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Sample records for abandoned channel fill

  1. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  2. Human-induced stream channel abandonment/capture and filling of floodplain channels within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroes, Daniel E.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The Atchafalaya River Basin is a distributary system of the Mississippi River containing the largest riparian area in the lower Mississippi River Valley and the largest remaining forested bottomland in North America. Reductions in the area of open water in the Atchafalaya have been occurring over the last 100 years, and many historical waterways are increasingly filled by sediment. This study examines two cases of swamp channels (3/s) that are filling and becoming unnavigable as a result of high sediment loads and slow water velocities. The water velocities in natural bayous are further reduced because of flow capture by channels constructed for access. Bathymetry, flow, suspended sediment, deposited bottom-material, isotopes, and photointerpretation were used to characterize the channel fill. On average, water flowing through these two channels lost 23% of the suspended sediment load in the studied reaches. Along one of the studied reaches, two constructed access channels diverted significant flow out of the primary channel and into the adjacent swamp. Immediately downstream of each of the two access channels, the cross-sectional area of the studied channel was reduced. Isotopic analyses of bottom-material cores indicate that bed filling has been rapid and occurred after detectable levels of Cesium-137 were no longer being deposited. Interpretation of aerial photography indicates that water is bypassing the primary channels in favor of the more hydraulically efficient access channels, resulting in low or no-velocity flow conditions in the primary channel. These swamp channel conditions are typical in the Atchafalaya River Basin where relict large channel dimensions result in flow velocities that are normally too low to carry fine-grained sediment. Constructed channels increase the rate of natural channel avulsion and abandonment as a result of flow capture.

  3. A Lower Rhine flood chronology based on the sedimentary record of an abandoned channel fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, W. H. J.; Winkels, T. G.; Prins, M. A.; de Groot, L. V.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cohen, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bienener Altrhein is an abandoned channel of the Lower Rhine (Germany). Following a late 16th century abandonment event, the channel was disconnected from the main stream and the oxbow lake gradually filled with 8 meters of flood deposits. This process still continues today. During annual floods, a limited proportion of overbank discharge is routed across the oxbow lake. Large floods produce individual flood layers, which are visually recognized in the sedimentary sequence. Based on the sedimentary characteristics of these event layers, we created a ~450-year flood chronology for the Lower Rhine. Laser-diffraction grain size measurements were used to assess relative flood magnitudes for individual flood event layers. Continuous sampling at a ~2 cm interval provided a high-resolution record, resolving the record at an annual scale. Standard descriptive techniques (e.g., mean grain size, 95th percentile, % sand) and the more advanced 'end member modelling' were applied to zoom in on the coarse particle bins in the grain size distributions, which are indicative of higher flow velocities. The most recent part of the record was equated to modern discharge measurements. This allows to establish relations between deposited grain size characteristics in the abandoned channel and flood magnitudes in the main river. This relation can also be applied on flood event layers from previous centuries, for which only water level measurements and historical descriptions exist. This makes this method relevant to expand data series used in flood frequency analysis from 100 years to more than 400 years. To date event-layers in the rapidly accumulated sequence, we created an age-depth model that uses organic content variations to tune sedimentation rates between the known basal and top ages. No suitable identifiable organic material for radiocarbon dating was found in the cores. Instead, palynological results (introduction of agricultural species) and palaeomagnetic secular

  4. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely

  5. Channel fill characteristics in submarine fans and deltas

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H.; Goddard, D. )

    1993-02-01

    Excellent data sources may not answer all pertinent questions and multifold seismic data usually cannot resolve internal characteristics of channel fills, even when it can detect the channel. Well log correlations can be wrong, especially when dealing with thin channel fills and outcrops are seldom sufficiently large to reveal a complete channel fill. In the final analysis, integration of all these types of data is necessary. Although not well understood, a lot of similarities exist between the channel fills from submarine fans and those from deltas. It is definitely beneficial to compare data from both environments. Channels and their fills can be: (1) primarily the result of major erosion forming an incisement that becomes gradually filled; (2) primarily the result of deposition, maintaining a channel, gradually filling it and simultaneously building its levees; (3) massive fill; (4) a bedded fill with or without an upward and/or lateral thinning or fining; or (5) a combination of thick bedded and thin bedded. Many channels alternate between erosional and depositional activities. Often an erosional cut is lined with shale, reducing fluid flow between channel sandstones and those of the levees. Also, a thorough knowledge of all of these varied processes is essential for the understanding of why [open quotes]massive[close quotes] channel fills can be wet and [open quotes]thin-bedded levees[close quotes] deposits oil prone.

  6. Floodplain Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Vegetation Composition and Structure Through Channel Meander Migration and Channel Abandonment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremier, A. K.; Viers, J. H.; Hayden, M. K.; Stella, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Riparian vegetation composition and structure reflect the legacy of fine- and coarse-scale patterns of hydrology, geomorphology and ecology. Understanding the dynamics of complex systems requires scaling-up mechanistic patterns and processes. Coupling hydro-geomorphic processes with vegetation development is an integral step in understanding habitat evolution in riparian corridors. We quantified floodplain deposition dynamics and topographic complexity to better understand how riparian forest structure and composition changed through time and over the floodplain. We used LiDAR data and a temporally-rich dataset of aerial photography coupled with field data to analyze landscape-scale patterns with species composition and floodplain dynamics. We examined the significance of two definable large-scale floodplain processes - meander migration and channel abandonment - that set-up the spatial structure of riparian forest dynamics. In addition, we analyzed the potential feedback of riparian vegetation on floodplain formation. Canopy structure and floodplain heterogeneity generally showed a log-linear relationship over time and were highly correlated with species composition changes over time and with a range of past hydrologies (inter- and intra- annual patterns). These data suggest that analysis of landscape formation processes, in particularly during the early stages, improves our understanding of riparian forest dynamics and that channel abandonment can be a significant alternative pathway to cottonwood recruitment. By analyzing the coupled eco-geomorphic processes we can more effectively scale-up riparian vegetation patterns by applying a functional knowledge of the corridor-wide channel dynamics and floodplain hydrology.

  7. A Conceptual Model of Riparian Forest Response to Channel Abandonment on Meandering Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, J. C.; Hayden, M. K.; Battles, J. J.; Piegay, H.; Dufour, S.; Fremier, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    On alluvial rivers, hydrogeomorphic regimes exert a primary control on the regeneration of pioneer riparian forest stands and thus their composition and age structure. Seasonal flow patterns provide the necessary conditions for recruitment, and channel migration drives patterns of forest stand dynamics. To date, studies of pioneer riparian forest structure have focused primarily on point bar habitats, where woody vegetation typically recruits with decadal frequency in even-aged bands parallel to the river margin. However, there are indications that other recruitment pathways exist and can be important from a population and conservation perspective. On floodplains where channel migration occurs as infrequent cutoff or avulsion events, the geometry and position of the old channel relative to the new one determines rates and patterns of sedimentation and flood frequency. These conditions provide a brief opportunity for forest recruitment, and geomorphic evolution of the former channel habitat in turn influences forest dynamics. The population implications of this alternative forest regeneration pathway depend on the temporal dynamics of channel abandonment versus the rate of lateral channel migration. Preliminary analysis indicates that the geographic scope of this ecogeomorphological process is sizable. Along the Sacramento River (CA) and Ain River (France), for example, cottonwood-dominated stands associated with abandoned channels tend to be less frequent in number (38% of all stands) but larger in area (accounting for 53% of all forest area) relative to forest stands associated with laterally migrating point bars. Dendrochronological analysis confirms that tree ages in floodplain stands corresponds to the first decade after channel abandonment. These data indicate that changes to the rate and scale of channel abandonment due to human and climatic alterations to the flow regime will likely influence riparian corridor-wide tree population structure and forest

  8. The thermal regime of abandoned channels: a preliminary analysis towards a water temperature model for the Allier River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The growing recognition of the ecological and water quality significance of river water temperature led to a large number of studies assessing thermal processes in streams and rivers. Yet, thermal processes in abandoned channels, which play an important role in maintaining water quality and biological diversity in fluvial corridors, have received minor attention. This study evaluates water temperature regimes in three abandoned channels of the Allier River, France, and quantifies the regime sensitivity to climatic (air temperature) and hydrological (surface and subsurface flow) influence. Analysis was conducted at annual and daily scales, and at two distinct sections of each abandoned channel: (i) the downstream section, which is well connected to the main stream channel, and (ii) the upstream section, which is poorly connected to the main stream channel and hence subject to greater influence of subsurface flow. Annual and daily water temperature regimes for all channels and sections were classified based on relative differences in the 'shape' (timing) and the 'magnitude' (size) of the thermographs. The climatic and hydrological sensitivity of water temperature regimes was quantified using a Sensitivity Index. Analysis at the annual scale revealed relative similarity in patterns of thermal response over time, with clear differentiation between upstream and downstream channel sections in all sites. Water temperature regimes in the upstream channel sections were strongly linked to subsurface water temperature in terms of both timing and size of the annual thermograph; water temperature regimes in the downstream channel sections were more sensitive to air and river water temperature, especially regarding the timing of the annual regimes. Although annual regimes of water temperature exhibited distinct patterns that were similar across sites and over time, analysis of daily water temperature regimes revealed broad differences within and between sites. Day

  9. Scour and fill in a stream channel, East Fork River, western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Edmund D.

    1978-01-01

    Frequent soundings of 11 cross sections located on the East Fork River, western Wyoming, during a spring flood revealed two sequences of channel scour and fill. All sections either scoured or filled at the flood crests relative to their low-flow condition. The sections which scoured at high flow (called scouring sections) generally tended to fill at low flow. Conversely, the sections which filled at high flow (called filling sections) generally tended to scour at low flow. The critical discharge at which the character of a section changed from scouring to filling or vice versa was approximately the bankfull discharge. Therefore, at any discharge except bankfull, some sections were accumulating bed material (fill), while others were being depleted of bed material (scour). (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Donor doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes by filling of channels with silver

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamova, M. V.; Niu, J. J.

    2012-09-15

    The channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are filled with metallic silver. The synthesized nanocomposites are studied by Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy, and these data indicate a substantial modification of the electronic structure of the nanotubes upon their filling. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the incorporation of the metal leads to a change in the work function of SWNTs due to the Fermi level upshift and to the transfer of an electron density from inserted nanoparticles to the nanotube walls. Thus, the filling of the channels with silver results in donor doping of the nanotubes.

  11. Transgressive channel filling in the Breathitt Formation (Upper Carboniferous), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Chesnut, D.R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Carbonaceous shales of brackish or marine origin in the Breathitt Formation may exhibit sharp bases with local channel-form scours. Minor channels at the bases of these shales exhibit three general types of fill: (1) shale, (2) bioturbated, heterolithic strata, and (3) coal overlain by shale or bioturbated, heterolithic strata. Most of the scours at the bases of the channels were formed during a depositional hiatus that preceded transgression. Some may also have been formed by transgressive reworking of underlying estuarine and deltaic siliciclastics. The channel fills are bioturbated and may contain crudely cyclical rhythmites, subordinate and dominant siltstone-laminae couplets, wave ripples, and bimodal current ripple trends. The fills are interpreted to represent estuarine sedimentation during marine transgression. Channels are capped by sideritic, bioturbated sandstones that separate the fills from the overlying dark shales deposited under brackish- to marine-water conditions. Some of these sandstones may represent local transgressive surfaces. The occurrence of these types of channels in different parts of the coal-bearing Breathitt Formation supports the hypothesis of multiple transgressions during the Late Carboniferous in the Central Appalachian Basin. ?? 1992.

  12. Seismic facies of incised-channel fill deposits of paleo-Seomjin River in the South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung Ho; Kong, Gee Soo; Choul Kim, Dae; Lee, Gwang Soo; Yoo, Dong Geun

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution (Chirp and Sparker system) seismic profiles and piston core samples were analyzed to investigate the depositional environment of paleo-channel in the continental shelf of South Sea. Approximately 1,940 line-km data of chirp and sparker profiles was acquired. Along with seismic profiles, 20 piston core and 10 box core samples collected in 2015. The paleo-channel of Seomjin River is distributed in the continental shelf, with approximately 109 km long, 800-5,000 m wide, and more than 890 km2. The paleo-channel of meandering and straight type is dominant in the inner shelf while changed to braided type in the outer shelf. The paleo-channels in sparker seismic data formed presumably as fluvial systems when the shelf was exposed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The seismic facies of incision fill divided into five types basis of an erosional surface and internal seismic reflectors: (1) transparent to semi-transparent incised channel fill, (2) parallel to sub-parallel incised channel fill, (3) complex incised channel fill, (4) divergent incised channel fill, and (5) chaotic incised channel fill. The chaotic incised channel fill deposits are consists of gravel with shell fragments in the outer shelf and indicate the LGM to early transgressive (fluvial lag deposits). The complex incised channel fill deposits are dominated by sand and gravel with shell fragments in the mid to outer shelf. The cores which were obtained above the transparent to semi-transparent and parallel to sub-parallel incised channel fill deposits are dominated by mud. These types are dominant in the upstream (inner shelf). The acoustically transparent zones of this type with low-energy, passively infilling depositional environment, suggest the presence of basin muddy deposits. These muddy sediments were likely deposited during a more advanced stage of the Holocene transgression. Thus, the paleo-channel of Seomjin River is strongly controlled by sea-level change and sediment

  13. Identification and Characterization of Solvent-Filled Channels in Human Ferrochelatase

    SciTech Connect

    Medlock, Amy E.; Najahi-Missaoui, Wided; Ross, Teresa A.; Dailey, Tamara A.; Burch, Joseph; O’Brien, Jessica R.; Lanzilotta, William N.; Dailey, Harry A.

    2012-08-31

    Ferrochelatase catalyzes the formation of protoheme from two potentially cytotoxic products, iron and protoporphyrin IX. While much is known from structural and kinetic studies on human ferrochelatase of the dynamic nature of the enzyme during catalysis and the binding of protoporphyrin IX and heme, little is known about how metal is delivered to the active site and how chelation occurs. Analysis of all ferrochelatase structures available to date reveals the existence of several solvent-filled channels that originate at the protein surface and continue to the active site. These channels have been proposed to provide a route for substrate entry, water entry, and proton exit during the catalytic cycle. To begin to understand the functions of these channels, we investigated in vitro and in vivo a number of variants that line these solvent-filled channels. Data presented herein support the role of one of these channels, which originates at the surface residue H240, in the delivery of iron to the active site. Structural studies of the arginyl variant of the conserved residue F337, which resides at the back of the active site pocket, suggest that it not only regulates the opening and closing of active site channels but also plays a role in regulating the enzyme mechanism. These data provide insight into the movement of the substrate and water into and out of the active site and how this movement is coordinated with the reaction mechanism.

  14. Giant scour-fills in ancient channel-lobe transition zones: Formative processes and depositional architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstra, M.; Hodgson, D. M.; Peakall, J.; Flint, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    Scours are common features of modern deep-marine seascapes, particularly downstream of the mouths of slope channels within channel-lobe transition zones (CLTZs). Their dimensions can exceed hundreds of metres in width and length, and tens of metres in depth. However, the stratigraphic architecture of large (> 100 m width) scours have not been described in detail from exhumed CLTZs. Here, the infill of two erosional features (0.5-1 km long and 15-20 m thick) from the Permian Karoo Basin succession, South Africa, are presented from palaeogeographically well-constrained CLTZs; one from Fan 3 in the Tanqua depocentre and one from Unit A5 in the Laingsburg depocentre. The basal erosion surfaces of the features are asymmetric with steep, undulating, and composite upstream margins, and low gradient simple downstream margins. The basal infill consists of thin-bedded siltstone and sandstone beds cut by closely-spaced scours; these beds are interpreted as partially reworked fine grained tails of bypassing flows with evidence for flow deflection. The erosional features are interpreted as giant scour-fills. The Unit A5 scour-fill shows a simple cut-and-fill history with lateral and upward transitions from siltstone- to sandstone-prone deposits. In contrast, the Fan 3 scour-fill shows headward erosion and lengthening of the scour surface suggesting temporal changes in the interaction between turbidity currents and the scour surface. This relationship could support the occurrence of a hydraulic jump during scour formation, whilst the majority of the fill represents deposition from subcritical flows. Different scour preservation mechanisms can be used to explain the style of infill. The architecture, sedimentary facies and palaeoflow patterns of the scour-fills are distinctly different from well documented adjacent basin-floor channel-fills at the same stratigraphic levels. The recognition of scour-fills helps to constrain their sedimentological and stratigraphic expression in

  15. Darcy Flow in a Wavy Channel Filled with a Porous Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Donald D; Ogretim, Egemen; Bromhal, Grant S

    2013-05-17

    Flow in channels bounded by wavy or corrugated walls is of interest in both technological and geological contexts. This paper presents an analytical solution for the steady Darcy flow of an incompressible fluid through a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium filling a channel bounded by symmetric wavy walls. This packed channel may represent an idealized packed fracture, a situation which is of interest as a potential pathway for the leakage of carbon dioxide from a geological sequestration site. The channel walls change from parallel planes, to small amplitude sine waves, to large amplitude nonsinusoidal waves as certain parameters are increased. The direction of gravity is arbitrary. A plot of piezometric head against distance in the direction of mean flow changes from a straight line for parallel planes to a series of steeply sloping sections in the reaches of small aperture alternating with nearly constant sections in the large aperture bulges. Expressions are given for the stream function, specific discharge, piezometric head, and pressure.

  16. Scour and fill in a stream channel, East Fork River, western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Edmund D.

    1979-01-01

    Frequent soundings of 11 cross sections located on the East Fork River, western Wyoming, during a spring flood revealed two sequences of channel scour and fill. All sections either scoured or filled at the flood crests relative to their low flow condition. The sections which scoured at high flow (called scouring sections) generally tended to fill at low flow. Conversely, the sections which filled at high flow (called filling sections) generally tended to scour at low flow. The critical discharge at which the character of a section changed from scouring to filling or vice-versa was approximately the bankfull discharge. Therefore, at any discharge except bankfull, some sections were accumulating bed material (fill), while others were being depleted of bed material (scour). The mean at-a-station hydraulic geometry of the East Fork River agrees with the theoretical minimum-variance hydraulic geometry. Thus, on the average, the East Fork River accommodates a change in discharge by mutually minimizing the adjustment of velocity, width, and depth. The hydraulic geometry of every cross section, however, deviated from the mean of the reach, and the associated sequence of scour and fill was a consequence of the deviation. The scouring sections had larger velocity and smaller width and roughness hydraulic exponents than the mean of the reach. Consequently, the sediment-transport rate varied more rapidly with discharge in the scouring sections than the mean of the reach. Hence, these sections had relatively large sediment-transport rates and scoured when discharge exceeded bankfull, and relatively small sediment-transport rates and filled when discharge was less than bankfull. Conversely, the filling sections had smaller velocity and larger width and roughness hydraulic exponents than the mean of the reach. Consequently, the sediment-transport rate varied with discharge in the filling sections less rapidly than the mean of the reach. These sections had relatively small

  17. Rates and processes of channel response to dam removal with a sand-filled impoundment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Adam J.; Snyder, Noah P.; Collins, Mathias J.

    2011-08-01

    Dam removal projects are playing an increasingly important role in stream restoration, and offer unparalleled opportunities to study sediment dynamics following disturbance. We used the removal of the ˜4-m high Merrimack Village Dam (MVD) on the Souhegan River in southern New Hampshire to measure processes and rates of channel evolution in a sand-filled impoundment. From 2007 to 2010, we repeatedly surveyed 11 cross sections and the longitudinal profile, and collected sediment samples to measure changes in channel morphology and bed texture. The dam removal in August 2008 resulted in a nearly instantaneous base level drop of 3.9 m and caused a two-phased channel response. The initial, process-driven phase (2 months) was characterized by rapid incision and removal of the impounded sand (up to 1013 t d-1), followed by channel widening. Once incised to base level, the rate of sediment removal slowed (30.7 t d-1) and adjustments became event-driven, and the former impoundment segmented into a nonalluvial section and an alluvial section with erosion and deposition influenced by vegetation on the channel banks. Two years after the dam removal and two high-magnitude floods, the river has excavated 79% of the original sediment. Continued response will be substantially influenced by the establishment of bank vegetation within the former impoundment and the magnitude and frequency of high discharge events. Initial channel development and sediment erosion occurs rapidly (weeks to months) in sand-filled impoundments, but excavation of the remaining sediment occurs more slowly depending on vegetation feedbacks and flood events.

  18. Dynamics of Elastic Beams with Embedded Fluid-Filled Parallel-Channel Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gat, Amir D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A pressurized fluid-filled parallel-channel network embedded in an elastic beam, asymmetrically to the neutral plane, will create a deformation field within the beam. Deformation due to embedded fluidic networks is currently studied in the context of soft actuators and soft-robotic applications. Expanding on this concept, configurations can be designed so that the pressure in the channel network is created directly from external forces acting on the beam, and thus can be viewed as passive solid–fluid composite structures. We approximate the deformation of such structures and relate the fluid pressure and geometry of the network to a continuous deformation-field function. This enables the design of networks creating steady arbitrary deformation fields as well as to eliminate deformation created by external time-varying forces, thus increasing the effective rigidity of the beam. In addition, by including the effects of the deformation created by the channel network on the beam inertia, we can modify the response of the beam to external time-varying forces. We present a scheme to design channel networks that create predefined oscillating deformation patterns in response to external oscillating forces. The ability to include inertial effects is relevant to the design of dynamic soft robots and soft actuators. Our results are illustrated and validated by numerical computations.

  19. Shale-filled channel system in Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), north-central south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, R.P.; Eversull, L.G.

    1986-09-01

    Anomalously thick shale intervals of limited extent within normally sandy facies of the Wilcox are evident on published regional electric log structure sections through south Louisiana. These intervals were investigated with a series of subregional stratigraphic electric log sections and by mapping. The stratigraphic sections show that in places the shale cuts out nearly 1000 ft (300 m) of adjacent interstratified sandstone and shale section and has lenticular, channel-like, cross-sectional geometry. The sections also indicate that the uppermost parts of the thick shale intervals are stratigraphically equivalent to, or at least contiguous with, a persistent subregional shale marker bed known informally as the Big Shale, but are distinguishable from it in places by more uniform log character. A map of the anomalously thick and uniform shale indicates a south-trending, relatively straight channel with a single bifurcation in southern Avoyelles Parish. The branches probably continue downdip, although they cannot be traced with confidence south of central St. Landry Parish because of the overall shalier Wilcox section and scarcity of adequately deep control wells. The channel shale is analogous to other early Cenozoic subsurface truncational shale masses that have been mostly interpreted as submarine canyon-channel fills. Stratigraphic trapping possibilities are evident from the truncation of bounding permeable units, but the possible continuation of the branches downdip suggests the potential for deep sandy equivalents and deep gas.

  20. Beam filling loss adjustments for ASR-9 weather channel reflectivity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Cynthia D.; Troxel, Seth W.

    1990-10-01

    The FAA is deploying over 100 new airport surveillance radars (ASR-9) across the country. In contrast to earlier ASRs, the ASR-9 utilizes a separate digital weather processing channel to provide air traffic controllers with timely, calibrated displays of precipitation intensity. The ASR-9 utilizes dual selectable fan shaped elevation beams designed to track aircraft over a large volume. As a consequence, weather echoes received from these fan shaped beams represent vertically averaged quantities. If the precipitation only partially or nonuniformly fills the beam, then the vertically integrated reflectivity may underestimate the actual intensity of the storm. The ASR-9 weather channel corrects for this by adjusting the range dependent six level reflectivity thresholds. The appropriateness of the currently implemented correction has not been carefully examined and may require modification to take into account regional and morphological variability in storm structure. The method used to derive new beam filling loss adjustments is discussed. An extensive database of volumetric pencil beam radar data were used in conjunction with the ASR-9 simulation facility to derive adjustments aimed at calibrating the precipitation intensity reports to the maximum perceived hazard. Results from this calibration indicate that a single correction is appropriate for all sites and intensities. The new corrections yield substantially improved results over the current corrections in producing these reflectivity reports.

  1. Nd:YAG laser in endodontics: filling-material edge bordering on a root channel laser cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrei V.; Sinelnik, Yuri A.; Moroz, Boris T.; Pavlovskaya, Irina V.

    1997-12-01

    For the very first time it is represented a study of filling material edge bordering upon root channel cavity modified with a laser. As a filling material it is used a glass ionomer cement. It is demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser radiation effects on increase of grade of edge bordering on the average of 20 - 30% at temperature rise of no more than 2 - 3 degrees in periodontium area in a period of operation.

  2. Simulations of a Gas-Filled Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    K. Yonehara; D.M. Kaplan; K. Beard; S.A. Bogacz; Y.S. Derbenev; R.P. Johnson; K. Paul; T.J. Roberts

    2005-05-16

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) has been proposed to quickly reduce the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. The HCC is composed of a series of RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas that acts as the energy absorber for ionization cooling and suppresses RF breakdown in the cavities. Magnetic solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole coils outside of the RF cavities provide the focusing and dispersion needed for the emittance exchange for the beam as it follows a helical equilibrium orbit down the HCC. In the work presented here, two Monte Carlo programs have been developed to simulate a HCC to compare with the analytic predictions and to begin the process of optimizing practical designs that could be built in the near future. We discuss the programs, the comparisons with the analytical theory, and the prospects for a HCC design with the capability to reduce the six-dimensional phase space emittance of a muon beam by a factor of over five orders of magnitude in a linear channel less than 100 meters long.

  3. Time-dependent bubble motion through a liquid filled compliant channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Gaver, Donald; Jensen, Oliver

    2000-11-01

    Pulmonary airway closure occurs when the liquid lining layer occludes the airway and obstructs airflow. Meniscus formation is the result of a surface-tension driven instability within the liquid layer. Airway 'compliant collapse' may result, which leads to tube buckling with airway walls held in apposition. Airway closure is common in premature neonates who do not produce sufficient surfactant and those suffering from emphysema. To model the reopening of a collapsed airway flooded with fluid, we consider the time-dependent motion of an air-bubble driven by a positive bubble pressure Pb through a liquid filled compliant channel. The governing Stokes equations are solved using the boundary element method near the bubble tip, and lubrication theory sufficiently far ahead of the buble where the channel walls have a gentle taper. Results show that for Pb > P_crit, the bubble moves forward and converges to a steady velocity as the airway walls 'peel' open. For Pb < P_crit, no steady solutions are found because fluid continuously accummulates ahead of the bubble tip. This result validates the stability analysis of the previously steady wall peeling solution branch. The impact of the flow field on transport of surfactant and the applied shear and normal stresses on the wall as they relate to pulmonary reopening are also discussed.

  4. Multi-phase submarine channel-fill history recorded by stratigraphic architectures in outcropping slope-channel deposits, Tres Pasos Formation, southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchter, N.; Romans, B.; Hubbard, S. M.; Daniels, B. G.; Reimchen, A. P.; Jackson, A. A.; Stright, L.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between sediment transport processes, deposits, and channel morphology is well established for subaerial channel systems. Linking channel-fill patterns with planform morphology in submarine systems, however, is less constrained because of the difficulty in direct observation of sediment transport processes, including deposition of coarse-grained turbidites. Ever-increasing resolution of 3-D seismic-reflection and integrated bathymetry-sonar tools have led to significant improvement, but resolution issues still hinder effective analysis. For example, are inclined reflectors observed in seismic cross sections of channels associated with sinuous planforms indicative of turbidity-current-scale morphodynamics or are they composite surfaces that record larger-scale/longer-term evolution? Documenting the nature and variability of intra-channel fill architecture in outcropping submarine channel deposits provides insight into linking depositional processes and channel morphologies. The Late Cretaceous retroarc foreland Magallanes Basin in southern Chile formed during uplift of the Andean Cordillera. Deep-water slope strata of the Tres Pasos Formation are exposed along a depositional-dip-oriented outcrop belt up to 2000 m thick and at least 100 km long. These strata provide an excellent natural laboratory for comparison of slope channel architectures from different positions on the slope and stages of basin infilling. We consider channelized architectural element dimensions and internal stratigraphic surface characteristics from multiple exposures along the outcrop belt. We also document varying stacking patterns of channel elements over time, from both laterally to vertically offset end-members. Results suggest that for both lateral and vertical channel stacking patterns, phases of accommodation generation (e.g., incision or sediment bypass) and migration of the channel are temporally distinct from phases of channel infilling (e.g., turbidity current

  5. Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the United States. The goals of this study were to 1) compare the structure and function of natural and constructed stream channels in forested and MTR/VF catch...

  6. Debris-flow activity in abandoned channels of the Manival torrent reconstructed with LiDAR and tree-ring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Saez, J.; Corona, C.; Stoffel, M.; Gotteland, A.; Berger, F.; Liébault, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hydrogeomorphic processes are a major threat in many parts of the Alps, where they periodically damage infrastructure, disrupt transportation corridors or even cause loss of life. Nonetheless, past torrential activity and the analysis of areas affected during particular events remain often imprecise. It was therefore the purpose of this study to reconstruct spatio-temporal patterns of past debris-flow activity in abandoned channels on the forested cone of the Manival torrent (Massif de la Chartreuse, French Prealps). A Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR) generated Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used to identify five abandoned channels and related depositional forms (lobes, lateral levees) in the proximal alluvial fan of the torrent. A total of 156 Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) with clear signs of debris flow events was analyzed and growth disturbances (GD) assessed, such as callus tissue, the onset of compression wood or abrupt growth suppression. In total, 375 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples, pointing to 13 debris-flow events for the period 1931-2008. While debris flows appear to be very common at Manival, they have only rarely propagated outside the main channel over the past 80 years. Furthermore, analysis of the spatial distribution of disturbed trees contributed to the identification of four patterns of debris-flow routing and led to the determination of three preferential breakout locations. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate that the temporal distribution of debris flows did not exhibit significant variations since the beginning of the 20th century.

  7. Experimental and numerical characterization of the water flow in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membranes.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Szilard S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Marston, Jeremy O; Radu, Andrea I; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-12-15

    Micro-scale flow distribution in spacer-filled flow channels of spiral-wound membrane modules was determined with a particle image velocimetry system (PIV), aiming to elucidate the flow behaviour in spacer-filled flow channels. Two-dimensional water velocity fields were measured in a flow cell (representing the feed spacer-filled flow channel of a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module without permeate production) at several planes throughout the channel height. At linear flow velocities (volumetric flow rate per cross-section of the flow channel considering the channel porosity, also described as crossflow velocities) used in practice (0.074 and 0.163 m·s(-1)) the recorded flow was laminar with only slight unsteadiness in the upper velocity limit. At higher linear flow velocity (0.3 m·s(-1)) the flow was observed to be unsteady and with recirculation zones. Measurements made at different locations in the flow cell exhibited very similar flow patterns within all feed spacer mesh elements, thus revealing the same hydrodynamic conditions along the length of the flow channel. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using the same geometries and flow parameters as the experiments, based on steady laminar flow assumption. The numerical results were in good agreement (0.85-0.95 Bray-Curtis similarity) with the measured flow fields at linear velocities of 0.074 and 0.163 m·s(-1), thus supporting the use of model-based studies in the optimization of feed spacer geometries and operational conditions of spiral wound membrane systems. PMID:26433778

  8. Axial Channel Morphology Fill and Movement Within Submarine Canyons off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Ussler, W.; Lundsten, E.; Thomas, H.

    2008-12-01

    Axial channels of seven submarine canyons off California have recently been investigated with ultrahigh resolution multibeam surveys. Vibracores collected from remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) provide ground truth data on the materials within the axis of six of these canyons. Acoustic beacons were used to track movement of the seafloor within the axis of Monterey Canyon. Multibeam bathymetry (0.15 m vertical precision and 1.0 m horizontal resolution at 50 m survey altitude) and chirp seismic-reflection profiles (0.11 m vertical resolution) were collected from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Inertial navigation combined with Doppler velocity sonar allows the AUV to navigate the sinuous canyons at 3 kt on a pre-programmed route ~50 m above the seafloor. Submarine canyons that head near the shoreline (Monterey, Hueneme, Mugu, Redondo and La Jolla) contain similar wave-like bedforms with 20-100 m wavelengths and amplitudes up to 2.5 m oriented roughly perpendicular to the channel axis. These bedforms are asymmetric in profile with a steep down-canyon face and crescent-shaped, concave down-canyon. They are observed throughout the surveys (80-800 m water depth) and appear to form genetically similar packages (0.1 to 3 km long) that terminate upslope at a somewhat higher topographic step. Generally, bedform groups are found within the axial channel, but occasionally extend up the canyon walls. ROV-collected vibracores show that the wave-like bedforms comprise recent, coarse-grained gravity flow deposits, suggesting these canyons are active. In contrast, two submarine canyons with heads on the outer shelf (Soquel and Santa Monica) lack these wave-like bedforms and have relatively smooth axial channel floors. Vibracores show these canyons are filled with generally uniform fine-grained sediments, suggesting they are inactive. Apparently wave-like bedforms are common features of active submarine canyons. To assess whether sediment within a canyon floor is moved by

  9. Safety analysis of high pressure 3He-filled micro-channels for thermal neutron detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferko, Scott M.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2008-11-01

    This document is a safety analysis of a novel neutron detection technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories. This technology is comprised of devices with tiny channels containing high pressure {sup 3}He. These devices are further integrated into large scale neutron sensors. Modeling and preliminary device testing indicates that the time required to detect the presence of special nuclear materials may be reduced under optimal conditions by several orders of magnitude using this approach. Also, these devices make efficient use of our {sup 3}He supply by making individual devices more efficient and/or extending the our limited {sup 3}He supply. The safety of these high pressure devices has been a primary concern. We address these safety concerns for a flat panel configuration intended for thermal neutron detection. Ballistic impact tests using 3 g projectiles were performed on devices made from FR4, Silicon, and Parmax materials. In addition to impact testing, operational limits were determined by pressurizing the devices either to failure or until they unacceptably leaked. We found that (1) sympathetic or parasitic failure does not occur in pressurized FR4 devices (2) the Si devices exhibited benign brittle failure (sympathetic failure under pressure was not tested) and (3) the Parmax devices failed unacceptably. FR4 devices were filled to pressures up to 4000 + 100 psig, and the impacts were captured using a high speed camera. The brittle Si devices shattered, but were completely contained when wrapped in thin tape, while the ductile FR4 devices deformed only. Even at 4000 psi the energy density of the compressed gas appears to be insignificant compared to the impact caused by the incoming projectile. In conclusion, the current FR4 device design pressurized up to 4000 psi does not show evidence of sympathetic failure, and these devices are intrinsically safe.

  10. Evaluating the Influence of Floodplain-filling Styles on Channel-belt Stacking and Basin-scale Fluvial Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, E.; Hajek, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work in modern and ancient systems has shown a range of characteristic floodplain sedimentation patterns acting over a range of temporal and spatial scales. In aggradational fluvial systems floodplain sedimentation style influences where rivers relocate during avulsion, which in turn influences the distribution of channel-belt sandstones in stratigraphy over long timescales. Exploring the link between floodplain-sedimentation patterns and avulsions is therefore important for both predicting stratigraphic architecture and using stratigraphy to interpret paleo-floodplain sedimentation dynamics. Here we use an object-based model of basin filling to explore how different floodplain aggradation styles (including both uniform and exponential decay) affect the stratigraphic preservation of three different avulsion patterns: random (channels are equally likely to relocate anywhere on the floodplain), compensational (channels relocate to the lowest point on the floodplain), and clustered (channels relocate to a point near the previous channel position). Preliminary modeling results suggest that only clustered avulsion patterns are identifiable under uniform floodplain aggradation conditions, but that different avulsion patterns generate unique sand-body distributions under exponential floodplain sedimentation. This suggests that floodplain-aggradation styles influence how well we can interpret paleo-avulsion patterns in ancient deposits. We apply these insights to the Paleocene-Eocene Wasatch Formation in western Colorado to explore the relationship between preserved floodplain deposits and basin-scale sand-body architecture. We compare proxies for paleo-floodplain-aggradation patterns (including paleosol development, lateral continuity of paleosol horizons, and occurrence and distribution of splays) in three different members with quantitative metrics of channel-body organization at both sand-body and outcrop scales. Changes in floodplain deposits and sand

  11. The Deformation of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Microfluidic Channels Filled with Embedded Circular Obstacles under Certain Circumstances.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun; Lee, Jaewoong; Kang, Chankyu

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the influence of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels containing aligned circular obstacles (with diameters of 172 µm and 132 µm) on the flow velocity and pressure drop under steady-state flow conditions. A significant PDMS bulging was observed when the fluid flow initially contacted the obstacles, but this phenomenon decreased in the 1 mm length of the microfluidic channels when the flow reached a steady-state. This implies that a microfluidic device operating with steady-state flows does not provide fully reliable information, even though less PDMS bulging is observed compared to quasi steady-state flow. Numerical analysis of PDMS bulging using ANSYS Workbench showed a relatively good agreement with the measured data. To verify the influence of PDMS bulging on the pressure drop and flow velocity, theoretical analyses were performed and the results were compared with the experimental results. The measured flow velocity and pressure drop data relatively matched well with the classical prediction under certain circumstances. However, discrepancies were generated and became worse as the microfluidic devices were operated under the following conditions: (1) restricted geometry of the microfluidic channels (i.e., shallow channel height, large diameter of obstacles and a short microchannel length); (2) operation in quasi-steady state flow; (3) increasing flow rates; and (4) decreasing amount of curing agent in the PDMS mixture. Therefore, in order to obtain reliable data a microfluidic device must be operated under appropriate conditions. PMID:27322239

  12. Growth and Filling Regularities of Filamentary Channels in Non-Metallic Inorganic Coatings Under Anodic Oxidation of Valve Metals. Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Kolenchin, N. F.; Chubenko, A. K.; Kovalskaya, Ya. B.; Dolgova, Yu. N.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical models are developed for growth and filling processes in filamentary channels of nanostructured non-metallic coatings produced by anodizing and microplasma oxidation. Graphical concentration distributions are obtained for channel-reacting anions, cations, and sparingly soluble reaction products depending on the time of electric current transmission and the length of the filamentary channel. Graphical distributions of the front moving velocity for the sparingly soluble compound are presented. The resulting model representation increases the understanding of the anodic process nature and can be used for a description and prediction of porous anodic film growth and filling. It is shown that the character of the filamentary channel growth and filling causes a variety of processes determining the textured metal - nonmetallic inorganic coating phase boundary formation.

  13. Isolating scattering resonances of an air-filled spherical shell using iterative, single-channel time reversal.

    PubMed

    Waters, Zachary J; Dzikowicz, Benjamin R; Simpson, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    Iterative, single-channel time reversal is employed to isolate backscattering resonances of an air-filled spherical shell in a frequency range of 0.5-20 kHz. Numerical simulations of free-field target scattering suggest improved isolation of the dominant target response frequency in the presence of varying levels of stochastic noise, compared to processing returns from a single transmission and also coherent averaging. To test the efficacy of the technique in a realistic littoral environment, monostatic scattering experiments are conducted in the Gulf of Mexico near Panama City, Florida. The time reversal technique is applied to returns from a hollow spherical shell target sitting proud on a sandy bottom in 14 m deep water. Distinct resonances in the scattering response of the target are isolated, depending upon the bandwidth of the sonar system utilized. PMID:22280594

  14. Constructing Ionic Liquid-Filled Proton Transfer Channels within Nanocomposite Membrane by Using Functionalized Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjia; Li, Yifan; Chen, Pingping; Liu, Jindun; Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Haoqin

    2016-01-13

    Herein, nanocomposite membranes are fabricated based on functionalized graphene oxides (FGOs) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), followed by being impregnated with imidazole-type ionic liquid (IL). The functional groups (acidic group or basic group) on FGOs generate strong interfacial interactions with SPEEK chains and then adjust their motion and stacking. As a result, the nanocomposite membranes possess tunable interfacial domains as determined by its free volume characteristic, which provides regulated location for IL storage. The stored ILs act as hopping sites for water-free proton conduction along the FGO-constructed interfacial channels. The microstructure at SPEEK-FGO interface governs the IL uptake and distribution in nanocomposite membrane. Different from GO and vinyl imidazole functionalized GO (VGO), the presence of acidic (-SO3H) groups confers the p-styrenesulfonic acid functionalized GO (SGO) incorporated nanocomposite membrane loose interface and strong electrostatic attraction with imidazole-type IL, imparting an enhanced IL uptake and anhydrous proton conductivity. Nanocomposite membrane containing 7.5% SGO attains the maximum IL uptake of 73.7% and hence the anhydrous conductivity of 21.9 mS cm(-1) at 150 °C, more than 30 times that of SPEEK control membrane (0.69 mS cm(-1)). In addition, SGOs generate electrostatic attractions to the ILs confined within SGO-SPEEK interface, affording the nanocomposite membrane enhanced IL retention ability. PMID:26666712

  15. Studies of a Gas-filled Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Johnson; K. Paul; T.J. Roberts; Y.S. Derbenev; K. Yonehara

    2006-06-26

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) can quickly reduce the six dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. The HCC is composed of solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole magnetic fields to provide the focusing and dispersion needed for emittance exchange as the beam follows an equilibrium helical orbit through a continuous homogeneous absorber. We consider liquid helium and liquid hydrogen absorbers in HCC segments that alternate with RF accelerating sections and we also consider gaseous hydrogen absorber in pressurized RF cavities imbedded in HCC segments. In the case of liquid absorber, the possibility of using superconducting RF in low magnetic field regions between the HCC segments may provide a cost effective solution to the high repetition rate needed for an intense neutrino factory or high average luminosity muon collider. In the gaseous hydrogen absorber case, the pressurized RF cavities can be operated at low temperature to improve their efficiency for higher repetition rates. Numerical simulations are used to optimize and compare the liquid and gaseous HCC techniques.

  16. Incised channel fills containing conifers indicate that seasonally dry vegetation dominated Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.; Looy, C.V.; Ames, P.R.; DiMichele, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The idea that the Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands were temporally dominated by rainforest (i.e., the Coal Forest) is deeply ingrained in the literature. Here we challenge two centuries of research by suggesting that this concept is based on a taphonomic artifact, and that seasonally dry vegetation dominated instead. This controversial finding arises from the discovery of a new middle Pennsylvanian (Moscovian) fossil plant assemblage in southeast Illinois, United States. The assemblage, which contains xerophytic walchian conifers, occurs in channels incised into a calcic Vertisol below the Baker Coal. These plants grew on seasonally dry tropical lowlands inferred to have developed during a glacial phase. This xerophytic flora differs markedly from that of the typical clubmoss-dominated Coal Forest developed during deglaciation events. Although preserved only very rarely, we argue that such xerophytic floras were temporally as dominant, and perhaps more dominant, than the iconic Coal Forests, which are overrepresented in the fossil record due to taphonomic megabias. These findings require the iconography of Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands to be redrawn. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  17. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  18. The influence of surfactant on the propagation of a semi-infinite bubble through a liquid-filled compliant channel

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, David; Gaver, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a soluble surfactant on the steady-state motion of a finger of air through a compliant channel. This study provides a basic model from which to understand the fluid–structure interactions and physicochemical hydrodynamics of pulmonary airway reopening. Airway closure occurs in lung diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome as a result of fluid accumulation and surfactant insufficiency. This results in ‘compliant collapse’ with the airway walls buckled and held in apposition by a liquid occlusion that blocks the passage of air. Airway reopening is essential to the recovery of adequate ventilation, but has been associated with ventilator-induced lung injury because of the exposure of airway epithelial cells to large interfacial flow-induced pressure gradients. Surfactant replacement is helpful in modulating this deleterious mechanical stimulus, but is limited in its effectiveness owing to slow surfactant adsorption. We investigate the effect of surfactant on micro-scale models of reopening by computationally modelling the steady two-dimensional motion of a semi-infinite bubble propagating through a liquid-filled compliant channel doped with soluble surfactant. Many dimensionless parameters affect reopening, but we primarily investigate how the reopening pressure pb depends upon the capillary number Ca (the ratio of viscous to surface tension forces), the adsorption depth parameter λ (a bulk concentration parameter) and the bulk Péclet number Peb (the ratio of bulk convection to diffusion). These studies demonstrate a dependence of pb on λ, and suggest that a critical bulk concentration must be exceeded to operate as a low-surface-tension system. Normal and tangential stress gradients remain largely unaffected by physicochemical interactions – for this reason, further biological studies are suggested that will clarify the role of wall flexibility and surfactant on the protection of

  19. The influence of surfactant on the propagation of a semi-infinite bubble through a liquid- filled compliant channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Gaver, Donald

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary airway closure may occur as a result of fluid accumulation and surfactant insufficiency. This results in ``compliant collapse'' with the airway walls buckled and held in apposition by a liquid plug that blocks the passage of air. Airway reopening is vital to the recovery of adequate ventilation, but has been associated with ventilator- induced injury because of the exposure of airway epithelial cells to large pressure gradients. Surfactant replacement is helpful in modulating this harmful stimulus, but is limited in its effectiveness due to slow surfactant adsorption. We investigate the effect of surfactant on reopening by considering the steady two-dimensional motion of a semi-infinite bubble propagating through a liquid-filled compliant channel doped with soluble surfactant. Many parameters affect reopening, but we primarily investigate the capillary number Ca (the ratio of viscous to surface tension forces), the reopening (bubble) pressure pb, the adsorption depth parameter λ (a bulk concentration parameter) and the bulk Peclet number Peb (the ratio of bulk convection to diffusion). The behavior of this system, and the impact of the flow field on surfactant transport and the applied stresses on the wall will be discussed. Funded by NIH R01-HL81266.

  20. General view of north portals showing three abandoned roadbeds. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of north portals showing three abandoned roadbeds. View south - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Structural and Functional Characteristics of Natural and Constructed Channels Draining a Reclaimed Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the USA. Among the changes are large-scale topographic recontouring, burial of headwater streams, and degradation of downstream water quality. The goals of our ...

  2. Energy Transfer in Mixed Convection MHD Flow of Nanofluid Containing Different Shapes of Nanoparticles in a Channel Filled with Saturated Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaiza, Gul; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2015-12-01

    Energy transfer in mixed convection unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible nanofluid inside a channel filled with saturated porous medium is investigated. The channel with non-uniform walls temperature is taken in a vertical direction under the influence of a transverse magnetic field. Based on the physical boundary conditions, three different flow situations are discussed. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Four different shapes of nanoparticles of equal volume fraction are used in conventional base fluids, ethylene glycol (EG) ( C 2 H 6 O 2 ) and water ( H 2 O). Solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained discussed graphically in various plots. It is found that viscosity and thermal conductivity are the most prominent parameters responsible for different results of velocity and temperature. Due to higher viscosity and thermal conductivity, C 2 H 6 O 2 is regarded as better convectional base fluid compared to H 2 O.

  3. Energy Transfer in Mixed Convection MHD Flow of Nanofluid Containing Different Shapes of Nanoparticles in a Channel Filled with Saturated Porous Medium.

    PubMed

    Aaiza, Gul; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2015-12-01

    Energy transfer in mixed convection unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible nanofluid inside a channel filled with saturated porous medium is investigated. The channel with non-uniform walls temperature is taken in a vertical direction under the influence of a transverse magnetic field. Based on the physical boundary conditions, three different flow situations are discussed. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Four different shapes of nanoparticles of equal volume fraction are used in conventional base fluids, ethylene glycol (EG) (C 2 H 6 O 2 ) and water (H 2 O). Solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained discussed graphically in various plots. It is found that viscosity and thermal conductivity are the most prominent parameters responsible for different results of velocity and temperature. Due to higher viscosity and thermal conductivity, C 2 H 6 O 2 is regarded as better convectional base fluid compared to H 2 O. PMID:26698873

  4. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  5. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  6. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  7. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  8. Predicting Facies Patterns within Fluvial Channel Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, B. J.; Sech, R.; Sun, T.; Pyrcz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs (aquifers) in fluvial channel belt sandstones can have very different subsurface flow behavior depending on the degree and distribution of internal heterogeneities. Fluvial channel belts are composed of multiple "storeys" formed as individual channel segments increase in sinuosity and then are cut off and abandoned. Heterogeneities are defined by depositional variations across storeys and inter-story connectivity patterns along the channel belt. Although commonly inferred to reflect the formative river pattern (sinuosity & braiding), the spatial arrangement of facies depend most directly on the relative preservation of deposits formed within different areas of the migrating channels and the lateral stacking arrangement of storeys due to style of bend cutoff. Grains are poorly sorted across the inner bank along upstream parts of channel bends and become better sorted laterally in downstream areas adjacent to a deeper thalweg scour. If deposition occurs evenly along the entire inner bank (bar), this grain size pattern leads to an elliptical body in planview with weak vertical grain size trends upstream and more fining-upward trend downstream. As channel bend segments migrate to a greater extent downstream, preserved inner-bank-bar deposits are increasingly dominated by upward-fining deposits and more outer-bank-deposits are preserved ("concave bank" deposits). Although concave bank deposits have highly variable character in different systems, vertical-grainsize trends tend to be weaker in straighter systems dominated by downstream-accretion, and more strongly upward-fining in higher sinuosity systems where these deposits form by eddy accretion or low flow aggradation. River cutoffs of straighter channel segments abandon slowly, leading to more gradual vertical fining. Subsurface heterogeneity prediction requires documentation of shape and character of deposits preserved in different zones within the channel (upstream and downstream inner bank, concave bank

  9. Characteristics of some submarine fan channels, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H. ); Dev Wickens, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The vary well exposed submarine fan complex in the southwestern part of the Karoo basin permits close examination of channel-fills and in places their associated overbank deposits. The complex comprises five arenaceous fan systems some of which attain 60 m in thickness. The fans are vertically stacked and separated by basinal shale deposits; each system with its own direction of growth. The association of channelized sandstone bodies and thin-bedded sandstone and shale packages in an updip position from predominantly stacked lobe deposits suggest preservation of middle fan settings. A 500 m wide, 20 m thick channel-fill consisting massive amalgamated sandstone beds occupying the channel thalweg occurs in a setting dominated by thin-bedded, ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Gradual thinning of the channel-fill beds toward the channel edges, lack of internal lateral accretion, and a high width to depth ratio suggests a low sinuous to straight channel. The channel-fill is capped by an abandonment facies characterized by ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Stacked, laterally offset channel-fill deposits with highly erosional contacts and typical well-bedded overbank deposits form channel-overbank complexes and characterize the mid-fan region of the uppermost fan system. Palaeocurrent directions and gradual diminishing of bed-thickness away from the generally massively bedded, amalgamated channel-fill sandstones confirm a simultaneous channel/overbank origin for these deposits. Levee morphology has not been recognized. Both examples of channel-fills cited reveal part of the complexity of the channelized portions of submarine fans and hence the implications thereof in exploring for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  10. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-22

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage.

  11. Methodology for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: Applications to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    This research was carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Sea level is a key variable in marine, climate, and coastal process studies. In this research, a new methodology was implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the sea level by combining classical harmonic models to high statistical methods. In agreement with previous studies, this work indicates that sea level heights are correlated to climate conditions of sea level pressures (SLP). After averaging out surface waves from the mean sea level, the deterministic tides and the stochastic processes of residual surges were investigated using classical harmonic analyses and a statistical model of autoregressive moving average (ARMA), respectively. The estimation of the residual surges was also investigated together with the SLP. This new methodology was applied to the Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel (western France). Results have shown that the developed model reproduces the observations with RMSE of 4.5 cm and 7 cm for 12 days and 30 days of gaps, respectively. For medium scales of 6 months, the RMSE reaches 9,2 cm. Larger scales more than 10 months were also statistically reproduced. Accordingly, the proposed model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at short- to large- time scales. This new methodology presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the deterministic nature of tidal processes and the stochastic framework of residual surges. Key words: sea level forecast, astronomical tides, residual surges, ARMA, sea level pressure.

  12. A new hybrid model for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: application to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    This research is carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Here, a new hybrid model is implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the hourly sea level variability by combining classical harmonic analyses to high statistical methods to reproduce the deterministic and stochastic processes, respectively. After simulating the mean trend sea level and astronomical tides, the nontidal residual surges are investigated using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods by two ways: (1) applying a purely statistical approach and (2) introducing the SLP in ARMA as a main physical process driving the residual sea level. The new hybrid model is applied to the western Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel. Using ARMA model and considering the SLP, results show that the hourly sea level observations of gauges with are well reproduced with a root mean square error (RMSE) ranging between 4.5 and 7 cm for 1 to 30 days of gaps and an explained variance more than 80 %. For larger gaps of months, the RMSE reaches 9 cm. The negative and the positive extreme values of sea levels are also well reproduced with a mean explained variance between 70 and 85 %. The statistical behavior of 1-year modeled residual components shows good agreements with observations. The frequency analysis using the discrete wavelet transform illustrate strong correlations between observed and modeled energy spectrum and the bands of variability. Accordingly, the proposed model presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the total sea level at timescales from days to months. The ARMA model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at larger scales of years by introducing more physical processes driving its stochastic variability.

  13. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  14. New observations of sinuous channels on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    High-sinuosity submarine fan channels on the Amazon Fan were first observed using long-range (GLORIA) side-scan sonar in 1982 and mapped in greater detail using multibeam sonar in 1984. These data have provided important insights into the nature and evolution of submarine channel systems. Subsequent studies on the Amazon Fan have focused on avulsion patterns, sedimentation patterns, fan growth and the climate record contained in fan sediments, and there has been relatively little additional work on the details of sinuous channel morphology. Channels on the Amazon Fan have been imaged by multibeam sonar on several occasions since 1984 during focused studies, regional mapping and ship transit. These multibeam data are being compiled and studied to better characterize these iconic channels. One observation of particular interest is that, on the Amazon Fan, channel-wall slumps appear to be more common than previously thought. Drilling of a cut-off meander during ODP Leg 155 on the Amazon Fan showed the presence of slumped material deeper in the channel suggesting that failure of the channel wall was in part responsible for the abandonment and filling of that meander loop. The failure also apparently created a sandy debris flow with clasts of fine-grained levee material transported in a sandy matrix. This sandy debris flow may have been able to flow along the channel and deposit at the seaward end where similar sediments can be found. Disturbed zones now visible on the inner walls of channels at several other places along the channels suggest that these kinds of inner-wall slumps may play important roles in channel evolution and fan growth. Channel-blocking slumps can isolate channel loops which can then fill with sandy sediments, and avulsions are likely if this kind of slump fills the channel. The failure of channel walls can also lead to new channel segments that tend to straighten the channel. Dramatic changes to the shape of the channel can likely lead to large and

  15. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  16. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. River deltas: channelizing sandpiles with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, Douglas; Reitz, Meredith

    2013-03-01

    River deltas are wedges of sediment that are built via the lateral migration of self-channelizing rivers, but the timescale of this process is prohibitively long to observe in nature. Here we present laboratory results that allow us to examine how channels form and fill space to create a delta. Flow collapses into a single channel whose dimensions adjust to threshold transport conditions for the imposed sediment load. This channelization causes localized shoreline growth until the slope drops below a threshold value for sediment transport. This leads to deposition within the channel, with an upstream-migrating step akin to a stopping front in granular flows, which causes widespread flooding and the selection of a new (steeper) channel path. This cycle is remarkably periodic; delta slope oscillates between two thresholds - entrainment and distrainment - analogous to static and dynamic angles of repose. Selection of a new flow path is inherently stochastic, but previously abandoned channels act as significant attractors for the flow. Once a critical density of flow paths has been established, the flow oscillates among the same 3-5 channels indefinitely. These dynamics result in self-similar (quasi-)radial growth of delta lobes, which can be described using a simple geometric model. Despite its simplicity, the experimental system agrees well with what can be measured from natural deltas Thus, temporal and spatial patterns of deltas appear to be a robust result of mass conservation and transport thresholds.

  18. REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  19. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF... SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall be abandoned on the sites. Property abandoned in violation of the regulations in this part may be...

  20. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  1. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  2. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  3. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  4. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  5. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérest, P.; Brouard, B.; Hévin, G.

    2010-06-01

    In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  6. Crater Fill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03082 Crater Fill

    This VIS image shows part of the floor of an unnamed crater located between the Hellas and Argyre Basins. At some point in time the entire floor of the crater was filled by material. That material is now being eroded away to form the depressions seen in the center and bottom of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 46.6S, Longitude 5.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: The exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M. Shenoy, K. T.

    2015-02-21

    Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of “two phase thermodynamic (2PT)” model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

  8. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: The exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K. T.

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of "two phase thermodynamic (2PT)" model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

  9. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: the exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk M; Shenoy, K T

    2015-02-21

    Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of "two phase thermodynamic (2PT)" model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

  10. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  11. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  12. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  13. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  14. Dynamics of the spectral behaviour of an ultrashort laser pulse in an argon-gas-filled capillary discharge-preformed plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Higashiguchi, T.; Yugami, N.; Bobrova, N.; Sentoku, Y.; Kodama, R.

    2013-11-01

    We have reported the argon plasma waveguide produced in an alumina (Al2O3) capillary discharge and used to guide ultrashort laser pulses at intensities of the order of 1016 W/cm2. A one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code was used to evaluate the average degree of ionization of Ar in the preformed plasma channel. The spectrum of the propagated laser pulse in the Ar plasma waveguide was not modified and was well reproduced by a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation under initial ion charge state of Ar3+ in the preformed plasma waveguide. The optimum timing for the laser pulse injection was around 150 ns after initiation of a discharge with a peak current of 200 A.

  15. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  16. Large Illinoisan shelf-margin channel in the South Timbalier and Ewing Bank areas, offshore Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, R.W.; Bowman, P. )

    1991-03-01

    During an Illinoisan lowstand, a major channel became entrenched on the shelf and deposited deltaic sediment of the shelf-slope break in the South Timbalier and Ewing Bank areas. This shelf-edge delta overloaded the margin, creating a major slope failure. This 'channel,' or slump canyon, which was originally deep and narrow, evolved through retrogradational wasting of the shelf into a broader feature during back-filling and abandonment. Mapping with integrated seismic and well data indicates a feature that is 6 mi wide and has 2300 ft of relief, from the base of the channel to the highest margin. Gravel lag fills the deepest portion of the scour and constitutes an excellent, though restricted, gas reservoir. The limits of the reservoir are defined by mapping of a seismic amplitude anomaly. The balance of the back-fill is comprised of thinly bedded silstone and sandstone sequences that generally thin and fine upward; each is capped by marine shales. The fill geometry is primarily nested or stacked channels. Positive topographic features on the outer shelf tower above the channel floor, either as uneroded remnants or as part of channel margin slump mounds. Sand-prone sediment onlapped these highs, thereby creating numerous stratigraphic traps. As sea level rose, the locus of deposition within the channel shifted progressively shoreward, and the fill was capped by a clean, transgressive shale. Further work is necessary to ascertain the location of the submarine fan far down-dip of this shelf-edge channel. Laterally extensive reservoirs can be expected in more distal depositional environments.

  17. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  18. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  19. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  20. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  1. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  2. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  3. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  4. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  5. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  6. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  7. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  8. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  9. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels.... The maximum slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:1v (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be... the runoff through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case...

  10. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels.... The maximum slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:1v (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be... the runoff through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case...

  11. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels... slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:lv (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be maintained at the... through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case shall this pocket...

  12. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels.... The maximum slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:1v (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be... the runoff through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case...

  13. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels... slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:lv (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be maintained at the... through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case shall this pocket...

  14. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels... slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:lv (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be maintained at the... through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case shall this pocket...

  15. Filling of orbital fluid management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Blatt, M. H.; Thies, N. C.

    1978-01-01

    A study was performed with three objectives: (1) analyze fluid management system fill under orbital conditions; (2) determine what experimentation is needed; and (3) develop an experimental program. The fluid management system was a 1.06m (41.7 in) diameter pressure vessel with screen channel device. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of helium and autogenous pressurization systems was considered. Analyses showed that fluid management system fill will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The key to a successful fill with cryogens is in devising techniques for filling without vent liquid, and removing trapped vapor from the screen device at tank fill completion. This will be accomplished with prechill, fill, and vapor condensation processes. Refill will require a vent and purge process, to dilute the residual helium, prior to introducing liquid. Neither prechill, chill, nor purge processes will be required for earth storables.

  16. Persistence and Geomorphology of Clearwater Side Channels in a Braided River: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    Clearwater side channel lifespans and geomorphic changes are being examined to guide research on importance of side channels to salmon habitat quantity and quality at the river-long scale and implications for land management. Dynamic patterns of channel formation in braided rivers can result in rapid abandonment of channels within the braid plain. When these channels fill with water from hyporheic, regional ground water, or upland tributary sources, clearwater side channels result that might create a stable environment for spawning salmon. To determine the annual to decadal persistence of these side channels, clearwater channels in the 120 km-long Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska are being identified from color differences on a 0.3 m pixel 2006 color orthophoto prepared from 1:24,000-scale aerial photography. Channel identification is being calibrated with field observations of selected channels. This inventory of modern clearwater side channels is being compared to historical conditions from a black-and-white orthophoto prepared from 1949 1:40,000-scale aerial photography, and selected aerial photography for the 1960s and 1980s. Where photo quality limits detection of water clarity, side channel presence or absence is noted. Initial results show that while individual side channels may persist for many years, they have rarely persisted more than a few decades. Analysis of selected, wide braid plain areas shows that multiple water sources may exist for supplying abandoned braid plain channels, an indication that some locations may host clearwater side channels regardless of mainstem position. For example, a clearwater side channel that has been historically used as a spawning site is fed by a tributary known locally as Yellow Creek. This channel is presently being captured by the active braids of the Matanuska River. A comparable clearwater side channel has formed from tributary flow on the opposite bank. However, in 1949, this condition was reversed, with

  17. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  18. Weyl's Abandonment of Unified Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieroka, Norman

    2015-01-01

    In 1918, Hermann Weyl proposed a generalisation of Riemannian geometry, in order to unify general relativity and electrodynamics. This paper investigates the physical, mathematical and philosophical reasons for his subsequent abandonment of any such attempt towards a unified field theory.

  19. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property...

  20. Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1984-04-01

    One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts. A total of 138 abandoned oil fields having individual cumulative production greater than 500,000 bbl are located in the Texas Gulf Coast (railroad Commission of Texas Districts 2, 3, and 4). These 138 onshore fields produced 276 million barrels of oil before being abandoned. Nongiant fields in the Texas Gulf Coast average about 40% ultimate recovery, so these fields probably originally contained about 700 million bbl of oil in place. Therefore, about 424 million bbl of oil remain unrecovered. Reservoirs in these abandoned fields are Tertiary sandstones. The 44 abandoned fields in the upper Texas Gulf Coast (District 3) produced from a wide range of plays; those plays with the largest number of abandoned fields are Yegua and Frio deep-seated domes, Eocene deltaic sandstone, and Frio barrier/strand-plain sandstone. The 19 abandoned fields in the middle Texas Gulf Coast (District 2) produced mainly from Wilcox and Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and from Frio and Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones. The lower Texas Gulf Coast (District 4) contains 75 abandoned fields that produced from Frio fluvial/deltaic and barrier/strand-plain sandstones and from Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones.

  1. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  2. Liquid-filled Canyons on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggiali, Valerio; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Hayes, Alexander; Seu, Roberto; Birch, Samuel; Lorenz, Ralph; Grima, Cyril; Kargel, Jeffrey; Hofgartner, Jason

    2016-04-01

    During a close flyby, Cassini's RADAR altimeter observed a system of channels pertaining to the Vid Flumina system that drain into Titan's Ligeia Mare. While SAR images have been used to identify fluvial valleys in networks that extend for hundreds of kilometers, they can't directly prove the presence and/or physical extent of liquid channels filling them. Analysis of altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (~500 m) canyons and have strongly specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid-filled. Liquid elevations in Vid Flumina and its lower tributaries are at the same level of Ligeia Mare to within the altimeter's vertical accuracy of ~15m, which is a function of both the RADAR instrument as well as the precision of Cassini's reconstructed ephemeris. Specular reflections are also observed in higher order tributaries that occur hundred meters above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.

  3. Regulatory acceptance of the proposed well abandonment program for the present landfill, Operable Unit 7, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.R.

    1995-07-01

    The regulatory agencies approved a well abandonment program for the Present Landfill, Operable Unit (OU) 7 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, only three months after preparation. The proposed well abandonment program consists of abandoning 26 of the 54 existing monitoring wells in OU 7 that are currently sampled quarterly as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance wells or sitewide groundwater protection wells. Well abandonment was proposed on the basis that the purpose of each well has been fulfilled, the wells fall under the footprint of the landfill cap, the presence of the wells would compromise the integrity of the cap because holes would have to be cut in the synthetic liner, and unequal compaction of the fill material around the wells would potentially cause differential settlement of the cap. The proposal provided the technical justification to abandon the wells in place. The timely approval of the proposal by the regulatory agencies will allow the abandonment of the wells during fiscal year 1995 under the sitewide Well Abandonment and Replacement Program (WARP). Cost savings resulting from a decrease in the number of wells to be sampled under the groundwater monitoring program are estimated at $416,000 per year. This paper presents a summary of the well abandonment program, discusses the timely approvals required for implementation, and present the potential cost savings that can be achieved through implementation of the program.

  4. Integral fill yarn insertion and beatup method using inflatable membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus and method for integral fill yarn insertion and beatup are disclosed. A modified rapier contains a channel for holding fill yarn. The channel is covered with a flexible and inflatable boot, and an inflating apparatus for this boot is also attached. Fill yarn is inserted into the channel, and the rapier is extended into a shed formed by warp yarn. Next, the rapier is pushed into the fell of the fabric, and the flexible and inflatable cover inflated, which both pushes the yarn into the fell of the fabric and performs beatup. The rapier is withdrawn and the shed closed to complete one step of the weaving process.

  5. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  6. The Earliest Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.; Wei, C.

    2009-12-01

    Supplying protocells with ions required assistance from channels spanning their membrane walls. The earliest channels were most likely short proteins that formed transmembrane helical bundles surrounding a water-filled pore. These simple aggregates were capable of transporting ions with efficiencies comparable to those of complex, contemporary ion channels. Channels with wide pores exhibited little ion selectivity but also imposed only modest constraints on amino acid sequences of channel-forming proteins. Channels with small pores could have been selective but also might have required a more precisely defined sequence of amino acids. In contrast to modern channels, their protocellular ancestors had only limited capabilities to regulate ion flux. It is postulated that subsequent evolution of ion channels progressed primarily to acquire precise regulation, and not high efficiency or selectivity. It is further proposed that channels and the surrounding membranes co-evolved.

  7. Pressurized gas filled tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Silcox, W. H.

    1985-06-04

    Pressurized gas filled tubular tendons provide a means for detecting leaks therein. Filling the tendon with a gaseous fluid provides increased buoyancy and reduces the weight supported by the buoyant structure. The use of a corrosion inhibiting gaseous fluid reduces the corrosion of the interior tendon wall.

  8. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  9. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  10. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  11. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  12. LOCATION OF ABANDONED WELLS WITH GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abandoned wells are sometimes an important element in the contamination of fresh underground water supplies. If a well is not properly plugged and the casing is leaky, it may serve as a conduit for brines or other pollutants to reach a fresh water aquifer. This study was made to ...

  13. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin or... portion of a cabin or other structure and its contents from a park area, to the extent of his or...

  14. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin or... portion of a cabin or other structure and its contents from a park area, to the extent of his or...

  15. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by... Patent and Trademark Office. Express abandonment of the application may not be recognized by the...

  16. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  17. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  18. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  19. Filling Tanks with Hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, K.

    2004-10-01

    At the Hydrazine workshop in 2002 in Noordwijk several presentations dealt with the filling of satellite tanks. I was a bit surprised about the amount of manpower that is needed for this work. But I saw the same during the filling of the SCA system tanks some years ago in Trauen/Germany. I want to present the work flow of filling RESUS Hydrazine tanks. This bladder tanks have a capacity of 64 litres and are similar to some of the satellite tanks. We fill this tanks 25 to 50 times a year. Although the specifications are not exactly the same as those for satellite tank filling, it might be interesting to see how this work can be done half-automatically, because handling with Hydrazine is not a nice job, and the faster it goes, the better.

  20. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. A comparative analysis of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C; Barreda, P; Mendoza, V; Guzman, L; Gilbert, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims and Methods: A comparative study of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children was conducted in La Paz, Bolivia, representing the first such comparative assessment. Between August and December 1997, all abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia, who were willing to participate (n = 124) were interviewed repeatedly at night using standardised questionnaires to collect information on family history, demographics, socioeconomics, drug use, and physical/sexual abuse. The same questionnaires were administered to all former abandoned street children who chose to enter a local orphanage (n = 35). Results: The persistent street children differed greatly from those who entered the orphanage, most markedly in their higher risk of police abuse (95% versus 38%), absence from school (84% versus 19%), engagement in robbery (26% versus 4%), paint thinner use (88% versus 41%), alcohol use (58% versus 12%), and a serious medical problem (53% versus 20%). The risks for street children increased rapidly with age. Conclusions: A cascade of adverse outcomes afflicts the vast majority of abandoned street children in La Paz, which cumulate with age and diminish the likelihood of successful rehabilitation through lasting placement in an orphanage or residential home. Informed by these findings, the investigators operate a home for abandoned street children in La Paz. PMID:15321856

  2. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  3. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  13. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  14. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  15. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  16. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  17. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  18. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  19. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  20. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  1. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  2. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  3. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  4. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  5. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get prescription filled; Pharmacy - mail order; Pharmacy - internet; Types of pharmacies ... stored at certain temperatures at a local pharmacy. INTERNET (ONLINE) PHARMACIES Internet pharmacies can be used for ...

  6. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOEpatents

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  7. A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Space Abandoned Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaohua, Zhang

    Abstract: Influenced by the limited space resources and the increased space debris, it is very exigent to clean the orbital abandoned satellite. The thermal characteristic of the abandoned satellite is a key parameter for the infrared radiation study, and it is also an important gist to estimate whether or not the satellite can be worked correctly. And this paper researched on the thermal analysis of the LEO and GEO abandoned satellite, and has been acquired the temperature variety law for the the space abandoned target, which is very significant for apperceiving the space situation and cleaning the space abandoned satellites and other debris initiatively.    

  8. Venus - Sinuous Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This full resolution radar mosaic from Magellan at 49 degrees south latitude, 273 degrees east longitude of an area with dimensions of 130 by 190 kilometers (81 by 118 miles), shows a 200 kilometer (124 mile) segment of a sinuous channel on Venus. The channel is approximately 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) wide. These channel-like features are common on the plains of Venus. In some places they appear to have been formed by lava which may have melted or thermally eroded a path over the plains' surface. Most are 1 to 3 kilometers (0.6 to 2 miles) wide. They resemble terrestrial rivers in some respects, with meanders, cutoff oxbows, and abandoned channel segments. However, Venus channels are not as tightly sinuous as terrestrial rivers. Most are partly buried by younger lava plains, making their sources difficult to identify. A few have vast radar-dark plains units associated with them, suggesting large flow volumes. These channels appear to be older than other channel types on Venus, as they are crossed by fractures and wrinkle ridges, and are often buried by other volcanic materials. In addition, they appear to run both upslope and downslope, suggesting that the plains were warped by regional tectonism after channel formation. Resolution of the Magellan data is about 120 meters (400 feet).

  9. Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bétournay, Marc C

    2009-10-01

    The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk. PMID:19645755

  10. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  11. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  12. Loose-fill insulations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Whether you are increasing the insulation levels in your current home or selecting insulation for a new home, choosing the right insulation material can be challenging. Fibrous loose-fill insulations such as cellulose, fiberglass, and rock wool are options you may wish to consider. This publication will introduce you to these materials--what they are, how they are applied, how they compare with each other, and other considerations regarding their use--so that you can decide whether loose fills are right for your home.

  13. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... health plan: Call the phone number on the back of your insurance card. Call the pharmacy you want to use to see if they have a contract with your insurance plan. To help the pharmacist fill the prescription: Make sure all of the information ...

  14. Adjustment of Submarine Channel Architecture to Changes in Sediment Supply, Western Niger Delta Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobe, Z. R.; Sylvester, Z.; Parker, A. O.; Pirmez, C.; Slowey, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional seismic, piston cores, and autonomous underwater vehicle data (chirp sub-bottom profiles, multibeam bathymetry, and sidescan sonar) provide a multi-scale dataset used to examine the evolution of a submarine channel system on the western Niger Delta continental slope. Four phases of channel evolution are documented that are interpreted to relate to changes in the sediment routing system. The first phase is incisional and creates a large valley within which the subsequent phases evolve. The second phase records the development of sinuosity through lateral accretion of the meander bends. Meander cutoffs and channel-bank mass wasting result in terraced and scalloped channel margins. This phase is volumetrically most significant in terms of channel fill. The third phase is characterized by thalweg aggradation with slight channel narrowing; preferential deposition towards the outer banks results in a reduction of sinuosity. This phase likely reflects the updip abandonment of the channel system. The fourth phase is characterized by inner levee deposition that occurs primarily on outer banks, causing a reduction in channel width and sinuosity. These changes are caused by the capture of a small slope channel that is the source for underfit flows that attempt to adjust the channel cross section and thalweg gradient through inner levee deposition. Chirp sub-bottom profiles and piston core data reveal that these sigmoidal inner levees consist of thin-bedded, ripple-laminated turbidites interbedded with mudstones. The channel thalweg consists of amalgamated, sand-rich turbidites with dune-scale bedforms and occasional mass transport deposits. Core transects taken across the channel demonstrate that sand bed thickness decreases with height above the channel thalweg. Laser particle size analyzer data indicate a progressive decrease in grain size with height above the channel thalweg. These vertical trends in grain size and bed thickness distribution are used to

  15. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  16. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  17. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  18. Starburst Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.

    In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  19. Method of filling a microchannel separation column

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for packing a stationary phase into a small diameter fluid passageway or flow channel. Capillary action is employed to distribute a stationary phase uniformly along both the length and diameter of the flow channel. The method disclosed here: 1) eliminates the need for high pressure pumps and fittings and the safety hazards associated therewith; 2) allows the use of readily available commercial microparticles, either coated or uncoated, as the stationary phase; 3) provides for different types of particles, different particle sizes, and different particle size distributions to be packed in sequence, or simultaneously; 4) eliminates the need for plugging the flow channel prior to adding the stationary phase to retain the packing particles; and 5) many capillaries can be filled simultaneously.

  20. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  1. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  2. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  3. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  4. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  5. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  6. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  7. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  8. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  9. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  15. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned...

  16. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned...

  17. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property. (a) This section applies to all...

  18. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....phmsa.dot.gov or contact the NPMS National Repository at 703-317-3073. A digital data format is... abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the operator's knowledge, the abandonment was...

  19. 42 CFR 498.69 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 498.69 Section 498.69 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.69 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss...

  20. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment...

  1. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... persons other than those authorized by the operator. (2) A mechanical device or fitting that will prevent... abandonment, diameter, method of abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the...

  2. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... persons other than those authorized by the operator. (2) A mechanical device or fitting that will prevent... abandonment, diameter, method of abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the...

  3. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... persons other than those authorized by the operator. (2) A mechanical device or fitting that will prevent... abandonment, diameter, method of abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the...

  4. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned by...

  5. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned by...

  6. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  7. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned by...

  8. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  9. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  10. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Compliance with paragraph (b) or (c) of this section provides a non-exclusive safe harbor from integration...

  11. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  12. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  13. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  14. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revival of abandoned applications. 2.66 Section 2.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Applicants § 2.66 Revival of abandoned applications. (a) The applicant may file a petition to revive...

  15. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revival of abandoned applications. 2.66 Section 2.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Applicants § 2.66 Revival of abandoned applications. (a) The applicant may file a petition to revive...

  16. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  17. Macroscopic electric field inside water-filled biological nanopores.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Silvia Acosta; Bodrenko, Igor; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2016-03-23

    Multi-drug resistance bacteria are a challenging problem of contemporary medicine. This is particularly critical for Gram-negative bacteria, where antibiotics are hindered by the outer membrane to reach internal targets. Here more polar antibiotics make use of nanometric water-filled channels to permeate inside. We present in this work a computational all-atom approach, using water as a probe, for the calculation of the macroscopic electric field inside water-filled channels. The method allows one to compare not only different systems but also the same system under different conditions, such as pH and ion concentration. This provides a detailed picture of electrostatics in biological nanopores shedding more light on how the charged residues of proteins determine the electric field inside, and also how medium can tune it. These details are central to unveil the filtering mechanism behind the permeation of small polar molecules through nanometric water-filled channels. PMID:26931352

  18. Toward strict liability for abandoned mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    This note examines ways to impose responsibility for abating the pollution caused by mine drainage. It describes coal mine drainage and control techniques, then examines abatement responsibility under the common law doctrine of public nuisance, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. More statutory and regulatory controls will probably be devised in the near future, given the serious problem such drainage poses and the lack of existing controls. It is also likely, given the trend apparent in the statutes and cases, that such controls will adopt rules of strict liability for abandoned mine drainage based on mere ownership of property. 175 references.

  19. Ventures: Conoco abandons Iranian oil deal

    SciTech Connect

    Westervelt, R.

    1995-03-22

    Conoco (Houston), the oil and gas subsidiary of DuPont, has backed out of a deal to develop offshore oil fields for Iran as a result of a week of intense pressure from the Clinton Administration. Under the agreement, Conoco Iran, a Netherlands-based affiliate, would have developed two oil fields in the Persian Gulf. The deal, valued at $1 billion, would have been the first between Iran and a U.S. company since Washington severed relations with Teheran in 1980. Conoco says it operated within the law and with the knowledge of the U.S. government in the three years the deal was being negotiated. President Clinton announced an executive order barring such deals last Tuesday, after Conoco executives informed the Administration that the deal would be abandoned if an order was issued.

  20. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  1. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  2. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  3. Morphodynamics of Floodplain Chute Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Floodplain chute channel formation is a key process that can enable rivers to transition from single-thread to multi-thread planform geometries. Floodplain chute channels are usually incisional channels connecting topographic lows across point bars and in the floodplain. Surprisingly, it is still not clear what conditions promote chute channel formation and what governs their morphodynamic behavior. Towards this end we have initiated an empirical and theoretical study of floodplain chute channels in Indiana, USA. Using elevation models and satellite imagery we mapped 3064 km2 of floodplain in Indiana, and find that 37.3% of mapped floodplains in Indiana have extensive chute channel networks. These chute channel networks consist of two types of channel segments: meander cutoffs of the main channel and chute channels linking the cutoffs together. To understand how these chute channels link meander cutoffs together and eventually create floodplain channel networks we use Delft3D to explore floodplain morphodynamics. Our first modeling experiment starts from a generic floodplain prepopulated with meander cutoffs to test under what conditions chute channels form.We find that chute channel formation is optimized at an intermediate flood discharge. If the flood discharge is too large the meander cutoffs erosively diffuse, whereas if the floodwave is too small the cutoffs fill with sediment. A moderately sized floodwave reworks the sediment surrounding the topographic lows, enhancing the development of floodplain chute channels. Our second modeling experiments explore how floodplain chute channels evolve on the West Fork of the White River, Indiana, USA. We find that the floodplain chute channels are capable of conveying the entire 10 yr floodwave (Q=1330m3/s) leaving the inter-channel areas dry. Moreover, the chute channels can incise into the floodplain while the margins of channels are aggrading, creating levees. Our results suggest that under the right conditions

  4. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  5. Filling the launch gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeser, S.

    1986-05-01

    Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch vehicle systems projected to be available in the necessary time frame include the 215,000-pound thrust 4000-pound LEO payload capacity NASA Delta, the 11,300-pound LEO payload capacity Atlas Centaur the first ICBM, and the all-solid propellant expendable 2000-pound LEO payload Conestoga rocket. Also considered is the man-rated fully reusable Phoenix vertical take-off and vertical-landing launch vehicle.

  6. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G.; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Arora, Ramandeep S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment abandonment (TxA) is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC). However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data. Methods Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists), nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted. Results 602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%), practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83%) in general or children’s hospitals (79%). Results suggested, 23,854 (15%) of 155,088 children <15 years old newly diagnosed with cancer annually in the countries analyzed, abandon therapy. Importantly, 83% of new childhood cancer cases and 99% of TxA were attributable to LMC. The annual number of cases of TxA expected in LMC worldwide (26,166) was nearly equivalent to the annual number of cancer cases in children <15 years expected in HIC (26,368). Approximately two thirds of LMC had median TxA≥6%, but TxA ≥6% was reported in high- (9%), upper-middle- (41%), lower-middle- (80%), and low-income countries (90%, p<0.001). Most LMC centers reporting TxA>6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥6% (p<0.001). Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC. Conclusion Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally), confirm the suspected

  7. Geomorphic connectivity within abandoned small catchments (Stołowe Mts, SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latocha, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    Studying 5 small catchments (0.6-2.7 km2) located in the central part of the Stołowe Mountains (SW Poland), which are partly or totally abandoned, has revealed the substantial changes of connectivity within the catchments. Field investigation (geomorphic mapping, morphometric analyses) and GIS based analyses of historical data show that slope-channel coupling is much less efficient than in the past, mainly due to the decrease of unpaved road network, especially roads linked directly with streams. Also land-use change with considerable loss of arable land does not support erosion from slopes. The general direction of geomorphic change due to depopulation and lack of maintenance of anthropogenic features tends towards higher stability and lower efficiency of morphological processes, connected with a sustained decrease in slope-channel coupling. This tendency is evidenced by relict landscape features (e.g. road gullies, abandoned roads) formed in the period of more intensive land use, for which higher dynamics of the morphogenetic system may be inferred. The evidence of contemporary erosion and mineral material transport is very local and spatially limited to a few roads which are still in use. Sediment transfer is additionally slowed down by the presence of numerous anthropogenic barriers within slope and valley-floor domains. Even though their total impact may seem only local and negligible at the catchment scale, their contribution to increase the diversity of morphological processes is significant. Especially the neglect of hydrotechnical constructions enhances trapping of material within the catchments.

  8. 67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to Lake Trapps. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  9. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  10. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  11. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  12. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  13. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  14. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., destroyed or donated to a public body, upon a finding in writing by the DE (but in no event shall such... justify the decision to donate, abandon, or destroy the property proposed, without outside reference....

  15. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  16. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  18. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has become... of such notice, the Commissioner shall publish a notice in the Official Journal that the variety...

  19. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  20. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  1. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  2. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  3. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  4. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  5. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  6. Detection of abandoned underground storage tanks in rights-of-way with ground-penetrating radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clemena, G.G.; French, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    Highway agencies need a simple, effective, nondestructive way to inspect certain properties in rights-of-way for the possible presence of abandoned underground storage tanks, without disturbing the ground, before actual construction begins. Overall, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) fills this need better than other nondestructive methods. The report explains why GPR was chosen over the other nondestructive methods available, discusses the principal of GPR, describes the basic radar equipment needed and the general procedures involved in conducting such inspections, and provides examples of the type of radar data such inspections produce.

  7. Filling an Unvented Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Phillip; Willen, Gary S.

    1987-01-01

    Slow-cooling technique enables tank lacking top vent to be filled with cryogenic liquid. New technique: pressure buildup prevented through condensation of accumulating gas resulting in condensate being added to bulk liquid. Filling method developed for vibration test on vacuum-insulated spherical tank containing liquid hydrogen.

  8. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure.

  9. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  10. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  11. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  12. RFI channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A class of channel models is presented which exhibit varying burst error severity much like channels encountered in practice. An information-theoretic analysis of these channel models is made, and conclusions are drawn that may aid in the design of coded communication systems for realistic noisy channels.

  13. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  14. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    PubMed

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode. PMID:23126788

  15. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    SciTech Connect

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  16. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  17. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  18. LNFCS. Liquid Nitrogen Fill Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, E.

    1998-12-01

    The Liquid Nitrogen Fill Control System controls the periodic filling of Germanium detector dewars with liquid nitrogen, as well as, filling portable LN2 supply tanks with liquid nitrogen from a high pressure LN2 storage tank. LNFCS major features are: Remote access, Fills detectors periodically, Monitors fills and logs results, Fully adjustable set of preferences, Graphical interface, Fully operational by command line entry, Senses if LN2 flow has stopped after fill, Individual detector fills without interrupting periodic fill, Automatic repeat fill when detectors fail to fill, Automatic filling of supply tank when 2 or more detectors fail to fill, Easy addition/deletion of detectors from fill cycle, Authorized access only, No clogging by ice of LN2 flow.

  19. Structural controls on the development of submarine channel/fan systems since the Pleistocene in the accretionary wedge off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kang-Nien; Tien-Shun Lin, Andrew; Lin, Che-Chuan; Liu, Char-Shine; Wang, Yunshuen

    2016-04-01

    The accretionary wedge off SW Taiwan is the result of incipient arc-continent collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the northern rifted margin of the South China Sea (SCS). Dynamic interactions of thrusting, folding and a rigorous sediment supply from the Taiwan mountain belts have resulted in two arrays of canyons/channels and slope-fan systems in the accretionary wedge. The Penghu canyon/fan system lies in the lower wedge and near the northern rifted margin of the SCS. The Penghu canyon is a river-fed canyon and receives sediments from southern Taiwan and SE China during eustatic lowstands. It becomes detached from river inputs during eustatic highstands as it is in the present-day. The Gaoping canyon/fan system in the south traverses both the upper slope and lower slope domains of the accretionary wedge. This system is a river-fed system during a full eustatic cycle and it drains sediments from the onshore Gaoping River. We interpreted multiple grids of multichannel seismic reflection data of MCS994, MCS1000-6, MCS1014, MCS1046 collected onboard Ocean Research I during 2012 April to 2013 August to map out thrust/fold structures and channel/fan systems in the study area. Seismic facies analyses were performed on seismic sections and key stratal surfaces of base of Pliocene and base of Pleistocene are correlated from boreholes drilled in the shelf of the northern SCS margin. Our results show that the upper Gaoping Canyon has been confined by structural ridges with limited switching of canyon courses, whereas the lower Gaoping canyon/fan system has been developed on lower slope with channel/levee deposition in multiple slope fans since early Pleistocene. Pleistocene lateral aggrading channel-and-levee systems are especially evident near the modern canyon course in the lower slope. The Penghu can/fan system in the lower accretionary wedge is also evident by seismic facies showing channel cut-and-fill, channel abandonment and channel-and-levee systems. This

  20. Pairing in half-filled Landau level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Mandal, Ipsita; Chung, Suk Bum; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2014-12-15

    Pairing of composite fermions in half-filled Landau level state is reexamined by solving the BCS gap equation with full frequency dependent current–current interactions. Our results show that there can be a continuous transition from the Halperin–Lee–Read state to a chiral odd angular momentum Cooper pair state for short-range contact interaction. This is at odds with the previously established conclusion of first order pairing transition, in which the low frequency effective interaction was assumed for the entire frequency range. We find that even if the low frequency effective interaction is repulsive, it is compensated by the high frequency regime, which is attractive. We construct the phase diagrams and show that ℓ=1 angular momentum channel is quite different from higher angular momenta ℓ≥3. Remarkably, the full frequency dependent analysis applied to the bilayer Hall system with a total filling fraction ν=1/2 +1/2 is quantitatively changed from the previously established results but not qualitatively.

  1. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  2. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen's Bureau), which was established by the Congress on March 3, 1865, to assist former slaves in acquiring land, securing employment, legalizing marriages, and pursuing education. After the bureau's abolition through an act of Congress approved on June 10, 1872,…

  4. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....402 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or... an appeal if neither the party nor his representative participates significantly in the...

  5. 90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning arrester houses on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  6. Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

    1993-01-22

    This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

  7. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56 Section 256.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT... separate trust account. You may obtain a copy of the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety...

  8. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  9. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... See 49 FR 15496. On May 16, 1984, the State repealed most of the Tennessee Coal Surface Mining Law of.... See 47 FR 34753. Withdrawal of Tennessee's Regulatory Program: As a result of Tennessee's failure to... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  11. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    .... See 49 FR 15496. On May 16, 1984, the State repealed most of the Tennessee Coal Surface Mining Law of..., 1982. See 47 FR 34753. Withdrawal of Tennessee's Regulatory Program: Because of the State's failure to... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  12. 7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. NOTE CANTILEVERED DECKING. SOUTH FORK OF EEL RIVER AT LEFT. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  13. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of fuel if the property contains fuel. This information must be— (i) Labeled on the property; or (ii... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of fuel if the property contains fuel. This information must be— (i) Labeled on the property; or (ii... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and...

  16. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Quality...

  17. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727 Section 192.727 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS...

  19. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  2. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  3. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  4. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  5. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  6. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  8. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  12. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  16. 48 CFR 45.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officers may abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies excess property that is not sensitive property... donate excess personal property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not...

  17. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies surplus property that is not sensitive property, and... donate surplus property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not bear any...

  18. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies surplus property that is not sensitive property, and... donate surplus property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not bear any...

  19. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  20. Anomalous capillary filling and wettability reversal in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravelle, Simon; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric; Joly, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    This work revisits capillary filling dynamics in the regime of nanometric to subnanometric channels. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water in carbon nanotubes, we show that for tube radii below one nanometer, both the filling velocity and the Jurin rise vary nonmonotonically with the tube radius. Strikingly, with fixed chemical surface properties, this leads to confinement-induced reversal of the tube wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic for specific values of the radius. By comparing with a model liquid metal, we show that these effects are not specific to water. Using complementary data from slit channels, we then show that they can be described using the disjoining pressure associated with the liquid structuring in confinement. This breakdown of the standard continuum framework is of main importance in the context of capillary effects in nanoporous media, with potential interests ranging from membrane selectivity to mechanical energy storage.

  1. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  2. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  3. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  4. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  5. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  6. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  7. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  8. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry. 158.42 Section 158.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RELIEF FROM DUTIES ON MERCHANDISE LOST, DAMAGED, ABANDONED, OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned,...

  9. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you abandon property at a site, it may be removed without your consent and disposed of at your expense, if the...

  10. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you abandon property at a site, it may be removed without your consent and disposed of at your expense, if the...

  11. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  12. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  13. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  14. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  15. 78 FR 20714 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Dunn County, WI.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Dunn County, WI. Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a...

  16. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  17. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  18. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  19. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned... and Abandoned Merchandise Vesting in Government § 127.41 Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. (a) Vesting of title in Government. At the end of the 6-month period noted in § 127.11 of...

  20. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  1. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  2. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  3. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  4. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  5. 30 CFR 938.20 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land... PENNSYLVANIA § 938.20 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted on November 3, 1980, is approved. Copies of the approved...

  6. 78 FR 17468 - Alabama Railroad Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Monroe County, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama Railroad Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Monroe County, AL Alabama Railroad Co. (ALAB) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately...

  7. 49 CFR 1105.12 - Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... representative: (Name, address and phone number). Sample Local Newspaper Notice for Petitions for Abandonment... 20423, a notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F—Exempt Abandonments permitting the (abandonment... county in which the line is located and certify to the Board that it has done this by the date its...

  8. 49 CFR 1105.12 - Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... representative: (Name, address and phone number). Sample Local Newspaper Notice for Petitions for Abandonment... 20423, a notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F—Exempt Abandonments permitting the (abandonment... county in which the line is located and certify to the Board that it has done this by the date its...

  9. 7 CFR 97.22 - Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. 97.22 Section 97.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. An application abandoned for failure on the...

  10. 7 CFR 97.22 - Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. 97.22 Section 97.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. An application abandoned for failure on the...

  11. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine....13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land... approved effective May 16, 1988. Copies of the approved program are available at: (a) The Navajo...

  12. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine....13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land... approved effective May 16, 1988. Copies of the approved program are available at: (a) The Navajo...

  13. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  14. 30 CFR 946.20 - Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. 946.20 Section 946.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 946.20 Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. Virginia Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan...

  15. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  16. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  17. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  18. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  19. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  20. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  1. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  2. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  3. 78 FR 66801 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in St. Joseph County, Ind.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in St. Joseph County... 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a total of approximately 1.5 miles of rail line located in the City of ] South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind., extending easterly from milepost PY 1.90...

  4. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, Ill. BNSF... Abandonments to abandon approximately 1.1 miles of rail line in Chicago, in Cook County, Ill., as follows:...

  5. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  6. TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Montell, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease. PMID:17579562

  7. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  8. Brain Responses to Filled Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestvik, Arild; Maxfield, Nathan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the study of sentence comprehension is whether the process of gap-filling is mediated by the construction of empty categories (traces), or whether the parser relates fillers directly to the associated verb's argument structure. We conducted an event-related potentials (ERP) study that used the violation paradigm to examine…

  9. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  10. Loose-fill, thermal insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, N.; Ruff, D.L.

    1981-11-24

    Fire resistant, loose-fill, thermal insulation made of a mixture of particulate expanded perlite and cellulose fiber is described. The mixture is rendered non-settling and resistant to separation by applying a permanently tacky material to the particulate expanded perlite.

  11. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  12. Flow dynamics and sedimentation of lateral accretion packages in sinuous deep-water channels: A 3D seismic case study from the northwestern South China Sea margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Gong, Chenglin

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses 3D seismic data to document architectural styles and flow dynamics of lateral accretion packages (LAPs) associated with sinuous deep-water channels, contributing to a better understanding of flow processes and sedimentation associated with LAPs. The documented LAPs underwent three main stages of architectural evolution, including the early incision stages characterized by intense downcutting, active migration stages characterized by active migration and avulsion of the individual channels, and late abandonment stages characterized by the termination of sediment gravity-flows and LAP growth. These three stages of LAP growth repeated through time, yielding a fining-upward pattern from sandy channel-fill turbidites, into sand-mud couplets, all capped by muddy turbidites. A river-reversed helical flow circulation was created by an imbalance, through the flow depth, of inwardly directed pressure gradient forces near the bed and outwardly directed centrifugal forces near the surface. It consists of low-velocity cores near the outer banks and low-velocity cores along the inner banks. Such river-reversed helical flow pattern is evidenced by volumetrically extensive LAPs and toplap and downlap terminations along the gentle banks and by aerially restricted, seismically unresolvable levees and truncation terminations near the steep banks. This river-reversed helical flow circulation favors asymmetric intra-channel deposition characterized by inner bank deposition versus outer bank erosion, and which, in turn, forced individual channels to consistently migrate towards outer banks, resulting in significant asymmetric cross-channel profiles with aerially extensive LAPs along inner banks.

  13. Abandoned luggage detection using a finite state automaton in surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sooyeong; Bae, Guntae; Byun, Hyeran

    2010-02-01

    We present an abandoned luggage detection architecture that consists of an intelligent surveillance system for public places. Detection of abandoned luggage is necessary because unattended or abandoned luggage can be used as a means of terrorist attack, especially for bombs. Our proposed system relies on three modules: moving object detection, object tracking and classification, and event recognition. We focus on abandoned luggage detection. To recognize an abandoned luggage event, we constructed the finite state automaton (FSA), in which each FSA state represents a certain luggage status. The proposed algorithm shows good performance in a real-world environment and also works at real-time speed.

  14. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  15. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  16. Commentary on Baddeley and Larsen (2007). The phonological store abandoned.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dylan M; Hughes, Robert W; Macken, William J

    2007-04-01

    Baddeley and Larsen (2007) argue that a number of key findings reported by Jones, Macken, and Nicholls (2004) and Jones, Hughes, and Macken (2006) pointing to shortcomings of the phonological store construct arise from the store being abandoned with long lists. In our rejoinder we point out that Baddeley and Larsen use a procedure in which retrieval from the supposed phonological storage would not--according to their own theory--have been possible, and we present theoretical, empirical, and logical problems with their "store abandonment" argument and highlight a number of difficulties associated with the interpretation of suffix and prefix effects. We conclude that our data are still problematic for the phonological store construct and suggest that a reformulation of short-term memory theory needs to embody (or indeed focus exclusively upon) perceptual and effector systems rather than bespoke storage modules. PMID:17455060

  17. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  18. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  19. Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

  20. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  1. Should High-Frequency Ventilation in the Adult Be Abandoned?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Albert P; Schmidt, Ulrich H; MacIntyre, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) can improve ventilation-perfusion matching without excessive alveolar tidal stretching or collapse-reopening phenomenon. This is an attractive feature in the ventilation of patients with ARDS. However, two recent large multi-center trials of HFOV failed to show benefits in this patient population. The following review addresses whether, in view of these trails, HFOV should be abandoned in the adult population? PMID:27235314

  2. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  3. System-level simulation of liquid filling in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2011-06-01

    Liquid filling in microfluidic channels is a complex process that depends on a variety of geometric, operating, and material parameters such as microchannel geometry, flow velocity∕pressure, liquid surface tension, and contact angle of channel surface. Accurate analysis of the filling process can provide key insights into the filling time, air bubble trapping, and dead zone formation, and help evaluate trade-offs among the various design parameters and lead to optimal chip design. However, efficient modeling of liquid filling in complex microfluidic networks continues to be a significant challenge. High-fidelity computational methods, such as the volume of fluid method, are prohibitively expensive from a computational standpoint. Analytical models, on the other hand, are primarily applicable to idealized geometries and, hence, are unable to accurately capture chip level behavior of complex microfluidic systems. This paper presents a parametrized dynamic model for the system-level analysis of liquid filling in three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic networks. In our approach, a complex microfluidic network is deconstructed into a set of commonly used components, such as reservoirs, microchannels, and junctions. The components are then assembled according to their spatial layout and operating rationale to achieve a rapid system-level model. A dynamic model based on the transient momentum equation is developed to track the liquid front in the microchannels. The principle of mass conservation at the junction is used to link the fluidic parameters in the microchannels emanating from the junction. Assembly of these component models yields a set of differential and algebraic equations, which upon integration provides temporal information of the liquid filling process, particularly liquid front propagation (i.e., the arrival time). The models are used to simulate the transient liquid filling process in a variety of microfluidic constructs and in a multiplexer, representing a

  4. Investigation on Health Effects of an Abandoned Metal Mine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Choi, Kyungho; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2008-01-01

    To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone mineral density were measured. Surface soil in the study area showed 2-10 times higher levels of metals compared to that of the control area. Metal concentrations in the groundwater and air did not show any notable differences between groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and copper in rice and barley from the study area were significantly higher than those of the control area (p<0.05). Geometric means of blood and urine cadmium in the study area were 2.9 µg/L and 1.5 µg/g Cr, respectively, significantly higher than those in the control area (p<0.05). There were no differences in the levels of urinary markers of early kidney dysfunction and bone mineral density. The authors conclude that the residents near the abandoned mine were exposed to higher levels of metals through various routes. PMID:18583882

  5. [Eco-restoration of abandoned farmland in the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujiang; Xiao, Jinyu; Nan, Zhibiao

    2002-08-01

    The vegetation on abandoned farmland was succeeded from Agriophyllum arenarium community to Lespedeza davurica community under cutting conditions. More plant species was recruited at the initial stage of restoration. The new plant species established earlier were annual Agriophyllum arenarium and perennial Pennisetum flaccidum which could be the dominant species or sub-dominant species. The perennial Artemisia capillaris established in early-middle stage could be the sub-dominant species, and leguminous plants appeared in late-middle stage could only be the associated species. The aboveground biomass of annual species reduced by 8.8% annually, while the perennial species increased with the similar rate. The aboveground biomass of leguminous species increased continuously. As the restoration proceeded, more underground biomass was distributed in upper soil layer. In 1-7 years of restoration of abandoned land, the clay and silt in 0-30 cm soil profile reduced, while grit increased, but the inverse trend occurred after 7 years. The water content in 0-100 cm soil profile increased continuously, especially during middle stage. Total and available nitrogen in 0-100 cm soil profile reduced in early stage, but increased in late stage. Total and available phosphorus and organic carbon in soil profile reduced continuously under cutting conditions. For the restoration of abandoned farmland to the current stable community, it would take 8-9 years for dominant population, 9-11 years for vegetative community and 11-12 years for soil system. PMID:12418248

  6. Dissolution of as and U in Abandoned Mine Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J.; Ali, A.; Avasarala, S.; Brearley, A. J.; Cerrato, J.

    2014-12-01

    The release of U and As from abandoned mine wastes obtained from a site in the Navajo Nation in Northeastern Arizona was assessed by integrating spectroscopy, microscopy, and aqueous chemistry techniques. X-ray fluorescence analyses detected concentrations of 0.6% U, 0.4 % V, and 0.3% Fe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of 73% Fe(II), 27% Fe(III), and the predominance of U(VI), V(V), and As(0). Transmission electron microscopy analyses detected the presence of amorphous carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O]. The proportional release of U and V into solution was measured for chemical extractions using 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.5) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy after 96 hours of reaction (sampled periodically). A similar proportional release of As and Fe after 2 hours of reaction was observed for chemical extractions using the same conditions mentioned previously. Lower concentrations of U, V, As, and Fe were released from chemical extractions using 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). The integration of spectroscopy, microscopy, and aqueous chemical extractions suggest that carnotite and an As-Fe-bearing mineral phase (likely arsenopyrite) control the dissolution of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. This has important environmental implications related to contamination of water sources in communities that live in the proximity of abandoned mine wastes.

  7. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support. PMID:16602351

  8. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  9. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  10. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

  11. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.; Dyrud, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  12. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.W.; Kinzer, K.E.; Mrozinski, J.S.; Johnson, E.J.; Dyrud, J.F.

    1990-09-18

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated. 3 figs.

  13. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.

    1992-07-14

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  14. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J C T; Tas, N R; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2014-10-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because of decreased velocity gradients at the wall. Both these effects essentially stem from the spontaneous formation of an electric double layer (EDL) and the resulting streaming potential caused by the net capillary-flow-driven advection of ionic species within the EDL. Our results demonstrate that filling of charged capillaries also exhibits the well-known linear and Washburn regimes witnessed for uncharged capillaries, although the filling rate is always lower than that of the uncharged capillary. We attribute this to a competitive success of the lowering of the driving forces (because of electroviscous effects), in comparison to the effect of weaker drag forces. We further reveal that the time at which the transition between the linear and the Washburn regime occurs may become significantly altered with the introduction of surface charges, thereby altering the resultant capillary dynamics in a rather intricate manner. PMID:25375597

  15. Management of an Abandoned River Channel Wetland for Mitigation of Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  16. Improvement of left ventricular filling by ivabradine during chronic hypertension: involvement of contraction-relaxation coupling.

    PubMed

    Melka, Jonathan; Rienzo, Mario; Bizé, Alain; Jozwiak, Mathieu; Sambin, Lucien; Hittinger, Luc; Su, Jin Bo; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hypertension is associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and LV diastolic dysfunction with impaired isovolumic relaxation and abnormal LV filling. Increased heart rate (HR) worsens these alterations. We investigated whether the I f channel blocker ivabradine exerts beneficial effects on LV filling dynamic. In this setting, we also evaluated the relationship between LV filling and isovolumic contraction as a consequence of contraction-relaxation coupling. Therefore, hypertension was induced by a continuous infusion of angiotensin II during 28 days in 10 chronically instrumented pigs. LV function was investigated after stopping angiotensin II infusion to offset the changes in loading conditions. In the normal heart, LV relaxation filling, LV early filling, LV peak early filling rate were positively correlated to HR. In contrast, these parameters were significantly reduced at day 28 vs. day 0 (18, 42, and 26 %, respectively) despite the increase in HR (108 ± 6 beats/min vs. 73 ± 2 beats/min, respectively). These abnormalities were corrected by acute administration of ivabradine (1 mg/kg, iv). Ivabradine still exerted these effects when HR was controlled at 150 beats/min by atrial pacing. Interestingly, LV relaxation filling, LV early filling and LV peak early filling were strongly correlated with both isovolumic contraction and relaxation. In conclusion, ivabradine improves LV filling during chronic hypertension. The mechanism involves LV contraction-relaxation coupling through normalization of isovolumic contraction and relaxation as well as HR-independent mechanisms. PMID:27040115

  17. Morphology and evolution of shale-filled paleochannel in Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), southeast Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    Local extensive paleochannels exist within the upper to lower Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) of the Gulf Coast of North America. Recent reports document the following paleochannels of the Wilcox Group: Bejuco-Lalaja, Chicontepec, DeSoto, Nautla, Ovejas, St. Landry, and Yoakum. An eighth, the Tyler (Hardin) channel, suggests that passive submarine erosional forces shaped the channels prior to any active erosional forces, such as those related to turbidity currents. The north-south-trending Tyler (Hardin) channel is 24 mi (40 km) long, 12 mi (20 km) wide, and displays over 1000 ft (300 m) of shale fill. The channel thalweg bifurcates updip into two meandering steep-walled channels that display numerous side gullies. The channel grew from the youthful to the mature stage through passive erosive mechanisms. During the mature stage, it may have been further enlarged by more active erosional agents, such as turbidity currents. Old age began with increased paralic sedimentation and infilling of the channel with deep-marine shale. Eventually, progradation and eustatic drop in sea level buried the channel, its younger fill, and older adjacent deposits. Paleochannels are salient economic features. The deep-marine shale infill of the channel acts as a source of oil and gas and a seal for adjacent reservoir rock. Upward migration of oil through fractures, faults, and sediments fills reservoirs in overlying structures formed in nearshore deposits of the upper Wilcox. Most of the major oil and gas fields of the Wilcox Group in Tyler and Hardin Counties are localized in structures overlying the channel fill.

  18. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disconnected from all sources and supplies of gas; purged of gas; in the case of offshore pipelines, filled with water or inert materials; and sealed at the ends. However, the pipeline need not be purged when... supplies of gas; purged of gas; in the case of offshore pipelines, filled with water or inert...

  19. Abandoned deep mine subsidence investigation and remedial design, Interstate 70, Guernsey County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.G.; Clark, D.M.; Bechtel, T.D.

    1999-07-01

    A two thousand linear foot, undermined section of Interstate 70 in Guernsey County, Ohio experienced settlements due to pothole type subsidence events within the travel lanes, shoulders and adjacent right-of-way areas. Potholes measured approximately ten feet in depth and width. The subsidence occurred after the dewatering of the abandoned deep mine during auger mining operations west of the site. A two-phase emergency investigation was undertaken by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) and Gannett Fleming Cord dry and Carpenter (GF). The purpose of the investigation was to assess the immediate danger of potholes occurring in the traveled lanes and paved shoulders, to identify the subsidence mechanisms, and to design a remediation program. Phase one investigations involved the review of existing subsurface data, the advancement of shallow borings and the performance of multiple geophysical surveys including ground penetrating radar, seismic refraction and electromagnetic terrain conductivity. The Phase one investigations did not reveal the presence of subsidence voids. Phase two investigations included borings to the mine level and videotaping of mine conditions. The mine was found to be completely flooded. Based upon the collected data, two mechanisms of failure, localized roof fall and piping of overburden soils into the mine void, were identified. Two remedial alternatives, (1) the filling of the mine void, and (2) the reinforcement of the highway using geotextiles, were evaluated, Filling of the mined interval and grouting of overburden bedrock fractures and voids, within a limited area, were selected. Construction plans, specifications and cost estimates were prepared for bidding and award. During the bidding process, a catastrophic, pothole type failure of the I-70 travel lanes occurred. The interstate was closed and the planned remediation activities were performed as an emergency project. The mine interval was grouted and portions of the highway

  20. Development of a novel linearly-filled Derenzo microPET phantom.

    PubMed

    Cox, Benjamin L; Graves, Stephen A; Farhoud, Mohammed; Barnhart, Todd E; Jeffery, Justin J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Nickles, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) phantoms are used to calibrate PET scanners so that inter-scanner and inter-isotope comparison can be made between PET datasets. Hot rod style phantoms have a hole pattern, which is filled with a positron-emitting isotope and typically involves using two radioisotope reservoirs with the pattern created with channels in between. However, this configuration is difficult to fill and requires an excess of activity and volume. Here we present an alternative design, a phantom that is linearly filled-one channel at a time. The process of fabrication of prototypes of the design is described and PET images of the prototyped phantom are also shown for a variety of commonly used radioisotopes ((52)Mn, (64)Cu, (76)Br, (124)I). This design allows for a large reduction in isotope volume and required filling time making a quality assurance (QA) protocol safer, more efficient and less costly. PMID:27508106

  1. Development of a novel linearly-filled Derenzo microPET phantom

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Benjamin L; Graves, Stephen A; Farhoud, Mohammed; Barnhart, Todd E; Jeffery, Justin J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Nickles, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) phantoms are used to calibrate PET scanners so that inter-scanner and inter-isotope comparison can be made between PET datasets. Hot rod style phantoms have a hole pattern, which is filled with a positron-emitting isotope and typically involves using two radioisotope reservoirs with the pattern created with channels in between. However, this configuration is difficult to fill and requires an excess of activity and volume. Here we present an alternative design, a phantom that is linearly filled-one channel at a time. The process of fabrication of prototypes of the design is described and PET images of the prototyped phantom are also shown for a variety of commonly used radioisotopes (52Mn, 64Cu, 76Br, 124I). This design allows for a large reduction in isotope volume and required filling time making a quality assurance (QA) protocol safer, more efficient and less costly. PMID:27508106

  2. State-of-the-art techniques for backfilling abandoned mine voids

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Abandoned underground mine openings are susceptible to collapse because of the mining methods used, the character of the overburden, and the typically large, wide entries with minimal roof support. The final effect of the collapse of the underground workings is surface subsidence. To reduce the probability of subsidence, methods to backfill the mine void with various types of materials have been developed. This US Bureau of Mines report describes the available technologies for subsidence abatement and discusses their operation and application. The basis of these abatement methods is the replacement of the mined material with mine waste. Backfilling of mine voids is the most common method of stabilization used to abate subsidence and protect surface structures. Hydraulic flushing and grouting, using remote methods from single or multiple boreholes, are the most often-used methods for the placement of backfill material. Other subsidence abatement techniques are available and may be more appropriate under different conditions. These other techniques include pneumatic stowing, either by in-mine or remote methods, and various point support methods that do not completely fill the mine void and are used for the protection of small areas of the land surface and surface structures. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Modelling drivers of mangrove propagule dispersal and restoration of abandoned shrimp farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nitto, D.; Erftemeijer, P. L. A.; van Beek, J. K. L.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Higazi, L.; Quisthoudt, K.; Jayatissa, L. P.; Koedam, N.

    2013-01-01

    Propagule dispersal of four mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal and Avicennia officinalis in the Pambala-Chilaw Lagoon Complex (Sri Lanka) was studied by combining a hydrodynamic model with species-specific knowledge on propagule dispersal behaviour. Propagule transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model to investigate the effect of dispersal vectors (tidal flow, freshwater discharge and wind), trapping agents (retention by vegetation) and seed characteristics (buoyancy) on propagule dispersal patterns. Sensitivity analysis showed that smaller propagules, like the oval-shaped propagules of Avicennia officinalis, dispersed over larger distances and were most sensitive to changing values of retention by mangrove vegetation compared to larger, torpedo-shaped propagules of Rhizophora spp. and C. tagal. Directional propagule dispersal in this semi-enclosed lagoon with a small tidal range was strongly concentrated towards the edges of the lagoon and channels. Short distance dispersal appeared to be the main dispersal strategy for all four studied species, with most of the propagules being retained within the vegetation. Only a small proportion (max. 5%) of propagules left the lagoon through a channel connecting the lagoon with the open sea. Wind significantly influenced dispersal distance and direction once propagules entered the lagoon or adjacent channels. Implications of these findings for mangrove restoration were tested by simulating partial removal in the model of dikes around abandoned shrimp ponds to restore tidal hydrology and facilitate natural recolonisation by mangroves. The specific location of dike removal, (with respect to the vicinity of mangroves and independently suitable hydrodynamic flows), was found to significantly affect the resultant quantities and species of inflowing of propagules and hence the potential effectiveness of natural regeneration. These results demonstrate the value of

  4. Modelling drivers of mangrove propagule dispersal and restoration of abandoned shrimp farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nitto, D.; Erftemeijer, P. L. A.; van Beek, J. K. L.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Higazi, L.; Quisthoudt, K.; Jayatissa, L. P.; Koedam, N.

    2013-07-01

    Propagule dispersal of four mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal and Avicennia officinalis in the Pambala-Chilaw Lagoon Complex (Sri Lanka) was studied by combining a hydrodynamic model with species-specific knowledge on propagule dispersal behaviour. Propagule transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model to investigate the effect of dispersal vectors (tidal flow, freshwater discharge and wind), trapping agents (retention by vegetation) and seed characteristics (buoyancy) on propagule dispersal patterns. Sensitivity analysis showed that smaller propagules, like the oval-shaped propagules of Avicennia officinalis, dispersed over larger distances and were most sensitive to changing values of retention by mangrove vegetation compared to larger, torpedo-shaped propagules of Rhizophora spp. and C. tagal. Directional propagule dispersal in this semi-enclosed lagoon with a small tidal range was strongly concentrated towards the edges of the lagoon and channels. Short distance dispersal appeared to be the main dispersal strategy for all four studied species, with most of the propagules being retained within the vegetation. Only a small proportion (max. 5%) of propagules left the lagoon through a channel connecting the lagoon with the open sea. Wind significantly influenced dispersal distance and direction once propagules entered the lagoon or adjacent channels. Implications of these findings for mangrove restoration were tested by simulating partial removal in the model of dikes around abandoned shrimp ponds to restore tidal hydrology and facilitate natural recolonisation by mangroves. The specific location of dike removal, (with respect to the vicinity of mangroves and independently suitable hydrodynamic flows), was found to significantly affect the resultant quantities and species of inflowing propagules and hence the potential effectiveness of natural regeneration. These results demonstrate the value of propagule

  5. Handbook for Gas Filled RF Cavity Aficionados'

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Chung, Moses; Yonehara, Katsuya; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The use of hydrogen gas filled RF cavities in muon cooling channels has been proposed by Rolland Johnson. Impressive results have been obtained toward attaining high voltage gradients and rapid training in preliminary tests done at the FNAL MTA facility. However, so far it has not been possible to test them under conditions where they were subject to the transversal of a high intensity particle beam. This note is an attempt to bring together a description of some of the pertinent physical processes that take place in the dilute plasma that is generated in the hydrogen gas by the beam. Two effects dominate. The first is that the free electrons generated can load down the cavity and transfer its energy to heating the gas. The second is a question of what happens to the plasma in the longer term. There is an enormous literature on the subject of the subject of dilute hydrogen plasmas and we can tap into this information in order to understand and predict the behavior of the cavity.

  6. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-09-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12-14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of - 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago, followed by

  7. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12–14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of − 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago

  8. Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738

  9. Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott L; Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H

    2007-01-01

    The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738

  10. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any...

  11. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    PubMed Central

    Gately, Reece D

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications. PMID:25821693

  12. Assessment of wind energy potential at abandoned mining sites in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Mihyang; Choi, Yosoon

    2013-04-01

    Currently, about 84% of mining sites in Korea are abandoned after mine closure. Therefore, there is deep public concern about usage of the abandoned mining sites. This study presents a new idea to use the abandoned mines as wind power plants. An assessment of wind energy potential at abandoned mining sites in Korea was performed. The Gangwon province was selected as a study area because it has abundant wind resource as well as many abandoned mines. For the abandoned mines, both electric power production and economic effects were analyzed using RETScreen software. As a result, we revealed that the Sewon iron mine can produce 1.76 MWh per year. Other 46 mining sites that have high wind energy potential were determined and proposed in this study.

  13. Channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...

  14. Nitrate Leaching from Intensive Fiber Production on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantation treatments were much higher than the old field.

  15. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section 247.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you abandon property at a site, it may be removed without...

  16. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  17. Abandoning small-scale fish farming in western Kenya leads to higher malaria vector abundance.

    PubMed

    Howard, Annabel F V; Omlin, Francois X

    2008-01-01

    Fishponds become abandoned due to lack of access to both young fish and technical support and faster economic returns from other activities. Certain conditions found in abandoned fishponds, such as absence of fish and presence of aquatic vegetation, are conducive to the presence of malaria vectors. We conducted a district-wide fishpond census to determine the maintenance status and mosquito populations of fishponds in Kisii Central District in western Kenya. Two hundred and sixty one fishponds were found, 186 active (fish present) and 75 abandoned (fish absent). Vegetation was not significantly associated with the distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles funestus or culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) in active or abandoned ponds. The presence of fish, however, correlated significantly with the distribution of all mosquito species, with significantly higher mosquito densities in abandoned fishponds. An. gambiae s.l. was the most abundant mosquito species found in both active and abandoned ponds, being proportionally more abundant in the abandoned ponds. The proportion of An. funestus increased with altitude. Following the census the demand for fish to re-stock abandoned ponds rose by 67% when compared to the same time period in the previous year. This study highlights the potential public health problems associated with the abandonment of small-scale fish farming in the highlands of western Kenya. PMID:18068136

  18. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  19. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  20. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  1. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  2. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  3. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  4. Computer Simulation of the Propagation of Heat in Abandoned Workings Insulated with Slurries and Mineral Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurzyński, Wacław; Krach, Andrzej; Pałka, Teresa

    2014-03-01

    In the paper the results of investigations aimed at further identification of the phenomena occurring in abandoned workings and connected with the flow of air-gas (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon oxidation products) mixture with taking into consideration the impact of supplied mineral substances on the processes of self-heating of the coal left in goaves were presented. The known and successfully used method for the prevention of fires in abandoned workings is the technology of filling goaf with an ash-air mixture, which also raises the issue of the effective use of that mixture. The computer, i.e. digital simulation methods being developed and intended for the purpose of the process discussed here are a good complement of the use of that technology. A developed mathematical model describing the process of additional sealing of gob with wet slurry supplied with three pipelines is based on the balance of volume of the supplied mixture and contained in the body created in goaves. The form of that body was assessed on the basis of the observation results available in literature and the results of model investigations. The calculation examples carried out for the the longwall area and its goaf ventilated with the "U" system allow to state that the introduced modification of the mathematical model describing the flow of the mixture of air, gases, and wet slurry with consideration of the coal burning process in the fire source area was verified positively. The digital prognostic simulations have confirmed a vital impact of the wet slurry supplied into the goaf on the processes of coal burning and also the change of rate and volume flow rate of the air mixture in goaf. As a complement to the above it should be noted that such elements as the place of the slurry supply in comparison with the longwall inclination or fire source area location is of great importance for the effectiveness of the fire prevention used. The development of computer/ digital

  5. Remediation of abandoned mines using coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, S.; Aydilek, A.H.; Petzrick, P.; Guynn, R.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a phenomenon that occurs when pyrite that is present in abandoned coal mines comes in contact with oxygen and water, which results in the formation of sulfuric acid and iron hydroxide. Grouting of an abandoned mine with alkaline materials provides a permanent reduction in acid production. This study investigates the success of coal combustion by-product (CCB)-based grout mixtures in reducing AMD. The laboratory phase included testing of grouts with different proportions of Class F fly ash, flue gas desulfurization by-product, fluidized bed combustion by-product, and quicklime, for slump, modified flow, bleed, and strength. Then the selected optimal grout mixture was injected into the Frazee mine, located in Western Maryland. Pre- and post-injection water quality data were collected to assess the long-term success of the grouting operation by analyzing mine water, surface water, and groundwater. Overall, the results indicated that CCB-based grouts can control the acid mine drainage. However, the mechanical properties of the grout are highly critical for the construction phase, and long-term monitoring is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of the grouting process.

  6. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation. PMID:10216814

  7. The return of the repressed: Abandoned parses facilitate syntactic reanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Staub, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Two eye movement experiments examined effects on syntactic reanalysis when the correct analysis was briefly entertained at an earlier point in the sentence. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences containing a noun phrase coordination/clausal coordination ambiguity, while in Experiment 2 they read sentences containing a subordinate clause object/main clause subject ambiguity. The critical conditions were designed to induce readers to construct the ultimately correct analysis just prior to being garden-pathed by the incorrect analysis. In both experiments, the earliest measures of the garden path effect were not modulated by this manipulation. However, there was significantly less regressive re-reading of the sentence in those conditions in which the correct analysis was likely to have been constructed, then abandoned, at an earlier point. These results suggest that a syntactic analysis that is abandoned in the course of processing a sentence is not lost altogether, and can be re-activated or retrieved from memory. Implications for models of initial syntactic analysis and reanalysis are discussed. PMID:19593394

  8. Defect-enhanced void filling and novel filled phases of open-structure skutterudites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xi, Lili; Qiu, Yuting; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Singh, David J.; Yang, Jihui

    2015-05-14

    Here, we report the design of novel filled CoSb3 skutterudite phases based on a combination of filling and Sb-substituted Ga/In defects. Ga/In doped skutterudite phases with Li-, Nd-, and Sm-fillings can be formed via this strategy, which can have relatively wider ranges of carrier concentration than other conventional filled skutterudite phases.

  9. Defect-enhanced void filling and novel filled phases of open-structure skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Lili; Qiu, Yuting; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Singh, David J.; Yang, Jihui

    2015-05-14

    Here, we report the design of novel filled CoSb3 skutterudite phases based on a combination of filling and Sb-substituted Ga/In defects. Ga/In doped skutterudite phases with Li-, Nd-, and Sm-fillings can be formed via this strategy, which can have relatively wider ranges of carrier concentration than other conventional filled skutterudite phases.

  10. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CBμCT) was used first. After the CBμCT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CBμCT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  11. TRP channels.

    PubMed

    Benemei, Silvia; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2015-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, namely TRPV1, TRPA1, TRPV4 and TRPM8, expressed by C- and Aδ-fibres primary sensory neurons, in cough mechanism. Selective stimuli for these channels have been proven to provoke and, more rarely, to inhibit cough. More importantly, cough threshold to TRP agonists is increased by proinflammatory conditions, known to favour cough. Off-target effects of various drugs, such as tiotropium or desflurane, seem to produce their protective or detrimental actions on airway irritation and cough via TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively. Thus, TRPs appear to encode the process that initiates or potentiates cough, activated by exogenous irritants and endogenous proinflammatory mediators. More research on TRP channels may result in innovative cough medicines. PMID:25725213

  12. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  13. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emission on abandoned peatlands by growing reed canary grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järveoja, J.; Laht, J.; Soosaar, K.; Maddison, M.; Ostonen, I.; Mander, Ü.

    2012-04-01

    We used combined closed-chamber and plant biomass techniques to study the impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea) cultivation on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and carbon balance of an abandoned peat extraction area in Lavassaare, Estonia (N58°34'20''; E24°23'15''). Three core study sites were chosen within the abandoned peat extraction area: (I) bare peat soil (abandoned and not planted site), (II) non-fertilized Phalaris site, (III) and fertilized Phalaris site (all on drained Fibric Histosols). In addition, (IV) the natural raised bog (Fibric Histosol) and (V) the cultivated fen meadow (drained Sapric Histosol) served as reference sites. The CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were determined using the closed-chamber method once a month from May 2010 to December 2011. White 60 L chambers made of PVC and sealed with a water-filled ring on the soil surface were installed in 5 replicates on each site. The gas was sampled 3 times per hour in 100 mL pre-evacuated glass bottles, and in the lab the gas concentrations were measured using the Shimadzu GC-2014 (ECD, FID) gas-chromatographic system combined with a Loftfield autosampler. Measurements of groundwater level and soil temperature (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm depths) were performed simultaneously. Biomass assessments of RCG were carried out just after maximal growth of macrophytes, in early September 2010, in April 2011 just after snow melt (time of minimum aboveground biomass), and again in September 2011. Aboveground biomass samples were collected from 1×1m plots. Belowground biomass samples were collected at a depth of 25 cm in 3 replicates adjacent to each chamber using a 10×10 cm auger. Samples were analyzed for N, P and C. Our results showed high nitrous oxide emissions (up to 541 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) from the fen meadow and high methane emissions from the natural raised bog (up to 12915 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1). The low CH4 emission from the Phalaris plots and bare soil was due to the deeper water table (up to 85

  14. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected

  15. Filling cavities or restoring teeth?

    PubMed

    Versluis, Antheunis; Versluis-Tantbirojn, Daranee

    2011-01-01

    Teeth seldom fracture under normal functional loading. This indicates that the natural tooth design is optimized for the distribution of regular masticatory forces by means of its properties and structure. When a tooth is restored with an intracoronal restoration, however, the incidence of tooth fracture increases. Since remaining tissues do not change, the restorative actions apparently alter the original stress distributions. In this study, the effect of different restoration types (unbonded amalgam and bonded composite restorations) were compared with the original stress conditions of the intact tooth, using finite element analysis. It was shown that an unbonded amalgam restoration did not restore the original stress conditions but led to much higher stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel and to higher tensile stresses in the cavity floor. The unbonded amalgam thus filled the cavity but did not restore the tooth. In contrast, a bonded composite restoration restored the original stress pattern in the tooth if there was no polymerization shrinkage. Polymerization shrinkage causes residual tensile stresses in the dentin around the cavity and in the buccal and lingual enamel. Residual tensile stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel are momentary compensated by compressive stress components during occlusal loading. It was concluded that bonding and elimination of residual stresses are prerequisites for restoring the original tooth integrity. PMID:21748978

  16. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    applications that must be stable against environmental perturbations, such as acceleration or power supply variations. Measurements on fabricated devices in fact confirm predictions by the new model of up to 4x improvement in frequency stability against DC-bias voltage variations for contour-mode disk resonators as the resistance loading their ports increases. By enhancing circuit visualization, this circuit model makes more obvious the circuit design procedures and topologies most beneficial for certain mechanical circuits, e.g., filters and oscillators. The second method enables simultaneous low motional resistance ( Rx 70,000) at 61 MHz using an improved ALD-partial electrode-to-resonator gap filling technique that reduces the Q-limiting surface losses of previous renditions by adding an alumina pre-coating before ALD of the gap-filling high-k dielectric. This effort increases the Q over the ˜10,000 of previous renditions by more than 6x towards demonstration of the first VHF micromechanical resonators in any material, piezoelectric or not, to meet the simultaneous high Q (>50,000) and low motional resistance Rx (< 200O) specs highly desired for front-end frequency channelizer requirements in cognitive and software-defined radio architectures. The methods presented in this chapter finally overcome the high impedance bottleneck that has plagued capacitively transduced micro-mechanical resonators over the past decade. The third method introduces a capacitively transduced micromechanical resonator constructed in hot filament CVD boron-doped microcrystalline diamond (MCD) structural material that posts a measured Q of 146,580 at 232.441 kHz, which is 3x higher than the previous high for conductive polydiamond. Moreover, radial-contour mode disk resonators fabricated in the same MCD film and using material mismatched stems exhibit a Q of 71,400 at 299.86 MHz. The material used here further exhibits an acoustic velocity of 18,516 m/s, which is now the highest to date among

  17. Applying machine learning to electronic form filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermens, Leonard A.; Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.

    1993-03-01

    Forms of all types are used in businesses and government agencies and most of them are filled in by hand. Yet much time and effort has been expended to automate form-filling by programming specific systems on computers. The high cost of programmers and other resources prohibits many organizations from benefitting from efficient office automation. A learning apprentice can be used for such repetitious form-filling tasks. In this paper, we establish the need for learning apprentices, describe a framework for such a system, explain the difficulties of form-filling, and present empirical results of a form-filling system used in our department from September 1991 to April 1992. The form-filling apprentice saves up to 84% in keystroke effort and correctly predicts nearly 90% of the values on the form.

  18. Mechanisms of tracheal filling in insects.

    PubMed

    Förster, Thomas D; Woods, H Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Insects exchange respiratory gases primarily using tracheal systems that are filled with gas. However, in different developmental and environmental circumstances, liquid can occupy the tracheal system, which can significantly impair its respiratory function. Insects therefore use a suite of mechanisms for tracheal filling, which is the process of replacing tracheal liquids with gas. We review these mechanisms for liquid removal and gas filling. By integrating recent molecular work with older physiological literature, we show that liquid removal likely involves active ion transport in the whole tracheal system. Gas filling reveals fascinating interactions between geometry, surface chemistry of the tracheal walls, the tracheal liquid, and dissolved gases. The temporal proximity to moulting allows for potentially complex interdependencies between gas filling, moult-associated hormone signaling, and cuticle sclerotization. We propose a mechanistic model for tracheal filling. However, because the composition of the liquid is unknown, it remains hypothetical. PMID:22616845

  19. Classification of munition fill using laser acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.G.; Blackwood, L.G.

    1997-08-01

    Identification of a munition fill is easier if one can determine if there is fill material present (empty versus full), and if so, the phase (solid or liquid) of the fill. Previous munition inspection efforts by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that resonance information could determine the fill. A portable, noncontacting laser-acoustic system was developed by INEEL that uses a low-power laser system to measure the container`s vibration characteristics in response to an acoustic excitation. These vibration characteristics were shown to be functions of the fill material and munition geometry. The laser acoustic system was used to characterize the fill of over one hundred 155-mm munitions. Additional research and development using this system is being performed for the Mobile Munitions Assessment System.

  20. 29 CFR 2520.103-13 - Special terminal report for abandoned plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special terminal report for abandoned plans. 2520.103-13... Special terminal report for abandoned plans. (a) General. The terminal report required to be filed by the... this section. (b) Contents. The terminal report described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  1. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The.... November 1, 2004 April 4, 2005 Oklahoma Plan §§ 884.13(c)2—Project Ranking and Selection;...

  2. 30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  3. 30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  4. 30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  5. 30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  6. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The.... November 1, 2004 April 4, 2005 Oklahoma Plan §§ 884.13(c)2—Project Ranking and Selection;...

  7. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The.... November 1, 2004 April 4, 2005 Oklahoma Plan §§ 884.13(c)2—Project Ranking and Selection;...

  8. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The.... November 1, 2004 April 4, 2005 Oklahoma Plan §§ 884.13(c)2—Project Ranking and Selection;...

  9. 30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land... STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The.... November 1, 2004 April 4, 2005 Oklahoma Plan §§ 884.13(c)2—Project Ranking and Selection;...

  10. 30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  11. 48 CFR 945.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Disposal 945.603 Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. See 945.670 for...

  12. 48 CFR 945.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Disposal 945.603 Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. See 945.670 for...

  13. Family Foster Care, Kinship Networks, and Residential Care of Abandoned Infants in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megahead, Hamido A.; Cesario, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    While infant abandonment has occurred in all segments of society, on all continents, and across all generations, the motivations for this practice are varied and depend upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Western approaches addressing the care of abandoned infants focus on terminating parental rights and…

  14. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and plugging of wells. No productive well shall be abandoned until its lack for further profitable production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall not shut down, abandon, or otherwise discontinue the operation or use of any well for any...

  15. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and plugging of wells. No productive well shall be abandoned until its lack for further profitable production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall not shut down, abandon, or otherwise discontinue the operation or use of any well for any...

  16. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and plugging of wells. No productive well shall be abandoned until its lack for further profitable production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall not shut down, abandon, or otherwise discontinue the operation or use of any well for any...

  17. 43 CFR 3263.14 - May BLM require me to abandon a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May BLM require me to abandon a well? 3263.14 Section 3263.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.14 May BLM require me...

  18. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and plugging of wells. No productive well shall be abandoned until its lack for further profitable production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall not shut down, abandon, or otherwise discontinue the operation or use of any well for any...

  19. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells. 226.28 Section 226.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells. No productive...

  20. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  1. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  2. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  3. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  4. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  5. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Delivery of merchandise. Within the 30-day period set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, the importer... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance...

  6. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Delivery of merchandise. Within the 30-day period set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, the importer... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance...

  7. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (d) of this section. (3) The material must explain the— (i) Method of donning immersion suits and... workers are suitably dressed; (v) Checking to see that immersion suits and lifejackets are correctly... abandonment must be tested at each abandon-ship drill. (c) The master of each vessel carrying immersion...

  8. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  9. 30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments... requirements and other revisions to West Virginia's AMLR Plan dated June 16, 2006....

  10. 30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments... requirements and other revisions to West Virginia's AMLR Plan dated June 16, 2006....

  11. 30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments... requirements and other revisions to West Virginia's AMLR Plan dated June 16, 2006....

  12. 30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments... requirements and other revisions to West Virginia's AMLR Plan dated June 16, 2006....

  13. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  14. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  15. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  16. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  17. 30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands... STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments... requirements and other revisions to West Virginia's AMLR Plan dated June 16, 2006....

  18. 7 CFR 1955.55 - Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody and related actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... not occupying or is not in possession of the property but has it listed for sale with a real estate broker or has made other arrangements for its care or sale, it will not be considered abandoned so long... handled in accordance with 7 CFR part 3560, subpart J.) When it appears a borrower has abandoned...

  19. 7 CFR 1955.55 - Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody and related actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... not occupying or is not in possession of the property but has it listed for sale with a real estate broker or has made other arrangements for its care or sale, it will not be considered abandoned so long... handled in accordance with 7 CFR part 3560, subpart J.) When it appears a borrower has abandoned...

  20. 48 CFR 45.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or donation of excess personal property. 45.603 Section 45.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Disposal 45.603 Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. (a) Plant clearance... donate excess personal property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not...

  1. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Plan to provide for the reclamation of areas causing acid mine drainage AMD and to revise the project... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  2. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Plan to provide for the reclamation of areas causing acid mine drainage AMD and to revise the project... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  3. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Plan to provide for the reclamation of areas causing acid mine drainage AMD and to revise the project... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  4. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Plan to provide for the reclamation of areas causing acid mine drainage AMD and to revise the project... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is...

  5. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  6. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  7. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  8. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise... Provisions § 19.9 General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise. (a) Acceptance of merchandise. The... Customs-authorized permit to transfer or in-bond entry) is responsible for preparing a Customs Form...

  9. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reclamation plan. 943.20 Section 943.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on April 24, 1980, and amended on May 30, 1980, June...

  10. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reclamation plans. 924.20 Section 924.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  11. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reclamation plan. 943.20 Section 943.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on April 24, 1980, and amended on May 30, 1980, June...

  12. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reclamation plans. 924.20 Section 924.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  13. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section 247.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you...

  14. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section 247.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you...

  15. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  16. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  17. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  18. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  19. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  20. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  1. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  2. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  3. 49 CFR 1152.25 - Participation in abandonment or discontinuance proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in abandonment or discontinuance proceedings. 1152.25 Section 1152.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ABANDONMENT AND DISCONTINUANCE OF RAIL LINES AND...

  4. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  5. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TEXAS § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  6. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TEXAS § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  7. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 943.25 Section 943.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following...

  8. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 943.25 Section 943.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following...

  9. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 943.25 Section 943.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following...

  10. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TEXAS § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the...

  11. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 943.25 Section 943.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following...

  12. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 943.25 Section 943.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following...

  13. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gaston County, NC Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments...

  14. 75 FR 65049 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pulaski County, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pulaski County, AR Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  15. 76 FR 36617 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Freeborn County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Freeborn County, MN Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will...

  16. 78 FR 5244 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Fulton County, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Fulton County, IL BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  17. 76 FR 72241 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cass County, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cass County, ND BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F--Exempt... and historic report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment...

  18. 30 CFR 756.17 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 756.17 Section 756.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.17 Approval...

  19. 30 CFR 926.21 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 926.21 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR 884.15, Montana is required to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 926.21 Section 926.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  20. 30 CFR 950.36 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 950.36 Section 950.36 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 950.36 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments....

  1. 30 CFR 950.36 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 950.36 Section 950.36 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 950.36 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments....

  2. 30 CFR 926.21 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 926.21 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR 884.15, Montana is required to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 926.21 Section 926.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  3. 30 CFR 926.21 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 926.21 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR 884.15, Montana is required to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 926.21 Section 926.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  4. 30 CFR 950.36 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 950.36 Section 950.36 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 950.36 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments....

  5. 30 CFR 950.36 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 950.36 Section 950.36 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 950.36 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments....

  6. 30 CFR 926.21 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 926.21 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR 884.15, Montana is required to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 926.21 Section 926.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  7. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  8. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  9. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  10. 30 CFR 942.25 - Approval of Tennessee abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Tennessee abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 942.25 Section 942.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE TENNESSEE § 942.25 Approval of Tennessee abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  11. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  12. Drought-related West Tennessee channel bank failures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, W.J.; Bryan, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Massive bank failures occurred in 1988 along a 14-kilometer reach of the lower Obion River channel in Dyer County, West Tennessee where the river flows through an abandoned Mississippi River meander. Bank failures in this reach extend as far as 50 meters from the channel and reach depths of 20 meters below ground surface. The critical elements that led to the failures appear to have been the combination of high soil moisture content and low river stage against a background of substantial recent bank accretion.

  13. Spatial patterns of scour and fill in dryland sand bed streams 1843

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial patterns of scour and fill in two dryland ephemeral stream channels with sandy bed material have been measured with dense arrays of scour chains. Although the depth and areal extent of bed activity increased with discharge, active bed reworking at particular locations within the reaches res...

  14. Filling kinetics of liquids in nanochannels as narrow as 27 nm by capillary force.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Mondin, Giampietro; Hegelbach, Nicole G; de Rooij, Nicolaas F; Staufer, Urs

    2006-01-01

    We report the filling kinetics of different liquids in nanofabricated capillaries with rectangular cross-section by capillary force. Three sets of channels with different geometry were employed for the experiments. The smallest dimension of the channel cross-section was respectively 27, 50, and 73 nm. Ethanol, isopropanol, water and binary mixtures of ethanol and water spontaneously filled nanochannels with inner walls exposing silanol groups. For all the liquids the position of the moving liquid meniscus was observed to be proportional to the square root of time, which is in accordance with the classical Washburn kinetics. The velocity of the meniscus decreased both with the dimension of the channel and the ratio between the surface tension and the viscosity. In the case of water, air-bubbles were spontaneously trapped as channels were filled. For a binary mixture of 40% ethanol and water, no trapping of air was observed anymore. The filling rate was higher than expected, which also corresponds to the dynamic contact angle for the mixture being lower than that of pure ethanol. Nanochannels and porous materials share many physicochemical properties, e.g., the comparable pores size and extremely high surface to volume ratio. These similarities suggest that our nanochannels could be used as an idealized model to study mass transport mechanisms in systems where surface phenomena dominate. PMID:16023663

  15. Childhood lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Needleman, H L

    1998-12-01

    In 1991, the Public Health Service published the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning. This document marked a fundamental shift in federal policy from finding and treating lead-poisoned children to authentic primary prevention. It spelled out a 15-year strategy to achieve this goal and provided a cost-benefit analysis showing that the monetized benefits far exceeded the costs of abatement. A strong national effort to eliminate the disease developed. Now, 7 years after publication of the plan, primary prevention of lead exposure has been abandoned. This article examines the role of some prevailing attitudes and institutions in derailing the effort. Some institutions--the lead industry, real estate interests, and insurance interests--behaved as anticipated. Others, including private pediatricians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, some federal agencies, and a public interest group ostensibly dedicated to eliminating lead poisoning, also played an unexpected part in derailing the plan. PMID:9842392

  16. Planning of the reforestation at abandoned coal mines using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Oh, S.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents a prototype of decision support system for planning the reforestation at abandoned coal mines. The characteristics of deforested zone due to mine development were analyzed and categorized to define the schema of GIS database. Multiple criteria (i.e. forest-climate zone, mining method, visibility, managerial condition, slope gradient, reforestation purpose) were considered to classify the deforested zone and to assign unique IDs to the key index fields in tables. ArcMap, ArcObjects and Visual Basic.NET were used to implement the system. The application to the Samcheok coal block in Korea shows that the system could present a rational solution to select suitable trees for the reforestation and can also provide cost evaluation tools to support the environmental planning work.

  17. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    PubMed

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. PMID:11977938

  18. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  19. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotta, C.; Guglietta, D.; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load), a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 2001-2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  20. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-12-31

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania`s abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania`s comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania`s geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques.