Science.gov

Sample records for abandoned coal refuse

  1. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  2. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  3. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  4. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  5. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  6. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  7. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  8. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  9. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  10. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  11. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  12. Undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined coal refuse. First annual report: Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.; Li, J.

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study on the undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined refuse. The study is part of a research project entitled 'Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Coal Refuse for Design and Construction of Disposal Facilities supported by the Office of Surface Mining, Department of the Interior. Information presented in the report will be used for the design and construction of disposal facilities. Coal refuse, the waste product from coal washing, is separated in the coal preparation plant into two fractions (coarse and fine). The fine refuse, in the form of either a slurry or a filter cake, is unstable and difficult to handle.

  13. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  14. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  15. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, George; Gokhale, Ashok J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  16. Abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    VanMeter, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Kentucky courts often treat abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases as synonymous, using the rule that abandonment consists of two elements: (1) a voluntary relinquishment of possession and (2) intent to repudiate ownership. A review of several court cases concludes that the difficulty of proving intention severely limits the lessor's ability to have a lease cancelled due to abandonment. The Kentucky Supreme Court has not held any coal lease to have been abadnoned since 1949. Cancellation due to forfeiture is the lessor's better means of ensuring diligent and capable development of his property, but a court will not decree a forfeiture unless the lease contains a forfeiture clause. 100 references.

  17. H. R. 4053: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to provide for the remining of certain abandoned coal mine lands. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, February 21, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The bill would amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to provide for the remining of certain abandoned coal mine lands. The bill describes definitions; state remining insurance programs; state self-sustaining remining insurance fund; penalties and enforcement; special rules applicable to remining operations; and abandoned coal refuse and disposal piles.

  18. Coal refuse site inventories. [reclamation survey using color-IR photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Wier, C. E.; Leshendok, T.; Beeman, W.

    1975-01-01

    Small-scale color-infrared aerial photography at 1:120,000 scale is used to carry out an operational survey of coal refuse sites. Site analyses and reclamation cost estimates are completed in less than 90 days by using remote sensing techniques. Analysis of photographs provided dependable and accurate data for the location and environmental assessment of nearly 200 coal refuse banks and slurry ponds. The inventory constitutes a comprehensive reference for establishing priorities for coal refuse site reclamation and for complementing future field surveys.

  19. ULTRASONICALLY-ENHANCED DENSE-MEDIUM CYCLONING FOR FINE COAL AND COAL REFUSE IMPOUNDMENT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mark S. Klima; Dr. Barbara J. Arnold

    2001-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, its project team (Typlex, Inc., DAGER, Inc., and PrepTech, Inc.), and advisory committee members have demonstrated the application of ultrasonic energy during dense-medium cyclining and subsequent recovery of fine coal and coal refuse impoundment materials. The results will help to extend the range of conventional dense-medium cyclining to sizes now typically cleaned in relatively inefficient water-only cyclone and spiral concentrators circuits. This technology also provides a potential approach to produce ultra-clean material as would be used for feedstocks for premium carbon products. This report describes Phase I of the project, which involved laboratory testing of dense-medium cyclining and subsequent medium recovery, with and without ultrasonic treatment, along with fundamental dispersion testing. Dense-medium cycloning was conducted with a 76.2-mm (3-in.) diameter cyclone under various conditions including magnetite grade, medium relative density, inlet pressure, cyclone geometry, and feed coal. Dense-medium recovery testing was carried out with a 305-mm (12-in.) diameter x 152-mm (6-in.) wide wet-drum magnetic separator using the cyclone clean coal and refuse products as the feed material. Fundamental testing of dispersion/reagglomeration phenomena was conducted with coal/clay mixtures. In almost all cases, the dense-medium cyclone was capable of achieving separations down to approximately 0.037 mm. Ultrasonic treatment had a slight effect on reducing the ash content of the clean coal. It was also found that ultrasonic treatment improved the purity of the magnetic fraction during wet-drum magnetic separation. The treatment was particularly beneficial for the cyclone overflow material. The fundamental testing indicated that agitation after ultrasonic treatment is necessary to disperse fine particles and to prevent agglomeration.

  20. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load.

  1. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-12-31

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania`s abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania`s comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania`s geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques.

  2. Strength and consolidation characteristics of fine-coal refuse. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.; Li, J.; Weeratunga, G.

    1987-04-01

    The study is part of a research project entitled Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Coal Refuse for Design and Construction of Disposal Facilities supported by the Office of Surface Mining, Department of Interior. Information presented in the report will be used for the design and construction of disposal facilities. Fine coal refuse, which is the waste product washing through a no. 28 (0.589 mm) sieve, can be disposed in two different forms: solid or liquid. To be disposed as a solid, the moisture content of fine refuse must be reduced. The investigation on the undrained shear strength of partially saturated fine refuse proceeded in the same manner as that of the combined refuse, and similar equations and charts were developed. These equations and charts can also be used to estimate the undrained shear strength of consolidated fine refuse when disposed as a slurry. To be disposed as a slurry, the fine refuse must be pumped into a lagoon or behind a dam and let settle.

  3. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

    2012-04-30

    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill.

  5. Evaluation of leachates from coal refuse blended with fly ash at different rates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B R; Daniels, W L; Zelazny, L W; Jackson, M L

    2001-01-01

    There is great interest in returning coal combustion products to mining sites for beneficial reuse as liming agents. A column study examined the effects of blending two coal fly ashes with an acid-forming coal refuse (4% pyritic S). Both fly ashes were net alkaline, but had relatively low neutralizing capacities. One ash with moderate alkalinity (CRF) was bulk blended with coal refuse at 0, 20, and 33% (w/w), while another lower alkalinity ash (WVF) was blended at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 33% (w/w). The columns were leached (unsaturated) weekly with 2.5 cm of simulated precipitation for >150 wk. Where high amounts of ash alkalinity (>20% w/w) were mixed with the coal refuse, pyrite oxidation was controlled and leachate pH was >7.0 with low metal levels throughout the study. At lower rates of alkalinity loading, trace metals were sequentially released from the WVF ash as the 5, 10, and 20% treatments acidified due to pyrite oxidation. Lechate metals increased in proportion to the total amounts applied in the ash. In this strongly acidic environment, metals such as Mn, Fe, and Cu were dissolved and leached from the ash matrix in large quantities. If ash is to be beneficially reused in the reclamation of acid-producing coal refuse, the alkalinity and potential acidity of the materials must be balanced through the appropriate addition of lime or other alkaline materials to the blend. Highly potentially acidic refuse material, such as that used here, may not be suitable for ash/refuse codisposal scenarios.

  6. Remediation of abandoned mines using coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, S.; Aydilek, A.H.; Petzrick, P.; Guynn, R.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a phenomenon that occurs when pyrite that is present in abandoned coal mines comes in contact with oxygen and water, which results in the formation of sulfuric acid and iron hydroxide. Grouting of an abandoned mine with alkaline materials provides a permanent reduction in acid production. This study investigates the success of coal combustion by-product (CCB)-based grout mixtures in reducing AMD. The laboratory phase included testing of grouts with different proportions of Class F fly ash, flue gas desulfurization by-product, fluidized bed combustion by-product, and quicklime, for slump, modified flow, bleed, and strength. Then the selected optimal grout mixture was injected into the Frazee mine, located in Western Maryland. Pre- and post-injection water quality data were collected to assess the long-term success of the grouting operation by analyzing mine water, surface water, and groundwater. Overall, the results indicated that CCB-based grouts can control the acid mine drainage. However, the mechanical properties of the grout are highly critical for the construction phase, and long-term monitoring is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of the grouting process.

  7. Siting of prison complex above abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the state of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. However, one masonry building was located within the potential draw zone of mine works that still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was designed accordingly to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase 2 prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the phase 1 complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was undertaken to (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical database of subsidence events in the Illinois coal basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations. However, for others that could be affected potentially by future subsidence movement preliminary subsidence resistant designs were completed using the expected level of potential subsidence movement.

  8. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  9. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  10. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  11. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  12. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  13. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  14. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  15. Performance and mechanism on a high durable silica alumina based cementitious material composed of coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan

    Coal refuse and combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. Recycling is one practical solution to utilize this huge amount of solid waste through activation as substitute for ordinary Portland cement. The central goal of this dissertation is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economy benefit for construction and building materials. The results show that thermal activation temperature ranging from 20°C to 950°C significantly increases the workability and pozzolanic property of the coal refuse. The optimal activation condition is between 700°C to 800°C within a period of 30 to 60 minutes. Microanalysis illustrates that the improved pozzolanic reactivity contributes to the generated amorphous materials from parts of inert aluminosilicate minerals by destroying the crystallize structure during the thermal activation. In the coal refuse, kaolinite begins to transfer into metakaol in at 550°C, the chlorite minerals disappear at 750°C, and muscovite 2M1 gradually dehydroxylates to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this research examines the environmental

  16. Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H.

    2008-07-01

    About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

  17. Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

    1984-12-01

    Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

  18. Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities: Applications of research findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.

    1987-08-01

    The use of coal refuse properties for the short-term stability analysis of disposal facilities is illustrated in the report. Three types of disposal facilities are considered: waste embankments constructed of combined or fine refuse, refuse dams constructed by upstream method, and sandwich construction by placing coarse and fine refuse in alternate layers. Detailed procedures are presented to determine the factor of safety at the end of construction using the REAME computer program developed at the University of Kentucky. The results of analysis show that limiting the maximum moisture content of combined or fine refuse in waste embankments and keeping the construction of refuse dams at a slower pace are very important for short-term stability. Due to the granular nature of coarse and fine refuse, the use of sandwich construction appears to be an efficient and economical disposal method. To compare the properties of coal refuse from the Western Coal Field with those from the Eastern Coal Field reported previously, test results on combined and fine refuse taken from two sites in Colorado are presented.

  19. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  20. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  1. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B.

    2005-07-01

    We surveyed bats at 36 abandoned coal mines during summer 2002 and 47 mines during fall 2002 at New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, WV. During summer, we captured three federally endangered Virginia big-eared bats at two mine entrances, and 25 were captured at 12 mine entrances during fall. These represent the first documented captures of this species at coal mines in West Virginia. Future survey efforts conducted throughout the range of the Virginia big-eared bat should include abandoned coal mines.

  2. Hydrologic conditions in the coal mining district of Indiana and implications for reclamation of abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-12-31

    Bedrock strata of the mining district of Indiana (Indiana Coal Mining District, ICMD) include numerous coalbeds of economic importance, together with underclays, roof shales, limestones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. These are typically poor aquifers with low hydraulic conductivities and specific yields. Surficial materials include loess, till, alluvium, and other deposits of pleistocene age. The loess and till also have low hydraulic conductivities, so that very few shallow aquifers exist in the vicinities of abandoned mine land (AML) sites, except where they are close to the alluvial fill of large bedrock valleys. The hydrologic cascade at AML sites in Indiana is strongly conditioned by the existence of elevated deposits of coarse-grained coal-preparation refuse and flooded underground mine workings. Flooded mines are the principal conduits of groundwater flow in the area, but their boundaries, flowpaths, and mechanisms of recharge and discharge are very different from those of natural aquifers and are poorly understood. Acidic mine drainage often emerges as seepages and springs on the edges of the elevated refuse deposits, but the low permeability of the natural surficial materials and bedrock inhibits the development of off-site groundwater contaminant plumes. The water balance across the surface of the refuse deposits is critical to reclamation planning and success. Enhancing runoff through reduction of infiltration capacity has the beneficial effect of reducing recharge through the acid-generating refuse, but the excess runoff may be accompanied by soil erosion that can lead to reclamation failure. Furthermore, during cool seasons and stormy periods, a well vegetated surface promotes recharge through increased infiltration, resulting in greater rates of acidic baseflow seepage. Passive Anoxic Limestone Drains (PALDs) have been successfully coupled with wetland treatment systems to improve surface waters that discharge from AML sites. Storm runoff from

  3. Analysis of Extreme Danger Problems associated with abandoned coal-mine lands in southwestern Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Elbert, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 created revenues for the reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) problems. The data in this study were obtained from the National Inventory Update of Abandoned Mine Lands for the State of Indiana, completed in July 1986. The study area included the coal-producing region of Indiana, approximately 6500 square miles; specifically, those fifteen counties in Southwestern Indiana where there were Extreme Danger Problems resulting from coal mining. This study analyzed the Extreme Danger Problems associated with Abandoned Coal Mine Lands in Southwestern Indiana. Identifying the statistical relationships between the total occurrences of Extreme Danger Problems in Indiana and selected coal-mine-related variables was the first step. Multiple Regression Analysis was the statistical technique employed in this research. Thirty-seven statistically significant relationships for various sub-groups resulted. Seven of these subgroups had explained variances of greater than 80%.

  4. Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  5. Influence of liming and topsoil thickness on vegetative growth and leachate quality on acidic coal refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R.S.; Daniels, W.L.; Stewart, B.

    1998-12-31

    Coal waste materials inhibit direct vegetation establishment due to adverse physical and chemical properties, particularly low water retention and high potential acidity. The Moss No. 1 coal refuse pile is located in Dickenson County, Virginia, and was idled in the late 1980`s with little topsoil resource available for final closure. The refuse was acidic (Total-S = 0.38%; pH = 3.6), black, high (70%) in coarse fragments, and had a low water holding capacity (4.5% in <2.0 mm fraction). A small plot experiment was established on the refuse pile to evaluate the influence of liming rates (50% and 100% of lime req.) and topsoil thickness (15, 30 and 60 cm) on vegetative growth and leachate quality. Liming and topsoil amendment increased the surface soil pH from <4.0 to >6.0 over a two-year period, which resulted in greater vegetative cover and biomass than the control plots. All topsoil treatments resulted in greater vegetative cover and biomass than plots treated with lime only due to improved surface soil physical and chemical properties. A topsoil treatment of 60 cm gave the thickest vegetative cover and biomass yield. Such a treatment, however, would be cost-prohibitive at this location. Application of 27 Mg/ha of lime to the refuse surface along with 15 cm of topsoil produced acceptable two-year vegetative cover and biomass, and appeared to be the optimal treatment for this particular situation. Both liming and topsoil had no affect on leachate pH and the electrical conductivity in leachates collected below the plots. This suggests that surface revegetation will have little effect on the quality of water draining through the pile, so long term water treatment requirements may not be reduced by successfully revegetating the pile surface.

  6. Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

  7. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  8. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous §...

  10. An experimental study and theoretical modeling of fine coal/refuse filtration and dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of fine coal and coal refuse are experimentally investigated by using a laboratory scaled vacuum/air pressure filter. Filter cakes formed under different conditions are micrographically analyzed, and the pore space of the filter cakes is quantified by its equivalent pore size distribution, hydraulic pore diameter distribution and neck size distribution. Three typical Chinese coals, a Pittsburgh seam coal and a refuse sample ware used, and the effects of important operating variables on the filterabilities and the extent of dewatering of these samples are experimental determined. Since macroscopic properties of filter cakes are controlled by the microscopic pore structures, the filter cakes formed in the filtration experiments are analyzed by using a Leitz TAS-Plus image analysis system. A three dimensional simple cubic lattice network is constructed to represent the complex pore structures of filter cakes. The bonds in the network conduct fluid flow and are correlated in the macroflow direction. The sizes and shapes of the bond are determined by three pore size distributions obtained from the cake structural analysis. The equivalent pore diameter distribution determines the cross sectional areas of the bonds, the hydraulic pore diameter considers the shapes of the bonds, and the neck size distribution assigns the neck size to the bonds. Network models are developed based on percolation theory. Single phase permeabilities and dewatering curves of the filter cakes have been successfully predicted by the models. The models, which have been successfully used to predict properties of single phase and two phase flow through a filter cake, may be applied in other fields such as the flow of water through soils and the flow of oil and gas in underground reservoirs.

  11. The regeneration of waste foundry sand and residue stabilization using coal refuse.

    PubMed

    Park, Chong-Lyuck; Kim, Byoung-Gon; Yu, Youngchul

    2012-02-15

    The processes for recycling waste foundry sand are divided between regeneration and beneficial reuse, and the potential for regeneration is higher than that of reuse. In this study, two processes for the recycling and residue stabilization of waste foundry sands were considered. One is the dry mechanical process for recycling, and the other is the stabilization process for powdered residue. The dry mechanical process of regeneration consists of crushing, grinding, separation, and classification. To stabilize the residues that were generated through the regeneration process, powdered residues were pelletized by a high-shear pelletizer, and the surfaces of the pellets were subsequently coated with coal refuse powders that contained sodium silicate as a binder. Coated pellets were sintered by a self-propagating combustion method. The refractory index of the recycled sands, as measured by the Seger cone method, was over -34, and their SiO(2) contents of 94% was similar to that of green sand. The general conclusion that coal refuse and sodium silicate stabilize heavy metals better than other processes may lead to the development of a cost-effective solution for stabilizing heavy metals in residues. PMID:22197564

  12. The regeneration of waste foundry sand and residue stabilization using coal refuse.

    PubMed

    Park, Chong-Lyuck; Kim, Byoung-Gon; Yu, Youngchul

    2012-02-15

    The processes for recycling waste foundry sand are divided between regeneration and beneficial reuse, and the potential for regeneration is higher than that of reuse. In this study, two processes for the recycling and residue stabilization of waste foundry sands were considered. One is the dry mechanical process for recycling, and the other is the stabilization process for powdered residue. The dry mechanical process of regeneration consists of crushing, grinding, separation, and classification. To stabilize the residues that were generated through the regeneration process, powdered residues were pelletized by a high-shear pelletizer, and the surfaces of the pellets were subsequently coated with coal refuse powders that contained sodium silicate as a binder. Coated pellets were sintered by a self-propagating combustion method. The refractory index of the recycled sands, as measured by the Seger cone method, was over -34, and their SiO(2) contents of 94% was similar to that of green sand. The general conclusion that coal refuse and sodium silicate stabilize heavy metals better than other processes may lead to the development of a cost-effective solution for stabilizing heavy metals in residues.

  13. Coal waste disposal survey. Coal refuse-an increasingly serious problem for Colorado Plateau production. Open file report 28 Sep 81-30 Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.M.; Ostler, W.K.; McKell, C.

    1982-07-01

    This study presents information on the nature of coal refuse and disposal practices on the Colorado Plateau. Samples were collected and analyzed to provide information to help formulate alternative methods for reclaiming refuse piles. The analyses were based on determining the capability of unmodified refuse to provide a suitable medium for plant growth. Local topsoils, that would be used in reclamation, were used as standards. Potential environmental hazards were also assessed. A general cost analysis was done for both surface and underground disposal and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Several problems were identified which, if solved, would increase the effectiveness of State regulatory programs.

  14. Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. L.; Doe, C. F.; Stuart, B. J.; Stoertz, M. W.

    2002-12-01

    Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile is burning. There is an impounded pond on the southwest end of the west gob pile, which was created when the valley was filled with refuse. The water from this pond flows into and throughout the gob pile and discharges on the northeast end into Bennet Run. At an elevation close to the elevation of the pond, two seeps are discharged. Temperature, specific conductivity, and pH was monitored in these seeps and correlated to rainfall. A lack of response of water temperature to small rainfall events was observed. This behavior suggest channeling of water inside the pile from the source pond to the main seep, and probably evaporation effects. In comparison, during high rainfall events, transfer of heat from the burning spots to the infiltrating water occurred and an increase in seep temperature was observed. A decrease in conductivity and an increase in pH was observed during the studied period as a dilution effect produced by an increased water storage within the pond and pile. Diurnal effects were stronger in the smaller seep, probably due to lower water velocities and greater residence time at the air-pile interface. From the location of the burning spots and seeps, a water velocity of 1 to 5 feet/s (0.3 to 1.7 m/s) was estimated. The pile can be viewed as a dual-porosity system of continuous conduits and matrix porosity. Only flow with sufficient head can penetrate and transfer heat from the hot areas in the matrix.

  15. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-06-15

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  16. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wagland, S T; Kilgallon, P; Coveney, R; Garg, A; Smith, R; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N

    2011-06-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidized bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal+10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal+10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel. PMID:21288710

  17. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  18. Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, D.J.; Irnhof, M.G.; Feddock, J.E.; Gresham, T.

    2007-09-15

    Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data. Detecting the void, however, was not good enough to replace drilling entirely. We conclude that in-seam seismic methods can be used for detection; but if a potential void is detected, focused drilling should be applied for accurate mapping and to circumvent potentially hazardous areas.

  19. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  20. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    A U.S. Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining.

  1. Early Herrin coal-swamp vegetation: Inferences from miospore floras in an abandoned paleochannel

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, D.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A small paleochannel abandoned shortly prior to accumulation of peat to form the Herrin Coal was mapped and sampled in central Illinois. Spore floras from underclays and from incremental coal samples collected within and around the paleochannel were quantified to assess vegetational responses to topographic changes. In the paleochannel, underclay floras are diverse and dominated by miospores of cordaites, with miospores of tree ferns, small ferns, and sphenopsids common. In contrast, underclays outside the paleochannel are dominated strongly by lycopod miospores. The earliest coal in the paleochannel is dominated by tree-fern miospores with subdominant cordaites; subsequent increments exhibit alternating dominance of tree-fern and lycopod miospores. Outside the paleochannel, all increments of coal are dominated by tree-fern or lycopod miospores. Underclay miospore floras indicate that a more diverse, cordaitean-rich assemblage grew along the paleochannel flanks prior to peat accumulation, rather than the lycopod-dominated flora found elsewhere. Unlike the surrounding swamp, the earliest coal in the paleochannel has an unusual miospore assemblage for the Herrin Coal. Miospore and coal compaction data both indicate that peat accumulation began in the paleochannel before extending across a broader area. These differences in miospore composition and abundance suggest that changes in topography and water-table level exerted strong control on vegetational composition of the coal swamp. This unusual exposure provides evidence that edaphic factors related to topography influenced vegetational composition in both clastic and peat-accumulating swamps.

  2. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse.

  3. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow at the Green Valley reclaimed coal refuse site near Terre Haute, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Arihood, Leslie D.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Valley reclaimed coal refuse site, near Terre Haute, Ind., was mined for coal from 1948 to 1963. Subsurface coal was cleaned and sorted at land surface, and waste material was deposited over the native glacial till. Approximately 2.7 million cubic yards of waste was deposited over 159 acres (92.3 hectares) in tailings ponds and gob piles. During 1993, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, improved the site by grading gob piles, filling tailings ponds, and covering the refuse with a layer of glacial drift. During 2008, the Division of Reclamation and U.S. Geological Survey initiated a cooperative investigation to characterize the hydrogeology of the site and construct a calibrated groundwater flow model that could be used to simulate the results of future remedial actions. In support of the modeling, a data-collection network was installed at the Green Valley site to measure weather components, geophysical properties, groundwater levels, and stream and seep flow. Results of the investigation indicate that (1) there is negligible overland flow from the site, (2) the prevailing groundwater-flow direction is from northeast to southwest, with a much smaller drainage to the northeast, (3) there is not a direct hydraulic connection between the refuse and West Little Sugar Creek, (4) about 24 percent of the groundwater recharge emerges through seeps, and water from the seeps evaporates or eventually flows to West Little Sugar Creek and the Green Valley Mine Pond, and (5) about 72 percent of groundwater recharge moves vertically downward from the coal refuse into the till and follows long, slow flow paths to eventual dischage points.

  4. Application Of Immobilized Sulfate Reducing Bacteria For Permeable Reactive Barriers In Abandoned Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Hur, W.; Choi, S.; Min, K.; Baek, H.

    2006-05-01

    The decline of the Korean coal industry has been drastic in production and consumption. This has been resulted mainly from the environmental concern and the collapse of commercial viability, which has eventually necessitated the government to implement the coal industry rationalization policies to reduce coal production and close down uneconomical mines. The overall drainage rates from abandoned coal mines reaches up to 80,000 ton/day. As a measure of controlling the acid mine drainage from abandoned coal mines, reactive materials in the pathways of drainage, designed to intercept and to transform the contaminants into environmentally acceptable forms can be applied at mines with small drainage rates. The main objective of this study is to design a permeable reactive barrier(PRB) to treat low flow and/or low contaminant loads of acid mine drainage. The PRB is comprised of immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria in hard beads and limestone to remove heavy metals and to raise the pH of AMD. A laboratory reactor was used to prepare a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria. The microbes were separated and mixed with biodegradable matrix to form spherical beads. In order to maintain the viability of micro-organisms for a prolonged period, substrates such as saw dust, polysaccharide or glycerol was supplemented for the beads preparation. The strength of beads fortified by powered limestone to control the permeability of PRB. Different mixtures of limestone and the immobilized beads were tested to determine hydraulic conductivity and AMD treatment capacities. The characteristics of the spherical beads at various pH of AMD was investigated.

  5. Acetogens and Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales Govern Methane Formation in Abandoned Coal Mines▿

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Sabrina; Lueders, Tillmann; Krüger, Martin; von Netzer, Frederick; Engelen, Bert; Cypionka, Heribert

    2011-01-01

    In abandoned coal mines, methanogenic archaea are responsible for the production of substantial amounts of methane. The present study aimed to directly unravel the active methanogens mediating methane release as well as active bacteria potentially involved in the trophic network. Therefore, the stable-isotope-labeled precursors of methane, [13C]acetate and H2-13CO2, were fed to liquid cultures from hard coal and mine timber from a coal mine in Germany. Guided by methane production rates, samples for DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP) with subsequent quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic (DGGE) analyses were taken over 6 months. Surprisingly, the formation of [13C]methane was linked to acetoclastic methanogenesis in both the [13C]acetate- and the H2-13CO2-amended cultures of coal and timber. H2-13CO2 was used mainly by acetogens related to Pelobacter acetylenicus and Clostridium species. Active methanogens, closely affiliated with Methanosarcina barkeri, utilized the readily available acetate rather than the thermodynamically more favorable hydrogen. Thus, the methanogenic microbial community appears to be highly adapted to the low-H2 conditions found in coal mines. PMID:21460109

  6. An assessment of the long-term environmental impacts of reusing alkaline clay on coal refuse piles with a dynamic solute transport model at a watershed scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Liang, X.; Davis, T. W.; Patterson, J.; Jaw, F. K.; Koranchie-Boah, P.

    2011-12-01

    Coal refuse piles play a significant role in producing acid mining drainage (AMD) that deteriorates water quality at a watershed scale. The waste produced from coal refuse piles results in a decrease of the pH value in soil water and river flow. Metal compounds, such as ferric and ferrous solutions, are also continuously released from the coal pile due to the extensive and complicated chemical reactions in the acidic environment. Alkaline clay, a byproduct of alumina refining process, has a high residual pH in the material. If the alkaline clay is used innovatively with the coal mine refuse, the problems associated with each (e.g., high and low pH values) are likely to be effectively resolved. In addition, the solubility of the sulfur and iron will be reduced significantly. This will effectively eliminate the AMD problem at the coal refuse pile and improve the water quality at the watershed scale. This study investigates the long-term impacts of the combined mixture (i.e., alkaline clay + coal refuse) on the environment (e.g., in the soil column and in the river system) through systematic modeling simulations in a combination with field measurements. In particular, a dynamic solute transport model that accounts for processes of the pyrite oxidation, oxygen diffusion, absorption, desorption, and advection is developed and is coupled with the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to assess the environmental impacts at the watershed scale. The model-simulated sulfur and iron concentrations are compared with field observations and the long-term impacts of the combined mixture (i.e., alkaline clay + coal refuse) on the environment are investigated. This study paves the way for monitoring and assessing the impacts of the reuse of the alkaline clay and refuse mixture on the environment at a watershed scale.

  7. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  8. Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A.

    2009-07-01

    Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Semi-annual report, November 1981-April 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Bayles, G.; Gala, H.; Kakwani, R.; Pien, H.L.; Rega, R.; Yetis, U.

    1982-05-01

    The objectives of this research program are to formulate models for predicting the efficiency of mechanical dewatering, the rate of dewatering and the residual moisture content of dewatered coal/refuse and to suggest improved mechanical dewatering methods. To achieve these objectives, the following tasks are being carried out: (1) characterization of fine coal particles and filter cakes; (2) theoretical models for fine coal dewatering, (3) experimental measurement of dewatering; and (4) enhanced dewatering methods. Some highlights for this reporting period are: (1) important improvements in the micrographic analysis of coal filter cakes were achieved, (2) refinement of the model to predict the one-phase flow rate and permeability for the coal cake was initiated; (3) controlled filtration and dewatering experiments were carried out with different size fractions of the -32 mesh Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton mine coal; (4) filtration and dewatering experiments with five surfactants were completed; and (5) data analysis shows a strong correlation for the adsorption isotherm of all five surfactants with the reduction in moisture content. 6 references, 31 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  11. The siting of a prison complex above an abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the State of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. The original plan for construction consisted of one phase. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. One masonry building, however, was located within the potential draw zone of mine works which still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was accordingly designed to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase two prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the Phase I complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. The first stage of design was to minimize subsidence potential by positioning the exposure of significant structures to the subjacent mining assuming the mine map was sufficiently accurate. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was then undertaken to: (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future; and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical data base of subsidence events in the Illinois Coal Basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations.

  12. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Annual report, August 1982-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.J.; Tierney, J.W.; Adams, J.; Bhat, N.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Kakwani, R.; Qamar, I.

    1983-09-01

    The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal with experiments also being conducted with Upper Freeport and Illinois No. 6 coals. During the past year, filter cakes from the above coals with widely varied size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. A module of the network model for calculating single phase permeabilities was completed and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for the 1983-84; detailed descriptions of technical progress for particle/filter cake characterization; theoretical modeling, and enhanced dewatering methods; and appendices. 11 references, 35 figures, 11 tables.

  13. Successive development of soil ecosystems at abandoned coal-ash landfills.

    PubMed

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Yu, Jun; Rakhmonkulova, Shakhnoza; Kodirov, Obidjon; Barness, Gineta; Kersten, Michael; Steinberger, Yosef

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the present study was to determine the effect of the native vegetation on the successive development of the soil ecosystem at abandoned coal-ash landfills of the Angren coal-fired power plant in Uzbekistan. Two different landfills (one not in use for 3 years, termed newer, and the other not in use for 10 years, termed older) with different degrees of vegetation cover were chosen to assess the time and vegetation effects on soil biota and habitat development. The soil biotic structure, including soil microorganisms and soil free-living nematode communities, was investigated both at open plots and under different native plants at the coal-ash landfill area. The observed soil microorganisms were found to be the most important component of the observed ecosystems. Total abundance, biomass, species, trophic and sexual diversity of soil free-living nematodes, along with fungi and organic-matter content, were found to be correlated with trace metals. The nematode trophic and species abundance and diversity increased from the newer toward the older coal-ash landfills. The sex ratio of the nematode communities was found to be dependent on the environmental conditions of the study area, with the males being the most sensitive nematode group. All applied ecological indices confirmed that open landfill plots distant from plants are the most unfavorable areas for soil biota. In that respect, the native plants Alhagi maurorum Desv. and Tamarix sp. were found to be important environmental components for the natural remediation of a soil ecosystem in the coal-ash landfill area. PMID:24676936

  14. Hydrology of an abandoned coal-mining area near McCurtain, Haskell County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality was investigated from October 1980 to May 1983 in an area of abandoned coal mines in Haskell county, Oklahoma. Bedrock in the area is shale, siltstone, sandstone, and the McAlester (Stigler) and Hartshorne coals of the McAlester Formation and Hartshorne Sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. The two coal beds, upper and lower Hartshorne, associated with the Hartshorne Sandstone converge or are separated by a few feet or less of bony coal or shale in the McCurtain area. Many small faults cut the Hartshorne coal in all the McCurtain-area mines. The main avenues of water entry to and movement through the bedrock are the exposed bedding-plane openings between layers of sandstone, partings between laminae of shale, fractures and joints developed during folding and faulting laminae of shale, fractures and joints developed during folding and faulting of the brittle rocks, and openings caused by surface mining--the overburden being shattered and broken to form spoil. Water-table conditions exist in bedrock and spoil in the area. Mine pond water is in direct hydraulic connections with water in the spoil piles and the underlying Hartshorne Sandstone. Sulfate is the best indicator of the presence of coal-mine drainage in both surface and ground water in the Oklahoma coal field. Median sulfate concentrations for four sites on Mule Creek ranged from 26 to 260 milligrams per liter. Median sulfate concentrations increased with increased drainage from unreclaimed mined areas. The median sulfate concentration in Mule Creek where it drains the reclaimed area is less than one-third of that at the next site downstream where the stream begins to drain abandoned (unreclaimed) mine lands. Water from Mule Creek predominantly is a sodium sulfate type. Maximum and median values for specific conductance and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, chloride, dissolved solids, and alkalinity increase as Mule Creek flows downstream and drains increasing areas of abandoned

  15. The contextual influence of coal abandoned mine lands in communities and type 2 diabetes in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann Y; Curriero, Frank C; Glass, Thomas A; Stewart, Walter F; Schwartz, Brian S

    2013-07-01

    Coal abandoned mine lands (AMLs), persistent and prevalent across Pennsylvania, offer an instructive evaluation of potential contextual influences of chronic environmental contamination (CEC) on individual health. We evaluated associations between the burden of AMLs, represented by 10 contextual metrics at the community level, and individual-level type 2 diabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a biomarker. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted with over 28,000 diabetic primary care patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Adjusted models revealed five AML burden measures were associated (p<0.05), and three additional were borderline associated (0.05≤p≤0.10), with higher and/or change in HbA1c levels. This study provides key empirical evidence of adverse impacts of CEC in communities on an important chronic disease, illustrating the contextual effects of living in long-term degraded landscapes and communities.

  16. Application of multispectral scanner data to the study of an abandoned surface coal mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The utility of aircraft multispectral scanner data for describing the land cover features of an abandoned contour-mined coal mine is considered. The data were obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner at an altitude of 1.2 kilometers. Supervised, maximum-likelihood statistical classifications of the data were made to establish land-cover classes and also to describe in more detail the barren surface features as they may pertain to the reclamation or restoration of the area. The scanner data for the surface-water areas were studied to establish the variability and range of the spectral signatures. Both day and night thermal images of the area are presented. The results of the study show that a high degree of statistical separation can be obtained from the multispectral scanner data for the various land-cover features.

  17. An injection technique for in-situ remediation of abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    Remediation of underground mines can prove to be a difficult task, given the physical constraints associated with introducing amendments to a subterranean environment. An acid mine abatement project involving in-situ chemical treatment method was conducted by the University of Oklahoma. The treatment method involved the injection of an alkaline coal combustion by-product (CCB) slurry into a flooded mine void (pH 4.4) to create a buffered zone. Injection of the CCB slurry was possible through the use of equipment developed by the petroleum industry for grouting recovery wells. This technology was selected because the CCB slurry could be injected under significant pressure and at a high rate. With higher pressure and rates of injection, a large quantity of slurry can be introduced into the mine within a limited amount of time. Theoretically, the high pressure and rate would improve dispersal of the slurry within the void. In addition, the high pressure is advantageous in fracturing or breaking-down obstructions to injection. During the injection process, a total of 418 tons of CCB was introduced within 15 hours. The mine did not refuse any of the material, and it is likely that a much larger mass could have been added. One injection well was drilled into a pillar of coal. Normally this would pose a problem when introducing a slurry; however, the coal pillar was easily fractured during the injection process. Currently, the pH of the mine discharge is above 6.5 and the alkalinity is approximately 100 mg/L as CACO{sub 3}.

  18. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with CaSO{sub 3}-based flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.

    1998-12-31

    Oxidation of pyrite in coal refuse produces acid which caused environmental degradation. Some flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products contain calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) which is a strong reductant. Calcium sulfite competes with pyrite for oxygen resulting in inhibition of pyrite oxidation. In addition fly ash, CaCO{sub 3} and CaSO{sub 3} in FGD can neutralize acidity. Coal refuse, amended with FGD or its components, was packed into columns (2.5 x 13 cm) and leached weekly with water for 13 weeks. The pH, titratable acidity, and concentrations of Al, As, B, Ca, Fe, Pb, S, Se, were determined. The FGD containing CaSO{sub 2} inhibited acid production in coal refuse. The final leachate for FGD treatment had a pH of 5.3 and 20 mM of acidity (hydrogen ion) as compared to a pH of 1.7 and acidity of 480 mM for the control. Compared to the control, the FGD treatment yielded loser concentrations of all elements except for B and Ca. There was an interaction between all the components in the FGD and an indication that alterations of the ratio of components in FGD may significantly improve their inhibitory effect on acid production in coal refuse.

  19. Study of organic compounds evolved during the co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel using TG/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Puroshothama, Shobha; Lu, R.; Yang, Xiaodong

    1996-10-01

    The evolution of organic compounds during the combustion of carbonaceous fuel coupled with solid waste disposal and limited landfill space has been a cause for concern. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuel seems an attractive alternative technique to tackle the dual problem of controlling SO{sub x} emissions as well as those of the chlorinated organic toxins. The TG serves to emulate the conditions of the fluidized bed combustor and the MS serves as the detector for evolved gases. This versatile combination is used to study the decomposition pathway as well as predict the conditions at which various compounds are formed and may serve as a means of reducing the formation of these chlorinated organic compounds.

  20. Independent steam-electric power plants in the Anthracite region, NE Pennsylvania: Site geology, coal-refuse bank utilization, and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Inners, J.D.; Edmunds, W.E.; Laregina, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 created economic incentives that resulted in the proliferation of small independent, coal-refuse burning, steam-electric stations in Pennsylvania during the 1980`s and 1990`s. Eight such plants, ranging from 18 to 83 MW in net power output, have been operating for several years within the Anthracite region of northeastern Pennsylvania, and a ninth (having a net output of 108 MW) has recently come on line in the Lehigh Valley just to the south. All of these plants utilize circulating fluidized-bed combustion boilers in which finely crushed limestone is burned along with pulverized coal-refuse fuel. Seven are cogeneration plants that sell process steam commercially. Heat value of the pulverized coal-refuse used in the boilers ranges from 2,810 to 7,000 BTU/lb; higher values indicate washing of the fuel to remove some non-combustible material. Past episodes of bank-processing for fine coal, in addition to historic changes in coal-preparation and mining methods, give the refuse banks a complex stratigraphy in which beds vary greatly in thickness and quality. Detailed sampling and study of historic air photos are necessary to evaluate the economic potential of each individual bank. Environmental benefits of the Anthracite region`s independent power plants include: (1) removal of many black, barren piles of colliery refuse which contribute to acid-pollution and siltation of streams and (2) reclamation of strip-mined lands through disposal, compaction and grading of the alkaline ash generated by the fluidized-bed boilers.

  1. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events.

  2. Statistical evaluation of hydrologic conditions in the vicinity of abandoned underground coal mines around Cannelburg, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical analysis of daily water-level changes in an abandoned coal mine indicates that precipitation affects the potentiometric level of the mine, independent of associated atmospheric pressure changes and changes in the water level of an overlying aquifer. The independent statistical effect of precipitation (0.99 cm of water-level change per centimeter of rainfall) is interpreted to reflect either lateral percolation from the coalbed's subcrop (1.2 km from the mine) or rapid recharge through mine-associated pathways, such as poorly plugged shafts, boreholes, or subsidence fractures. The relationship between water-level changes in the mine's voids and changes in the overlying aquifer is also statistically significant, but the regression coefficient (0.04) is an order of magnitude smaller than that for precipitation, indicating that vertical percolation (which is represented by covariance of the two aquifers) through undisturbed overburden may be less effective than the recharge associated with precipitation that bypasses the overburden. An equivalent analysis of water-level changes in an underlying unmined coalbed indicated that precipitation had a weaker direct effect (regression coefficient of 0.34, compared with 0.99), although it was still the dominant independent variable. In contrast, the effect of water-level changes in an overlying aquifer (the flooded mine itself) was relatively stronger (regression coefficient of 0.15, compared with 0.04), indicating that vertical percolation through interburden is more important at depth. ?? 1993.

  3. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  4. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  5. Field inoculation rates of mycorrhizal fungi in revegetation of abandoned coal mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Noyd, R.K.; Pfleger, F.L.

    1996-12-31

    Abandoned coal mine land (AML) sites in southern Illinois and western North Dakota contain areas that are difficult to revegetate due to low fertility (1-3 mg kg-1 N and P), little organic matter, and acidic (3-4, Illinois) or alkaline ({approximately}8, North Dakota) pH. Areas such as these may benefit from inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to assist in the establishment of vegetative cover. Potential sources of adapted mycorrhizal inoculum were found in reclaimed overburden sites with large AM fungal spore densities (100 and 33 spores g{sup -1} Illinois and North Dakota, respectively). Soils from these locations were used to determine an infective inoculation rate by a mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) bioassy. Inoculum, consisting of rhizosphere soil and dried roots, was mixed into overburden in proportions of 0, 1, 2.5, 25, 50 and 100% (w/w), placed into containers, and sown with a single 12-day old seedling of Andropogon gerardii Vitm. (big bluestem), a native prairie species known to respond favorably to AM fungi. After 14 days, shoots were dried and weighed and the root system was collected, cleared, stained, and assessed for percent root length colonized by AM fungi. An inoculum proportion of 1% in Illinois and 2.5% in North Dakota overburden produced moderate (16%) root colonization. These inoculum proportions were selected for rates of field inoculation because they were the lowest proportions that were both infective and effective in increasing shoot biomass of A. gerardii. In both soils, this level of root colonization was about one-third of the maximum colonization (50%) obtained with 25, 50, and 100% proportions of inoculum. Using adapted AM fungi and A. gerardii, MIP bioassays can be used to determine a field inoculation rate that has the potential to establish populations of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi and enhance chances of successful revegetation.

  6. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 5, [October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-30

    Studies involving the tubular furnace are in the process of identifying the ideal experimental coal-to-refuse derived fuel(RDF) ratio for use in the AFBC system. A series of experiments with this furnace has been performed to determine the possible chemical pathway for formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of various RDF sources. Phenol and chlorine appear to be likely reactants necessary for the formation of these compounds. The main goal of these experiment is to determine the exact experimental conditions for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds, as well as methods to inhibit their development. Work on the fluidized bed combustor has involved five combustion runs, in which a combustion efficiency of greater than 96% and with a consistent CO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 13% was obtained. Modifications responsible for these improvements include the addition of the underbed fuel feed system and revision of the flue gas sampling system. New methods of determining combustion efficiency and percentage of SO{sub 2} capture using TG techniques to analyze combustion products are being developed. The current outlook using this TGA/FTIR method is very promising, since previously obscured reactions are being studied. the analysis of combustion products is revealing a more complete picture of the combustion process within the AFBC system.

  7. Abandoned coal mine drainage and its remediation: impacts on stream ecosystem structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; McTammany, Matthew E; Newbold, J Denis; Rier, Steven T; Sweeney, Bernard W; Battle, Juliann M

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streams and responses to remediation efforts were studied using three streams (AMD-impacted, remediated, reference) in both the anthracite and the bituminous coal mining regions of Pennsylvania (USA). Response variables included ecosystem function as well as water chemistry and macroinvertebrate community composition. The bituminous AMD stream was extremely acidic with high dissolved metals concentrations, a prolific mid-summer growth of the filamentous alga, Mougeotia, and > 10-fold more chlorophyll than the reference stream. The anthracite AMD stream had a higher pH, substrata coated with iron hydroxide(s), and negligible chlorophyll. Macroinvertebrate communities in the AMD streams were different from the reference streams, the remediated streams, and each other. Relative to the reference stream, the AMD stream(s) had (1) greater gross primary productivity (GPP) in the bituminous region and undetectable GPP in the anthracite region, (2) greater ecosystem respiration in both regions, (3) greatly reduced ammonium uptake and nitrification in both regions, (4) lower nitrate uptake in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, (5) more rapid phosphorus removal from the water column in both regions, (6) activities of phosphorus-acquiring, nitrogen-acquiring, and hydrolytic-carbon-acquiring enzymes that indicated extreme phosphorus limitation in both regions, and (7) slower oak and maple leaf decomposition in the bituminous region and slower oak decomposition in the anthracite region. Remediation brought chlorophyll concentrations and GPP nearer to values for respective reference streams, depressed ecosystem respiration, restored ammonium uptake, and partially restored nitrification in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, reduced nitrate uptake to an undetectable level, restored phosphorus uptake to near normal rates, and brought enzyme activities more in line with the reference stream in the bituminous

  8. Abandoned coal mine drainage and its remediation: impacts on stream ecosystem structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; McTammany, Matthew E; Newbold, J Denis; Rier, Steven T; Sweeney, Bernard W; Battle, Juliann M

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streams and responses to remediation efforts were studied using three streams (AMD-impacted, remediated, reference) in both the anthracite and the bituminous coal mining regions of Pennsylvania (USA). Response variables included ecosystem function as well as water chemistry and macroinvertebrate community composition. The bituminous AMD stream was extremely acidic with high dissolved metals concentrations, a prolific mid-summer growth of the filamentous alga, Mougeotia, and > 10-fold more chlorophyll than the reference stream. The anthracite AMD stream had a higher pH, substrata coated with iron hydroxide(s), and negligible chlorophyll. Macroinvertebrate communities in the AMD streams were different from the reference streams, the remediated streams, and each other. Relative to the reference stream, the AMD stream(s) had (1) greater gross primary productivity (GPP) in the bituminous region and undetectable GPP in the anthracite region, (2) greater ecosystem respiration in both regions, (3) greatly reduced ammonium uptake and nitrification in both regions, (4) lower nitrate uptake in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, (5) more rapid phosphorus removal from the water column in both regions, (6) activities of phosphorus-acquiring, nitrogen-acquiring, and hydrolytic-carbon-acquiring enzymes that indicated extreme phosphorus limitation in both regions, and (7) slower oak and maple leaf decomposition in the bituminous region and slower oak decomposition in the anthracite region. Remediation brought chlorophyll concentrations and GPP nearer to values for respective reference streams, depressed ecosystem respiration, restored ammonium uptake, and partially restored nitrification in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, reduced nitrate uptake to an undetectable level, restored phosphorus uptake to near normal rates, and brought enzyme activities more in line with the reference stream in the bituminous

  9. Hydrology and water chemistry of an abandoned surface coal mine, southwestern Henry County, Missouri-1984-86. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Surface coal mining in the area around Montrose, Missouri, has supplied fuel for the Montrose Power Plant since 1956 (Kansas City Power and Light, written commun., 1954). Major reclamation of surface mines began about 1972, but by 1987 most of the mined lands northwest of Montrose remained unreclaimed. The mined area contained more than 1,200 acres of barren spoil, 100 lakes, and several streams, many of which are acidic. The purpose of the report is to present the results of a hydrologic and water-quality study made in west-central Missouri at an abandoned surface coal mine from June 1984 to September 1986. Objectives of the study included quantifying the volume of water in, on, and moving through the spoil and determining the chemical characteristics of and major chemical reactions occurring in water affected by the mine.

  10. Water Quality and Geochemical Modeling of Water at an Abandoned Coal Mine Reclaimed With Coal Combustion By-Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    An abandoned coal mine in eastern Ohio was reclaimed with 125 tons per acre of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) by-product. Water quality at the site (known as the Fleming site) was monitored for 7 years after reclamation; samples included water from soil-suction lysimeters (interstitial water), wells, and spring sites established downgradient of the application area. This report presents a summary of data collected at the Fleming site during the period September 1994 through June 2001. Additionally, results of geochemical modeling are included in this report to evaluate the potential fate of elements derived from the PFBC by-product. Chemical analyses of samples of interstitial waters within the PFBC by-product application area indicated elevated levels of pH and specific conductance and elevated concentrations of boron, calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, strontium, and sulfate compared to water samples collected in a control area where traditional reclamation methods were used. Magnesium-to-calcium (Mg:Ca) mole ratios and sulfur-isotope ratios were used to trace the PFBC by-product leachate and showed that little, if any, leachate reached ground water. Concentrations of most constituents in interstitial waters in the application-area decreased during the seven sampling rounds and approached background concentrations observed in the control area; however, median pH in the application area remained above 6, indicating that some acid-neutralizing capacity was still present. Although notable changes in water quality were observed in interstitial waters during the study period, quality of ground water and spring water remained poor. Water from the Fleming site was not potable, given exceedances of primary and secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for inorganic constituents in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Only fluoride and sulfate, which were found in higher concentrations in application

  11. Fires in Operating or Abandoned Coal Mines or Heaps of Reactive Materials and the Governing Transport and Reaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Wessling, S.; Han, J.

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion is a world wide problem for technical operations in mining, waste disposal and power plant facilities. The principle driving the combustion is every where the same independent of the different reactive materials: Fresh air with the common oxygen content is getting in contact with the reactive material by human operations. The following reaction process produces heat at a usually low but constant rate. The reactive material in operating or abandoned coal mines, heaps of coal, waste or reactive minerals is most times strongly broken or fractured, such that the atmospheric oxygen can deeply penetrate into the porous or fractured media. Because the strongly broken or fractured medium with air filled pores and fractures is often combined with a low thermal conductivity of the bulk material the produced heat accumulates and the temperature increases with time. If the reactivity strongly increases with temperature, the temperature rise accelerates up to the "combustion temperature". Once the temperature is high enough the combustion process is determined by the oxygen transport to the combustion center rather than the chemical reactivity. Spontaneous combustion is thus a self- amplifying process where an initial small variation in the parameters and the starting conditions can create exploding combustion hot spots in an apparently homogenous material. The phenomenon will be discussed by various examples in the context of the German - Sino coal fire project. A temperature monitoring in hot fracture systems documents the strong influence of the weather conditions on the combustion process. Numerical calculations show the sensitivity of the combustion to the model geometries, the boundary conditions and mainly the permeability. The most used fire fighting operations like covering and water injection are discussed. A new method of using saltwater for fire fighting is presented and discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wessling, S., Li, X., and Wuttke, M

  12. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  13. Population differentiation in Andropogon virginicus L. between abandoned coal strip mine spoil and old field habitats in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of Andropogon virginicus L. from abandoned coal mine spoils and old fields in southeastern Ohio were studied to determine whether ecotypic differentiation had occurred. Three mine spoil and three old field populations were paired for reciprocal transplant studies. A uniform garden was also established. Mine spoil and old field populations were compared for differences in demographic patterns, vegetative growth and phenology, reproductive output, and physiology. There were a greater number of seedlings and smaller individuals in the mine spoils, but seed production was similar between habitats. Seeds disperse farther in mine spoils and there was no or very little seedling establishment in 8 to 35 year old fields. Plants attained greater height in mine spoils. Population differentiation between one of the mine sites and one of the old fields was evident for seed weight, numbers of seeds per plant, and plant biomass. The three old field populations also differed from each other in reproductive characteristics. Mine spoil plants contained significantly more nitrogen within seeds despite the fact that mine soils had only half the available nitrogen as old field soils. Old field plants had a higher magnesium content in leaves. Chlorophyll content of leaves was higher for plants in old fields than for plants in mines. Undisturbed plants from both habitats had significantly higher photosynthetic rates than transplants. Old field plants had significantly greater photosynthetic rates than mine plants when grown in the uniform garden even though transpiration rates were similar. Differentiation between some coal mine spoil and old field populations of A. virginicus was evident for height growth, seed weight, photosynthesis, seed nitrogen content, magnesium content, and seed germination. Local population differentiation in plant height, seed weight, and in the timing of plant maturation was also observed.

  14. Using tracers to understand the hydrology of an abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    Flooded underground mines pose a difficult problem for remediation efforts requiring hydrologic information. Mine environments are hydraulically complicated due to sinuous travel paths and variable hydraulic gradients. For an acidic mine remediation project, conducted by the University of Oklahoma in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a tracer study was undertaken to identify basic hydrologic properties of a flooded coal mine. The study was conducted to investigate the possibility of in-situ remediation of acidic mine water with the use of alkaline coal combustion by-products. Information on the rate of flow and ``connectiveness`` of injection wells with the discharge point was needed to develop a treatment strategy. Fluorescent dyes are not typically used in mine tracer studies because of the low pH values associated with certain mines and a tendency to adsorb ferric iron precipitates. However, Rhodamine WT was used in one tracer test because it can be detected at low concentrations. Due to poor recovery, a second tracer test was undertaken using a more conservative tracer-chloride. Each tracer produced similar travel time results. Findings from this study suggest that Rhodamine WT can be used under slightly acidic conditions, with mixed results. The more conservative tracer provided somewhat better results, but recovery was still poor. Use of these tracers has provided some valuable information with regard to mine hydrology, but additional questions have been raised.

  15. Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-03-01

    Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

  16. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  17. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  18. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Complete hydrochemical data are rarely reported for coal-mine discharges (CMD). This report summarizes major and trace-element concentrations and loadings for CMD at 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania. Clean-sampling and low-level analytical methods were used in 1999 to collect data that could be useful to determine potential environmental effects, remediation strategies, and quantities of valuable constituents. A subset of 10 sites was resampled in 2003 to analyze both the CMD and associated ochreous precipitates; the hydrochemical data were similar in 2003 and 1999. In 1999, the flow at the 140 CMD sites ranged from 0.028 to 2210 L s-1, with a median of 18.4 L s-1. The pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3; concentrations (range in mg/L) of dissolved (0.45-??m pore-size filter) SO4 (34-2000), Fe (0.046-512), Mn (0.019-74), and Al (0.007-108) varied widely. Predominant metalloid elements were Si (2.7-31.3 mg L-1), B ( C > P = N = Se) were not elevated in the CMD samples compared to average river water or seawater. Compared to seawater, the CMD samples also were poor in halogens (Cl > Br > I > F), alkalies (Na > K > Li > Rb > Cs), most alkaline earths (Ca > Mg > Sr), and most metalloids but were enriched by two to four orders of magnitude with Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Be, Sc, Y and the lanthanide rare-earth elements, and one order of magnitude with Ni and Zn. The ochre samples collected at a subset of 10 sites in 2003 were dominantly goethite with minor ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite. None of the samples for this subset contained schwertmannite or was Al rich, but most contained minor aluminosilicate detritus. Compared to concentrations in global average shale, the ochres were rich in Fe, Ag, As and Au, but were poor in most other metals and rare earths. The ochres were not enriched compared to commercial ore deposits mined for Au or other valuable metals. Although similar to commercial Fe ores in composition, the ochres are dispersed and

  19. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Progress report No. 3, [April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-05-31

    The Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCl, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. The combination of TG-FTIR and TG-MS offers complementary techniques for the detection and identification of combustion products from coals PVC, cellulose, shredded newspaper, and various blends of these materials. The pilot atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University has been tested. The main purpose of these preliminary AFBC runs were to determine the compatibility of coal and pelletized wood in blends and to explore the effects of flue/air ratio. Our objective is to conduct AFBC burns with 90 percent sulfur capture and more then 96% combustion efficiency.

  20. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

  1. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by...

  2. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person...

  3. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety...

  6. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 2: Geochemical controls on constituent concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania reveal complex relations among the pH and dissolved solute concentrations that can be explained with geochemical equilibrium models. Observed values of pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 in the coal-mine discharges (CMD). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH CMD samples; pH typically increased with flow rate. Although the frequency distribution of pH was similar for the anthracite and bituminous discharges, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates; greater concentrations of SO4, Fe, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Sr; comparable concentrations of Mn, Cd, Zn and Se; and smaller concentrations of Ba and Pb than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by near-neutral or alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba and Sr by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous SO4-complexation and surface-complexation (adsorption) reactions. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO42 + complexes adds to the total dissolved Al concentration at equilibrium with Al(OH)3 and/or Al hydroxysulfate phases and can account for 10-20 times greater concentrations of dissolved Al in SO4-laden bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at pH of 5. Sulfate complexation can also account for 10-30 times greater concentrations of dissolved FeIII concentrations at equilibrium with Fe(OH)3 and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3-5. In contrast, lower Ba concentrations in bituminous discharges indicate that elevated SO4 concentrations in these CMD sources could limit Ba concentrations by the precipitation of barite (BaSO4). Coprecipitation of Sr with barite could limit concentrations of this element. However, concentrations of dissolved Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn

  7. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y. L.; Dick, W. A.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This

  8. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.; Yu, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. The fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.

  9. Abandoned mine lands: a mid-course review of the national reclamation program for coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    The Committee on Abandoned Mine Lands (CAML) analyzed how the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI) Office of Surface Mining (OSM) has and is administering the Title IV (Abandoned Mine Lands) Program of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. In the course of focusing on the effectiveness of the program, the Committee evaluated the program not only in terms of its probable accomplishments over its fifteen-year life, between 1977 and 1992, when the program statutorily ends, but also the magnitude and nature of the AML problems remaining to be remedied in the post-1992 period, if Congress decides to extend it. The Committee made nineteen recommendations about how OSM could improve the AML program's current effectiveness as well as prepare to assist Congress in reaching a decision to terminate or extend the program. Over the fifteen-year life of the program, some $3.3 billion will have been spent.

  10. Prep plants adopt paste thickener for refuse disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B.; Johnson, J.; Slottee, S.

    2007-05-15

    Coal is the latest industry to apply paste thickener technology - it can improve the economics of coal refuse (tailings) handling. Pinn Oak's Pinnacle coal preparation plant was one of the first, using paste thickener to reclaim fine coal values from existing retention ponds and to process them to extract previously wasted coal values. Another paste thickener is to be used at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain plant in Virginia. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Sinkhole-type subsidence over abandoned coal mines in St. David, Illinois. Mine subsidence report, St. David, Illinois. A field survey and analysis of mine subsidence of abandoned coal mines in St. David, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Wildanger, E.G.; Mahar, J.; Nieto, A.

    1980-01-01

    This study examined the geologic data, mining history, and subsidence trends of the St. David region. Mine subsidence has occurred due to collapse of the abandoned mine workings. The known subsidence areas have been mapped and described. Results of the study include: (1) St. David has been undermined by both large shipping mines and smaller local mines; (2) sinkholes will continue to develop in this area in response to rock failure and roof collapse above the abandoned mine workings; (3) some primary factors that contribute to the sinkhole problems are the undermining and roof rock composition; (4) sinkholes will be smaller in the future; (5) ten of the 63 sinkholes occurred close enough to structures to cause damage, and only six sinkholes caused damage; (6) ways to minimize potential damage to future homes from sinkhole subsidence are manageable; (7) threats to residents lie in the collapse of heavy walls, brick chimneys, breaks in gas, water, or electrical lines; and (8) location of future subsidence is not predictable. (DP)

  12. Vendor Abandonment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Kevin; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three articles address the relationship between a library and the vendor of its automated system from several points of view: library-initiated vendor abandonment, vendor-initiated abandonment, nonperforming vendor and nonfunctioning system, and changing systems. Acceptance testing and financial, personnel, and legal aspects of vendor abandonment…

  13. Refuse-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, H. H.

    1980-09-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  14. Refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H.

    1980-10-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  15. Sinkhole hazard assessment in the area of abandoned mining shaft basing on microgravity survey and modelling - Case study from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    The article describes the results of a gravimetric survey conducted in the area of an abandoned mining shaft located on the premises of the liquidated "Porąbka-Klimontów" coal mine in Sosnowiec - southern Poland. After cessation of its exploitation in the past, the shaft has probably only been protected by placing a slab on a concrete pit-bank without commencing the proper liquidation. The aim of the survey was to determine whether the shaft had been backfilled and what is the condition of the rock mass where it gets in contact with the shaft barrel. In the interpretation of the Bouguer anomaly map, a forward modelling of gravity effect generated by an empty mineshaft has been used in order to eliminate its influence on the local gravitational field. That approach to survey data analysis allowed to assess not only the type of the shaft's filling but also the changes in the rock mass structure around it. The results allowed planning an adequate type of works aiming to secure the surface from potential sinkhole deformations resulting from the shaft lining collapse or wash out of the soil into the shaft barrel.

  16. Surface deformation induced by water influx in the abandoned coal mines in Limburg, The Netherlands observed by satellite radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro Cuenca, Miguel; Hooper, Andrew J.; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2013-01-01

    The coal reserves of Limburg, The Netherlands, have been exploited until the mid-1970's, leading to significant land subsidence, a large part of which was due to ground water pumping associated with the mining activities. In 1994, when also the hydrologically-connected neighboring German mining activities ceased, all pumps were finally dismantled. This resulted in rising groundwater levels in the mining areas, continuing until today. Here we report the detection and analysis of heterogeneous surface displacements in the area using satellite radar interferometry. The lack of adequate terrestrial geodetic measurements emphasizes the value of such satellite observations, especially in terms of the temporal and spatial characterization of the signal. Since the lack of direct mine water level measurements hampers predictions on future consequences at the surface, we study the relationship between surface deformation and sub-surface water levels in an attempt to provide rough correlation estimates and map the mine water dynamics.

  17. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  18. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... specific design parameters and construction methods. (d) Coal mine waste impoundments and refuse piles. If you, the permit applicant, propose to place coal mine waste in a refuse pile or impoundment, or if...

  19. Effects of historical coal mining and drainage from abandoned mines on streamflow and water quality in Bear Creek, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania-March 1999-December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 years of anthracite coal mining has changed surface- and ground-water hydrology and contaminated streams draining the Southern Anthracite Coal Field in east-central Pennsylvania. Bear Creek drains the western prong of the Southern Anthracite Coal Field and is affected by metals in drainage from abandoned mines and streamwater losses. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) developed for dissolved iron of about 5 lb/d (pounds per day) commonly are exceeded in the reach downstream of mine discharges. Restoration of Bear Creek using aerobic ponds to passively remove iron in abandoned mine drainage is under consideration (2004) by the Dauphin County Conservation District. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Dauphin County Conservation District, evaluates chemical and hydrologic data collected in Bear Creek and its receiving waters prior to implementation of mine-drainage treatment. The data collected represent the type of baseline information needed for documentation of water-quality changes following passive treatment of mine drainage in Pennsylvania and in other similar hydrogeologic settings. Seven surface-water sites on Bear Creek and two mine discharges were monitored for nearly three years to characterize the chemistry and hydrology of the following: (1) Bear Creek upstream of the mine discharges (BC-UMD), (2) water draining from the Lykens-Williamstown Mine Pool at the Lykens Water-Level Tunnel (LWLT) and Lykens Drift (LD) discharges, (3) Bear Creek after mixing with the mine discharges (BC-DMD), and (4) Bear Creek prior to mixing with Wiconisco Creek (BCM). Two sites on Wiconisco Creek, upstream and downstream of Bear Creek (WC-UBC and WC-DBC, respectively), were selected to evaluate changes in streamflow and water quality upon mixing with Bear Creek. During periods of below-normal precipitation, streamwater loss was commonly 100 percent upstream of site BC-UMD (streamflow range = 0 to 9.7 ft3/s (cubic feet per second)) but no loss was detected

  20. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  1. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands in India

    SciTech Connect

    Aufmuth, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    An international approach to developing a conceptual environmental management plan for the reclamation of abandoned coal mined lands in India will be discussed. This plan will be aimed at reclamation of a coal field which has been mined for almost 100 years with no reclamation of any kind.

  2. School Refusal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lingenfelter, Nannette; Hartung, Sheila

    2015-09-01

    School refusal behaviors go beyond a child's dislike or disinterest in school. This article investigates the underlying anxiety, depression, and social phobias that often accompany these behaviors and the importance of early recognition and treatment. Successful treatment and resolution of school refusal behaviors need to be a multidisciplinary approach. Teachers, administrators, guidance counselors, school nurses, and parents need to be involved in the diagnostic, treatment, and readmission processes. School nurses are in a unique position to be able to help identify and provide support for students exhibiting school refusal behaviors. PMID:25816422

  3. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  4. Refuse recycling and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sanitary landfill of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes is the predominant method of waste disposal in the United Kingdom. Although there was various waste disposal processes at various stages of design and test, landfill and incineration are still the only reliable methods of waste processing. Methods of recovery and use of refuse are examined in this book together with various separation processes, waste derived fuels, refuse composting, and glass and metal recovery. (Refs. 39).

  5. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [< (less than) 6.5]. Samples collected from Sugar Creek from July 2003 to June 2004 did not have pH values outside of the specified range of 6.5 to 9.0. However, large concentrations of iron [416 to 2,320 mg/L (milligrams per liter)], manganese (8.36 to 33.5 mg/L), aluminum (0.870 to 428 mg/L), and sulfate (2,990 to 13,700 mg/L) in acidic mine drainage (AMD) from two mine springs as well as small and diffuse seeps were observed to have an effect on water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p <0.05) and a decrease in median specific conductance from 5,000 to 3,540 ?S/cm (microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius) during a 17-year period. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Mitchell Mine Basin indicated an increase in median pH values from 5.6 to 6.0 and a decrease in median specific conductance from 3,050 to 2,450 ?S/cm during the same period. Remediation of AMD

  6. Effects of Historical Coal Mining and Drainage from Abandoned Mines on Streamflow and Water Quality in Newport and Nanticoke Creeks, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Weitzel, Jeffrey B.; Klemow, Kenneth M.

    2007-01-01

    This report characterizes the effects of historical mining and abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streamflow and water quality and evaluates potential strategies for AMD abatement in the 14-square-mile Newport Creek Basin and 7.6-square-mile Nanticoke Creek Basin. Both basins are mostly within the Northern Anthracite Coal Field and drain to the Susquehanna River in central Luzerne County, Pa. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Earth Conservancy, conducted an assessment from April 1999 to September 2000 that included (1) continuous stage measurement at 7 sites; (2) synoptic water-quality and flow sampling at 21 sites on June 2-4, 1999, and at 24 sites on October 7-8, 1999; and (3) periodic measurement of flow and water quality at 26 additional sites not included in the synoptic sampling effort. Stream water and surface runoff from the unmined uplands drain northward to the valley, where most of the water is intercepted and diverted into abandoned underground mines. Water that infiltrates into the mine workings becomes loaded with acidity, metals, and sulfate and later discharges as AMD at topographically low points along lower reaches of Newport Creek, Nanticoke Creek, and their tributaries. Differences among streamflows in unmined and mined areas of the watersheds indicated that (1) intermediate stream reaches within the mined area but upgradient of AMD sites generally were either dry or losing reaches, (2) ground water flowing to AMD sites could cross beneath surface-drainage divides, and (3) AMD discharging to the lower stream reaches restored volumes lost in the upstream reaches. The synoptic data for June and October 1999, along with continuous stage data during the study period, indicated flows during synoptic surveys were comparable to average values. The headwaters upstream of the mined area generally were oxygenated (dissolved oxygen range was 4.7 to 11.0 mg/L [milligrams per liter]), near-neutral (pH range was 5.8 to 7.6), and net

  7. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    SciTech Connect

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-12-31

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

  8. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  9. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  10. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215 Section 77.215 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... controlling or extinguishing a fire. (c) Clay or other sealants shall be used to seal the surface of...

  11. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay...

  12. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives.

  13. Blasting for abandoned-mine land reclamation (closure of individual subsidence features and erratic, undocumented underground coal-mine workings). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Thompson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The study has examined the feasibility of blasting for mitigating various abandoned mine land features on AML sites. The investigation included extensive field trial blasts at sites in North Dakota and Montana. A blasting technique was used that was based on spherical cratering concepts. At the Beulah, North Dakota site thirteen individual vertical openings (sinkholes) were blasted with the intent to fill the voids. The blasts were designed to displace material laterally into the void. Good success was had in filling the sinkholes. At the White site in Montana erratic underground rooms with no available documentation were collapsed. An adit leading into the mine was also blasted. Both individual room blasting and area pattern blasting were studied. A total of eight blasts were fired on the one acre area. Exploration requirements and costs were found to be extensive.

  14. Coal Quality Information Book (Second Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.; Parkinson, J.W. )

    1991-05-01

    This two-volume book contains raw and clean coal-quality information for coal from 66 different sources in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Represented here are 59 bituminous and subbituminous coals, three lignites, one anthracite culm (refuse), and three anthracites. For some raw coals, data for as many as five derivative clean coals are presented, but the average is two clean coals per Coal Cleanability Characterization.

  15. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  16. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  17. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  18. Vegetative cover grows directly on acidic mine refuse pile

    SciTech Connect

    Nickeson, F.H.

    1984-02-01

    The paper reports how permanent, self-sustaining vegetation has been established on an acidic, 80-year old coal refuse pile without using a soil cover. Tests were carried out on a number of 1-acre plots which were treated with different mixtures of lime, fertiliser and seeds of grasses and legumes. The results of the tests are discussed and the way in which the final treatment was chosen is explained. The work is considered to have been successful.

  19. Why parents refuse immunization?

    PubMed

    Kajetanowicz, Andrzej; Kajetanowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Rates of child immunization are falling in many countries, leading to the increase of morbidity and mortality from diseases controlled by vaccinations. The simplified model of the natural history of immunization follows a sequence of fear of the disease before vaccination, followed by acceptance of the vaccination until plateau, where the population forgets the morbidity and mortality of pre-immunization. Historical factors including withdrawals of vaccines, and publications regarding the true or falsified dangers of vaccines still resonate with parents. Building on these historical factors, unscientific sources such as naturopaths, homeopaths, chiropractors, celebrities and lay-people with anecdotal evidence and even scientific sources such as some universities and some medical doctors push their views on anti-vaccination, which proves to make the decision to vaccinate more difficult on parents. The main reason that parents refuse vaccination is a desire to protect their children. These parents believe that vaccination is harmful, or that not vaccinated children are healthier than vaccinated children. Scientific data often will lose with pseudoscientific, false or anecdotal data that have higher sensational and emotional impact on parents. With so many sources giving so many factors which sometimes contradict themselves, it is indeed difficult for a parent to make a clear decision for their child. PMID:27486715

  20. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  1. From in situ coal to the final coal product: A case study of the Danville Coal Member (Indiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in

  2. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  3. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study. Results The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services. Conclusion Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases. PMID:19261196

  4. Medication refusal: suggestions for intervention.

    PubMed

    Prehn, R A

    1990-01-01

    The civil rights and deinstitutionalization movements of the 1960s gave rise to legal and ethical challenges to the physician's authority to prescribe psychoactive medication to patients who refuse such medication. While no definitive legal ruling has been rendered in this area--and may never be rendered--a review of the important cases to date identifies consistent themes of patient competency, the possibility of physical threat, risks versus benefits, due process, and patient advocacy, all of which form the framework for intervening with patients who choose to refuse medication while preserving their right to do so.

  5. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  6. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is... reclamation on all lands adversely impacted by past coal mining. August 24, 1997 January 30,...

  7. Development of techniques for evaluation of coal-waste leachate problems. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Michalovic, J.G.; Fisher, J.C.

    1983-07-15

    A study was conducted to develop techniques to assess coal-waste leachate problems. A review of current literature and a survey of governmental agencies was performed to determine the state-of-the-art and the amount of information available with respect to coal-refuse piles. It was found that the existing data were somewhat limited with respect to the quantity and quality of leachate produced from refuse piles. An in depth study of two coal refuse sites was performed that focused on leachate characteristics based on physical and chemical composition of the refuse piles. A laboratory leaching test was developed using coal refuse sampled at the sites that allowed an evaluation of the coal refuse from the quality of leachate generated.

  8. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  9. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  10. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  11. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  12. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  13. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    .... See 49 FR 15496. On May 16, 1984, the State repealed most of the Tennessee Coal Surface Mining Law of... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title IV..., 1982. See 47 FR 34753. Withdrawal of Tennessee's Regulatory Program: Because of the State's failure...

  14. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... See 47 FR 34753. Withdrawal of Tennessee's Regulatory Program: As a result of Tennessee's failure to.... See 49 FR 15496. On May 16, 1984, the State repealed most of the Tennessee Coal Surface Mining Law of... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  15. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14... RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other refuse facilities...

  16. Study of the properties of mine waste in the midwestern coal fields. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-04

    In an effort to assist the coal industry in complying with the applicable regulations, to design safe and environmentally acceptable disposal systems, and to encourage secondary use of coal mine waste, the US Department of Energy has initiated research programs to develop coal mine waste disposal and use technology. This study of the properties of mine wastes in the Midwestern coal fields has been limited to the waste materials obtained from underground coal mines and preparation plants attached to both underground and surface mines. The program has been divided into two phases. In Phase I, the 20 most important properties relevant to safe disposal, reclamation, underground disposal, and secondary uses have been identified. An inventory of the significant waste disposal sites in the Midwestern coal fields has been prepared. The site locations have been plotted on USGS maps. Estimates of coal production and coal mine waste production during the next 2 decades have been prepared and are presented in this report. Also, all available information obtained from a search of existing literature on physical and chemical properties, including analysis results of the general runoff from the refuse disposal areas, has been collected and is presented. In order to fill the gaps in information, 20 sites have been identified for drilling and sampling to determine the various physical and chemical properties. They have been selected on the basis of the distribution and quantity of waste at the existing locations (both abandoned and active), the future trends in production and likely locations of waste disposal areas, their geographical and geological distribution, and ease of accessibility for drilling and sampling.

  17. The Space Station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The University of Central Florida's design of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station is addressed. Four integratable subsystems capable of handling an estimated Orbiter shortfall of nearly 40,000 lbs of refuse produced annually are discussed. The subsystems investigated were: (1) collection and transfer; (2) recycle and reuse; (3) advanced disposal; and (4) propulsion assist in disposal. Emphasis is placed on the recycling or reuse of those materials ultimately providing a source of Space Station refuse. Special consideration is given to various disposal methods capable of completely removing refuse from close proximity of the Space Station. There is evidence that pyrolysis is the optimal solution for disposal of refuse through employment of a Rocket Jettison Vehicle. Additionally, design considerations and specifications of the Refuse Management System are discussed. Optimal and alternate design solutions for each of the four subsystems are summarized. Finally, the system configuration is described and reviewed.

  18. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  19. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  20. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  1. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  2. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  3. [The social profile of women, who abandoned the infant in the maternity hospital].

    PubMed

    Fil'kina, O M; Vorob'eva, E A; Pykhtina, L A; Abrosimova, T S; Kocherova, O Iu

    2008-01-01

    The social profile of mothers of social orphans based on the results of questioning the women who abandoned the infant in the maternity hospital is exposed. The social factors are determined to allot the risk group of women refused to bring up their children already before their birth. It is established that a significant part of women needs the social, financial and psychological support in bringing up their children. The timely care provision can not only to change the mother's decision to refuse bringing up her child but to promote the prevention of social orphanage.

  4. [Refuse disposal at the hospital].

    PubMed

    Knoll, K H

    1990-02-01

    For the classification of hospital-wastes in the categories infectious-contaminate or special waste are only significant views of the prevention by nosocomial infection in the hospital. Solely infectious waste become removed hospital-intern and -extern on conditions of hygienic prevention, namely through secure packing during the transport, combustion or desinfection. Special wastes to be defeated by special-conditions. The hygienist of the hospital is only competent for the classification of the wastes in the hospital as well as for their refuse.

  5. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  7. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  8. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  9. Pragmatic Transfer in Thai EFL Refusals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2008-01-01

    Communication breakdowns can occur during cross-cultural communication due to different perceptions and interpretations of appropriateness and politeness. This study investigates similarities and differences between refusals in American English and Thai and incidences of pragmatic transfer by Thai EFL learners when making refusals. The…

  10. Individual and Organizational Correlates of Promotion Refusal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Michael A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined employees' reasons for refusing seniority-based promotions. Age, female sex, and number of employees in the department related positively to promotion refusal, while years of education and pay showed a negative relationship. Suggests potential explanations relate to stress avoidance, perceived inabilities, and equity theory. (Author)

  11. The Functional Assessment of School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Lemos, Amie; Silverman, Jenna

    2004-01-01

    School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996). As such, the term represents an umbrella construct for many historical ones that have been used to describe youths with problematic absenteeism, including truancy, psychoneurotic truancy,…

  12. Offshore abandonment heats up

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This paper reviews the new concerns regarding the decommissioning of offshore oil platforms which are rapidly coming of age. It reviews the history of past removal operations and the public outcry which is now causing a reevaluation of this abandonment policy. It reviews the number of platforms which are rapidly approaching maturity on a global basis. It then goes on to costs involved in such removal operations. Finally, it reviews the new platform designs which should allow a much more cost effective decommissioning process for these future rigs.

  13. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  14. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 245.45 Section 245... REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.45 Abandonment. (a) Establishing abandonment. Abandonment... owners if vessel and cargo are separately owned. In all cases other than emergency, abandonment will...

  15. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  16. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment. 245.45 Section 245... REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.45 Abandonment. (a) Establishing abandonment. Abandonment... owners if vessel and cargo are separately owned. In all cases other than emergency, abandonment will...

  17. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  18. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  19. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  20. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment. 245.45 Section 245... REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.45 Abandonment. (a) Establishing abandonment. Abandonment... owners if vessel and cargo are separately owned. In all cases other than emergency, abandonment will...

  1. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  2. Leachate recirculation between alternating aged refuse bioreactors and its effect on refuse decomposition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojie; Sun, Yingjie; Zhao, Youcai; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-01-01

    In a sequencing batch bioreactor landfill system which combined a fresh and an aged refuse bioreactor, blockage occurred frequently in the aged refuse bioreactor during the treatment of leachate from the fresh refuse bioreactor. To overcome this problem, another aged refuse bioreactor was added, when blockage occurred, the two aged refuse bioreactor operated alternatively. A fresh refuse bioreactor F combined with two alternating aged refuse bioreactors A1 and A2 was called alternate recirculation process (ARP) in this study. The bioreactor system was operated in three stages, and the three bioreactors were exposed to air to facilitate surface re-aeration. The effect of the ARP on the accelerated degradation of fresh refuse was compared before and after blockage occurs in A1. The results indicated that ARP can improve the leachate production rate. The average daily net production rates of leachate in Stages 2 and 3 were approximately 2.1 and 1.6 mL (kgrefuse d)(-1), respectively, which exceeded that of Stage 1 (1.3 mL (kg refuse d)(-1)). The chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N concentrations of the leachate from Stage 1 are 1000 and 25mgL(-1) after 2.1 and 2.7 y, respectively. For Stages 2 and 3, these concentrations reach approximately after 0.877 and 1.3 y. Faster refuse settlement was observed in Stages 2 and 3, with an average daily settlement of approximately 0.11%, as compared with Stage 1 (approximately 0.099%). ARP can accelerate the biodegradation of the fresh refuse and overcome the problem of the blockage in the aged refuse reactor.

  3. The right to refuse treatment: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Michels, R

    1981-04-01

    To understand the emerging concept of the right to refuse treatment in mental institutions, several underlying ethical issues must be examined. For example, the right is limited by such factors as the competence of the patient, the distinction between apparent and real refusal of treatment, and the desirability of some balance between the state's police power and parens patriae power. The most difficult ethical problems arise when a mentally ill individual is competent and not dangerous, needs treatment, and yet refuses it. In addition, most problems concerning the right to refuse treatment occur in large, understaffed, and underfunded public institutions whose nature affects the alternative treatments available, the quality of life without treatment, and the subtle coercive elements associated with any total institution. The author discusses these and other ethical issues pertaining to justifications for the right, limits to the right, treatment setting, and the treatments themselves.

  4. A new approach in ultrapurification of coal by selective flocculation

    SciTech Connect

    Moudgil, B.M.

    1992-04-01

    The specific objective of the present investigation is to develop a mathematical and computational model to elicit values of active sites ({phi}) and fractional surface coverage ({theta}) which would yield optimum separation of coal from coal pyrite and coal refuse. Attempts are to be made to select appropriate flocculants and experimental conditions to obtain {phi} and {theta} values as dictated by the theoretical model so as to achieve the desired separation in naturally occurring samples of fine coal. (VC)

  5. Food Refusal in Children: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Keith E.; Field, Douglas G.; Seiverling, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Food refusal is a severe feeding problem in which children refuse to eat all or most foods presented and exhibit problems with growth. This review discusses the definition, etiology, and interventions pertaining to food refusal. The interventions utilized for food refusal typically consist of several treatment components. These treatment…

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  7. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  8. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  9. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  10. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  12. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  14. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  15. Densified refuse derived fuel as a power source

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, K.E.; Safa, A.; Ohlsson, O.; Venables, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    This project is aimed at producing environmentally acceptable, chemically/biologically stable, and storable densified- Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF) pellets which are similar to lignite coal. To accomplish this, a suitable binder (s) must be used. Over 100 binders were investigated by a laboratory screening procedure. Six binding materials were selected for pilot plant/commercial scale studies. Approximately seven tons of RDF from Ames, Iowa and Refcom, Pompano Beach, Florida were pelletized in the summer-1985 in a series of experiments at the Jacksonville, Florida Naval Air Station using these binders. The pelletized d-RDF was then subjected to a battery of chemical and physical tests. Results to date are discussed.

  16. Refuse to energy - its place in the future

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of municipal solid waste to generate power helps communities extend the lives of existing landfills, stabilize solid waste disposal costs, and avoid the expensive complications of siting additional landfills or building incineration facilities. The three basic techniques used to convert solid waste into electricity are the gasification, pyrolysis, or anaerobic digestion of landfill materials to produce a gaseous product; co-firing a high-quality, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal or oil in retrofitted power boilers; and burning raw solid waste of RDF in dedicated boilers. Industry experts predict that half of the nation's trash will be converted to energy by the end of the century. The utility industry plays an important role in this trend. 2 figures.

  17. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  18. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  19. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  20. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  1. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  2. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  3. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216... NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT... Transactions and Abandonment § 157.216 Abandonment. (a) Automatic authorization. The certificate holder...

  4. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  5. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  6. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, G.A.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1991-01-01

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undisturbed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface runoff and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (>4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  7. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Glenn A.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Harper, Denver

    1991-07-01

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undisturbed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface runoff and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (>4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine.

  8. The coal slime slurry combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Xu, Z.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the coal slime slurry combustion technology in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The technique is that the slurry-based flow from the concentrator in the coal washery plant directly feeds into the fluidized bed by pump for combustion after a simple filtration and enrichment to an approximate concentration of 50% of coal. The coal slime slurry can burn in a CFB boiler alone or jointly with coal refuse. The technique has been used in a 35 t/h (6MWe) CFB for power generation. The result shows that the combustion efficiency is over 96% and boiler thermal efficiency is over 77%. As compared with burning coal refuse alone, the thermal efficiency was improved by 3--4 percent. This technology is simple, easy to operate and reliable. It is an effective way to utilize coal slime slurry. It has a practical significance for saving coal resources and reducing environmental pollution near coal mine areas. As a clean coal technology, it will result in great social, environmental and economic benefits.

  9. Illinois abandoned mined lands reclamation program: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmann, T.J.; Jenkusky, S.M.; Massie, S.

    1985-12-01

    The Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council (AMLRC), created in 1975, is responsible for the abatement of hazardous and environmental problems associated with pre-law abandoned coal mines throughout the State. The availability of federal funds for reclamation, through passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), greatly expanded the program. With funds provided through early cooperative agreements and current annual grants from the federal Office of Surface Mining (OSM), the State has reclaimed, or is currently reclaiming, 182 mine sites and has assisted OSM in the abatement of 67 emergency situations. This paper reviews the progress made by the AMLRC in dealing with the State's abandoned mine problems. Specifically, the numbers and types of problem sites reclaimed annually, their costs, and reclamation methods are identified. Progress of the program relative to the entire State's abandoned mine problems is reviewed. The effects of other reclamation factors, such as natural revegetation, remaining privately-funded reclamation, and secondary carbon recovery, on the overall scope of the State's program are also examined. General comments are made concerning grant preparation, State-OSM cooperation and AML-Inventory control. Selected reclamation projects and techniques are also discussed. 11 references, 3 tables.

  10. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  11. Beyond abortion: refusal of caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mary

    1989-04-01

    Social pressures and legal restrictions are proliferating against pregnant women. A dramatic infringement on women's rights is the court ordered cesarean section, as illustrated by the case of Angela C., a terminally ill cancer patient, 26 weeks pregnant, whose refusal of a cesarean section was overridden by a District of Columbia court. The premature infant and the mother died within two days. This case epitomizes a developing judicial pattern whose ethical reasoning the author criticizes. Within the context of the right to privacy and the concept of viability, which could legally override that right, Mahowald analyzes different situations where cesarean delivery is refused. After arguing that court ordered cesarean sections are inconsistent with court refusals to force persons to undergo less invasive procedures (e.g., bone marrow donation for the benefit of family members), she proposes alternatives to the present inconsistent practice.

  12. 29 CFR 570.53 - Coal-mine occupations (Order 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). 570.53 Section 570.53... § 570.53 Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. All occupations in or about any coal mine, except the occupation of slate or other refuse picking at a picking table...

  13. 29 CFR 570.53 - Coal-mine occupations (Order 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). 570.53 Section 570.53... § 570.53 Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. All occupations in or about any coal mine, except the occupation of slate or other refuse picking at a picking table...

  14. 29 CFR 570.53 - Coal-mine occupations (Order 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). 570.53 Section 570.53... § 570.53 Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. All occupations in or about any coal mine, except the occupation of slate or other refuse picking at a picking table...

  15. 29 CFR 570.53 - Coal-mine occupations (Order 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). 570.53 Section 570.53... § 570.53 Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. All occupations in or about any coal mine, except the occupation of slate or other refuse picking at a picking table...

  16. 29 CFR 570.53 - Coal-mine occupations (Order 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). 570.53 Section 570.53... § 570.53 Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. All occupations in or about any coal mine, except the occupation of slate or other refuse picking at a picking table...

  17. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China --- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenqi Hu; Hehe Gu

    1995-09-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. Since the Chinese government enacted a reclamation stipulation in 1989, many abandoned mining subsidence lands were produced before 1989. Therefore, reclamation of abandoned subsidence lands has become the focus of research activities in our country. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands --- some parts of the abandoned lands were wetland or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation.

  18. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS ABANDONED MINE LAND REMEDIATION WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  19. LAND REBORN: TOOLS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY/NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ABANDONED MINE LAND PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  20. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  1. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Miscellaneous Deductions and Reductions § 229.81... disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services available... in which the child refuses, without good reason, to accept such vocational rehabilitation...

  2. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  3. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  4. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  5. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-04-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculent prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  6. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculant prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  7. 22 CFR 41.121 - Refusal of individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of individual visas. 41.121 Section 41.121 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Refusals and Revocations § 41.121 Refusal of individual visas....

  8. 20 CFR 702.274 - Employer's refusal to pay penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's refusal to pay penalty. 702.274 Section 702.274 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Procedures Discrimination § 702.274 Employer's refusal to pay penalty. In the event the employer refuses...

  9. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  10. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  11. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  12. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  13. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  14. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  15. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  16. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  17. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  18. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... workers who are adversely affected by the contract award and who are qualified for the jobs the...

  19. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  20. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  1. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  2. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  3. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  4. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  5. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  6. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  7. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  8. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  9. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  10. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  11. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  13. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  14. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  15. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  16. Some Positive and Negative Aspects of Mine Abandonment and Their Implications on Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Laurance; Bell, Fred; Culshaw, Martin

    Many urban and greenfield environments throughout the United Kingdom are located in regions where mining has occurred. Mining dates back to pre-Roman times and includes metalliferous minerals (such as gold, copper, lead & zinc), bulk minerals (such as sand-stone, limestone, gypsum & halite) and coal, the latter being the most important mineral mined both quantitatively and in terms of value. Due to this long mining history, this had resulted in a legacy of mining relics and hazards (such as mine entries, abandoned workings and contaminated land), with presumably many of these sites remaining, as yet, unknown. However, the mechanisms of failure and ground deformation, in general, are appreciated. Over the past few decades the British coal mining industry has experienced a gradual decline. However, individual closed and abandoned mines, as well as entire coalfields can, under appropriate investigations and a favourable economic climate, offer alternative energy resources. These include for instance, for coal bed methane (CBM), coal mine methane (CMM), underground coal gasification (UCG). The objectives of this paper are to draw attention to some less well-documented positive aspects of mine closures and coalfield abandonment.

  17. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  18. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  19. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  20. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  1. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  2. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS...

  3. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS...

  4. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS...

  5. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  6. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  7. Sealing abandoned mines with treated flyash kills two birds with one stone

    SciTech Connect

    Giacinto, J.F.; Rafalko, L.G.; Petzrick, P.

    2007-02-15

    Environmentally benign disposal of coal combustion products/by-products (CCPs) such as flyash and bottom ash has been a problem since the first coal-fired power plant went on-line. In recent years, ways have been developed to recycle CCPs into useful commercial products like bricks and roadbase. This article describes an innovative State of Maryland program that is putting CCPs to yet another use: stabilizing abandoned mines to permanently sequester acids and harmful metals. As engineering consultants to the State's Power Plant Research Project (PPRP), Environmental Resources Management (ERM) Inc. has conducted several projects to evaluate and demonstrate the beneficial use of CCPs for deep mine stabilization. These are several hundred abandoned underground mines in western Maryland and several thousand across the Mid-Atlantic Highlands and their proximity to coal-fired plants makes it cost-effective to transport CCPs via existing railroads and highways. 8 figs.

  8. Children of divorce: the differential diagnosis of contact refusal.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Bradley W

    2011-07-01

    Contact refusal is a common phenomenon that can occur during the course of, or after, divorce, which affects the relationship between a child and the parent. This article defines the concept of contact refusal and discusses the importance of its recognition. The concept is further narrowed to focus on the child as the one refusing contact, not the parent, which can happen as well. Various types of contact refusals are illustrated in the article through clinical vignettes, and an approach to categorizing the various types of contact refusal is presented.

  9. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  10. Physician switching after drug request refusal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Begley, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    Physician switching is a barometer of the quality of the relationship between a patient and a physician. Understanding the factors associated with physician switching in the context of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has been largely unexamined. A total of 818 of 2,988 participants in a national telephone survey (27.4%) who had received DTCA reported asking their physician for a prescription drug, and 196 (24.0%) reported that their physician refused to prescribe the drug. Of those whose physicians refused, 13.9% (n = 27 of 194 with data) switched doctors. We found that individuals with regular medical-seeking behavior, full prescription drug coverage, with certain chronic conditions, and of African American origin were significantly more likely to switch physicians in this context.

  11. Refuse-to-energy is not dead

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, R.N.

    1988-11-01

    As noted in this paper, GAA (Government Advisory Associates) recently completed its fourth national survey of the refuse-to-energy business in the U.S. A total of 368 facilities were examined in all stages of project development. Contrary to the opinion of some doomsayers, refuse-to-energy in the U.S. is still a growing industry. Nevertheless, there has been some retrenchment in the past year due to political and environmental concerns, some legitimate and others unfounded. There are currently significant uncertainties in federal and state regulatory policies regarding air emissions and ash disposal which have led a number of private and public developers to hold off on planned new facilities. In any event, the long-term outlook for the industry is good, given the few disposal options available for solid waste planners faced with rising landfill costs and the prospect of few new landfills being sited.

  12. A new approach in ultrapurification of coal by selective flocculation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moudgil, B.M.

    1992-04-01

    The specific objective of the present investigation is to develop a mathematical and computational model to elicit values of active sites ({phi}) and fractional surface coverage ({theta}) which would yield optimum separation of coal from coal pyrite and coal refuse. Attempts are to be made to select appropriate flocculants and experimental conditions to obtain {phi} and {theta} values as dictated by the theoretical model so as to achieve the desired separation in naturally occurring samples of fine coal. (VC)

  13. Recovery of methane from the abandoned Golden Eagle Mine property

    SciTech Connect

    Hupp, K.L.; Bibler, C.; Pilcher, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    The abandoned Golden Eagle underground coal mine in Colorado contains gassy coals from which Stroud Oil Properties, Inc. (Stroud) has been recovering gas since 1996. The mine closed permanently in 1996, and during its operation drained methane from gob and ventilation boreholes. Stroud currently produces about 1.8 million cubic feet of near pipeline quality gas per day from six of these boreholes. Although the project has proven successful, gas recovery has been challenging because of low bottom hole pressure and variable borehole performance. Wellhead compressors are required to boost gas pressure for delivery to the main plant. Connecting additional boreholes to the gathering system often decreases production from existing production boreholes. Increasing gas removal has resulted in air leaks that lower gas quality. Stroud monitors the gas quality and blends any below-spec gas with its above-spec gas to ensure that the resulting product meets pipeline standards. This gas is then compressed for sale into a nearby pipeline. Overburden relaxation and finite difference modeling indicate that overlying coal seams and the coal remaining at the margins of the mined out workings contribute a significant amount of gas to the current production.

  14. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mine refuse inventory maps were prepared in response to a need by both the State and the coal industry. The lack of information on the scope of the problem handicapped all people concerned in drafting realistic legislation for a severance tax on coal production to raise funds for restoration of refuse sites. The inventory was conducted rapidly and economically, and demonstrated the benefits which can be derived through remote sensing methods.

  15. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H.

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  16. Refusal of treatment: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kraft, M R

    1999-03-01

    When a patient with a new spinal cord injury (SCI) refuses all care, the treatment team struggles with an ethical dilemma. The issues of patients' rights and autonomy are in conflict with the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Thomasma (1978) recommended a model useful in addressing situations in which values are in conflict. This model for an ethical workup is applied retrospectively to review a specific clinical case. The need to recognize and respect as many ethical principles as possible is identified as useful in reaching some acceptable resolution of an ethical dilemma. PMID:10347538

  17. Physicians' evaluations of patients' decisions to refuse oncological treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Kleffens, T; van Leeuwen, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the standards of rationality that physicians use when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. Design of the study: Qualitative design with indepth interviews. Participants: The study sample included 30 patients with cancer and 16 physicians (oncologists and general practitioners). All patients had refused a recommended oncological treatment. Results: Patients base their treatment refusals mainly on personal values and/or experience. Physicians mainly emphasise the medical perspective when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. From a medical perspective, a patient's treatment refusal based on personal values and experience is generally evaluated as irrational and difficult to accept, especially when it concerns a curative treatment. Physicians have a different attitude towards non-curative treatments and have less difficulty accepting a patient's refusal of these treatments. Thus, an important factor in the physician's evaluation of a treatment refusal is whether the treatment refused is curative or non-curative. Conclusion: Physicians mainly use goal oriented and patients mainly value oriented rationality, but in the case of non-curative treatment refusal, physicians give more emphasis to value oriented rationality. A consensus between the value oriented approaches of patient and physician may then emerge, leading to the patient's decision being understood and accepted by the physician. The physician's acceptance is crucial to his or her attitude towards the patient. It contributes to the patient's feeling free to decide, and being understood and respected, and thus to a better physician–patient relationship. PMID:15738431

  18. Drug treatment refusal and length of hospitalization of insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Williams, M H; Bloom, J D; Faulkner, L R; Rogers, J L; Godard, S L

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three insanity acquittees who had refused drug treatment were matched to a sample of nonrefusing hospitalized insanity acquittees in an attempt to measure the effect of treatment refusal on length of hospital stay. No measurable effects on the length of hospitalization were found. However, upon comparing the amount of time under court jurisdiction spent in the hospital and on conditional release in the community, it becomes evident that refusers spent significantly greater proportions of time hospitalized than the average hospitalized insanity acquittee, who had less hospitalization and spent more time on conditional release. These differences do not seem to be related to the issue of treatment refusal.

  19. [Microbiological studies of waste from medical practice and household refuse].

    PubMed

    Trost, M; Filip, Z

    1985-06-01

    Microbiological investigations were made during a one year period on refuse from consulting rooms of general practitioners, E.N.T.-specialists, dermatologists, dentists, and veterinarians. Concentrations of total aerobic bacteria, hyphomycetes, yeasts, actinomycetes, indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, feacal streptococci, anaerobic sulfite reducing spore-forming bacteria), of some facultative pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus), and pathogens (Salmonella sp.) were estimated. The refuse from medical consulting rooms showed definitely differences in microbiological properties. Usually the highest counts of microorganisms were found in the refuse from veterinarian consulting rooms. In generally, refuse from medical consulting rooms had lower microbial counts as compared to the municipal refuse. Feacal indicators and facultative pathogenic bacteria, however, were found more frequently, and usually at higher concentrations in refuse from medical consulting rooms. Salmonella sp. was not found in the refuse samples under test. Conclusively, refuse from medical consulting rooms should be handled with caution. However, the results of this study do not indicate those kinds of refuse as a source of acute hygienic risk.

  20. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems.

  1. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  2. Soil characteristics and vegetation features of abandoned and artificially revegetated surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Rafaill, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Soil characteristics and vegetational features of four 15-to-20-year-old contour coal surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains were compared. Two of the mines were abandoned after mining and are located in Campbell County, Tennessee. The other two mines, located in Bell County, Kentucky, were reclaimed after mining. The soils at all four sites were found to be in early stages of soil development. Chemical and physical soil factors were not detrimental to plant growth. Total overstory density at the abandoned sites was similar to that on the reclaimed mines, but one and one-half times as many tree size stems and twice as much basal area coverage were found on the abandoned sites as compared to the reclaimed mines. Many features resulting from prelaw contour mining practices benefited the development of plant communities on the mined land. Information should be sought from the study of plant communities which develop over the years on surface mines.

  3. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the characterization, environmental aspects, and engineering studies of coal mining refuse. Topics include disposal strategies, materials usage, and revegetation and reclamation programs. Appropriate legislation, and surveys performed at specific mining sites are also presented. Water pollution aspects of coal wastes are not covered in this report. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  5. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  6. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  7. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  8. Orphans of the Valley. A status report on abandoned surface mines in the Tennessee Valley. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, J.A.; Bollinger, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Volume 1 of this report provides an overview of abandoned coal and noncoal mineral surface mine lands in the Tennessee Valley. It calls attention to problems associated with abandoned mines and points out reclamation accomplishments by State and Federal agencies. It discusses the upcoming task of returning these sites to productive capabilities and minimizing further damage to the environment. Volume II includes 34 color coded (by mine type), thematic maps of abandoned surface mine lands in the Tennessee Valley. The maps are historical in that they depicted conditions at, or about, the time of enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act on August 3, 1977. Of the 117,000 acres of coal lands and 53,000 acres of noncoal mineral lands surface mined in the Tennessee Valley prior to comprehensive reclamation requirements, some 54,742 acres remain either inadequately or totally unreclaimed.

  9. Paleogeographic controls of coal accumulation, Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation and Star Point Sandstone, Wasatch Plateau, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Blanchard, L.F.; Sanchez, J.D.; Marley, W.E.; Muldoon, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Considers the paleogeographic controls affecting the accumulation of coals in delta-barrier-island complexes. Progradation, lateral shifting, and abandonment of these complexes created four major landward-thinning tongues.-from Authors

  10. Effects of minerals on coal-benefication processes. Quarterly report No. 9, October 1-December 31, 1979. [Fate of minerals; different coals

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, B. G.; Muter, R. B.; Buttermore, W. H.; Grady, W. C.; Alderman, J. K.; Durham, D.

    1980-09-15

    Unit operation pilot scale tests have been completed for froth flotation, tabling and jigging cleaning operations. An assessment and chemical/mineralogical data for these tests are reported herein. Tests for the heavy media cyclone and WEMCO HMS unit are on-going and will be reported in the next quarter. Also completed during the report period was an in-depth petrographic analysis of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal. Coal macerals by size and gravity were determined as volume percent of the whole coal and are contained in this report. This leaves only the Illinois No. 6 samples for detailed maceral analysis vs. screen/gravity fractions. Accumulation of XRPD data for coal minerals with Pocahontas No. 3 was continued based on the methodology presented in Quarterly Report No. 8. Standardization equations were developed for the Pocahontas No. 3 and Illinois No. 6 samples and mineralogical trends for these coals and the Pittsburgh seam samples were determined. Some generalizations are possible which should aid in interpreting the preparation plant and pilot plant cleaning of these coals. Illite and quartz constitute the majority of all LTA's whether of cleaned coals or refuse. Some minerals display the proprty of being highly separated into either the cleaned coal or the refuse, especially when fine coal sizes are cleaned. Calcite and kaolinite are prime examples in that kaolinite is greatest in the LTA's of the cleaned coal, and calcite is greatest in the LTA's of the refuse. Minerals such as apatite and siderite are most effectively separated into the cleaned coal and refuse only when large coal sizes are cleaned.

  11. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(g) or other applicable law. Every refusal must be in conformance with the provisions of 22 CFR 40.6... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure in refusing individual visas. 42.81 Section 42.81 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER...

  12. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 439.50 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the Administrator, a laboratory will be refused accreditation for the following reasons: (a) A laboratory will be refused accreditation for failure to meet the requirements of § 439.5 or § 439.10 of...

  13. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 439.50 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the Administrator, a laboratory will be refused accreditation for the following reasons: (a) A laboratory will be refused accreditation for failure to meet the requirements of § 439.5 or § 439.10 of...

  14. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  15. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  16. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  17. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  18. Refusals and Communication Style in American English and Egyptian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle L.; Al Batal, Mahmoud; El Bakary, Waguida

    This study investigated similarities and differences in Egyptian Arabic and American English refusals, using a modified discourse completion test (DCT) consisting of three requests, three invitations, three offers, and three suggestions. Each situation included one refusal to a person of higher status, one to a person of equal status, and one to a…

  19. 24 CFR 906.13 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of first refusal. 906.13... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Purchaser Requirements § 906.13 Right of first refusal. (a... housing unit, to offer the unit for sale first to the current resident of the unit....

  20. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  1. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  2. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  3. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  4. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  5. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  6. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  7. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  8. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  9. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  10. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused...

  12. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  13. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  14. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  15. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  16. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.10 Refusals to...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  18. Combating Work Refusal Using Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Glenna M.

    2016-01-01

    Academic expectations are often antecedents for various types of inappropriate classroom behavior for students with challenging behavior. Effective interventions for managing these behaviors must involve techniques that combat academic refusal. Addressing the underlying issues of resistance or refusal to perform academically in school using…

  19. Empirical Examination of a Multicomponent Treatment for Pediatric Food Refusal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Theodore A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Farrar-Schneider, Debra; Berkowitz, Merrill J.; Owens, J. Carl; Knight, Terry L.; Snyder, Angela M.; Rizol, Laura M.; Wise, David T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on assessment and treatment of food refusal for four inpatient boys (ages 2,3,3, and 9) receiving tube feedings. It used a contingency contacting procedure extended by a component analysis. Data suggest that food refusal appeared to be maintained primarily by negative reinforcement contingencies. Caregiver responses indicated a…

  20. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  1. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  2. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  3. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  4. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  5. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of... threatened if treatment is not initiated immediately, the physician shall give consideration to...

  6. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of... threatened if treatment is not initiated immediately, the physician shall give consideration to...

  7. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  8. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  9. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  10. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  11. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  12. Household Refuse Analysis: Theory, Method, and Applications in Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathje, William L., Ed.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl K., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this issue explore the current parameters of household refuse analysis. An overview of garbage research studies is presented; research methodology, theories, and applications are examined. U.S. household refuse is compared to the discards of households in Mexico City. (RM)

  13. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  14. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of a timely chemical test when directed by a law enforcement officer based on reasonable cause, evidence of the refusal is admissible in evidence in any administrative proceeding and the individual will... employer based on reasonable cause, evidence of the refusal is admissible in evidence in any...

  15. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  16. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  17. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  18. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  19. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  20. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  1. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If...

  2. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If an...

  3. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If...

  4. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If...

  5. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  6. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If an...

  7. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  8. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  9. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  10. Factors related to drug treatment refusal in a forensic hospital.

    PubMed

    Rodenhauser, P; Schwenkner, C E; Khamis, H J

    1987-06-01

    Using the hospital records of 421 patients in a maximum-security forensic hospital, the authors explored the relationship between clinical factors and patients' receptiveness to or refusal of drug treatment. They found drug treatment refusal to be significantly related to a psychotic diagnosis in the absence of a personality disorder; in contrast, psychotic patients with personality disorders tended to be relatively compliant with drug treatment. Treatment refusers had significantly longer lengths of hospitalization that were not reduced by receipt of medication. Significant relationships were also found between treatment refusal and involuntary medication, use of restraints, and greater number of previous hospitalizations; between reasons for refusal and involuntary medication; and between history of substance abuse and previous incarceration.

  11. Management of Pregnant Patients Who Refuse Medically Indicated Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Oxford, Corrina M

    2012-01-01

    The doctrine of informed refusal may become difficult to adhere to in obstetric practice, especially in situations in which the fetus’s life is at risk. One rare yet potentially problematic situation of informed refusal is the case of a pregnant woman who refuses to undergo a medically indicated cesarean delivery that would ensure the well-being of her fetus. Although some would argue that patient autonomy takes precedence and the woman’s informed refusal should be respected, others would argue that beneficence, justice, and doing no harm to the viable fetus should ethically overrule the refusal of a surgery. This article explores the profound conflict between maternal autonomy and the rights of the fetus, provides a framework to address when the two diverge, and poses suggestions for how providers can better navigate this dilemma. PMID:23483714

  12. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  13. Method for in situ biological conversion of coal to methane

    DOEpatents

    Volkwein, Jon C.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the in situ biological conversion of coal to methane comprising culturing on a coal-containing substrate a consortium of microorganisms capable of degrading the coal into methane under suitable conditions. This consortium of microorganisms can be obtained from an underground cavity such as an abandoned mine which underwent a change from being supplied with sewage to where no sewage was present, since these conditions have favored the development of microorganisms capable of using coal as a carbon source and converting coal to methane. The consortium of microorganisms obtained from such abandoned coal mines can be isolated and introduced to hard-to-reach coal-containing substrates which lack such microorganisms and which would otherwise remain unrecoverable. The present invention comprises a significant advantage in that useable energy can be obtained from a number of abandoned mine sites or other areas wherein coal is no longer being recovered, and such energy can be obtained in a safe, efficient, and inexpensive manner.

  14. Recycling of aged refuse from a closed landfill.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youcai; Song, Liyan; Huang, Renhua; Song, Lijie; Li, Xiong

    2007-04-01

    In this study, refuse excavated from a typical refuse landfill in Shanghai after 8-10 years of placement was characterized in terms of particle size, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and biodegradable matter. The refuse contained a large and diverse population of micro-organisms with a high capacity for decomposing refractory organic matter present in some wastewaters, including leachate. It was found that the aged refuse was quite stable after about a decade of decomposition in the warm, humid climate of southern China. The fine fractions resembled and had the properties of black soil, a medium that is suitable for green construction, organic fertilizer, or as bioreactor media for biological treatment of organic wastewaters. Excavation of the aged refuse would make about 50% of the space available for fresh refuse. The plastics, glass, textiles, and cans can be readily mechanically separated and recycled after cleaning. It is estimated that at least 200 millions tonnes of such aged refuse are available in China alone, and at least 10 times that much is buried worldwide. Hence, the evaluation of mined landfill waste and consideration of its potential uses is of great significance.

  15. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    PubMed Central

    Pintado, María-Consuelo; Villa, Patricia; González-García, Natalia; Luján, Jimena; Molina, Rocío; Trascasa, María; López-Ramos, Esther; Martínez, Cristina; Cambronero, José-Andrés; de Pablo, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%). Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P < 0.01), which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P < 0.01). High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years. PMID:24453879

  16. Utilization of refuse derived fuels by the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are forcing those in charge of landfills to adhere to more stringent operating standards. This, along with the growing scarcity of landfill availability, makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economically practical must be found. One alternative, that is not really new but which has gained renewed interest, is incineration. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act also requires that government agencies should direct their installations to recover as many resources as possible. Therefore if incineration is to be implemented, heat recovery should be incorporated into the system. There are several processes available to convert raw refuse into a fuel for use in a heat recovery system. Refuse derived fuels (RDF) can be in the form of raw refuse, densified refuse, powdered refuse, gas, or pyrolytic oil. The only form of RDF that is economically feasible for systems designed to process less than 200 TPD (tons per day) is raw refuse. Most Navy bases generate far less than 200 TPD of solid waste and therefore the Navy has focused most of its attention on modular heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems that utilize raw refuse as fuel.

  17. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  18. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  19. Data supplement to: Quality of coal mine drainage to Washington, 1975-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuste, Louis A.; Packard, F.A.; Fretwell, M.O.; Garland, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    From December 1975 to September 1977 the U.S. Geological Survey studied coal mine drainage in western Washington to 1) characterize the water quality of drainage from abandoned mines in the 11 coal-bearing areas of the State; 2) examine the water quality effects on a stream receiving drainage from an abandoned coal mine; 3) determine the baseline water-quality conditions at two prospective underground coal mine areas; and 4) recommend procedures for monitoring stream quality in the baseline areas in the event that mining occurs. This report presents physical, chemical, and biological data collected during the study period from Gallop Creek (Whatcom County), Loretta Creek (Skagit County), and Wilkeson Creek (Pierce County) and from 100 abandoned coal mines in western Washington, and from a borehole hydraulic-mining test site. Biological information included taxonomic identifications and counts of benthic invertebrates and periphytic algae. (USGS)

  20. Data supplement to: quality of coal mine drainage in Washington, 1975-77

    SciTech Connect

    Fuste, L.A.; Packard, F.A.; Fretwell, M.O.; Garland, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The US Geological Survey studied coal-mine drainage in western Washington to (1) characterize the water quality of drainage from abandoned mines in the 11 coal-bearing areas of the state; (2) examine the water-quality effects on a stream receiving drainage from an abandoned coal mine; (3) determine the baseline water-quality conditions at two prospective underground coal-mine areas; and (4) recommend procedures for monitoring stream quality in the baseline areas in the event that mining occurs. This report presents physical, chemical, and biological data collected during the study period from Gallop Creek (Whatcom County), Loretta Creek (Skagit County), and Wilkeson Creek (Pierce County) and from 100 abandoned coal mines in western Washington, and from a borehole hydraulic-mining test site. Biological information included taxonomic identifications and counts of benthic invertebrates and periphytic algae. 8 references, 21 tables, 10 maps.

  1. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  2. Governments grapple with abandonment fiscal terms

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, A.

    1997-12-08

    Governments worldwide are grappling with ways in which to treat offshore-facility abandonment and oil and gas field abandonment in their fiscal and environmental legislation. While some governments have introduced fiscal and environmental provisions for removing offshore installations, much of the legislation remains to be tested in practice. Many other governments have yet to introduce specific terms and legislation regarding the process. The method for financing offshore facilities abandonment must be agreed upon between the operators and countries. Carryback provisions typically are the most economically efficient, otherwise all parties lose out. Overall, because every country competes for a finite amount of funds, any hindrance to project profitability will ultimately hurt the government and therefore the continuation of economic development in the country. The paper discusses abandonment issues and costs, fiscal provisions, fiscal provision effects, and company preferences.

  3. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... will be made by the District Engineer based on the degree of hazard to navigation, the difficulty and... or 30 days of public notice, abandonment is presumed. (d) Cargo. If vessel and cargo are...

  4. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... will be made by the District Engineer based on the degree of hazard to navigation, the difficulty and... or 30 days of public notice, abandonment is presumed. (d) Cargo. If vessel and cargo are...

  5. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  6. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  7. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  8. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  9. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  10. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  11. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  12. 20 CFR 410.649 - Dismissal by abandonment of party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment of party. 410.649..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.649 Dismissal by abandonment of... upon its abandonment by the party or parties who filed it. A party shall be deemed to have abandoned...

  13. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  14. 20 CFR 410.649 - Dismissal by abandonment of party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment of party. 410.649..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.649 Dismissal by abandonment of... upon its abandonment by the party or parties who filed it. A party shall be deemed to have abandoned...

  15. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  16. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  17. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  18. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  19. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  20. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  1. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  2. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  3. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  4. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  5. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wishes to contest the refusal to issue an experimental use permit, or an experimental use permittee wishes to contest the revocation of any such permit, he shall, within twenty days after receipt of...

  6. 49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... providing breath, blood or urine specimens following an accident or incident specified in this subpart must... of this subpart; and (2) In a case where a blood test was refused on the ground it would...

  7. Combining stimulus fading, reinforcement, and extinction to treat food refusal.

    PubMed

    Freeman, K A; Piazza, C C

    1998-01-01

    The food refusal of a 6-year-old girl with destructive behavior was treated using stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. Intake increased and compliance with prompting procedures remained relatively stable despite the increased consumption requirement.

  8. Understanding Partnerships: A Rural College's Role in Recycling Refuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the partnership that was formed by a county government, three city governments, Weyerhaeuser Company, and Cossatot Technical College in Arkansas to solve the refuse problem when the local landfill closed. (JOW)

  9. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  10. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  11. Update on the right to refuse antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karl G

    1991-01-01

    The legal history and current developments in the right to refuse antipsychotic medication are reviewed. In Washington v. Harper the US Supreme Court analyzed the right to refuse antipsychotic medication under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution. A narrow issue was clarified but substantial uncertainty remains. As a result, law and policy problems at both state and institutional levels have become evident and may need to be addressed by drug policy decision makers. PMID:11659419

  12. Refuse-derived fuels still a long-term goal

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.

    1981-11-17

    A report on the Institution of Civil Engineers' two-day international symposium held in London in November, titled ''The practical implications of the reuse of solid wastes''. Topics dealt with included: systems for mechanical separation, reclamation and re- use of secondary materials; refuse-derived fuels; use of raw refuse in land reclamation; methane recovery from landfills and direct landfill as a major disposal option.

  13. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    PubMed

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  14. Methanol from urban refuse: a liquid fuel from a renewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Arnason, B.

    1983-12-01

    Despite the recent glut in world oil markets the long run need to develop alternatives to petroleum derived fuels is still apparent. The long lead times required to alter the economy's energy infrastructure and inherent uncertainties about future developments point to the need for alternatives with built-in flexibilities. Methanol can be produced from any carbonaceous matter (natural gas, heavy fuel oil, coal, peat, wood, urban refuse, etc.) and used in place of most conventional fuels. Thus, methanol meets one of the main requirements a candidate future energy carrier must satisfy. Furthermore, whereas a massive synthetic fuels industry based on coal or oil shale could threaten the stability of the global climate, the use of methanol produced from biomass at a sustainable rate would have a minimal impact on the atmospheric carbon dioxide level. In the near term, biomass-based methanol faces two obstacles. First, no established markets exist for fuel methanol. Second, at present wood, which is the main component of the biomass resource; may be too costly a feedstock for methanol production. These are among the problems addressed in this paper. Urban refuse is one form of biomass that does not suffer the cost disadvantage of wood. Rising costs of land and environmental regulations have made landfilling an increasingly unattractive method of waste disposal. Alternative means of waste disposal, including incineration, have proved both expensive and polluting. It is proposed that the production of methanol is and economical and environmentally safe method for disposing of municipal solid waste (MSW) and, therefore, a promising strategy for the early commercialization of advanced biomass conversion technologies.

  15. Environmental damage and countermeasures in Chinese coal mine areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, B. |; Cui, Z.

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses three aspects of the ecological environmental damage in China: ground subsidence due to underground coal mining, pollution of mine refuse from underground, and release of fly ash from power plants within coal mine areas. The paper proposes the comprehensive countermeasures for solving these problems. The author puts forward several ways and applications of disposal which could help alleviate the problems, and introduces the subsidence prediction principle in long wall mining. This technology calculates the subsidence, displacement and deformation at every point according to mining schedule. It provides a very useful tool for subsidence control. Finally, the author provides some suggestions to improve the environment in Chinese coal mine areas.

  16. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  18. Coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  19. A study of abandoned ash ponds reclaimed through green cover development.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Agarwal, Palak; Singh, Reena; Adholeya, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Green capping is one of the popular methods to re-vegetate abandoned ash ponds of coal based thermal power plants thereby lowering the risk of contamination to the surrounding environment. It has innumerable advantages such as prevention of dust emission, checking soil erosion, stabilizing the surface areas of ash, preventing potential ground water contamination, and finally, adding native vegetation cover, which is very vital in the long term. During the early nineties and later, various reclamation projects were carried out on fly ash dumps, but until date, there have not been any initiatives to assess the alterations in physicochemical and biological properties of fly ash resulting from implementation of these reclamation projects. In the present study, three abandoned ash ponds, located in India, that were reclaimed during 1998-2003 are investigated. Marked alterations in nutritional status, microbial population, and microbial activities have been observed in reclaimed ash ponds.

  20. Coal hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1981-01-06

    Disclosure is made of a method and apparatus for reacting carbonaceous material such as pulverized coal with heated hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases and liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. The heated hydrogen and entrained coal are injected through a rocket engine type injector device. The coal particles are reacted with hydrogen in a reaction chamber downstream of the injector. The products of reaction are rapidly quenched as they exit the reaction chamber and are subsequently collected.

  1. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  2. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  3. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  4. Physicians' refusal to resuscitate at borderline gestational age.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2005-11-01

    Most neonatologists believe there is a minimal gestational age, below which it is appropriate to refuse to provide resuscitation or intensive care. Determination of this threshold should involve knowledge of the outcome data, but also an understanding of the potential for misuse of these data. In particular, there is a risk of deception, of the parents and of ourselves, due to the uncertainty of the true gestational age, and the "self-fulfilling prophecy" that may occur when a center refuses to try below a certain gestational age because they have had no survivors below that age. Finally, any refusal to treat requires ethical justification. Concepts such as futility and patient's best interest should play a role in the determination of the gestational age threshold, applied in light of the data's inherent weaknesses.

  5. Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, ‘the last mile is longest’. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. ‘walk the last mile first’. PMID:23798696

  6. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  7. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  8. Potential benefits from and barriers against coal remining

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    Coal has been mined commercially in the United States since the mid 1700s and strip mining of coal began in the in the late 1800S. However, until the past 15--20 years, the environmental effects of coal mining caused little concern. In the past, coal mining sites were abandoned for economic reasons or because the equipment in use at the time could not recover any additional coal. Many of these sites were left in an unsafe and unsightly condition, resulting in severe water quality problems and threats to public health and safety. In more recent times, the advent of more sophisticated equipment allowed operators to return to previously mined sites and recover additional coal. This practice, known as remining, is the subject of this paper. In the most general sense, remining is simply mining again at a site that had formerly been mined. Many of today`s coal mining activities take place entirely or partially at sites that were formerly mined and left unreclaimed, primarily because no laws existed requiring reclamation. This paper focuses on the subset of remining projects, which not only recover additional coal, but also reclaim or improve the condition of abandoned mine lands (AMLs), particularly improvements to water quality.

  9. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  10. [Increasing immunization coverage by intervening on determinants of refusal].

    PubMed

    Brunelli, M; Valsecchi, M; Speri, L; Simeoni, L; Campara, P; Porchia, S; Bolzonello, E; Russo, F; Bonavina, M G; Bovo, C

    2012-01-01

    With the regional decree 3664/2008, the Veneto Region adopted measures for improvements in the immunization program, among which the "Investigation into determinants for vaccine refusal in the Veneto Region", entrusted by the Department of Prevention Local Health Unit 20 (Ulss 20) of Verona. The objective of the study was to understand which type of parent that accessed immunization services (total adherent, partial adherent or complete refusals) and what factors lead to their choice regarding immmunizations in order to better plan strategies to maintain vaccination coverage.

  11. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. Reclamation of abandoned mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reclamation of abandoned mine lands in West Virginia involves disturbed areas from both surface and deep mining activities. Reclamation of deep mine lands deal with mine waste piles and mine openings. Reclamation of surface mine lands involves shaping and grading material to obtain a stable slope and installing water management practices.

  13. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  14. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  15. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  16. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  17. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  18. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  19. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  20. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  1. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  2. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  3. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  4. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  5. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  6. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  7. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  8. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  9. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  11. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  13. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  14. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  15. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  16. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  17. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  18. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  19. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  20. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  1. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  2. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  3. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  4. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  5. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  6. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  7. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  8. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  9. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  10. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  11. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  12. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  13. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  14. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  15. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  16. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  17. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account in a federally insured institution in lieu of the bond required...

  18. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  19. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  20. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  1. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  2. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  3. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  4. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  5. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  6. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  7. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  8. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  9. 42 CFR 422.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 422.1060 Section 422.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it is abandoned by...

  10. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  11. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  12. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  13. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  15. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  16. 42 CFR 422.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 422.1060 Section 422.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it is abandoned by...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  18. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  19. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  1. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  2. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  3. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  4. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  5. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  13. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  14. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  16. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  17. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  18. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  20. Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.