. The channel modification and the cut-and-fill episodes are dependent on high sediment yields, and therefore they are independent of subtle climatic shifts. Cut-and-fill deposits that have been created in this manner should not be equivalent in age from basin to basin, and therefore channel trenching and filling in the semiarid western United States during the Holocene need not be synchronous.

  12. Space-filling percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Manna, S. S.

    2014-03-01

    A region of two-dimensional space has been filled randomly with a large number of growing circular disks allowing only a "slight" overlapping among them just before their growth stops. More specifically, each disk grows from a nucleation center that is selected at a random location within the uncovered region. The growth rate δ is a continuously tunable parameter of the problem which assumes a specific value while a particular pattern of disks is generated. When a growing disk overlaps for the first time with at least one other disk, its growth is stopped and is said to be frozen. In this paper we study the percolation properties of the set of frozen disks. Using numerical simulations we present evidence for the following: (i) The order parameter appears to jump discontinuously at a certain critical value of the area coverage; (ii) the width of the window of the area coverage needed to observe a macroscopic jump in the order parameter tends to vanish as δ →0; and on the contrary (iii) the cluster size distribution has a power-law-decaying functional form. While the first two results are the signatures of a discontinuous transition, the third result is indicative of a continuous transition. Therefore we refer to this transition as a sharp but continuous transition similar to what has been observed in the recently introduced Achlioptas process of explosive percolation. It is also observed that in the limit of δ →0, the critical area coverage at the transition point tends to unity, implying that the limiting pattern is space filling. In this limit, the fractal dimension of the pore space at the percolation point has been estimated to be 1.42(10) and the contact network of the disk assembly is found to be a scale-free network.

  13. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  14. Detection of abandoned underground storage tanks in rights-of-way with ground-penetrating radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clemena, G.G.; French, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    Highway agencies need a simple, effective, nondestructive way to inspect certain properties in rights-of-way for the possible presence of abandoned underground storage tanks, without disturbing the ground, before actual construction begins. Overall, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) fills this need better than other nondestructive methods. The report explains why GPR was chosen over the other nondestructive methods available, discusses the principal of GPR, describes the basic radar equipment needed and the general procedures involved in conducting such inspections, and provides examples of the type of radar data such inspections produce.

  15. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  16. Pairing in half-filled Landau level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Mandal, Ipsita; Chung, Suk Bum; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2015-03-01

    Pairing of composite fermions in half-filled Landau level state is reexamined by solving the BCS gap equation with full frequency dependent current-current interactions. Our results show that there can be a continuous transition from the Halperin-Lee-Read state to a chiral odd angular momentum Cooper pair state for short-range contact interaction. This is at odds with the previously established conclusion of first order pairing transition, in which the low frequency effective interaction was assumed for the entire frequency range. We find that even if the low frequency effective interaction is repulsive, it is compensated by the high frequency regime, which is attractive. We construct the phase diagrams and show that l = 1 angular momentum channel is quite different from higher angular momentum channel l >= 3 . Remarkably, the full frequency dependent analysis applied to the bilayer Hall system with a total filling fraction ν =1/2 +1/2 is quantitatively changed from the previously established results but not qualitatively. This work was supported by US NSF under the Grant DMR-1004520, the funds from the David S. Saxon Presidential Chair at UCLA(37952), and by the Institute for Basic Science in Korea through the Young Scientist grant (5199-2014003).

  17. Metal-Filled Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2002-10-01

    We present the results on filling multi-walled BN nanotubes with 3d-transition metal nanorods. The nanorods made of either Fe-Ni Invar alloy (Fe˜60 at.%; Ni˜40 at.%) or pure Co were embedded into nanotubular channels via a two-stage process: first, C nanotubes containing Fe-Ni or Co nanoparticles at the tube-tips were synthesized by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a Fe-Ni Invar or Co substrates, respectively, and, secondly, the material was heated to the melting points of the corresponding metals in a flow of B2O3 and N2 gases and held for 0.5 h. During this second stage, simultaneous filling of nanotubes with the Fe-Ni or Co melt through capillarity and chemical modification of C tubular shells to form BN nanotubes occurred. The nanotubular shells and the fillings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The synthesized nanostructures are supposed to perform as "nanocables" having conducting metallic cores (Fe-Ni; Co) and insulating nanotubular shields (BN) with high environmental stability.

  18. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  19. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  20. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  1. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  2. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  3. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  4. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  5. 90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning arrester houses on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  6. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property... access the contents. Storing property in a manner that wildlife can access contents is prohibited. (4..., or both. (d) In the event unattended property interferes with the safe and orderly management of...

  7. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property... access the contents. Storing property in a manner that wildlife can access contents is prohibited. (4..., or both. (d) In the event unattended property interferes with the safe and orderly management of...

  8. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applications. 2.66 Section 2.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... date of issuance of the notice of abandonment; or (2) Within two months of actual knowledge of the... with firsthand knowledge of the facts, that the delay in filing the response on or before the due...

  9. Predicting Abandonment of School-Wide Behavior Support Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Rhonda N. T.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Ghemraoui, Adam; Bloom, Jerry; Johnson, Nanci W.; Phillips, Danielle; Richter, Mary F.; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictors of abandonment of evidence-based practices through descriptive analyses of extant state-level training data, fidelity of implementation data, and nationally reported school demographic data across 915 schools in 3 states implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). Schools…

  10. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System (NPMS) in accordance with the NPMS “Standards for Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operator... in accordance with applicable laws. Refer to the NPMS Standards for details in preparing your data... abandoned in accordance with all applicable laws. (b) [Reserved] [Amdt. 195-69, 65 FR 54444, Sept. 8,...

  11. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  13. Deradicalization or Disengagement : A Framework for Encouraging Jihad Abandonment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    included law enforcement, the military, and intelligence services. Only recently have soft power elements been brought to bear to encourage jihad...intelligence services. Only recently have soft power elements been brought to bear to encourage jihad abandonment. Several nations implement a variety of de

  14. The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen's Bureau), which was established by the Congress on March 3, 1865, to assist former slaves in acquiring land, securing employment, legalizing marriages, and pursuing education. After the bureau's abolition through an act of Congress approved on June 10, 1872,…

  15. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... bill revised the AML program in areas of coal re-mining, abandoned coal refuse sites, as well as... Selection; Coordination with Other Programs; Land Acquisition, Management and Disposal; Reclamation on... of OSM, Tennessee revised its proposed amendment to read, ``Land Acquisition, Management and...

  16. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO...

  17. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  19. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  20. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  1. Eastern Agency Navajo Abandoned Uranium Mine Open House

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Contaminated Structures Program in the greater Eastern Agency with representatives from EPA, DOE, and Navajo Abandoned Mine Lands Program with updates on activities at NE Church Rock, Kerr-McGee/Quivira, and United Nuclear Co. Mill site.

  2. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  3. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  4. Why We Should Abandon the Idea of the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieves, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the idea of the learning organization should be abandoned on the grounds that it was an imaginative idea that has now run its course. The paper seeks to explore the roots of the definition and provoke debate about the wisdom of retaining the concept. The argument is a challenge to readers to…

  5. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO...

  6. 7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. NOTE CANTILEVERED DECKING. SOUTH FORK OF EEL RIVER AT LEFT. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  7. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

    1994-10-12

    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

  8. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  9. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  10. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  11. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  12. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been removed (note the steel frame structure that supported the traveling crane); looking south - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  14. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    SciTech Connect

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  15. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  16. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    PubMed

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  17. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers' social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother's negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  18. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  19. 76 FR 51470 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In Oswego County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Abandonments to abandon 2 formerly connected rail lines in CSXT's Northern Region, Albany Division, Fulton... Road 57, and the end of the track between Ontario and Erie Streets; and (2) 5,938 feet between...

  20. The design and analysis of channel transmission communication system of XCTD profiler.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Jin, Xiang-Yu; Song, Guo-Min; Shang, Ying-Sheng; Li, Hong-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a channel transmission communication system of expendable conductivity-temperature-depth is established in accordance to the operation characteristics of the transmission line to more accurately assess the characteristics of deep-sea abandoned profiler channel. The wrapping inductance is eliminated to maximum extent through the wrapping pattern of the underwater spool and the overwater spool and the calculation of the wrapping diameter. The feasibility of the proposed channel transmission communication system is verified through theoretical analysis and practical measurement of the transmission signal error rate in the amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The proposed design provides a new research method for the channel assessment of complex abandoned measuring instrument and an important experiment evidence for the rapid development of the deep-sea abandoned measuring instrument.

  1. Structural controls on the development of submarine channel/fan systems since the Pleistocene in the accretionary wedge off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kang-Nien; Tien-Shun Lin, Andrew; Lin, Che-Chuan; Liu, Char-Shine; Wang, Yunshuen

    2016-04-01

    The accretionary wedge off SW Taiwan is the result of incipient arc-continent collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the northern rifted margin of the South China Sea (SCS). Dynamic interactions of thrusting, folding and a rigorous sediment supply from the Taiwan mountain belts have resulted in two arrays of canyons/channels and slope-fan systems in the accretionary wedge. The Penghu canyon/fan system lies in the lower wedge and near the northern rifted margin of the SCS. The Penghu canyon is a river-fed canyon and receives sediments from southern Taiwan and SE China during eustatic lowstands. It becomes detached from river inputs during eustatic highstands as it is in the present-day. The Gaoping canyon/fan system in the south traverses both the upper slope and lower slope domains of the accretionary wedge. This system is a river-fed system during a full eustatic cycle and it drains sediments from the onshore Gaoping River. We interpreted multiple grids of multichannel seismic reflection data of MCS994, MCS1000-6, MCS1014, MCS1046 collected onboard Ocean Research I during 2012 April to 2013 August to map out thrust/fold structures and channel/fan systems in the study area. Seismic facies analyses were performed on seismic sections and key stratal surfaces of base of Pliocene and base of Pleistocene are correlated from boreholes drilled in the shelf of the northern SCS margin. Our results show that the upper Gaoping Canyon has been confined by structural ridges with limited switching of canyon courses, whereas the lower Gaoping canyon/fan system has been developed on lower slope with channel/levee deposition in multiple slope fans since early Pleistocene. Pleistocene lateral aggrading channel-and-levee systems are especially evident near the modern canyon course in the lower slope. The Penghu can/fan system in the lower accretionary wedge is also evident by seismic facies showing channel cut-and-fill, channel abandonment and channel-and-levee systems. This

  2. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  3. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  4. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  5. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  6. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  7. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  8. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  9. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  10. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  11. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  12. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  13. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  14. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  15. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned... and Abandoned Merchandise Vesting in Government § 127.41 Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. (a) Vesting of title in Government. At the end of the 6-month period noted in § 127.11 of...

  16. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185... overboard drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient drills and give sufficient... necessitate abandoning ship or the recovery of persons who have fallen overboard. (b) Each abandon ship...

  17. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  18. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OHIO § 935.20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land...

  19. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OHIO § 935.20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land...

  20. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  1. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  2. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  3. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  4. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  5. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  6. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  7. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  8. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells. 226.28...) Prior to permanent abandonment of any well, the oil lessee or the gas lessee, as the case may be,...

  9. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  10. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  11. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  12. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  13. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  14. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  15. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  16. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  17. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  18. Pairing in half-filled Landau level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Mandal, Ipsita; Chung, Suk Bum; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2014-12-15

    Pairing of composite fermions in half-filled Landau level state is reexamined by solving the BCS gap equation with full frequency dependent current–current interactions. Our results show that there can be a continuous transition from the Halperin–Lee–Read state to a chiral odd angular momentum Cooper pair state for short-range contact interaction. This is at odds with the previously established conclusion of first order pairing transition, in which the low frequency effective interaction was assumed for the entire frequency range. We find that even if the low frequency effective interaction is repulsive, it is compensated by the high frequency regime, which is attractive. We construct the phase diagrams and show that ℓ=1 angular momentum channel is quite different from higher angular momenta ℓ≥3. Remarkably, the full frequency dependent analysis applied to the bilayer Hall system with a total filling fraction ν=1/2 +1/2 is quantitatively changed from the previously established results but not qualitatively.

  19. Eccentricity-driven fluvial fill terrace formation in the southern-central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Savi, Sara; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Schildgen, Taylor F.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, fill-terrace formation in glaciated catchments has been linked to variable sediment production and river discharge over glacial-interglacial cycles. Little is known, however, how variability in global climate may have affected rainfall patterns and associated surface-processes on multi-millennial timescales in regions far from major glaciers and ice sheets, and how those changes might be reflected in the landscape. Here, we investigate the timing of fluvial fill terrace planation and abandonment in the Quebrada del Toro, an intermontane basin located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina. Fluvial fills in the valley reach more than 150 m above the current river level. Sculpted into the fills, we observe at least 5 terrace levels with pronounced differences in their extent and preservation. We sampled four TCN (in situ 10Be) depth profiles to date the abandonment of the most extensive terrace surfaces in locations, where subsequent overprint by erosion and deposition was not pronounced. We interpret unexpectedly low 10Be concentrations at shallow depths and surface samples to be related to aeolian input, causing surface inflation. Correcting the depth profiles for inflation results in a reduction of the terrace surface ages by up to 70 ka. The inflation-corrected ages fall within the late Pleistocene (~140 - 370 ka) and suggest a potential link to orbital eccentricity (~100 ka) cycles. The studied fills in the Toro Basin document successive episodes of incision, punctuated by periods of lateral planation and possible partial re-filling. We propose climate cycles as a potentially-dominant factor in forming these terraces. To our knowledge, none of the previously studied fluvial terraces in the Andes date back more than 2 glacial cycles, thus making the Quebrada del Toro an important archive of paleoenvironmental conditions over longer timescales.

  20. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  1. Tectonics, climate and mountain building in the forearc of southern Peru recorded in the 10Be chronology of low-relief surface abandonment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Regional low-relief surfaces have long been recognized as key features to understanding the response of landscapes to surface uplift. The canonical models of low-relief surface formation involve an extended period of tectonic quiescence during which, the fluvial systems bevel the landscape to a uniform elevation. This quiescent period is punctuated by a period(s) of surface uplift, which causes fluvial incision thereby abandoning the low-relief landscape. Over time, as rivers continue to incise in response to changes in sediment supply, river discharge, and base level fall, pieces of the relict low-relief landscape are left as abandoned remnants stranded above active channels. By determining the age of abandoned surfaces, previous workers have identified the onset of a change in the tectonic or climatic setting. One key assumption of this model is that the low-relief surfaces are truly abandoned with no current processes further acting on the surface. To improve our understanding of the underlying assumptions and problems of low-relief surface formation, we have used detailed mapping and absolute dating with cosmogenic 10Be to investigate surfaces in the hyperarid forearc region of southern Peru between ~14° and 18°S. Within this region, marine terraces and strath terraces reflect Plio-Pleistocene surface uplift, and together with the hyperarid climate, ongoing surface uplift provides a perfect natural laboratory to examine the processes affecting low-relief surface abandonment and preservation. With our new chronology we address: 1) the space and time correlations of surfaces, 2) incision rates of streams in response to base-level fall, and 3) surface erosion rates. Multiple surfaces have yielded 10Be surface abandonment ages that span >2 Ma - ~35 ka. While most of the surfaces we have dated are considerably less than 1 Ma, we have located two surfaces which are likely older than 2 Ma and constrain regional erosion rates to be <0.5mm/yr. Where the surface age

  2. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  3. Commentary on Baddeley and Larsen (2007). The phonological store abandoned.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dylan M; Hughes, Robert W; Macken, William J

    2007-04-01

    Baddeley and Larsen (2007) argue that a number of key findings reported by Jones, Macken, and Nicholls (2004) and Jones, Hughes, and Macken (2006) pointing to shortcomings of the phonological store construct arise from the store being abandoned with long lists. In our rejoinder we point out that Baddeley and Larsen use a procedure in which retrieval from the supposed phonological storage would not--according to their own theory--have been possible, and we present theoretical, empirical, and logical problems with their "store abandonment" argument and highlight a number of difficulties associated with the interpretation of suffix and prefix effects. We conclude that our data are still problematic for the phonological store construct and suggest that a reformulation of short-term memory theory needs to embody (or indeed focus exclusively upon) perceptual and effector systems rather than bespoke storage modules.

  4. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  5. What's new about old fields? Land abandonment and ecosystem assembly.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Viki A; Hobbs, Richard J; Standish, Rachel J

    2008-02-01

    Environmental and socio-economic changes are leading to increased levels of land abandonment worldwide. The assembly of plant communities on old fields has informed much ecological theory, which in turn has facilitated efforts at ecological restoration. The interaction of the cultivation legacy with inherent soil and vegetation characteristics will determine the dynamics of plant community assembly on old fields and indicate the level of effort required to restore historical vegetation states. The abandonment of traditional agricultural lands in some areas will create old fields that require limited or no restoration. Yet intensification of agriculture and rapid environmental change will lead to increasing numbers of old fields that show little recovery towards an historic vegetation state. The restoration of these old fields will pose significant scientific and policy challenges.

  6. Filling carbon nanotubes with particles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byong M; Qian, Shizhi; Bau, Haim H

    2005-05-01

    The filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with fluorescent particles was studied experimentally and theoretically. The fluorescent signals emitted by the particles were visible through the walls of the nanotubes, and the particles inside the tubes were observable with an electron microscope. Taking advantage of the template-grown carbon nanotubes' transparency to fluorescent light, we measured the filling rate of the tubes with particles at room conditions. Liquids such as ethylene glycol, water, and ethylene glycol/water mixtures, laden with 50 nm diameter fluorescent particles, were brought into contact with 500 nm diameter CNTs. The liquid and the particles' transport were observed, respectively, with optical and fluorescence microscopy. The CNTs were filled controllably with particles by the complementary action of capillary forces and the evaporation of the liquid. The experimental results were compared and favorably agreed with theoretical predictions. This is the first report on fluorescence studies of particle transport in carbon nanotubes.

  7. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  9. Setting priorities for abandoned-mine land research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In FY 1987, Congress transferred the abandoned mine land (AML) research program and $1.9 million in funding from the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) to the Bureau of Mines (BOM). Subsequently the BOM asked National Research Council (NRC) to recommend research priorities and criteria for evaluating AML reclamation research proposals. The committee identified the highest-priority research problems which are: water quality; subsidence; mine waste; and revegetation, are ranked as the top four research priorities in all regions.

  10. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  11. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  12. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support.

  13. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  14. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  15. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  16. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  17. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  18. Filling in the retinal image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

  19. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.1035 - Are there any restrictions on Federal agencies concerning the abandonment or destruction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions on Federal agencies concerning the abandonment or destruction of improvements on land or related... improvements on land or related personal property? Yes, GSA must concur in an agency's abandonment or... PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction §...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.1040 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property before...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property before public notice is given of such proposed abandonment or destruction? 102-75.1040 Section 102-75.1040 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment...

  2. Flow dynamics and sedimentation of lateral accretion packages in sinuous deep-water channels: A 3D seismic case study from the northwestern South China Sea margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Gong, Chenglin

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses 3D seismic data to document architectural styles and flow dynamics of lateral accretion packages (LAPs) associated with sinuous deep-water channels, contributing to a better understanding of flow processes and sedimentation associated with LAPs. The documented LAPs underwent three main stages of architectural evolution, including the early incision stages characterized by intense downcutting, active migration stages characterized by active migration and avulsion of the individual channels, and late abandonment stages characterized by the termination of sediment gravity-flows and LAP growth. These three stages of LAP growth repeated through time, yielding a fining-upward pattern from sandy channel-fill turbidites, into sand-mud couplets, all capped by muddy turbidites. A river-reversed helical flow circulation was created by an imbalance, through the flow depth, of inwardly directed pressure gradient forces near the bed and outwardly directed centrifugal forces near the surface. It consists of low-velocity cores near the outer banks and low-velocity cores along the inner banks. Such river-reversed helical flow pattern is evidenced by volumetrically extensive LAPs and toplap and downlap terminations along the gentle banks and by aerially restricted, seismically unresolvable levees and truncation terminations near the steep banks. This river-reversed helical flow circulation favors asymmetric intra-channel deposition characterized by inner bank deposition versus outer bank erosion, and which, in turn, forced individual channels to consistently migrate towards outer banks, resulting in significant asymmetric cross-channel profiles with aerially extensive LAPs along inner banks.

  3. Management of an Abandoned River Channel Wetland for Mitigation of Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  4. Is it possible to disentangle natural and anthropogenic forms of channel adjustment in dynamic floodplain wetlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Timothy; Larkin, Zacchary; Hesse, Paul; Westaway, Kira; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic impacts on hydrology and sediment supply are recognized as leading factors contributing to change in many rivers and wetlands. However it is difficult to distinguish between key causes and forms of channel adjustment in fluvial systems where intrinsic geomorphic processes lead to change on a timeframe similar to that of human disturbance. In the Macquarie Marshes, a large (circa 2,500 square kilometres) floodplain wetland in southeastern Australia, intermittent flooding drives sedimentation and erosion leading to levee development, avulsion and floodout. Some contemporary channel change is attributed to human disturbance in the system (e.g. channel incision), which, together with river regulation and recent droughts, have left much of the floodplain high and dry. Distributary channels formed since European settlement in the early 19th century have low sinuosity (1.1 to 1.2), show little evidence of lateral migration, accumulate fine sediment rapidly (0.5 to 10 mm/yr) in levees and floodouts, and avulse or terminate in wetlands. Avulsion appears to occur rapidly; within 100 years. In contrast, the older, discontinuous trunk stream of the lower Macquarie River is more sinuous (1.3 to 1.5) and there is abundant evidence of lateral migration over time followed by levee development on top of ridges and swales. ITRAX core scanning and XRF from sediment profiles in a Macquarie River meander abandoned around 1 ka and subsequently filled with overbank fines revealed no laminations and no evidence of significant geochemical enrichment near the surface that is usually associated with anthropogenic sources (e.g. Pb and Cu). These results indicate a transition in depositional regime and channel adjustment processes from lateral migration to vertical accretion with greater levee development and avulsion in the late Holocene. A clear anthropogenic signal was not found in the sediment record, despite earthworks and other activities contributing to channel change. We

  5. TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Montell, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease. PMID:17579562

  6. Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

  7. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.

    1992-07-14

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  8. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.; Dyrud, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  9. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.W.; Kinzer, K.E.; Mrozinski, J.S.; Johnson, E.J.; Dyrud, J.F.

    1990-09-18

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated. 3 figs.

  10. Safety in Royal Filling Factories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-10-01

    factories and certain special trials were staged to ascertain effect of explosion on underground Magazines. (See C.S.A.R*s report, Glascoed trials). On...spacing were the result of long experience of the effects of explosions in filling, and incidentally resulted in a considerable economy in cost of...etc (9) Any ignition is quenched in its initial stages and/or an explosive effect kept to a minimum. (10) Operatives are made fully aware of the

  11. Nitrate Leaching from Intensive Fiber Production on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantation treatments were much higher than the old field.

  12. 'Over-servicing 'underservicing' and 'abandonment': What is the law?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, D J

    2015-03-01

    The Ethical Rules and Policy Document of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) do not define 'over-servicing', 'underservicing' and 'abandonment. The HPCSA Guidelines on Over-servicing, Perverse Incentives and Related Matters define 'over-service' only. The converse of this definition can be used to define 'underservicing'. The courts do not refer to these concepts, but apply general rules regarding professional negligence and malpractice based on what a reasonably competent doctor in the same position would do. In deciding the standard to be adopted, the courts may consult the ethical rules of the medical profession, but are not bound to take them into account.

  13. [Dynamic distribution characters of herbaceous vegetation root systems in abandoned grasslands of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Li, Zhanbin; Tantai, Zhan

    2005-05-01

    The investigation on the vertical distribution characters of herbaceous vegetation root systems in abandoned and natural grasslands of Loess Plateau by the method of soil auger showed that there were no significant differences in root system distribution patterns between different sampling points, and the related root indexes could be used to indicate the vertical distribution characters of vegetation roots. The main root indexes including root biomass and root length were decreased with increasing soil depth, but increased with increasing abandoned years. After abandoned for more than 20 years, the root distribution characters of abandoned grassland were approached to that of natural grassland. The root extinction coefficient decreased with increasing abandoned years, indicating that more and more roots were concentrated in surface soil layer with the increase of abandoned time, which was helpful to the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and beneficial to the new species intrusion and vegetation succession.

  14. Development of a novel linearly-filled Derenzo microPET phantom

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Benjamin L; Graves, Stephen A; Farhoud, Mohammed; Barnhart, Todd E; Jeffery, Justin J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Nickles, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) phantoms are used to calibrate PET scanners so that inter-scanner and inter-isotope comparison can be made between PET datasets. Hot rod style phantoms have a hole pattern, which is filled with a positron-emitting isotope and typically involves using two radioisotope reservoirs with the pattern created with channels in between. However, this configuration is difficult to fill and requires an excess of activity and volume. Here we present an alternative design, a phantom that is linearly filled-one channel at a time. The process of fabrication of prototypes of the design is described and PET images of the prototyped phantom are also shown for a variety of commonly used radioisotopes (52Mn, 64Cu, 76Br, 124I). This design allows for a large reduction in isotope volume and required filling time making a quality assurance (QA) protocol safer, more efficient and less costly. PMID:27508106

  15. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  16. 43 CFR 3484.2 - Completion of operations and permanent abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Before permanent abandonment of exploration operations, all openings and excavations shall be... and according to the approved exploration plan. Drill holes, trenches, and other excavations...

  17. 43 CFR 3484.2 - Completion of operations and permanent abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Before permanent abandonment of exploration operations, all openings and excavations shall be... and according to the approved exploration plan. Drill holes, trenches, and other excavations...

  18. 43 CFR 3484.2 - Completion of operations and permanent abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Before permanent abandonment of exploration operations, all openings and excavations shall be... and according to the approved exploration plan. Drill holes, trenches, and other excavations...

  19. Computer Simulation of the Propagation of Heat in Abandoned Workings Insulated with Slurries and Mineral Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurzyński, Wacław; Krach, Andrzej; Pałka, Teresa

    2014-03-01

    In the paper the results of investigations aimed at further identification of the phenomena occurring in abandoned workings and connected with the flow of air-gas (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon oxidation products) mixture with taking into consideration the impact of supplied mineral substances on the processes of self-heating of the coal left in goaves were presented. The known and successfully used method for the prevention of fires in abandoned workings is the technology of filling goaf with an ash-air mixture, which also raises the issue of the effective use of that mixture. The computer, i.e. digital simulation methods being developed and intended for the purpose of the process discussed here are a good complement of the use of that technology. A developed mathematical model describing the process of additional sealing of gob with wet slurry supplied with three pipelines is based on the balance of volume of the supplied mixture and contained in the body created in goaves. The form of that body was assessed on the basis of the observation results available in literature and the results of model investigations. The calculation examples carried out for the the longwall area and its goaf ventilated with the "U" system allow to state that the introduced modification of the mathematical model describing the flow of the mixture of air, gases, and wet slurry with consideration of the coal burning process in the fire source area was verified positively. The digital prognostic simulations have confirmed a vital impact of the wet slurry supplied into the goaf on the processes of coal burning and also the change of rate and volume flow rate of the air mixture in goaf. As a complement to the above it should be noted that such elements as the place of the slurry supply in comparison with the longwall inclination or fire source area location is of great importance for the effectiveness of the fire prevention used. The development of computer/ digital

  20. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation.

  1. Significance testing - are we ready yet to abandon its use?

    PubMed

    The, Bertram

    2011-11-01

    Understanding of the damaging effects of significance testing has steadily grown. Reporting p values without dichotomizing the result to be significant or not, is not the solution. Confidence intervals are better, but are troubled by a non-intuitive interpretation, and are often misused just to see whether the null value lies within the interval. Bayesian statistics provide an alternative which solves most of these problems. Although criticized for relying on subjective models, the interpretation of a Bayesian posterior probability is more intuitive than the interpretation of a p value, and seems to be closest to intuitive patterns of human decision making. Another alternative could be using confidence interval functions (or p value functions) to display a continuum of intervals at different levels of confidence around a point estimate. Thus, better alternatives to significance testing exist. The reluctance to abandon this practice might be both preference of clinging to old habits as well as the unfamiliarity with better methods. Authors might question if using less commonly exercised, though superior, techniques will be well received by the editors, reviewers and the readership. A joint effort will be needed to abandon significance testing in clinical research in the future.

  2. Fires in abandoned coal mines and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.; Chaiken, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Fires that occur in abandoned coal mines, waste banks, and in coal outcrops constitute a serious health, safety, and environmental hazard. Toxic fumes, the deterioration of air quality, and subsidence constitute the greatest hazards from these fires. Although fires on abandoned mined land (AML) occur in every coal-producing state, the severity of the problem varies. Methods to extinguish or control AML fires, including excavation, fire barriers, and sealing, are generally expensive and have a relatively low probability of success. This US Bureau of Mines report includes information from a variety of sources, i.e., agencies of the Federal Government, State agencies, research reports, conference proceedings, product information, and technical literature. This information has been collated into a comprehensive discussion of AML fire problems. Data on past fire control projects and on the estimated extent of the current problem have been compiled. Factors affecting the occurrence, propagation, and extinguishment of AML fires are discussed. Conventional fire control methods are described, and their probable effectiveness is evaluated. Information on the hazards of AML fires and safety considerations is included. The status of current technology, recent improvements in fire control methods, and areas of current research are discussed.

  3. Recuperation of nitrogen cycling in Amazonian forests following agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Carvalho, Cláudio J Reis; Figueira, Adelaine Michela; Ishida, Françoise Yoko; Ometto, Jean Pierre H B; Nardoto, Gabriela B; Sabá, Renata Tuma; Hayashi, Sanae N; Leal, Eliane C; Vieira, Ima Célia G; Martinelli, Luiz A

    2007-06-21

    Phosphorus (P) is generally considered the most common limiting nutrient for productivity of mature tropical lowland forests growing on highly weathered soils. It is often assumed that P limitation also applies to young tropical forests, but nitrogen (N) losses during land-use change may alter the stoichiometric balance of nutrient cycling processes. In the Amazon basin, about 16% of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 30-50% of cleared land is estimated now to be in some stage of secondary forest succession following agricultural abandonment. Here we use forest age chronosequences to demonstrate that young successional forests growing after agricultural abandonment on highly weathered lowland tropical soils exhibit conservative N-cycling properties much like those of N-limited forests on younger soils in temperate latitudes. As secondary succession progresses, N-cycling properties recover and the dominance of a conservative P cycle typical of mature lowland tropical forests re-emerges. These successional shifts in N:P cycling ratios with forest age provide a mechanistic explanation for initially lower and then gradually increasing soil emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O). The patterns of N and P cycling during secondary forest succession, demonstrated here over decadal timescales, are similar to N- and P-cycling patterns during primary succession as soils age over thousands and millions of years, thus revealing that N availability in terrestrial ecosystems is ephemeral and can be disrupted by either natural or anthropogenic disturbances at several timescales.

  4. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants.

    PubMed

    Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (<1 year), B (1-2 years) and C (>2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age.

  5. Handbook for Gas Filled RF Cavity Aficionados'

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Chung, Moses; Yonehara, Katsuya; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The use of hydrogen gas filled RF cavities in muon cooling channels has been proposed by Rolland Johnson. Impressive results have been obtained toward attaining high voltage gradients and rapid training in preliminary tests done at the FNAL MTA facility. However, so far it has not been possible to test them under conditions where they were subject to the transversal of a high intensity particle beam. This note is an attempt to bring together a description of some of the pertinent physical processes that take place in the dilute plasma that is generated in the hydrogen gas by the beam. Two effects dominate. The first is that the free electrons generated can load down the cavity and transfer its energy to heating the gas. The second is a question of what happens to the plasma in the longer term. There is an enormous literature on the subject of the subject of dilute hydrogen plasmas and we can tap into this information in order to understand and predict the behavior of the cavity.

  6. TRP Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.

  7. Fluid-filled dynamic bowtie filter: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunhavanich, Picha; Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2015-03-01

    By varying its thickness to compensate for the different path length through the patient as a function of fan angle, a pre-patient bowtie filter modulates flux distribution to reduce patient dose, scatter, and detector dynamic range, and to improve image quality. A dynamic bowtie filter is superior to its traditional, static counterpart in its ability to adjust its thickness along different fan and view angles to suit a specific patient and task. Among the proposed dynamic bowtie designs, the piecewise-linear and the digital beam attenuators offer more flexibility than conventional filters, but rely on analog positioning of a limited number of wedges. In this work, we introduce a new approach with digital control, called the fluid-filled dynamic bowtie filter. It is a two-dimensional array of small binary elements (channels filled or unfilled with attenuating liquid) in which the cumulative thickness along the x-ray path contributes to the bowtie's total attenuation. Using simulated data from a pelvic scan, the performance is compared with the piecewise-linear attenuator. The fluid-filled design better matches the desired target attenuation profile and delivers a 4.2x reduction in dynamic range. The variance of the reconstruction (or noise map) can also be more homogeneous. In minimizing peak variance, the fluid-filled attenuator shows a 3% improvement. From the initial simulation results, the proposed design has more control over the flux distribution as a function of both fan and view angles.

  8. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12–14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of − 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago

  9. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-09-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12-14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of - 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago, followed by

  10. Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738

  11. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    PubMed Central

    Gately, Reece D

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications. PMID:25821693

  12. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any...

  13. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  14. Micro mold filling kinetics of metallic glasses in supercooled liquid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Huo, L. S.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2013-03-01

    The unique thermoplastic forming ability of metallic glasses in their supercooled liquid state makes them the ideal embossing materials for miniature fabrication. However, the understanding and controlling of micro filling process that is crucial for miniature fabrication and their applications remain fundamental, yet presently unresolved issues. Here, the mold filling kinetics of a model Pd-based metallic glass in supercooled liquid state is studied using different Si micro molds with different channels. A universal kinetic equation, which can describe the filling kinetics of viscous metallic supercooled liquid in micro molds with irregular shapes, is obtained.

  15. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  16. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  17. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected

  18. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  19. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  20. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia`s initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-12-31

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative.

  1. Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund - a view from the West

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Congress created the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund (AML) in 1977 as part of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. The AML is funded by a special tax on coal mining. About one-third of AML fees will be paid by coal operators in the western states. The author examines the disbursement of AML funds under the Reagan Administration. He describes how the western state governments expected a generous portion of the AML funds for coal and non-coal reclamation, as well as community impact assistance projects in their states. Finally, the author shows how the Office of Surface Mining has largely frustrated the western expectations through its interpretation of the AML disbursement priorities.

  2. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  3. Mobilisation and bioaccessibility of lead in paint from abandoned boats.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew

    2014-12-15

    Fragments of leaded paint sampled from abandoned boats have been ground as a composite and added in different quantities to aliquots of clean estuarine sediment in order to examine the mobility and bioaccessibility of Pb. Concentrations of Pb mobilised by sea water increased with increasing quantity of paint present, but the percentage of total Pb mobilised was greatest from paint-free sediment. Lead mobilisation was enhanced in the presence of the protein, bovine serum albumin, a surrogate for the digestive fluids of deposit-feeding invertebrates, but, likewise, the percentage of Pb mobilised was greatest from paint-free sediment. Lower percentage mobility and bioaccessibility in contaminated sediment than in paint-free sediment is attributed to the relatively low solubility and amenability of Pb compounds in the paint matrix. Despite the low mobility of Pb, however, sediment contaminated by as little as 0.2% paint is predicted to result in dissolved concentrations that exceed available water quality standards.

  4. 'Moral distress'--time to abandon a flawed nursing construct?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains.

  5. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  6. 78 FR 23551 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment Take notice that on April 4, 2013, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, TX 77002-2761, filed in... Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended. ANR seeks authority to abandon by sale...

  7. 78 FR 59424 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... only one shipper on the line, United Cooperative. According to WCL, upon a grant of abandonment authority and with the State of Wisconsin's cooperation, WCL plans to convey the line to United Cooperative... Cooperative after the proposed abandonment. WCL states that, based on information in its possession, the...

  8. 46 CFR 122.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 122... OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 122.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient drills and give sufficient instructions to make sure that all...

  9. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the...

  10. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the...

  11. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  12. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  13. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  14. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  15. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  16. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  17. 77 FR 29456 - Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis-Abandonment Exemption-in Howard County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption-- in Howard... Industrial Lead, between mileposts 55.66 and 58.5 in Howard County, Ind.\\1\\ The line traverses United States...--Abandonment Exemption--in Howard County, Ind., AB 511 (Sub-No. 5X) (STB served July 22, 2010)....

  18. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  19. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  20. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  1. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  2. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  3. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  4. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  5. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  6. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a..., 1986 August 17, 1987 Ohio AMLR Plan 3.7.4, 3.9.1; RAMP Committee role; AMLR program staff...

  7. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a..., 1986 August 17, 1987 Ohio AMLR Plan 3.7.4, 3.9.1; RAMP Committee role; AMLR program staff...

  8. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  9. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.63 Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment. An owner or operator...

  10. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.63 Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment. An owner or operator...

  11. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  12. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.63 Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment. An owner or operator...

  13. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  14. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  15. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  16. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  17. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  18. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  19. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  20. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  1. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  2. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  3. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  4. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  5. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  6. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., or donation of surplus property. 45.604-2 Section 45.604-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Disposal 45.604-2 Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property. (a) Plant clearance officers... the costs incident to donation. (d) Before abandoning, destroying, or donating surplus property,...

  7. 48 CFR 45.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or donation of excess personal property. 45.603 Section 45.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Disposal 45.603 Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. (a) Plant clearance... any of the costs incident to a donation. (d)(1) Before abandoning, destroying, or donating...

  8. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  9. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  10. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  11. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  12. 75 FR 27383 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marion County, IN.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marion County, IN. On... for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 10903 to abandon a 0.82-mile line of railroad in its... milepost QSZ 4.42, known as the Speedway Running Track, in Indianapolis, Marion County, Ind. The...

  13. Influence of Hydraulic Fracturing on Overlying Aquifers in the Presence of Leaky Abandoned Wells.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Joshua W; James, Scott C; Yelderman, Joe C

    2016-11-01

    The association between hydrocarbon-rich reservoirs and organic-rich source rocks means unconventional oil and gas plays usually occur in mature sedimentary basins-where large-scale conventional development has already taken place. Abandoned wells in proximity to hydraulic fracturing could be affected by increased fluid pressures and corresponding newly generated fractures that directly connect (frac hit) to an abandoned well or to existing fractures intersecting an abandoned well. If contaminants migrate to a pathway hydraulically connected to an abandoned well, upward leakage may occur. Potential effects of hydraulic fracturing on upward flow through a particular type of leaky abandoned well-abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells were investigated using numerical modeling. Several factors that affect flow to leaky wells were considered including proximity of a leaky well to hydraulic fracturing, flowback, production, and leaky well abandonment methods. The numerical model used historical records and available industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas. Numerical simulations indicate that upward contaminant migration could occur through leaky converted wells if certain spatial and hydraulic conditions exist. Upward flow through leaky converted wells increased with proximity to hydraulic fracturing, but decreased when flowback and production occurred. Volumetric flow rates ranged between 0 and 0.086 m(3) /d for hydraulic-fracturing scenarios. Potential groundwater impacts should be paired with plausible transport mechanisms, and upward flow through leaky abandoned wells could be unrelated to hydraulic fracturing. The results also underscore the need to evaluate historical activities.

  14. 76 FR 21425 - Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Aroostook County, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption-- in... regulations at 49 CFR 1152.29. In support, MMA states that, upon receipt of abandonment authority, it plans to..., to construct a new land port of entry facility for the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency....

  15. Areas of increasing agricultural abandonment overlap the distribution of previously common, currently threatened plant species.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2013-01-01

    Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity. In agricultural ecosystems, abandonment of former farmlands constitutes a major land-use shift. We examined the relationships between areas in which agriculture has been abandoned and the distribution records of threatened plant species across Japan. We selected 23 plant species that are currently identified as threatened but were previously common in the country as indicators of threatened plant species. The areas of abandoned farmlands within the distribution ranges of the indicator species were significantly larger than the proportion of abandoned farmland area across the whole country. Also, abandoned farmland areas were positively correlated with the occurrence of indicator species. Therefore, sections of agricultural landscape that are increasingly becoming abandoned and the distribution ranges of indicator species overlapped. These results suggest that abandoned farmland areas contain degraded or preferred habitats of threatened plant species. We propose that areas experiencing increased abandonment of farmland can be divided into at least two categories: those that threaten the existence of threatened species and those that provide habitats for these threatened species.

  16. Family Foster Care, Kinship Networks, and Residential Care of Abandoned Infants in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megahead, Hamido A.; Cesario, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    While infant abandonment has occurred in all segments of society, on all continents, and across all generations, the motivations for this practice are varied and depend upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Western approaches addressing the care of abandoned infants focus on terminating parental rights and…

  17. 30 CFR 918.20 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land... Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on February 3, 1986, effective December 10, 1986. Copies of the approved plan are available at: (a) Louisiana Department of Natural...

  18. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Determining a PCB Concentration for Purposes of Abandonment or Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing... station downstream of the former gas flow, at a minimum, sample all ends of the abandoned pipe. (2) If...

  19. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Determining a PCB Concentration for Purposes of Abandonment or Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing... station downstream of the former gas flow, at a minimum, sample all ends of the abandoned pipe. (2) If...

  20. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  1. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  2. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  3. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  4. Spatial Risk Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing near Abandoned and Converted Oil and Gas Wells.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Joshua W; Yelderman, Joe C; James, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Interaction between hydraulically generated fractures and existing wells (frac hits) could represent a potential risk to groundwater. In particular, frac hits on abandoned oil and gas wells could lead to upward leakage into overlying aquifers, provided migration pathways are present along the abandoned well. However, potential risk to groundwater is relatively unknown because few studies have investigated the probability of frac hits on abandoned wells. In this study, actual numbers of frac hits were not determined. Rather, the probability for abandoned wells to intersect hypothetical stimulated reservoir sizes of horizontal wells was investigated. Well data were compiled and analyzed for location and reservoir information, and sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumed sizes of stimulated reservoirs. This study used public and industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas, with specific attention paid to abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells (converted wells). In counties with Eagle Ford Shale activity, well-data analysis identified 55,720 abandoned wells with a median age of 1983, and 2400 converted wells with a median age of 1954. The most aggressive scenario resulted in 823 abandoned wells and 184 converted wells intersecting the largest assumed stimulated reservoir size. Analysis showed abandoned wells have the potential to be intersected by multiple stimulated reservoirs, and risks for intersection would increase if currently permitted horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford Shale are actually completed. Results underscore the need to evaluate historical oil and gas activities in areas with modern unconventional oil and gas activities.

  5. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920.20 Section 920.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MARYLAND § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine...

  6. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  7. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  8. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  9. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  10. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  11. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  12. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  13. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine... PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's.... Copies of the approved Plan are available at the following locations: (a) Crow Tribal Council,...

  14. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  15. Hydropedologic patterns of escalic soils in cultivated and abandoned vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, Elmar; Rellini, Ivano; Scopesi, Claudia; Tassistro, Martina; Märker, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The construction of vineyard terraces was conducted extensively for many centuries in the Mediterranean area. However, the use of this technique has direct influences on a hillslope environment. Both artificial topographic transformation and frequently agricultural use have a strong impact on terrace soils. Hydromechanical properties have been scarcely investigated. They can change due to several terrace construction techniques, ploughing and particularly abandonment. These changes can cause the collapse of terrace walls due to modifications in the inner drainage behaviour of the terrace and increase the susceptibility to failure of a terraced slope. To determine differencies in hydropedological water fluxes of escalic soils, infiltration and saturated hydraulic conductivity in 25cm, 50cm and 100cm were measured on defined Unique Condition Units (UCU) in the Vernazza catchment in Cinque Terre, Italy. The determination of soil texture and soil skeleton supported the information of the hydropedologic information. Moreover, shear strength of the soil in the three depths was estimated with a light torvane device and compared with the texture and the hydrological values. The results of our study indicate that escalic soils in vineyards in a Mediterranean torrential catchment show certain hydropedologic patterns under different substratum and distinct agricultural land cover conditions. The latter is defined by both species-related coverage of distinct crop plants and status of cultivation or abandonment respectively. These results depict the fundament for the application of physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling on the terraced landscape of the Vernazza catchment. The hydropedologic patterns determined in our study are expected to represent the conditions of water fluxes in the soil better and make the results of landslide susceptibility models more reliable.

  16. Siting of prison complex above abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the state of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. However, one masonry building was located within the potential draw zone of mine works that still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was designed accordingly to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase 2 prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the phase 1 complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was undertaken to (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical database of subsidence events in the Illinois coal basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations. However, for others that could be affected potentially by future subsidence movement preliminary subsidence resistant designs were completed using the expected level of potential subsidence movement.

  17. Defect-enhanced void filling and novel filled phases of open-structure skutterudites

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Lili; Qiu, Yuting; Shi, Xun; ...

    2015-05-14

    Here, we report the design of novel filled CoSb3 skutterudite phases based on a combination of filling and Sb-substituted Ga/In defects. Ga/In doped skutterudite phases with Li-, Nd-, and Sm-fillings can be formed via this strategy, which can have relatively wider ranges of carrier concentration than other conventional filled skutterudite phases.

  18. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporated into the design and construction of the fill as follows. (1) The fill shall have, along the... spoil fill and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock... maintained at the head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and...

  19. Defect-enhanced void filling and novel filled phases of open-structure skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Lili; Qiu, Yuting; Shi, Xun; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Singh, David J.; Yang, Jihui

    2015-05-14

    Here, we report the design of novel filled CoSb3 skutterudite phases based on a combination of filling and Sb-substituted Ga/In defects. Ga/In doped skutterudite phases with Li-, Nd-, and Sm-fillings can be formed via this strategy, which can have relatively wider ranges of carrier concentration than other conventional filled skutterudite phases.

  20. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  1. Characterizing Methane Emissions and Sources from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, T.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Lamb, B. K.; Fries, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work indicates that methane (CH4) inventories for the United States are underestimated. We made direct measurements of CH4 emissions from 144 abandoned oil and gas wells, a source currently missing from inventories. Most abandoned wells do not emit CH4, but about 2% of wells surveyed contributed 95% of the observed emissions, particularly unplugged wells. Isotopic analyses indicate that wells emit CH4 from natural gas and/or coal bed CH4. Using emission factors developed from these measurements we provide basin wide estimates of CH4 emissions from abandoned wells in the Uintah and Denver-Julesburg basins. Extrapolated nationally, leakage from abandoned wells may contribute significantly to the current CH4 inventory for oil and gas activities. Additional data on emissions and activity factors are needed to accurately determine the contribution of abandoned wells to CH4 budgets, particularly a better characterization of the distribution of high emitters.

  2. Fear of abandonment and binge eating. A subliminal psychodynamic activation investigation.

    PubMed

    Patton, C J

    1992-08-01

    Dependency and fear of abandonment by significant others have been theoretically linked to eating disorders, particularly bulimia. This research investigates the hypothesis that unconscious fear of abandonment is one variable underlying binge eating episodes in bulimia. An analogue population of 40 "high eating disorder" undergraduate women and 40 undergraduate women with normal eating patterns viewed either an abandonment or a control stimulus presented at either subliminal (4 msec) or supraliminal (200 msec) exposure durations. Following exposure to an abandonment stimulus, the high eating disorder group ate significantly more crackers in a bogus cracker rating task (p less than .001) than did subjects in any other condition. Contrary to predictions, a subliminal stimulus did not lead to a significant change in self-reported mood. Results provide preliminary support for the psychoanalytic hypothesis that binge eating is a defense against unconscious fear of abandonment.

  3. Well Abandonment at Various Sites, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damphousse, Sarah Joan

    2016-01-01

    Between January 29 and March 9, 2016, a total of 23 monitoring wells were properly abandoned-in-place at five KSC sites (OPF-1&2, OPF-3, RDG, SRB, and HSB). The total abandonment encompassed 489.06 linear feet. The wells abandoned were constructed of PVC with diameters ranging from 1-inch to 2-inches. The shallowest well abandoned was measured to be 11.6 ft bls (OPF) and the deepest well abandoned was documented to be 51.45 feet bls (HSB). All aboveground completions were removed and each area was re-graded and/or grouted to surface to match existing surroundings. All materials (concrete pads, well casings, etc.) were disposed of accordingly.

  4. Channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...

  5. Mechanosensitive Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  6. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CBμCT) was used first. After the CBμCT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CBμCT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  7. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  8. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.727... disconnected from all sources and supplies of gas; purged of gas; in the case of offshore pipelines, filled... the volume of gas is so small that there is no potential hazard. (c) Except for service lines,...

  9. Tuning energy relaxation along quantum Hall channels.

    PubMed

    Altimiras, C; le Sueur, H; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Mailly, D; Pierre, F

    2010-11-26

    The chiral edge channels in the quantum Hall regime are considered ideal ballistic quantum channels, and have quantum information processing potentialities. Here, we demonstrate experimentally, at a filling factor of ν(L)=2, the efficient tuning of the energy relaxation that limits quantum coherence and permits the return toward equilibrium. Energy relaxation along an edge channel is controllably enhanced by increasing its transmission toward a floating Ohmic contact, in quantitative agreement with predictions. Moreover, by forming a closed inner edge channel loop, we freeze energy exchanges in the outer channel. This result also elucidates the inelastic mechanisms at work at ν(L)=2, informing us, in particular, that those within the outer edge channel are negligible.

  10. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    simulation time step and verified by a comparison of calculated and observed bottomhole pressures for the operational phase. Well abandonment was simulated by stepwise filling of the wellbore with Schlumberger Evercrete and Class G cements considering the specific mechanical cement properties as a function of time to account for stress changes and displacements in the wellbore system and its surrounding. Our simulation results indicate, that taking into account available site-specific data, failure of the wellbore system is unlikely to occur during site operation and subsequent abandonment. The implemented hydro-mechanical model can be consequently applied for investigation of different hypothetical scenarios including varying stress regimes, low-quality cementation jobs as well as casing corrosion. Furthermore, coupling with hydro-chemical simulations would allow for a long-term assessment of wellbore integrity and reservoir fluid leakage. Kempka, T., Klapperer, S., Norden, B. Coupled hydro-mechanical simulations demonstrate system integrity at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage, Germany (2014) Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics: Structures in and on Rock Masses - Proceedings of EUROCK 2014, ISRM European Regional Symposium, pp. 1317-1322.

  11. Valley fill in the Andean Eastern Cordillera: a response to transient incision of the Río Iruya, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovay, C.; Harbor, D. J.; Rahl, J. M.; Staffo, K.; Galli, C.

    2010-12-01

    Headwater valley fill in the Río Iruya chronicles a complex record of deposition and incision at the eastern flank of the Andes. Other intramontane valley fills in NW Argentina have been interpreted to record important dynamics of climate, tectonics, and hillslope failure; specific mechanisms of aggradation include Late Cenozoic climate change, rock uplift and defeat of the channel network, and landslide- or tributary-induced damming. The valley fill is dominated by a horizontally bedded, muddy, coarse-grained, angular conglomerate with few channel cuts, interpreted as gravel-bed, braided river deposits with significant tributary fan volume. The fill contains almost no fine-grained, laminated, or lacustrine deposits, and a general lack of soil horizons in the up to 300 m-thick fill likely indicates continuous deposition. The geometry of preexisting and modern channel network is largely similar. Downstream, the river is actively incising bedrock and has removed most of the fill. In contrast, the headwater reaches contain well-preserved and abundant fill terraces and the river is less commonly eroding bedrock in the valley bottom. The fill becomes mostly eroded downstream of several major tributaries that provided a significant volume of sediment. Ongoing and alternating aggradation and incision are evident in both inset terraces and the modern channel. We consider the applicability of previously established interpretations of valley fill generation. In addition, we evaluate the potential for complex response to base level lowering to cause the aggradation and incision in the Río Iruya. Hypothesized drainage basin reorganization and capture would produce a base level drop, resulting in enormous sediment flux. To estimate the maximum possible erosion rate in the headwaters region, we studied the valley fill sediments using differential GPS. The contact between the fill and the bedrock along the channel was measured to determine the total volume of the fill

  12. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  13. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  14. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  15. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  16. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  17. Classification of munition fill using laser acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.G.; Blackwood, L.G.

    1997-08-01

    Identification of a munition fill is easier if one can determine if there is fill material present (empty versus full), and if so, the phase (solid or liquid) of the fill. Previous munition inspection efforts by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that resonance information could determine the fill. A portable, noncontacting laser-acoustic system was developed by INEEL that uses a low-power laser system to measure the container`s vibration characteristics in response to an acoustic excitation. These vibration characteristics were shown to be functions of the fill material and munition geometry. The laser acoustic system was used to characterize the fill of over one hundred 155-mm munitions. Additional research and development using this system is being performed for the Mobile Munitions Assessment System.

  18. Grain-filling problem in 'super' rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Modern rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, especially the newly bred 'super' rice, have numerous spikelets on a panicle with a large yield capacity. However, these cultivars often fail to achieve their high yield potential due to poor grain-filling of later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to the earlier-flowering superior spikelets). Conventional thinking to explain the poor grain-filling is the consequence of carbon limitation. Recent studies, however, have shown that carbohydrate supply should not be the major problem because they have adequate sucrose at their initial grain-filling stage. The low activities of key enzymes in carbon metabolism may contribute to the poor grain-filling. Proper field practices, such as moderate soil drying during mid- and late grain-filling stages, could solve some problems in poor grain-filling. Further studies are needed by molecular approaches to investigate the signal transport, the hormonal action, the gene expressions, and the biochemical processes in inferior spikelets.

  19. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods

    PubMed Central

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands. PMID:27140199

  20. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  1. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Gao, Jing; Zou, Jinlin

    2015-01-01

    A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR) algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D) information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance. PMID:25806869

  2. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    PubMed

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  3. Hyperspectral Ocean Color Science: Santa Barbara Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Channel. The PnB project is supported primarily by NASA. This work has filled the most glaring holes in the PnB in situ science program. This...S.Maritorena and W. Robinson, 1999: Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: The black pixel assumption. Submitted to Applied Optics. Toole

  4. Salt tectonics, patterns of basin fill, and reservoir distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Yorston, H.J.; Miles, A.E.

    1988-02-01

    Salt structures, which develop due to sediment loading, gravity creep, and/or buoyancy, include boundary-fault grabens and half grabens, rollers, anticlines, domes and walls, diapirs, sills, massifs, and compressional toe structures. Associated features include fault systems and turtle structures. Of these, six directly relate to basin fill and all directly influence the distribution of reservoir facies. Salt structuring is initiated by sedimentation, which in turn is localized by salt withdrawal. Withdrawal produces individual salt structures, migrating sills, dissected massifs, and regional depocenters bordered by salt walls. Composite withdrawals dictate the patterns of basin fill. Relative rates of structural growth and sedimentation control the distribution of reservoir facies. When growth dominates, sands are channeled into lows. When sedimentation dominates and maintains flat surfaces, facies distribution is not impacted except where faulting develops. Turtle structures, developed by the inversion of peripheral synclines, can move sands into favorable structural position and/or serve as platforms for carbonate reservoir development. Salt growth varies with type structure, stage of development, and rate of sedimentation. Sedimentation at a specific location depends on basin position, sediment transport system, sea level stand, and rate of salt withdrawal. This paper presents techniques for using seismic data to determine the controls on salt structural growth and sedimentation and the patterns of basin fill and reservoir distribution.

  5. Managing Abandoned Farmland: The Need to Link Biological and Sociological Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Karyne; Bouchard, André; Domon, Gérald

    2008-10-01

    The lack of a particular use associated with abandoned farmland provides real opportunities with respect to the various land-use pressures occurring in productive territories. These environments remain generally poorly known and, because of this, require in-depth studies on the feasibility of management options, on biological as well as social grounds. This study, based on research on the biophysical potential and the perceptions by the owners of abandoned farmlands, analyzes the feasibility of silvicultural management options to improve forestry potential. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed abandoned farmland owners on different aspects of the status of their abandoned farmland in order to determine their willingness toward the management of these private lands. The land owners were also asked to express their interests and their constraints toward various types of interventions, with an emphasis on silvicultural work. The data were analyzed using multivariate methods to establish relationships between the questionnaire data and the characteristics of the land owners (socioeconomic profile and value system toward the environment). The results show that, in general, abandoned farmland is an unwanted space, is generally little used, is poorly known, and has little importance in the plans of its owners. We have found three types of owner profiles; the owners with a farmer’s profile are those who are the most interested in managing their abandoned farmland, whether for agriculture or silviculture. The desire to improve abandoned farmland seems less important to owners with an ecocentric profile (high awareness of the environment) and to older owners. Finally, by associating the type of abandoned farmland owned and the characteristics of the owners, it is possible to propose different management options that reconcile the wishes of the owners as well as the biophysical potential of their abandoned farmland.

  6. English Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The cloud covered earthscape of Northern Europe demonstrates the difficulty of photographing this elusive subject from space. The English Channel (51.0N, 1.5E) separating the British Islands from Europe is in the center of the scene. The white cliffs of Dover on the SE coast of the UK, the Thames River estuary and a partial view of the city of London can be seen on the north side of the Channel while the Normandy coast of France is to the south.

  7. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  8. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mekong Floods Fill Tonle Sap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The monsoon season in Southeast Asia brings recurring, often devastating floods to countries in the region, but these floods also play a necessary role in the region's water cycle. These MODIS images centered on Cambodia reveal extensive flooding of the Mekong River, which comes in from Laos in the north, to the right of center in the images, and flows south through Cambodia and southeast through Vietnam to empty into the South China Sea. The true-color image shows the brownish, sediment-laden floodwaters filling the Mekong Delta in southern Cambodia and Vietnam on September 15, 2001. The false color image above has been enhanced to bring out the contrast between the floodwaters and the lands, with sediment-carrying floodwaters in purple. Sediment can be seen flowing into the South China Sea as well. This year's floods have affected over a million people, and 100 people have been killed in Vietnam alone. The monsoon floods bring not only devastation, but renewal. The large body of water just left of center in Cambodia is the Tonle Sap. This shallow lake plays a changing role in the regional water cycle. During the dry season, the stream-fed Tonle Sap drains via the Tonle Sab River into the Mekong River. During the wet season (June-November), flooding of the Mekong reverses the course of the Tonle Sab, roughly tripling the lake's size from about 3000 km2 to about 10,000. When the dry season returns, the lake once again begins to drain into the Mekong Delta, where it provides a flow of fresh water that balances the intrusion of salty seawater into the delta's agricultural lands. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. Isotopic insights into smoothening of abandoned fan surfaces, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Nichols, K.; Finkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations measured on abandoned fan surfaces along the Mojave section of the San Andreas Fault suggest that sediment is generated, transported, and removed from the fans on the order of 30-40??kyr. We measured in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, and in some cases 26Al, in boulders (n??=??15), surface sediment (n??=??15), and one depth profile (n??=??9). Nuclide concentrations in surface sediments and boulders underestimate fan ages, suggesting that 10Be accumulation is largely controlled by the geomorphic processes that operate on the surfaces of the fans and not by their ages. Field observations, grain-size distribution, and cosmogenic nuclide data suggest that over time, boulders weather into grus and the bar sediments diffuse into the adjacent swales. As fans grow older the relief between bars and swales decreases, the sediment transport rate from bars to swales decreases, and the surface processes that erode the fan become uniform over the entire fan surface. The nuclide data therefore suggest that, over time, the difference in 10Be concentration between bars and swales increases to a maximum until the topographic relief between bars and swales is minimized, resulting in a common surface lowering rate and common 10Be concentrations across the fan. During this phase, the entire fan is lowered homogeneously at a rate of 10-15??mm??kyr-1. ?? 2006 University of Washington.

  11. Treatment abandonment in feline sporotrichosis - study of 147 cases.

    PubMed

    Chaves, A R; de Campos, M P; Barros, M B L; do Carmo, C N; Gremião, I D F; Pereira, S A; Schubach, T M P

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the epidemiological, clinical and mycological aspects of feline sporotrichosis cases attending the Laboratory of Clinical Research on Dermatozoonosis in Domestic Animals - Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (LAPCLIN-DERMZOO/IPEC/FIOCRUZ), from 1998 to 2005. It was possible to get in contact with 147 (19.2%) cat owners. One hundred and thirteen (76.9%) cats were male, 117 (79.6%) had no defined race and 87 (59.2%) were sexually intact. The age ranged from 72 to 216 months (median = 108 months). Nineteen cats were reassessed: eleven (57.8%) were male, thirteen (36.8%) were breed and fifteen (47.3%) castrated. Fourteen (52.6%) animals lived at home and did not roamed the streets. Seven (36.8%) had normal clinical findings and negative mycological examination. Twelve (63.1%) cats had skin lesions compatible with sporotrichosis. Thirty-one (21%, n = 147) cats disappeared after abandoning treatment, 36 (24.5%, n = 147) were alive and 80 (54.4%, n = 147) had died. Causes of death informed by the owners were: sporotrichosis in 35 (43.7%, n = 80), accidental death in 27 (33.7%, n = 80) and other diseases in 18 (22.5%, n = 80). Withdrawal of treatment occurred mainly at the time of clinical improvement and may represent a serious obstacle to the control of sporotrichosis.

  12. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-05-19

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out.

  13. Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, Isabel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2002-08-01

    In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes. O. maxima had more seedlings recruited beneath olive trees and beneath Opuntia adults than expected. Most O. stricta seedlings were also located beneath Opuntia adult plants. However, although most seedlings were recruited beneath Opuntia, some (10-30%) were found away from putative parental plants. This may be due to seed dispersal by birds and wild boars. Seeds dispersed by wild boars were not significantly more viable than seeds from intact fruits. Seedlings grow very slowly but have a high survival rate. In conclusion, Opuntia seedling recruitment is very successful and ensures the persistence of these species within old olive groves. Consequently, it prevents restoration from an agricultural land-use back to the native community.

  14. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  15. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  16. Investigation of subsidence damages above abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Po-Ming.

    1988-01-01

    Abandoned mine lands (AML) subsidence is one of the most hazardous problems for personal property and community development. In order to improve the technique for subsidence diagnosis and the effectiveness of remedial measures, several methods and techniques have been developed in this research. A subsidence site investigation checklist is developed to guide the investigators with or without hands-on experience to collect a complete and necessary information for subsidence analysis during site investigation. A subsidence cause identification system is developed to streamline the process of analysis and for subsidence cause differentiation and identification over AML. A damage severity system is developed to evaluate the intensity of the damage to structures. A subsidence deduction model is developed based on the probability function integration method to reconstruct subsidence profile and subsurface failure zone for AML subsidence. The study is based on the case studies which include site investigation, surface subsidence survey, subsurface instrumentation, damage severity evaluation, subsidence deduction and statistical analysis. The results show that geologic conditions such as seam depth, seam height, ratios of strong and weak rocks do affect the subsidence damage area, subsidence factor, and damage severity. The relationship between above parameters can be expressed by a second order polynomial with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  17. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  18. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out. PMID:19416813

  19. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    PubMed Central

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain’s resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state’ spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as “psychological structure.” Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes. PMID:22485098

  20. Influence of template fill in graphoepitaxy DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hong, SungEun; Lin, Guanyang; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is considered a promising patterning approach for the 7 nm node and beyond. Specifically, a grapho-epitaxy process using a cylindrical phase BCP may offer an efficient solution for patterning randomly distributed contact holes with sub-resolution pitches, such as found in via and cut mask levels. In any grapho-epitaxy process, the pattern density impacts the template fill (local BCP thickness inside the template) and may cause defects due to respectively over- or underfilling of the template. In order to tackle this issue thoroughly, the parameters that determine template fill and the influence of template fill on the resulting pattern should be investigated. In this work, using three process flow variations (with different template surface energy), template fill is experimentally characterized as a function of pattern density and film thickness. The impact of these parameters on template fill is highly dependent on the process flow, and thus pre-pattern surface energy. Template fill has a considerable effect on the pattern transfer of the DSA contact holes into the underlying layer. Higher fill levels give rise to smaller contact holes and worse critical dimension uniformity. These results are important towards DSA-aware design and show that fill is a crucial parameter in grapho-epitaxy DSA.

  1. Morphostructure and controlling factors on the past and present Gioia-Mesima submarine/channel system (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Eleonora; Martorelli, Eleonora; Latino Chiocci, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    confined sub-basin is sufficiently filled, turbiditic flows bypass the Gioia and Mesima Channel-levée system and the GMS base level deepen to the Stromboli Canyon. The base level lowering lead to the single lower reach formation and the rejuvenation of the GMS by upslope incision. At the present time the GC is an erosive shelf-indenting canyon, incising the whole continental slope. It has a narrow and entrenched course strongly deflected by faults and bordered by abandoned terraces in the middle reach. Otherwise, the MS is an abandoned valley hanging on the GC. The present-day different activity of the courses is also documented by the quantitative analysis showing that the GC thalweg longitudinal profile has an irregular convex shape dissected by numerous knickpoints while the MC has an erosive-depositional concave-up longitudinal profile without knickpoints. The positions of the knickpoints upslope tectonic structures and canyon confluences show the retrogressive erosion of the thalweg. The retrogressive development is increased by downslope sediment transport mostly fed by fluvial discharge and retrogressive failures affecting the GC flanks and heads, where tsunamigenic landslides already occurred. The aim of this talk is to summarize the major research results focus on the identification of the controlling factors responsible for the GMS polyphased evolution and present-day contrasting activity of the Gioia and Mesima courses.

  2. Grazing and abandonment determine different tree dynamics in wood-pastures.

    PubMed

    Oldén, Anna; Komonen, Atte; Tervonen, Kaisa; Halme, Panu

    2017-03-01

    Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing. In abandoned sites, deciduous trees and spruces regenerated abundantly. In the long term, both grazing and abandonment lead to changes in tree species compositions and low diversity wood-pastures. Landscape scale planning and disturbance dynamics are needed for the creation of new wood-pastures and the maintenance of all pasture types within the landscape.

  3. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  4. 2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, north northwest and west southwest sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  5. 1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, south southeast and east northeast sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  6. 75 FR 54215 - East Penn Railroad, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Montgomery County, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... (Sub-No. 1X)] East Penn Railroad, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Montgomery County, PA East Penn... Bridgeport, and milepost 2.14 at Henderson Road in Upper Merion Township, in Montgomery County, Pa. The...

  7. 75 FR 10547 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Jefferson County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... should be sent to CSXT's representative: Kathryn R. Barney, 500 Water Street--J150, Jacksonville, FL... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. SEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA)...

  8. 37 CFR 1.135 - Abandonment for failure to reply within time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action indicates otherwise. (b) Prosecution of an application to save it from abandonment pursuant to... amendment not responsive to the last action, or any related proceedings, will not operate to save...

  9. Numerical Simulation of Abandoned Gob Methane Drainage through Surface Vertical Wells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ventilation system on the abandoned gob weakens, so the gas seepage characteristics in the abandoned gob are significantly different from those in a normal mining gob. In connection with this, this study physically simulated the movement of overlying rock strata. A spatial distribution function for gob permeability was derived. A numerical model using FLUENT for abandoned gob methane drainage through surface wells was established, and the derived spatial distribution function for gob permeability was imported into the numerical model. The control range of surface wells, flow patterns and distribution rules for static pressure in the abandoned gob under different well locations were determined using the calculated results from the numerical model. PMID:25955438

  10. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. Except for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated m...

  11. 30 CFR 756.14 - Approval of amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Introduction Section 101—Findings Section 102—Purposes Section 201—Duties of Navajo Abandoned Mine Lands... September 3, 1996, are approved effective April 15, 1997. Section II, E, 1, Project selection, Sections...

  12. Managing Vacant and Abandoned Property in the Green Zone of Saginaw, Michigan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from a technical assistance project with Saginaw, MI, gives the city options to consider to stabilize neighborhoods through sustainable reuse of abandoned properties, including redeveloping them as green infrastructure, and to create opportunities.

  13. Evaluating Attitudes towards Changes in Rural Landscape by Grazing Cattle on Abandoned Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhito, Kitai; Toshihiro, Hattori; Hiroshi, Takahashi

    The appearance of cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields can be used to evaluate attitudes towards this land-use change. The semantic differential (SD) method was used families of a university student to evaluate and compare attitudes towards five types of rural landscape: pasture, pasture grazed by cattle, rice paddy field, abandoned paddy field converted to pasture and abandoned paddy field converted to pasture grazed by cattle. Cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields were determined to have a positive effect on the landscape. However, all grazing cattle created a negative attitude because of the unclean appearance of the landscape. Grazing cattle at high stocking rates in small areas could create a negative attitude because of the oppressive appearance of the landscape. The acceptance of grazing cattle was lower if the animals ware newly introduced to the landscape.

  14. 76 FR 43374 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH CSX... Street and Champion Court, in Kenton, Hardin County, Ohio. The line traverses United States...

  15. Numerical Simulation of Abandoned Gob Methane Drainage through Surface Vertical Wells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Xu, Jialin; Hu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ventilation system on the abandoned gob weakens, so the gas seepage characteristics in the abandoned gob are significantly different from those in a normal mining gob. In connection with this, this study physically simulated the movement of overlying rock strata. A spatial distribution function for gob permeability was derived. A numerical model using FLUENT for abandoned gob methane drainage through surface wells was established, and the derived spatial distribution function for gob permeability was imported into the numerical model. The control range of surface wells, flow patterns and distribution rules for static pressure in the abandoned gob under different well locations were determined using the calculated results from the numerical model.

  16. 30 CFR 756.14 - Approval of amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund Report Section 413—Miscellaneous Powers, and Section 414—Interagency Cooperation Navajo Nation Rules II(D) (1) and (2)—Reclamation Priorities II(L) (1) and (2)—General...

  17. 75 FR 54216 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption―in Clay County, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... (Sub-No. 704X)] CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption[horbar]in Clay County, KY CSX... Manchester, Clay County, KY. The following stations are located on the line: (1) Claymont, milepost...

  18. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into the design and construction of the fill as follows: (1) The fill shall have, along the vertical... and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock core and... head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and discharge the...

  19. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  20. Agricultural land abandonment in Mediterranean environment provides ecosystem services via soil carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Sala, Giovanna; Galati, Antonino; Crescimanno, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Badalamenti, Emilio; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2017-01-15

    Abandonment of agricultural land leads to several consequences for ecosystem functions. Agricultural abandonment may be a significant and low cost strategy for carbon sequestration and mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions due to the vegetation recovery and increase in soil organic matter. The aim of this study was to: (i) estimate the influence of different Soil Regions (areas characterized by a typical climate and parent material association) and Bioclimates (zones with homogeneous climatic regions and thermotype indices) on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after agricultural land abandonment; and (ii) to analyse the efficiency of the agri-environment policy (agri-environment measures) suggested by the European Commission in relation to potential SOC stock ability in the Sicilian Region (Italy). In order to quantify the effects of agricultural abandonment on SOC, a dataset with original data that was sampled in Sicily and existing data from the literature were analysed according to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) methodology. Results showed that abandonment of cropland soils increased SOC stock by 9.03MgCha(-1) on average, ranging from 5.4MgCha(-1) to 26.7MgCha(-1) in relation to the Soil Region and Bioclimate. The estimation of SOC change after agricultural use permitted calculation of the payments for ecosystem service (PES) of C sequestration after agricultural land abandonment in relation to environmental benefits, increasing in this way the efficiency of PES. Considering the 14,337ha of abandoned lands in Sicily, the CO2 emission as a whole was reduced by 887,745Mg CO2. Therefore, it could be concluded that abandoned agricultural fields represents a valid opportunity to mitigate agriculture sector emissions in Sicily.

  1. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established.

  2. Incidence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection in abandoned citrus occurring in proximity to commercially managed groves.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2010-12-01

    Huanglongbing is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (Citrus spp.). One management tactic against huanglongbing is aggressive management of the vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), with insecticide applications. However, D. citri in abandoned groves are not controlled and therefore pose a risk of reinfestation for nearby commercial citrus. These abandoned groves could serve as a reservoir for the vector, as well as a source of the presumed causal agent for huanglongbing in Florida, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). The current study was conducted to determine the degree to which Las is present in abandoned Florida citrus groves and to compare relative inoculum levels in nearby managed and abandoned groves during times of the year when D. citri are abundant (June, July, and August). In addition, the movement of Las by dispersing D. citri adults from inner and edge rows of abandoned grove plots to the corresponding rows of managed plots was quantified during the same 3 mo. The results of the current study confirmed the presence of Las in both D. citri and plant tissue in abandoned groves at statistically equivalent levels to those in nearby managed groves. The mean number of D. citri adults dispersing from abandoned to managed grove plots ranged from 7.25 +/- 1.70 to 70.25 +/- 21.25 per 4-d intervals. Of those, the mean number of dispersing D. citri adults that were carrying the Las pathogen ranged from 1.00 +/- 0.58 to 1.50 +/- 0.50. Our results indicate that abandoned citrus groves are a significant source of Ca. Las and that dispersing D. citri move this pathogen into nearby managed groves.

  3. Dynamics of soil organic matter pools after agricultural abandonment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Rühl Rühl, Juliane; La Mantia, Tommaso; Badalucco, Luigi; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Laudicina, Vito Armando

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use from croplands to natural vegetation usually increase Carbon (C) stocks in soil. However, the contribution of old and new C to various pools still is not clearly analyzed. We measured the δ13C signature of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools after vegetation change from vineyard (C3) to grassland (C4) under Mediterranean climate to assess the changes of old and new C in total SOC, microbial biomass (MB), dissolved organic C (DOC), and CO2 efflux from soil. Development of the perennial grass Hyparrhenia hirta (C4) on vineyard abandoned for 15 or 35 years ago increased C stocks for 13% and 16%, respectively (in the upper 15 cm). This increase was linked to the incorporation of new C in SOC and with exchange of 25% of old C by new C after 35 years. The maximal incorporation of new C was observed in MB, thus reflecting the maximal turnover and availability of this pool. The DOC was produced mainly from old C of soil organic matter (SOM), showing that under Mediterranean climate DOC will be mainly produced not from fresh litter but from old SOM sources. Decomposition of SOM during a 51 days laboratory incubation was higher in cultivated vineyard than H. hirta soils. Based on changes in δ13C values of SOM, MB, DOC and CO2 in C3 soil and in soils after 15 and 35 years of C4 plant colonization, we separated 13C fractionation in soil from changes of isotopic composition by preferential utilization of substrates with different availability. The utilization pattern in this soil under Mediterranean climate was different from that in temperate ecosystems.

  4. Channels, reservoir orientation, and paleocurrents - Theory and exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, L.M.; Pirie, R.G. ); Potter, P.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Channels, from a few up to hundreds of meters thick, occur in virtually all the major sandy and carbonate environments. The fill of channels varies greatly and includes stream deposits, delta distributaries, tidal deposits, debris flows, marine detritus washed both longitudinally and laterally into shelf channels, deep-water turbidites, glacial deposits, and volcanic rocks. Landslide blocks from collapsing channel margins can also be incorporated in the fill. Most of these occur in combinations, although a few combinations are very common and some are rare. Reservoirs in channels are increasingly significant in mature basins. The authors propose a general set of rules for predicting reservoir orientation in channels. The rules are independent of depositional environment and scale, and depend only on the physical processes of channel filling. This set of rules is based on studies of outcrop and electrical images from well bores and includes channel sinuosity, type of accretion, and the orientation of paleocurrent structures. A key concept is compactional dip, which mirrors the channel's bottom morphology. These rules are illustrated with case histories of successful offset wells from basins of all ages throughout the world.

  5. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  6. Pediatric Medical Care System in China Has Significantly Reduced Abandonment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qi; Hong, Dan; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Defei; Ashwani, Neetica

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed both administrative and clinical data from our hospital during 2002 to 2012 to evaluate the influence of government medical policies on reducing abandonment treatment in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two policies funding for the catastrophic diseases and the new rural cooperative medical care system (NRCMS) were initiated in 2005 and 2011, respectively. About 1151 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled in our study during this period and 316 cases abandoned treatment. Statistical differences in sex, age, number of children in the family, and family financial status were observed. Of most importance, the medical insurance coverage was critical for reducing abandonment treatment. However, 92 cases abandoning treatment after relapse did not show significant difference either in medical insurance coverage or in duration from first complete remission. In conclusion, financial crisis was the main reason for abandoning treatment. Government-funded health care expenditure programs reduced families’ economic burden and thereby reduced the abandonment rate with resultant increased overall survival. PMID:25393454

  7. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  8. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovic, Pavol

    2016-03-01

    The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  9. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  10. Nematic wetting and filling of crenellated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, N. M.; Eskandari, Z.; Patrício, P.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Telo da Gama, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate nematic wetting and filling transitions of crenellated surfaces (rectangular gratings) by numerical minimization of the Landau-de Gennes free energy as a function of the anchoring strength, for a wide range of the surface geometrical parameters: depth, width, and separation of the crenels. We have found a rich phase behavior that depends in detail on the combination of the surface parameters. By comparison to simple fluids, which undergo a continuous filling or unbending transition, where the surface changes from a dry to a filled state, followed by a wetting or unbinding transition, where the thickness of the adsorbed fluid becomes macroscopic and the interface unbinds from the surface, nematics at crenellated surfaces reveal an intriguingly rich behavior: in shallow crenels only wetting is observed, while in deep crenels, only filling transitions occur; for intermediate surface geometrical parameters, a new class of filled states is found, characterized by bent isotropic-nematic interfaces, which persist for surfaces structured on large scales, compared to the nematic correlation length. The global phase diagram displays two wet and four filled states, all separated by first-order transitions. For crenels in the intermediate regime re-entrant filling transitions driven by the anchoring strength are observed.

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.1025 - When can a Federal agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in lieu of donating it to a... DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1025 When can a Federal agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in...

  12. [Amalgam fillings and T-lymphocyte changes].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M; Rumi, C; Marciani, F; Boari, A; Rumi, G; Di Felice, R

    1990-07-01

    Dental amalgam and nickel alloys have been considered quite safe. Previous authors reported the effect of dental amalgam and nickel alloys on human T-lymphocytes modifications after amalgam dental fillings, into dose-dependence of any modifications and into possible temporary. Eight patients were subjected to dental care with amalgam dental fillings. Drawings of blood were executed at start, fifteen days after late fillings and two months later. The results about modifications of T-lymphocytes were not univocal. We believe, at now, that temporary modifications of the immunity seem to be related to a cytotoxic mechanism.

  13. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects.

  14. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

  15. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  16. Microleakage of root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Fogel, H M; Peikoff, M D

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of various root-end filling materials using a fluid filtration system. Sixty extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. The crowns were removed, the canals prepared, and root-end fillings placed. The samples were divided into two control and five experimental groups. The root-end filling materials tested were: amalgam, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), a dentin-bonded resin, Super-EBA, and mineral trioxide aggregate. The results showed that amalgam root-end fillings demonstrated significantly more microleakage than Super-EBA, dentin-bonded resin, or mineral trioxide aggregate. There was no significant difference between amalgam and IRM. However IRM was also not significantly different from the other three groups. There were no significant differences between the other three groups.

  17. 5 CFR 362.303 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the STEM position the agency is seeking to fill... candidate possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the position the agency is seeking...

  18. 5 CFR 362.303 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the STEM position the agency is seeking to fill... candidate possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the position the agency is seeking...

  19. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  20. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pH<7), hydrolisis and metal leaching, precipitation of oxides and sulphates. The restoration of these sites, therefore, is a primary objective, in order to reduce/eliminate the risk associated to the contamination sources of past activities, and the consequent environmental and human health hazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could