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Sample records for abandoned greenhouse field

  1. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  2. Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1984-04-01

    One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts. A total of 138 abandoned oil fields having individual cumulative production greater than 500,000 bbl are located in the Texas Gulf Coast (railroad Commission of Texas Districts 2, 3, and 4). These 138 onshore fields produced 276 million barrels of oil before being abandoned. Nongiant fields in the Texas Gulf Coast average about 40% ultimate recovery, so these fields probably originally contained about 700 million bbl of oil in place. Therefore, about 424 million bbl of oil remain unrecovered. Reservoirs in these abandoned fields are Tertiary sandstones. The 44 abandoned fields in the upper Texas Gulf Coast (District 3) produced from a wide range of plays; those plays with the largest number of abandoned fields are Yegua and Frio deep-seated domes, Eocene deltaic sandstone, and Frio barrier/strand-plain sandstone. The 19 abandoned fields in the middle Texas Gulf Coast (District 2) produced mainly from Wilcox and Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and from Frio and Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones. The lower Texas Gulf Coast (District 4) contains 75 abandoned fields that produced from Frio fluvial/deltaic and barrier/strand-plain sandstones and from Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones.

  3. Weyl's Abandonment of Unified Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieroka, Norman

    2015-01-01

    In 1918, Hermann Weyl proposed a generalisation of Riemannian geometry, in order to unify general relativity and electrodynamics. This paper investigates the physical, mathematical and philosophical reasons for his subsequent abandonment of any such attempt towards a unified field theory.

  4. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  5. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emission on abandoned peatlands by growing reed canary grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järveoja, J.; Laht, J.; Soosaar, K.; Maddison, M.; Ostonen, I.; Mander, Ü.

    2012-04-01

    We used combined closed-chamber and plant biomass techniques to study the impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea) cultivation on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and carbon balance of an abandoned peat extraction area in Lavassaare, Estonia (N58°34'20''; E24°23'15''). Three core study sites were chosen within the abandoned peat extraction area: (I) bare peat soil (abandoned and not planted site), (II) non-fertilized Phalaris site, (III) and fertilized Phalaris site (all on drained Fibric Histosols). In addition, (IV) the natural raised bog (Fibric Histosol) and (V) the cultivated fen meadow (drained Sapric Histosol) served as reference sites. The CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were determined using the closed-chamber method once a month from May 2010 to December 2011. White 60 L chambers made of PVC and sealed with a water-filled ring on the soil surface were installed in 5 replicates on each site. The gas was sampled 3 times per hour in 100 mL pre-evacuated glass bottles, and in the lab the gas concentrations were measured using the Shimadzu GC-2014 (ECD, FID) gas-chromatographic system combined with a Loftfield autosampler. Measurements of groundwater level and soil temperature (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm depths) were performed simultaneously. Biomass assessments of RCG were carried out just after maximal growth of macrophytes, in early September 2010, in April 2011 just after snow melt (time of minimum aboveground biomass), and again in September 2011. Aboveground biomass samples were collected from 1×1m plots. Belowground biomass samples were collected at a depth of 25 cm in 3 replicates adjacent to each chamber using a 10×10 cm auger. Samples were analyzed for N, P and C. Our results showed high nitrous oxide emissions (up to 541 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) from the fen meadow and high methane emissions from the natural raised bog (up to 12915 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1). The low CH4 emission from the Phalaris plots and bare soil was due to the deeper water table (up to 85

  6. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  7. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating Attitudes towards Changes in Rural Landscape by Grazing Cattle on Abandoned Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhito, Kitai; Toshihiro, Hattori; Hiroshi, Takahashi

    The appearance of cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields can be used to evaluate attitudes towards this land-use change. The semantic differential (SD) method was used families of a university student to evaluate and compare attitudes towards five types of rural landscape: pasture, pasture grazed by cattle, rice paddy field, abandoned paddy field converted to pasture and abandoned paddy field converted to pasture grazed by cattle. Cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields were determined to have a positive effect on the landscape. However, all grazing cattle created a negative attitude because of the unclean appearance of the landscape. Grazing cattle at high stocking rates in small areas could create a negative attitude because of the oppressive appearance of the landscape. The acceptance of grazing cattle was lower if the animals ware newly introduced to the landscape.

  9. Monitoring abandoned dreg fields of high-speed railway construction with UAV remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yangchun; Lin, Yi; Du, Xiaolin

    2015-12-01

    High-speed railway construction will produce a large amount of abandoned dregs, so it is necessary to build enough dreg deposition fields along the railway. The task of the department of soil and water conservation is to monitor the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields according to the design in the whole process of railway construction. As long linear construction projects, many high-speed railways go through regions of complex terrain, which poses great difficulties to monitoring current status of abandoned dreg fields. With the advantages of low cost, flexible launch and landing, safety, under-cloud-flying, hyperspatial image resolution, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are very suitable for obtaining remote sensing imagery along the railway. One segment of the high-speed railway from Chongqing to Wanzhou and its neighborhood was chosen as the study area to demonstrate key technologies and specific procedures of monitoring abandoned dreg fields using the UAV system. The UAV system and its components are introduced along with the flight trajectories, acquired UAV imagery, and attitude data. Image preprocessing and generation of DEM and DOM are described in detail followed by image-based measurement accuracy assessment and abandoned dreg field status investigation on the resulting DOM and DEM. Results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the fixed wing UAV system to rapidly monitoring the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields

  10. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  11. [Soil chemical property changes in vegetable greenhouse fields].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Jiang, Yong; Liang, Wenju

    2005-11-01

    To explore the changes of soil chemical properties in vegetable greenhouse, a comparative study was carried out with the samples gathered from vegetable greenhouse fields and their adjacent upland fields in Damintun Town, Xinming County, Liaoning Province. The results showed that compared with upland fields, the contents of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in greenhouse fields increased significantly. At the depth of 0 approximately 30 cm, soil organic carbon in greenhouses of 1-, 4- and 10-year increased by 31.09%, 35.44%, and 66.80%, respectively, compared with the upland soil. Soil nitrate content at the depth of 0 approximately 30 cm in greenhouse fields was 5.05 approximately 12.49 times as much as that in upland fields. The nitrate content in different soil layers increased with the increasing age of greenhouse field., e.g., at the depth of 20 approximately 30 cm, soil nitrate content was significantly higher in 10-year than in 1- and 4-year greenhouse field, with an increase of 65.73% and 50.89%, respectively, and 6.55 times as much as that in upland field, which indicated that soil nitrate transported downwards, and obviously enriched in deeper soil layers under heavy application of fertilizer. Also with the increasing age of greenhouse field, soil pH decreased, while soil soluble salts accumulated. PMID:16471371

  12. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  13. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g‑1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g‑1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were

  14. Wetland fields as mirrors of drought and the Maya abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Beach, Timothy P.; Dunning, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    Getting at the Maya Collapse has both temporal and geographic dimensions, because it occurred over centuries and great distances. This requires a wide range of research sites and proxy records, ranging from lake cores to geomorphic evidence, such as stratigraphy and speleothems. This article synthesizes these lines of evidence, together with previously undescribed findings on Maya wetland formation and use in a key region near the heart of the central Maya Lowlands. Growing lines of evidence point to dryer periods in Maya history, which correlate to major periods of transition. The main line of evidence in this paper comes from wetland use and formation studies, which show evidence for both large-scale environmental change and human adaptation or response. Based on multiproxy studies, Maya wetland fields had a long and varied history, but most evidence indicates the start of disuse during or shortly after the Maya Terminal Classic. Hence, the pervasiveness of collapse extended into a range of wetlands, including perennial wetlands, which should have been less responsive to drought as a driver of disuse. A synthesis of the lines of evidence for canal infilling shows no attempts to reclaim them after the Classic Period. PMID:22371605

  15. Biochar: from laboratory mechanisms through the greenhouse to field trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gao, X.; Dugan, B.; Silberg, J. J.; Zygourakis, K.; Alvarez, P. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The biochar community is excellent at pointing to individual cases where biochar amendment has changed soil properties, with some studies showing significant improvements in crop yields, reduction in nutrient export, and remediation of pollutants. However, many studies exist which do not show improvements, and in some cases, studies clearly show detrimental outcomes. The next, crucial step in biochar science and engineering research will be to develop a process-based understanding of how biochar acts to improve soil properties. In particular, we need a better mechanistic understanding of how biochar sorbs and desorbs contaminants, how it interacts with soil water, and how it interacts with the soil microbial community. These mechanistic studies need to encompass processes that range from the nanometer to the kilometer scale. At the nanometer scale, we need a predictive model of how biochar will sorb and desorb hydrocarbons, nutrients, and toxic metals. At the micrometer scale we need models that explain biochar's effects on soil water, especially the plant-available fraction of soil water. The micrometer scale is also where mechanistic information is neeed about microbial processes. At the macroscale we need physical models to describe the landscape mobility of biochar, because biochar that washes away from fields can no longer provide crop benefits. To be most informative, biochar research should occur along a lab-greenhouse-field trial trajectory. Laboratory experiments should aim determine what mechanisms may act to control biochar-soil processes, and then greenhouse experiments can be used to test the significance of lab-derived mechanisms in short, highly replicated, controlled experiments. Once evidence of effect is determined from greenhouse experiments, field trials are merited. Field trials are the gold standard needed prior to full deployment, but results from field trials cannot be extrapolated to other field sites without the mechanistic backup provided

  16. Refining Field Measurements of Methane Flux Rates from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagron, C. S.; Kang, M.; Riqueros, N. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in Pennsylvania demonstrate the potential for significant methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. A subset of tested wells was high emitting, with methane flux rates up to seven orders of magnitude greater than natural fluxes (up to 105 mg CH4/hour, or about 2.5LPM). These wells contribute disproportionately to the total methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. The principles guiding the chamber design have been developed for lower flux rates, typically found in natural environments, and chamber design modifications may reduce uncertainty in flux rates associated with high-emitting wells. Kang et al. estimate errors of a factor of two in measured values based on previous studies. We conduct controlled releases of methane to refine error estimates and improve chamber design with a focus on high-emitters. Controlled releases of methane are conducted at 0.05 LPM, 0.50 LPM, 1.0 LPM, 2.0 LPM, 3.0 LPM, and 5.0 LPM, and at two chamber dimensions typically used in field measurements studies of abandoned wells. As most sources of error tabulated by Kang et al. tend to bias the results toward underreporting of methane emissions, a flux-targeted chamber design modification can reduce error margins and/or provide grounds for a potential upward revision of emission estimates.

  17. Plant Succession at the Edges of Two Abandoned Cultivated Fields on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Sally A.; Rickard, William H.

    2002-12-01

    How vegetation recovers from disturbances is an important question for land managers. We examined 500 m2 plots to determine the progress made by native herbaceous plant species in colonizing the edges of abandoned cultivated fields at different elevations and microclimates, but with similar soils in a big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass steppe. Alien species, especially cheatgrass and cereal rye, were the major competitors to the natives. The native species with best potential for restoring steppe habitats were sulphur lupine, hawksbeard, bottlebrush squirreltail, needle-and-thread grass, Sandberg's bluegrass, and several lomatiums.

  18. Greenhouse effect and coastal wetland policy: How Americans could abandon an area the size of Massachusetts at minimum cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Climatologists generally expect an anthropogenic global warming that could raise sea level 30-150 cm in the next century and more thereafter. One of the impacts would be the loss of coastal wetlands. Although the inundation of adjacent dryland would enable new wetlands to form, much of this land is or will soon be developed. If developed areas are protected, wetlands will be squeezed between an advancing sea and the land being protected, which has already happened in China and the Netherlands, where people have built dikes for centuries. Unlike those countries, the United States has enough land to accommodate the landward migration of wetlands; but governments lack the funds to purchase all the coastal lowlands that might be inundated and the legal authority to prohibit their development. We propose a third approach: allowing property owners to use coastal lowlands today as they choose, but setting up a legal mechanism to ensure that the land is abandoned if and when sea level rises enough to inundate it. Although compensation may be required, this approach would cost less than 1% as much as purchasing the land, and would be (1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise. This article demonstrates that it would be irrational to delay policy formulation until sea level rise projections are more precise. The cost will be small if we act now but great if we wait, and sea level is already rising along most coasts. The US government should develop a strategy in the next three years.

  19. Tillage and field scale controls on greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan; King, Amy P; van Kessel, Chris; Rolston, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of understanding of how associations among soil properties and management-induced changes control the variability of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil. We performed a laboratory investigation to quantify relationships between GHG emissions and soil indicators in an irrigated agricultural field under standard tillage (ST) and a field recently converted (2 yr) to no-tillage (NT). Soil cores (15-cm depth) were incubated at 25 degrees C at field moisture content and 75% water holding capacity. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that most of the variation of the measured soil properties was related to differences in soil C and N and soil water conditions under ST, but soil texture and bulk density under NT. This trend became more apparent after irrigation. However, principal component regression (PCR) suggested that soil physical properties or total C and N were less important in controlling GHG emissions across tillage systems. The CO2 flux was more strongly determined by microbial biomass under ST and inorganic N content under NT than soil physical properties. Similarly, N2O and CH4 fluxes were predominantly controlled by NO3- content and labile C and N availability in both ST and NT soils at field moisture content, and NH4+ content after irrigation. Our study indicates that the field-scale variability of GHG emissions is controlled primarily by biochemical parameters rather than physical parameters. Differences in the availability and type of C and N sources for microbial activity as affected by tillage and irrigation develop different levels and combinations of field-scale controls on GHG emissions. PMID:16585613

  20. Field inoculation rates of mycorrhizal fungi in revegetation of abandoned coal mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Noyd, R.K.; Pfleger, F.L.

    1996-12-31

    Abandoned coal mine land (AML) sites in southern Illinois and western North Dakota contain areas that are difficult to revegetate due to low fertility (1-3 mg kg-1 N and P), little organic matter, and acidic (3-4, Illinois) or alkaline ({approximately}8, North Dakota) pH. Areas such as these may benefit from inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to assist in the establishment of vegetative cover. Potential sources of adapted mycorrhizal inoculum were found in reclaimed overburden sites with large AM fungal spore densities (100 and 33 spores g{sup -1} Illinois and North Dakota, respectively). Soils from these locations were used to determine an infective inoculation rate by a mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) bioassy. Inoculum, consisting of rhizosphere soil and dried roots, was mixed into overburden in proportions of 0, 1, 2.5, 25, 50 and 100% (w/w), placed into containers, and sown with a single 12-day old seedling of Andropogon gerardii Vitm. (big bluestem), a native prairie species known to respond favorably to AM fungi. After 14 days, shoots were dried and weighed and the root system was collected, cleared, stained, and assessed for percent root length colonized by AM fungi. An inoculum proportion of 1% in Illinois and 2.5% in North Dakota overburden produced moderate (16%) root colonization. These inoculum proportions were selected for rates of field inoculation because they were the lowest proportions that were both infective and effective in increasing shoot biomass of A. gerardii. In both soils, this level of root colonization was about one-third of the maximum colonization (50%) obtained with 25, 50, and 100% proportions of inoculum. Using adapted AM fungi and A. gerardii, MIP bioassays can be used to determine a field inoculation rate that has the potential to establish populations of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi and enhance chances of successful revegetation.

  1. Spatial probability of soil water repellency in an abandoned agricultural field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a natural soil property with implications on infiltration, erosion and plant growth. It depends on soil texture, type and amount of organic matter, fungi, microorganisms, and vegetation cover (Doerr et al., 2000). Human activities as agriculture can have implications on soil water repellency (SWR) due tillage and addition of organic compounds and fertilizers (Blanco-Canqui and Lal, 2009; Gonzalez-Penaloza et al., 2012). It is also assumed that SWR has a high small-scale variability (Doerr et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to study the spatial probability of SWR in an abandoned field testing several geostatistical methods, Organic Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area it is located near Vilnius urban area at (54 49' N, 25 22', 104 masl) in Lithuania (Pereira and Oliva, 2013). It was designed a experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m). Inside this area it was measured SWR was measured every 50 cm using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). A total of 105 points were measured. The probability of SWR was classified in 0 (No probability) to 1 (High probability). The methods accuracy was assessed with the cross validation method. The best interpolation method was the one with the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the most accurate probability method was SK (RMSE=0.436), followed by DK (RMSE=0.437), IK (RMSE=0.448), PK (RMSE=0.452) and OK (RMSE=0.537). Significant differences were identified among probability tests (Kruskal-Wallis test =199.7597 p<0.001). On average the probability of SWR was high with the OK (0.58±0.08) followed by PK (0.49±0.18), SK (0.32±0.16), DK (0.32±0.15) and IK (0.31±0.16). The most accurate probability methods predicted a lower probability of SWR in the studied plot. The spatial distribution of SWR was different according to the tested technique. Simple Kriging, DK, IK and PK methods

  2. Greenhouse and Field Assessment of Phytoremediation for Petroleum Contaminants in a Riparian Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of phytoremediation for clean-up of highly contaminated sediments from Indiana Harbor. In the greenhouse study, plant species evaluated were willow (Salix exigua), poplar (Populus spp.), eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides...

  3. Relationships between soil properties of the abandoned fields and spectral data derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarczyk, J.; Kaźmierowski, C.; Królewicz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The structural transformation of Polish agriculture after 1989 has been leading to significant changes in land use. As a result a large part of formerly ploughed fields lies abandoned and they occur across considerable variability in soil typological units. Accurate information about soil conditions within the abandoned fields facilitates proper management in the new socio-economic situation. Such information can be collected using satellite images since the structure and condition of the vegetation growing on the abandoned fields reflects soil properties. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationships between physical and chemical attributes of soil within the abandoned fields and spectral reflectance patterns recorded by ASTER sensors onboard Terra Satellite. Soil samples were collected at five abandoned fields which have not been ploughed since 2000 and analyzed in the laboratory to determine their physical and chemical properties. Nine ASTER nearly cloud-free pictures were used for this study in order to derive the remote-sensing attributes of the abandoned fields. In order to evaluate the relationships between soil fertility and remotely sensed data, partial least-squares (PLS) and a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis between these two datasets were carried out. In the regression analysis, only soil TEB (total exchangeable bases) stock in the whole profile displayed the highest correlation with remotely sensed data acquired in April and May and the best predictors were NDVI and LSWI vegetation indices.

  4. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  5. Metals in boat paint fragments from slipways, repair facilities and abandoned vessels: an evaluation using field portable XRF.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Rees, Aldous B; Gkiokas, Dimitrios; Solman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Paint flaking off abandoned vessels or generated during boat repair is hazardous to human health and wildlife. In this study, a means of screening paint fragments using a field portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer is described. The technique is capable of delivering rapid, surficial measurements of Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn down to concentrations less than 150 μg g(-1), and Sn and Cr to concentrations of a few hundred μg g(-1). Application of the technique to fragments collected from slipways, yards, hardstandings, abandoned boats and ships undergoing maintenance throughout the EU reveal highly variable concentrations of metals among samples from the same environment or from the same region of a given boat; in many cases, variability is also evident in different areas or on different surfaces of the same fragment. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of substances that have been restricted or banned (e.g. Sn, an indicator of organotin, and up to concentrations of 40,000 μg g(-1), and Pb up to concentrations of 200,000 μg g(-1)). Although FP-XRF can rapidly screen samples whose composition and origin are unknown and can assist in instantaneous decision making, a full risk assessment will rely on additional analyses of the precise species (including organo-forms) of the metals present. PMID:25281117

  6. Population differentiation in Andropogon virginicus L. between abandoned coal strip mine spoil and old field habitats in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of Andropogon virginicus L. from abandoned coal mine spoils and old fields in southeastern Ohio were studied to determine whether ecotypic differentiation had occurred. Three mine spoil and three old field populations were paired for reciprocal transplant studies. A uniform garden was also established. Mine spoil and old field populations were compared for differences in demographic patterns, vegetative growth and phenology, reproductive output, and physiology. There were a greater number of seedlings and smaller individuals in the mine spoils, but seed production was similar between habitats. Seeds disperse farther in mine spoils and there was no or very little seedling establishment in 8 to 35 year old fields. Plants attained greater height in mine spoils. Population differentiation between one of the mine sites and one of the old fields was evident for seed weight, numbers of seeds per plant, and plant biomass. The three old field populations also differed from each other in reproductive characteristics. Mine spoil plants contained significantly more nitrogen within seeds despite the fact that mine soils had only half the available nitrogen as old field soils. Old field plants had a higher magnesium content in leaves. Chlorophyll content of leaves was higher for plants in old fields than for plants in mines. Undisturbed plants from both habitats had significantly higher photosynthetic rates than transplants. Old field plants had significantly greater photosynthetic rates than mine plants when grown in the uniform garden even though transpiration rates were similar. Differentiation between some coal mine spoil and old field populations of A. virginicus was evident for height growth, seed weight, photosynthesis, seed nitrogen content, magnesium content, and seed germination. Local population differentiation in plant height, seed weight, and in the timing of plant maturation was also observed.

  7. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-22

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage.

  8. Abiotic stress QTL in lettuce crop–wild hybrids: comparing greenhouse and field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Yorike; Hooftman, Danny A P; Uwimana, Brigitte; Schranz, M Eric; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Michelmore, Richard W; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The development of stress-tolerant crops is an increasingly important goal of current crop breeding. A higher abiotic stress tolerance could increase the probability of introgression of genes from crops to wild relatives. This is particularly relevant to the discussion on the risks of new GM crops that may be engineered to increase abiotic stress resistance. We investigated abiotic stress QTL in greenhouse and field experiments in which we subjected recombinant inbred lines from a cross between cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and its wild relative L. serriola to drought, low nutrients, salt stress, and aboveground competition. Aboveground biomass at the end of the rosette stage was used as a proxy for the performance of plants under a particular stress. We detected a mosaic of abiotic stress QTL over the entire genome with little overlap between QTL from different stresses. The two QTL clusters that were identified reflected general growth rather than specific stress responses and colocated with clusters found in earlier studies for leaf shape and flowering time. Genetic correlations across treatments were often higher among different stress treatments within the same experiment (greenhouse or field), than among the same type of stress applied in different experiments. Moreover, the effects of the field stress treatments were more correlated with those of the greenhouse competition treatments than to those of the other greenhouse stress experiments, suggesting that competition rather than abiotic stress is a major factor in the field. In conclusion, the introgression risk of stress tolerance (trans-)genes under field conditions cannot easily be predicted based on genomic background selection patterns from controlled QTL experiments in greenhouses, especially field data will be needed to assess potential (negative) ecological effects of introgression of these transgenes into wild relatives. PMID:25360276

  9. Minimizing field time to get reasonable greenhouse gas flux estimates from many chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas measurements from soil are typically derived from static chambers placed in several replicate field plots and in multiple locations within a plot. Inherent variability in emissions is due to a number of known and unknown factors. Getting robust emission estimates from numerous chamber...

  10. Aproaches for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission from agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Itoh, M.

    2009-12-01

    Percentage of atmospheric methane emitted form rice paddy is estimated at 60Tg/yr (20 - 100Tg/yr) which is near 10% of total global methane emission of 535Tg/yr (410 - 660Tg) (IPCC(1995), and which is near 30% of anthropogenic CH4 emission. Thus, mitigation of CH4 emission is required to be speed up. CH4 in paddy soil is emanated by the activities of anaerobic bacteria which is called methane producer through reduction of CO2 or decomposition of acetic acid, and it is transported to atmosphere through soil or paddy water surface. It is effective to control methane emission from rice paddy that period is prolonged on intermittent irrigation drainage, composted rice straw is incorporated as fertilizer instead of flesh one, or other. However, empirical approach of these kinds of experiments had not been sufficient because such a kind of experiment required significant times and efforts. In this study, we conducted demonstrative experiments to verify the effects of water management method differences in order to reduce CH4 emission from rice paddy at 9 experimental sites in 8 prefectures. In this, we used new gas analyzer which can measure CH4, CO2 and N2O at once developed by National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES), Japan. In this report, we show the preliminary results in first year of this study. Nakaboshi (mid-season-drainage) is one of cultivation methods in rice paddy that surface water in paddy field is once drained for about 10 days and the field is maintained like upland field to give adequate stress to rice plant for better harvest qualities and yields. Our targeted evaluation was dependencies of Nakaboshi periods lengths and Nakaboshi periods to CH4 emission reduction amounts for total cultivation periods within harvest yield maintained. The longer length of Nakaboshi period was prolonged, the lesser emission amounts of CH4 decreased even after when Nakaboshi period lasted, as a whole. In some soil types, for example in Kagoshima

  11. Metabolite changes in nine different soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Maria John, K M; Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand L

    2016-11-15

    Global food security remains a worldwide concern due to changing climate, increasing population, and reduced agriculture acreages. Greenhouse cultivation increases productivity by extending growing seasons, reducing pest infestations and providing protection against short term drastic weather fluctuations like frost, heat, rain, and wind. In the present study, we examined and compared the metabolic responses of nine soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Extracts were assayed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and LC-MS for the identification of 10 primary (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) and 10 secondary (isoflavones, fatty acid methyl esters) metabolites. Sugar molecules (glucose, sucrose, and pinitol) and isoflavone aglycons were increased but the isoflavones glucoside content decreased in the greenhouse cultivated soybeans. The amino acids and organic acids varied between the varieties. The results show that clustering (PCA and PLS-DA) patterns of soybean metabolites were significantly influenced by the genetic variation and growing conditions. PMID:27283642

  12. Nitrogen removal from the surface runoff of a field scale greenhouse vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju; Lu, Kouping; Zhao, Xu; Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient losses from greenhouse vegetable production systems may impair water quality in the Taihu Lake Region of China. We studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) lost via runoff from greenhouse vegetable systems and strategies for minimizing N entering water bodies. A two-year experiment at a field scale was conducted to monitor N surface runoff. An eco-ditch (148 m(2)) and a low N input paddy field (135 kg N ha⁻¹, 550 m²) were designed to remove N from the surface runoff of a 25 × 50 m greenhouse vegetable field. The greenhouse was not covered from late June to mid-October each year, and runoff occurred multiple times during this period. Annual total N loss in runoff from the greenhouse vegetable site was 25.3 and 33.5 kg ha⁻¹ in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nitrate-N was the major form of N lost in the runoff. The average runoff volume was 289 mm (varied from 221 to 357 mm), which contained 15.7 (varied from 3.3 to 39.2 mg L⁻¹) mg L⁻¹ total N. The eco-ditch system and the wetland paddy field (WPF) effectively reduced total N discharge; the removal rates reached 49.9% and 58.7% and the average removal capacities were 12.4 g N m⁻² and 4.1 g N m⁻² in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The combined system of the ecological ditch-WPF removed almost 79% total N in the runoff. Ecological ditch or paddy wetland can be a water management option available to growers in this region to economically reduce pollutants in agricultural runoff. PMID:26077503

  13. Field and greenhouse experiments on the fate of technetium in plants and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Hoffman, F. O; Bondietti, E. A.

    1984-03-01

    The behavior of 95mTc in plants and in a Captina silt loam soil following a single application of the pertechnetate form of the radionuclide to bare soil was compared between field and greenhouse conditions. Over a period of approx. six months, the net uptake of 95mTc by plants from undisturbed, intact soil in the greenhouse was about a factor of 10 greater than that in the field. Sieving the soil through a 2-mm mesh screen before potting and then planting new grass further increased plant uptake of 95mTc by approx. a factor of 20 relative to the field. Uptake by new grass was increased even more by decreasing the pot size. Most of the 95mTc applied to soil in the field or the greenhouse remained in the top 4 cm of the profile. Soon following application to soil, pertechnetate was transformed, or otherwise immobilized, such that extractions with 0.01 M CaCl2 recovered only a portion of the 95mTc present in soil. The extractability of 95mTc from soil using CaCl2 decreased over time as did 95mTc concentrations in vegetation. The pertechnetate applied to soil appeared to be converted over time to a less soluble and therefore less bioavailable form.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Manure Management: A Review of Field-based Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Dairy manure is a large potential source of agriculturally-derived greenhouse gases, but few studies have compared source locations or management strategies, nor evaluated how well emissions factors capture actual emission rates. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 approach. Greenhouse gas emissions varied by several orders of magnitude from all sources due to the heterogeneity of surface conditions and manure composition, the length of sampling, and the measurement technique. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (1097 × 591 g hd-1 d-1), over twice that from enteric fermentation (~350 g hd-1 d-1). Corrals and manure piles were the largest sources of nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from hardstandings and barn floors were negligible. Predicted methane emissions underestimated measured fluxes for slurry tanks, barns, and whole dairies. Predicted nitrous oxide emissions underestimated anaerobic lagoon fluxes but overestimated emissions from slurry tanks and barn floors. Refining these calculations requires: 1) within-site comparisons of measurement techniques, 2) multiple year data sets, 3) within-site comparisons across measurement scales, and 4) better metadata to constrain greenhouse gas emission models.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    PubMed

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. PMID:25044806

  16. Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550°C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

  17. Soil greenhouse gas emissions from three decades long-term experimental field of corn-soybean rotation and tillage treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from upland crop field as well as paddy field is being required, but little information on GHG emissions according to cultivation practices in upland field is available. Soil GHG emissions during the growing season were investigated in the field of three d...

  18. Plant-soil feedbacks: a comparative study on the relative importance of soil feedbacks in the greenhouse versus the field.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Johannes; Sitte, M; Schindhelm, A; Wright, J; Joshi, J

    2016-06-01

    Interactions between plants and soil microorganisms influence individual plant performance and thus plant-community composition. Most studies on such plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been performed under controlled greenhouse conditions, whereas no study has directly compared PSFs under greenhouse and natural field conditions. We grew three grass species that differ in local abundance in grassland communities simultaneously in the greenhouse and field on field-collected soils either previously conditioned by these species or by the general grassland community. As soils in grasslands are typically conditioned by mixes of species through the patchy and heterogeneous plant species' distributions, we additionally compared the effects of species-specific versus non-specific species conditioning on PSFs in natural and greenhouse conditions. In almost all comparisons PSFs differed between the greenhouse and field. In the greenhouse, plant growth in species-specific and non-specific soils resulted in similar effects with neutral PSFs for the most abundant species and positive PSFs for the less abundant species. In contrast, in the field all grass species tested performed best in non-specific plots, whereas species-specific PSFs were neutral for the most abundant and varied for the less abundant species. This indicates a general beneficial effect of plant diversity on PSFs in the field. Controlled greenhouse conditions might provide valuable insights on the nominal effects of soils on plants. However, the PSFs observed in greenhouse conditions may not be the determining drivers in natural plant communities where their effects may be overwhelmed by the diversity of abiotic and biotic above- and belowground interactions in the field. PMID:26922335

  19. Comparison of greenhouse and field degradation behaviour of isoprocarb, hexaflumuron and difenoconazole in Perilla frutescens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caixia; Zhang, Hu; Tang, Tao; Qian, Mingrong; Yuan, Yuwei; Zhang, Zhiheng

    2012-10-01

    Isoprocarb, hexaflumuron and difenoconazole were used in Perilla frutescens at 600, 60 and 75 g a.i./ha respectively. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for residue determination because of high selectivity and simple treatment. The results showed that the half-lives of isoprocarb, hexaflumuron and difenoconazole at greenhouse condition were 0.71, 1.63 and 1.21 days respectively, and at field condition, the values were 1.13, 1.07 and 0.92 days respectively. PMID:22872377

  20. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  1. Overexpression of antimicrobial lytic peptides protects grapevine from Pierce's disease under greenhouse but not field conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Hopkins, Donald L; Gray, Dennis J

    2015-10-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa prevents cultivation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and susceptible hybrids in the southeastern United States and poses a major threat to the grape industry of California and Texas. Genetic resistance is the only proven control of X. fastidiosa. Genetic engineering offers an alternative to heretofore ineffective conventional breeding in order to transfer only PD resistance traits into elite cultivars. A synthetic gene encoding lytic peptide LIMA-A was introduced into V. vinifera and a Vitis hybrid to assess in planta inhibition of X. fastidiosa. Over 1050 independent transgenic plant lines were evaluated in the greenhouse, among which nine lines were selected and tested under naturally-inoculated field conditions. These selected plant lines in the greenhouse remain disease-free for 10 years, to date, even with multiple manual pathogen inoculations. However, all these lines in the field, including a grafted transgenic rootstock, succumbed to PD within 7 years. We conclude that in planta production of antimicrobial lytic peptides does not provide durable PD resistance to grapevine under field conditions. PMID:25894660

  2. Effect of Biochar on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Cycling in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Harter, Johannes; Kaldamukova, Radina; Ruser, Reiner; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic N2O emissions contributing 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Soil biochar amendment has been suggested as a means to reduce both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. The reduction of N2O emissions by biochar has been demonstrated repeatedly in field and laboratory experiments. However, the mechanisms of the reduction remain unclear. Further it is not known how biochar field-weathering affects GHG emissions and how agro-chemicals, such as the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), that is often simultaneously applied together with commercial N-fertilizers, impact nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions from biochar amended soils. In order investigate the duration of the biochar effect on soil N2O emissions and its susceptibility to DMPP application we performed a microcosm and field study with a high-temperature (400 ° C) beech wood derived biochar (60 t ha-1 and 5 % (w/w) biochar in the field and microcosms, respectively). While the field site contained the biochar already for three years, soil and biochar were freshly mixed for the laboratory microcosm experiments. In both studies we quantified GHG emissions and soil nitrogen speciation (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium). While the field study was carried out over the whole vegetation period of the sunflower Helianthus annuus L., soil microcosm experiments were performed for up to 9 days at 28° C. In both experiments a N-fertilizer containing DMPP was applied either before planting of the sunflowers or at the beginning of soil microcosms incubation. Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed at 60% water filled pore space reflecting average field conditions. Our results show that biochar effectively reduced soil N2O emissions by up to 60 % in the field and in the soil microcosm experiments. No significant differences in N2O emission mitigation potential between field-aged and fresh

  3. Field validation of the DNDC model for greenhouse gas emissions in East Asian cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zucong; Sawamoto, Takuji; Li, Changsheng; Kang, Guoding; Boonjawat, Jariya; Mosier, Arvin; Wassmann, Reiner; Tsuruta, Haruo

    2003-12-01

    Validations of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model against field data sets of trace gases (CH4, N2O, and NO) emitted from cropping systems in Japan, China, and Thailand were conducted. The model-simulated results were in agreement with seasonal N2O emissions from a lowland soil in Japan from 1995 to 2000 and seasonal CH4 emissions from rice fields in China, but failed to simulate N2O and NO emissions from an Andisol in Japan as well as NO emissions from the lowland soil. Seasonal CH4 emissions from rice cropping systems in Thailand were poorly simulated because of site-specific soil conditions and rice variety. For all of the simulated cases, the model satisfactorily simulated annual variations of greenhouse gas emissions from cropping systems and effects of land management. However, discrepancies existed between the modeled and observed seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions. By incorporating modifications based on the local soil properties and management, DNDC model could become a powerful tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Mapping of geomorphic processes on abandoned fields and cultivated land in small catchments in semi-arid Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geißler, C.; Ries, J. B.; Marzolff, I.

    2009-04-01

    In semi-arid landscapes vegetation succession on abandoned agricultural land is a long lasting process due to the water deficit for the best time of the year. During this phase of succession, geomorphic processes like the formation and development of rills, gullies and other geomorphic processes lead to a more or less constant deterioration of the abandoned land. But also on currently cultivated land and under quasi-natural vegetation the processes of soil degradation by flowing water take place. Regarding small catchments like gully catchments, the topography and the land cover (abandoned land, cultivated land, quasi-natural vegetation) are highly important factors in gully formation and soil degradation. Another important point is the distribution of different land cover units and therefore the connectivity of the catchment as described by Bracken & Croke (2007). In this study, 11 catchments of single gullies have been mapped geomorphologically and compared to the rate of gully development derived from small-format aerial photography. It could be shown that there is a high variability of processes due to differences in topography and the way the land is or has been cultivated. On abandoned land, geomorphic processes are highly active and enhance or even predestinate the direction of headcut movement. Another result is that geomorphological mapping of these gully catchments revealed interactions and dependencies of linear erosion features like the connection to the main drainage line, e.g. the gully. In the larger of the observed catchments (>5 ha) it became clear that some catchments have morphological features that tend to enhance connectivity (long rills, shallow drainage lines) and some catchments have features which tend to restrict connectivity (terraces, dense vegetation). In "more connected" catchments the retreat rate of the headcut is generally higher. By the method of geomorphological mapping, valuable information about the soil degrading processes

  5. Short-term temporal and spatial variability of soil hydrophobicity in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a natural property of soils. Among other factors, SWR depends on soil moisture, mineralogy, texture, pH, organic matter, aggregate stability, fungal and microbiological activity and plant cover. It has implications on plant growth, superficial and subsurface hydrology and soil erosion. It is well known that SWR is temporarily, increasing when soils are dry and decreasing when moist. In agriculture, soil micro-topography is very heterogeneous with implications on surface water distribution and wettability. Normally, SWR studies are focused on large interval time (e.g, monthly or seasonally). The objective of this work is the study of SWR in a temporal scale and its variability in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania. An experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m) was designed in a flat area. Inside this plot SWR was measured in the field, placing three droplets of water on the soil surface and counting the time that takes to infiltrate. A total of 105 sampling points were measured per sampling period. Soil water repellency was measured after a period of 14 days without rainfall and in the seven consequent weeks (one measurement per week between 28th May and 07th of July 2012). The results showed that in this small plot, SWR was observed in the first (May 28), third and fourth measurements (08th of June and 16th). It was observed an increasing of the percentage of hydrophobic points (Water Drop Penetration Test ≥5 seconds) between the first and the fourth measurement, decreasing thereafter. Significant differences of SWR were observed among all periods (F=78.32, p<0.0001). The coefficient of variation (CV%) changed strikingly, 361.10 % (8th of May), 151.78 % (01st of June), 83.77% (08th of June), 125.87% (16th of June), 0.45 (22nd of June), 121%(31st of June) and 67.13% (7th of July). The correlation between the mean SWR and the CV% is 0.75, p<0.05. The changes were attributed to different soil moisture conditions. The differences

  6. Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

    2000-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

  7. Water management reduces greenhouse gas emissions in a Mediterranean rice paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruening, Carsten; Meijide, Ana; Manca, Giovanni; Goded, Ignacio; Seufert, Guenther; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy fields are one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore most studies on greenhouse gases (GHG) in these agricultural systems focus on the evaluation of CH4 production. However, there are other GHGs such as CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) also exchanged within the atmosphere. Since each of the GHGs has its own radiative forcing effect, the total GHG budget of rice cultivation and its global warming potential (GWP) must be assessed. For this purpose a field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean rice paddy field in the Po Valley (Italy), the largest rice producing region in Europe. Ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes were assessed using the eddy covariance technique, while soil respiration and soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured with closed chambers for two complete years. Combining all GHGs measured, the rice paddy field acted as a sink of -368 and -828 g CO2 eq m-2 year-1 in the first and second years respectively. Both years, it was a CO2 sink and a CH4 source, while the N2O contribution to the GWP was relatively small. Differences in the GHG budget between the two years of measurements were mainly caused by the greater CH4 emissions in the first year (37.4 g CH4 m-2 compared to 21.03 g CH4 m-2 in the second year), probably as a consequence of the drainage of the water table in the middle of the growing season during the second year, which resulted in lower CH4 emissions without significant increases of N2O and CO2 fluxes. However, midseason drainage also resulted in small decreases of yield, indicating that GHG budget studies from agricultural systems should consider carbon exports through the harvest. The balance between net GWP and carbon yield indicated a loss of carbon equivalents from the system, which was more than 30-fold higher in the first year. Our results therefore suggest that an adequate management of the water table has the potential to be an

  8. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  9. A field study on phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus in an abandoned mine site - Alagoa, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo, R.; Kikuchi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Current engineering-based technologies used to clean up soils are very costly and need lots of work. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove pollutants (i.e. heavy metals) from the environment or render them harmless. In the phytoremediation process several plant species can be used to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in contaminated soils to environmentally acceptable levels. The idea of using rare plants which hyperaccumulate metals to selectively remove and recycle excessive soil metals has increasingly been examined as a potential practical and more cost effective technology than soil replacement, solidification, or washing strategies presently used. However, most hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for phytoremediation application in the field due to their small biomass and slow growth. Cultivation of woody plants in contaminated soils has showed potential for use in phytoremediation but also it provides aesthetic improvement in the field. In this study we studied the possibility of using the approach of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus in a lead-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine. Although Eucalytpus globulus prefer good ecological conditions in humid temperate climates, there are few studies that have showed their great potential in contaminated areas and important biomonitors of environmental quality. A test field was set up in an abandoned mine site (Alagoa, Portugal) in order to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus. The field soil was characterized as follows: humus - 2.56-7.08%, pH in the soil water - 4.50-5.10, silte - 18-15% and total Pb - 67-239 mg/kg. The soils in some areas exceed the critical value (150 mg/kg) according with Portuguese law. Eucalytus globulus growing on the abandoned mine, contaminated with lead was studied. The results of shoots sample analysis (n = 15) show the total Pb levels of 0.170-0.093 mg/kg in the stem and 2.94-5.14 mg/kg in the leaves

  10. Phytostabilization of mine tailings using compost-assisted direct planting: Translating greenhouse results to the field.

    PubMed

    Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; White, Scott A; Root, Robert A; Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A; Hammond, Corin M; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-09-15

    Standard practice in reclamation of mine tailings is the emplacement of a 15 to 90cm soil/gravel/rock cap which is then hydro-seeded. In this study we investigate compost-assisted direct planting phytostabilization technology as an alternative to standard cap and plant practices. In phytostabilization the goal is to establish a vegetative cap using native plants that stabilize metals in the root zone with little to no shoot accumulation. The study site is a barren 62-hectare tailings pile characterized by extremely acidic pH as well as lead, arsenic, and zinc each exceeding 2000mgkg(-1). The study objective is to evaluate whether successful greenhouse phytostabilization results are scalable to the field. In May 2010, a 0.27ha study area was established on the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund (IKMHSS) site with six irrigated treatments; tailings amended with 10, 15, or 20% (w/w) compost seeded with a mix of native plants (buffalo grass, arizona fescue, quailbush, mountain mahogany, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) and controls including composted (15 and 20%) unseeded treatments and an uncomposted unseeded treatment. Canopy cover ranging from 21 to 61% developed after 41 months in the compost-amended planted treatments, a canopy cover similar to that found in the surrounding region. No plants grew on unamended tailings. Neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were 1.5 to 4 orders of magnitude higher after 41months in planted versus unamended control plots. Shoot tissue accumulation of various metal(loids) was at or below Domestic Animal Toxicity Limits, with some plant specific exceptions in treatments receiving less compost. Parameters including % canopy cover, neutrophilic heterotrophic bacteria counts, and shoot uptake of metal(loids) are promising criteria to use in evaluating reclamation success. In summary, compost amendment and seeding, guided by preliminary greenhouse studies, allowed plant establishment and sustained growth over 4years

  11. Field Testing of the Greenhouse Production Section of a Horticulture Laboratory Record Book for Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Kenneth B.

    A study was conducted to develop and field test a greenhouse production record book and unit of instruction for growing potted chrysanthemums. Twenty high schools in Pennsylvania with horticulture departments formed the population for the study. The twenty schools were randomly assigned to four treatment levels: (1) five classes received the…

  12. INTRASPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN EXPOSED TO ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION UNDER GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-three soybean cultivars were grown in a greenhouse under a daily dose of either 0 or10.1 kJ/sq m biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-BsubBE) radiation until reproductive maturity. Of these, six selected cultivars were also grown in the field with similar enhanced leve...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Sensing Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems - Field Experiment Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Christensen, L. E.; Brockers, R.; Thompson, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Requirements for greenhouse gas point source detection and quantification often require high spatial resolution on the order of meters. These applications, which help close the gap in emissions estimate uncertainties, also demand sensing with high sensitivity and in a fashion that accounts for spatiotemporal variability on the order of seconds to minutes. Low-cost vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) provide a means to detect and identify the location of point source gas emissions while offering ease of deployment and high maneuverability. Our current fielded gas sensing sUAS platforms are able to provide instantaneous in situ concentration measurements at locations within line of sight of the operator. Recent results from field experiments demonstrating methane detection and plume characterization will be discussed here, including performance assessment conducted via a controlled release experiment in 2013. The logical extension of sUAS gas concentration measurement is quantification of flux rate. We will discuss the preliminary strategy for quantitative flux determination, including intrinsic challenges and heritage from airborne science campaigns, associated with this point source flux quantification. This system approach forms the basis for intelligent autonomous quantitative characterization of gas plumes, which holds great value for applications in commercial, regulatory, and safety environments.

  14. In-field greenhouse gas emissions from cookstoves in rural Mexican households

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Edwards, Rufus; Alatorre Frenk, Claudio; Masera, Omar

    The majority of estimates of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with changes from traditional to improved cookstoves in developing countries come from water-boiling tests (WBTs) conducted in simulated kitchens. Little is known about the bias in these estimates relative to typical stove use by residents in rural communities. To assess this bias, the reductions in emissions as a result of installation of an improved wood-burning "Patsari" stove were quantified in both simulated kitchens and field conditions in eight homes with open fire stoves and 13 homes with Patsari stoves in Purépecha communities of Michoacán, Mexico. The results demonstrate that nominal combustion efficiencies (NCEs) of open fire cookstoves were significantly lower ( p<0.001) in rural homes during daily cooking activities (89.7±2.0%) compared to WBTs in simulated kitchens (94.2±0.5%), which results in almost a doubling of the products on incomplete combustion (PICs) emitted. Since emissions from the rural residential sector are important in the modeling of atmospheric trace greenhouse gas concentrations in areas that rely on solid fuel use for primary energy provision, if these open fires reflect conditions in other areas of the world, substantial underestimation of emissions from open fires may be present in current emission databases. Conversely, NCEs for the improved Patsari stoves were significantly higher ( p<0.01) in rural homes during daily cooking activities (92.3±1.3%) compared to during WBTs in simulated kitchens (87.2±4.3%), as WBTs do not reflect cooking activities in rural homes. Thus the Patsari emits 25% less PICs per kg fuelwood used than the open fire, and carbon emission reductions of Patsari and similar improved stoves are also likely underestimated. Finally, in addition to a reduction in overall particulate emissions for rural homes during daily activities, the ratio of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) within the aerosol fraction decreased between the

  15. Differential Effects of Legume Species on the Recovery of Soil Microbial Communities, and Carbon and Nitrogen Contents, in Abandoned Fields of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin Hua; Jiao, Shu Mei; Gao, Rong Qing; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant-soil interactions are known to influence a wide range of ecosystem-level functions. Moreover, the recovery of these functions is of importance for the successful restoration of soils that have been degraded through intensive and/or inappropriate land use. Here, we assessed the effect of planting treatments commonly used to accelerate rates of grassland restoration, namely introduction of different legume species Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Melilotus suaveolens, on the recovery of soil microbial communities and carbon and nitrogen contents in abandoned fields of the Loess Plateau, China. The results showed effects were species-specific, and either positive, neutral or negative depending on the measure and time-scale. All legumes increased basal respiration and metabolic quotient and had a positive effect on activity and functional diversity of the soil microbial community, measured using Biolog EcoPlate. However, soil under Astragalus adsurgens had the highest activity and functional diversity relative to the other treatments. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and microbial biomass were effectively restored in 3-5 years by introducing Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens into early abandoned fields. Soil carbon and nitrogen content were retarded in 3-5 years and microbial biomass was retarded in the fifth year by introducing Melilotus suaveolens. Overall, the restoration practices of planting legumes can significantly affect soil carbon and nitrogen contents, and the biomass, activity, and functional diversity of soil microbial community. Therefore, we propose certain legume species could be used to accelerate ecological restoration of degraded soils, hence assist in the protection and preservation of the environment.

  16. Simulation of the plant uptake of organophosphates and other emerging pollutants for greenhouse experiments and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Stefan; Eggen, Trine

    2013-06-01

    The uptake of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), the insect repellant N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), and the plasticizer n-butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS) into plants was studied in greenhouse experiments and simulated with a dynamic physiological plant uptake model. The calibrated model was coupled to a tipping buckets soil transport model and a field scenario with sewage sludge application was simulated. High uptake of the polar, low-volatile compounds TCEP, TCPP, and DEET into plants was found, with highest concentrations in straw (leaves and stem). Uptake into carrot roots was high for TCPP and TBP. NBBS showed no high uptake but was rapidly degraded. Uptake into barley seeds was small. The pattern and levels of uptake could be reproduced by the model simulations, which indicates mainly passive uptake and transport (i.e., by the transpiration stream, with the water) into and within the plants. Also the field simulations predicted a high uptake from soil into plants of TCEP, TCPP, and DEET, while TBP is more likely taken up from air. The BCF values measured and calculated in the greenhouse study are in most cases comparable to the calculated values of the field scenario, which demonstrates that greenhouse studies can be suitable for predicting the behavior of chemicals in the field. Organophosphates have a high potential for bioaccumulation in crops and reach agricultural fields both via sewage sludge and by atmospheric deposition. PMID:23212267

  17. Field study on the accumulation of trace elements by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Paula; Simões, Isabel; Palma, Patrícia; Amaral, Olga; Matos, João Xavier

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of trace elements (TE) by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines, eighteen different small farms were selected near three mines from the Portuguese sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (São Domingos, Aljustrel and Lousal). Total and bioavailable As, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were analyzed in the soils, and the same TE were analyzed in three different vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), collected at the same locations. The soils were contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, since their total concentrations exceeded the considered soil quality guideline values for plant production in the majority of the sampling sites. The maximum total concentrations for those TE were extremely high in some of the sampling sites (e.g. 1,851 mg As kg(-1) in São Domingos, 1,126 mg Cu kg(-1) in Aljustrel, 4,946 mg Pb kg(-1) in São Domingos, and 1,224 mg Zn kg(-1) in Aljustrel). However, the soils were mainly circumneutral, a factor that contributes to their low bioavailable fractions. As a result, generally, the plants contained levels of these elements characteristic of uncontaminated plants, and accumulation factors for all elements <1, typical of excluder plants. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for Cu and Zn, through the consumption of these vegetables, falls below the recommended upper limit for daily intake of these elements. The sampling site that stood out from the others was located at São João de Negrilhos (Aljustrel), where bioavailable Zn levels were higher, a consequence of the slight acidity of the soil. Therefore, the Zn content in vegetables was also higher, characteristic of contaminated plants, emphasizing the risk of Zn entering the human food chain via the consumption of crops produced on those soils. PMID:24252198

  18. Long Term Manipulations of Intact Microbial Mat Communities in a Greenhouse Collaboratory: Simulating Earth's Present and Past Field Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; Discipulo, Mykell; Embaye, Tsegereda; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda L.; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie E.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mat communities were obtained from marine hypersaline saltern ponds, maintained in a greenhouse facility, and examined for the effects of salinity variations. Because these microbial mats are considered to be useful analogs of equivalent ancient marine communities, they offer insights about evolutionary events during the greater than 3 billion year time interval wherein mats co-evolved with Earth's geosphere and atmosphere. Although photosynthetic mats can be highly dynamic and exhibit extremely high activity, the mats in the present study have been maintained for more than one year with relatively minor changes. The major groups of microorganisms, as assayed using microscopic, genetic, and biomarker methodologies, are essentially the same as those in the original field samples. Field and greenhouse mats were similar with respect to rates of exchange of oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon across the mat-water interface, both during the day and at night. Field and greenhouse mats exhibited similar rates of efflux of methane and hydrogen. Manipulations of salinity in the water overlying the mats produced changes in the community that strongly resemble those observed in the field. A collaboratory testbed and an array of automated features are being developed to support remote scientific experimentation with the assistance of intelligent software agents. This facility will permit teams of investigators to explore ancient environmental conditions that are rare or absent today but might have influenced the early evolution of these photosynthetic ecosystems.

  19. Impact of biochar field aging on laboratory greenhouse gas production potentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent observations of decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) production from biochar amended soils have been used to further substantiate the environmental benefit of biochar production and soil incorporation strategies. However, the mechanisms behind the “biochar effect” have not been fully elucidated. In...

  20. Efficacy of microbial amendments on vegetables in greenhouse and field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendments, with and without microbes, may affect plant development. Eight-week-old, organically grown, seedlings of a bell, cv. Jupiter, and a non-pungent jalapeño, cv. Pace 105, pepper (both Capsicum annuum L.) were transplanted into pots in a greenhouse using an organic potting medium. One...

  1. DAYCENT MODEL ANALYSIS OF NET GREENHOUSE GAS FLUXES FOR FARM FIELDS IN EASTERN VIRGINIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing high input crops, double cropping, and reducing or eliminating tillage have been shown to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) levels and these practices have been suggested as means to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, all 3 important biogenic GHG’s (CO2, N2O, CH...

  2. Field emissions of greenhouse gases from contrasting biofuel feedstock production systems under different N fertilization rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management choices (crop type, fertilization rate) could affect agricultural soil emissions of important temperature-forcing greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Soil GHG emissions were measured in situ over the 2010 growing season at a biofu...

  3. Enzymes, Total Organic Carbon, Microbial Biomass, and Greenhouse Gas Efflux in a Central Missouri Soybean Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon and nitrogen enter the atmosphere primarily as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), respectively, partly due to anthropogenic effects of industrial and agricultural processes. The effects of these greenhouse gases (GHG) on global climate change and the environment require a better un...

  4. REACTION OF COMMERCIAL SOFT RED WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS TO STAGONOSPORA NODORUM IN THE GREENHOUSE AND FIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-seven wheat genotypes previously reported in the literature as resistant to Stagonospora leaf and glume blotch were tested for their reaction to Stagonospora nodorum isolates obtained from Ohio. Four genotypes had high severities of leaf blotch in the greenhouse, ranging from 25.8% to 35.8% ...

  5. Sinkhole-type subsidence over abandoned coal mines in St. David, Illinois. Mine subsidence report, St. David, Illinois. A field survey and analysis of mine subsidence of abandoned coal mines in St. David, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Wildanger, E.G.; Mahar, J.; Nieto, A.

    1980-01-01

    This study examined the geologic data, mining history, and subsidence trends of the St. David region. Mine subsidence has occurred due to collapse of the abandoned mine workings. The known subsidence areas have been mapped and described. Results of the study include: (1) St. David has been undermined by both large shipping mines and smaller local mines; (2) sinkholes will continue to develop in this area in response to rock failure and roof collapse above the abandoned mine workings; (3) some primary factors that contribute to the sinkhole problems are the undermining and roof rock composition; (4) sinkholes will be smaller in the future; (5) ten of the 63 sinkholes occurred close enough to structures to cause damage, and only six sinkholes caused damage; (6) ways to minimize potential damage to future homes from sinkhole subsidence are manageable; (7) threats to residents lie in the collapse of heavy walls, brick chimneys, breaks in gas, water, or electrical lines; and (8) location of future subsidence is not predictable. (DP)

  6. Effect of different agronomic management practices on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling in a long-term field trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2015-04-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, however, regarding in each case a different agricultural management system, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system where the effect of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, will be enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to organic and integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years are being examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for each experimental

  7. Application of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) for heavy metal analysis of soils in crop fields near abandoned mine sites.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min

    2010-06-01

    To get representative soil samples, a sampling method was verified for crop fields in the vicinity of abandoned mine sites. Application of appropriate sampling or analytical methods is very important as it affects the costs, time, and accuracy of the refined investigation of soil contamination. Two-time sampling for each crop field was conducted to verify the reproducibility of a zigzag method for soil sampling. The soil analysis using a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) device was conducted to measure concentrations of metal species in soils, and its results were compared to the extracted concentrations by the Korean Standard Test (KST) for soils. As a result, the determination coefficient (R (2)) of linear regression analysis for data obtained by ex situ precise measurement or in situ field screening using pXRF was closely related with the ratio of the extracted concentration by KST to interference-free detection limits (IFDL) of pXRF (designated as KST/IFDL). As the specific metal species had a higher ratio of KST/IFDL, its R (2) was even higher in the field screening tests. However, the slopes of linear regression analysis for most metal species extracted by aqua-regia were close to 1.0 so that extracted concentrations by aqua-regia were similar to the analytical values obtained by pXRF, whereas extraction using a weak acid (0.1 M HCl) had different slopes for soils contaminated with different ranges of concentrations of metal species. Especially Zn showed not only high ratios of KST/IFDL because of aqua regia extraction, but also high determination coefficients. Because of its simple, rapid, and accurate capacities for metal analysis, the pXRF analysis showed high applicability in ex situ precise measurements or in situ field screening of metal analysis. In terms of applicability for regulation, especially in situ pXRF field screening with the zigzag method could be effectively applied to achieve an economical survey by determining hot spots or non

  8. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  9. Effects of soil amendments and EDTA on lead uptake by Chromolaena odorata: greenhouse and field trial experiments.

    PubMed

    Tanhan, Phanwimol; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Upatham, Suchart

    2011-10-01

    Greenhouse and field trial experiments were performed to evaluate the use of Chromolaena odorata with various soil amendments for phytoextraction of Pb contaminated soil Pb mine soils contain low amount of nutrients, so the additions of organic (cow manure) and inorganic (Osmocote and NH4NO3 and KCl) fertilizers with EDTA were used to enhance plant growth and Pb accumulation. Greenhouse study showed that cow manure decreased available Pb concentrations and resulted in the highest Pb concentration in roots (4660 mg kg(-1)) and shoots (389.2 mg kg(-1)). EDTA increased Pb accumulation in shoots (17-fold) and roots (11-fold) in plants grown in soil with Osmocote with Pb uptake up to 203.5 mg plant(-1). Application of all fertilizers had no significant effects on relative growth rates of C. odorata. Field trial study showed that C. odorata grown in soil with 99545 mg kg(-1) total Pb accumulated up to 3730.2 and 6698.2 mg kg(-1) in shoots and roots, respectively, with the highest phytoextraction coefficient (1.25) and translocation factor (1.18). These results indicated that C. odorata could be used for phytoextraction of Pb contaminated soil. In addition, more effective Pb accumulation could be enhanced by Osmocote fertilizer. However, the use of EDTA in the field should be concerned with their leaching problems. PMID:21972512

  10. Field scale remediation of mine wastes at an abandoned gold mine, Australia II: Effects on plant growth and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddocks, Greg; Lin, Chuxia; McConchie, David

    2009-05-01

    This second paper reports the results of plant growth, plant mortality, plant leaf tissue metal and salt concentrations and leachate quality monitoring from lysimeters in four large field trial treatments established on sulfidic waste rock/soil that was used for haul road construction at a closed gold mine in Australia. The TerraB™, lime and clay treatments allowed good tree growth of four Eucalypt species, compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in tree growth between the TerraB™, lime or clay treatments over the 2 years of monitoring in this paper. However, the growth of one tree species was poor in the TerraB™ treatment. Leaf tissue metal and major ion data are also presented. Leachate pH in the control became increasingly acidic (pH 4.57-3.95). The addition of Ca(OH)2 and biosolids led to an initial increase in leachate pH, compared to the control; however, this has decreased over the duration of the study (pH 5.37-4.89) and may affect the sustainable growth of plants in the future. In the TerraB™ and biosolids treatment leachate pH increased to 6.92 after the first rainfall event and continued to increase over the duration of the study to pH 7.4 after 24 months. After 24 months average heavy metal leachate concentrations (mg/L) in the lysimeters for Al, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn were, control: 32.55, 5.67, 12.71, 39.29, 121.80, TerraB™: 0.07, 0.02, 0.07, 0.57, 0.23, and lime: 2.19, 1.19, 2.33, 3.6, 28.4. No leachate was available for collection from the clay treatment indicating that this technique was functioning in terms of minimizing the infiltration of water into the mine soil.

  11. Modeling the transfer of arsenic from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.)--a greenhouse and field-based study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhou, Fen; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-07-01

    Reliable empirical models describing arsenic (As) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to estimate the human As burden from dietary intake. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in parallel with a field trial located at three sites through China to develop and validate soil-plant transfer models to predict As concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Stepwise multiple linear regression relationships were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or available (0.5 M NaHCO3) soil As fractions. Carrot As contents were best predicted by the pseudo total soil As concentrations in combination with soil pH and Fe oxide, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 70 %. The constructed prediction model was further validated and improved to avoid overprotection using data from the field trial. The final obtained model is of great practical relevance to the prediction of As uptake under field conditions. PMID:25750050

  12. [N2O emission from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable field in Nanjing suburb, Jiangsu Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Man; Xiong, Zheng-Qin; Li, Ye

    2012-03-01

    By using static opaque chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the dynamic changes of N2O fluxes and their relationships with soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil nitrate and ammonium contents in an intensively managed greenhouse celery-Tung choy-Bok choy-amaranth rotation field and in a bare fallow land in Nanjing suburb. The cumulative N2O emission from the rotation vegetable field was as high as 137.2 kg N x hm(-2), being significantly higher than that from the bare fallow land (29.2 kg N x hm(-2)), and the N2O-N emission factor of the rotation vegetable field ecosystem was up to 4.6%. In the rotation field, the planting of Tung choy had the greatest contribution to the annual cumulative N2O emission, occupying 53.5% of the total, followed by the planting of Bok choy (31.9%), celery field (4.5%), and amaranth (4.8%). The N2O flux of the rotation field had significant positive correlation with soil temperature, the Q10 being 2.80, but no significant correlations with soil moisture content and soil nitrate and ammonium contents. PMID:22720619

  13. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    PubMed

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-01

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas. PMID:23634761

  14. Epistasis for Fitness-Related Quantitative Traits in Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in the Field and in the Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Russell L.; Held, Stephanie; Waits, Ashleigh; Mauricio, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    The extent to which epistasis contributes to adaptation, population differentiation, and speciation is a long-standing and important problem in evolutionary genetics. Using recombinant inbred (RI) lines of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under natural field conditions, we have examined the genetic architecture of fitness-correlated traits with respect to epistasis; we identified both single-locus additive and two-locus epistatic QTL for natural variation in fruit number, germination, and seed length and width. For fruit number, we found seven significant epistatic interactions, but only two additive QTL. For seed germination, length, and width, there were from two to four additive QTL and from five to eight epistatic interactions. The epistatic interactions were both positive and negative. In each case, the magnitude of the epistatic effects was roughly double that of the effects of the additive QTL, varying from −41% to +29% for fruit number and from −5% to +4% for seed germination, length, and width. A number of the QTL that we describe participate in more than one epistatic interaction, and some loci identified as additive also may participate in an epistatic interaction; the genetic architecture for fitness traits may be a network of additive and epistatic effects. We compared the map positions of the additive and epistatic QTL for germination, seed width, and seed length from plants grown in both the field and the greenhouse. While the total number of significant additive and epistatic QTL was similar under the two growth conditions, the map locations were largely different. We found a small number of significant epistatic QTL × environment effects when we tested directly for them. Our results support the idea that epistatic interactions are an important part of natural genetic variation and reinforce the need for caution in comparing results from greenhouse-grown and field-grown plants. PMID:16157670

  15. [Rules and impact factors of greenhouse gases emission in the saline-alkali paddy fields in different years].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Fang, Tian-Ru; Hou, Ke-Yi; Zhao, Ren-Zhu; Liang, Shuang

    2014-12-01

    With the method of combining field sampling and plot test, we took saline-alkali paddy field of Qianguo county, Jilin province as an investigation object. According to the nature of soil in the area, we monitored CH4 and N2O which released from soil during rice growth period and tested the soil pH and soil organic carbon to analyze the law and reasons of greenhouse gas emission in the paddy fields. The results showed that N2O emission from paddy fields presented three peaks with distinct seasonal patterns. Application of fertilizer provided additional reactive substrate, which affected N2O emission significantly. Under flooding conditions, the main source of N2O is a denitrification process, while after drainage, nitrification was the predominance. CH4 emission showed a single peak at rice tillering stage when rice grew vigorously. That deoxidation condition dominated in the deep water layer in the paddy fields provided suitable conditions for CH4 producing microorganisms, which result in the emergence of CH4 emission peak. The pH doesn't have an obvious influence on CH4 and N2O, while SOC content in soil and pattern of CH4 emission showed a significantly positive correlation. PMID:25826947

  16. Uptake of microcontaminants by crops irrigated with reclaimed water and groundwater under real field greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Savé, Robert; Muñoz, Pere; Biel, Carme; Bayona, J M

    2013-06-01

    The use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation has emerged as a new strategy for coping with water scarcity in semiarid countries. However, the incorporation of the organic microcontaminants in such water into the diet through crop uptake poses a potential risk to human health. This paper aims to assess the presence of organic microcontaminants in different crops irrigated with groundwater and reclaimed water (secondary or tertiary effluents) in a greenhouse experiment. The determination of microcontaminants in water and vegetation samples was performed by solid-phase extraction and matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure with GC-MS/MS, respectively. The presence of nitrates in the groundwater used for irrigation increased biomass production by a higher proportion than the harvest index. The concentration of microcontaminants in lettuce, carrots, and green beans ranged from less than the limit of quantitation to 571 ng g(-1) (fresh weight). Tributyl phosphate and butylated hydroxyanisole exhibited the highest concentration levels in crops. The concentration and frequency of detection of microcontaminants were lower in green bean pods than in green bean roots and leaves. Although the concentrations were generally low, the simultaneous presence of a variety of microcontaminants should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk to human health. PMID:23397176

  17. CO2 and N2O emissions from Lou soils of greenhouse tomato fields under aerated irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huijing; Chen, Hui; Cai, Huanjie; Yang, Fan; Li, Dan; Wang, Fangtong

    2016-05-01

    The change of O2 content in soil caused by aerated irrigation (AI) must inevitably affect the production and emissions of CO2 and N2O from soils. This paper described in-situ observation of CO2 and N2O emissions from AI soils with static chamber-GC technique, in order to reveal the effects of AI on CO2 and N2O emissions from soils of greenhouse tomato fields in autumn-winter season. CO2 and N2O emissions from AI soils mainly concentrated in the blooming and fruit setting period compared to other periods. AI increased cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O by 11.8% (p = 0.394) and 10.0% (p = 0.480), respectively, compared to the control. The integrative global warming potential of CO2 and N2O on a 100-year horizon for the AI treatment was 6430.60 kg ha-1, increased by 11.7% compared with that for the control (p = 0.356). Both the emissions of CO2 and N2O from AI soils had the exponential positive correlation with soil water-filled pore space (WFPS). The highest peak of CO2 and N2O fluxes from AI soils was observed at 46.7% and 47.5% WFPS, with WFPS ranging from 43.3% to 51.5% and from 45.6% to 52.3% during the whole growth stage, respectively. In addition, the average yield for the AI treatment (34.52 t ha-1) was significantly greater (17.4%) compared with that of the control (p = 0.018). These results suggest that AI do not significantly increase the integrative greenhouse effect caused by CO2 and N2O from soils of greenhouse tomato fields, but significantly increase the tomato yield. The research results provide certain theoretical foundation and scientific basis for accurately evaluating the farmland ecological effect of AI technique.

  18. CO2 and N2O emissions from Lou soils of greenhouse tomato fields under aerated irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huijing; Chen, Hui; Cai, Huanjie; Yang, Fan; Li, Dan; Wang, Fangtong

    2016-05-01

    The change of O2 content in soil caused by aerated irrigation (AI) must inevitably affect the production and emissions of CO2 and N2O from soils. This paper described in-situ observation of CO2 and N2O emissions from AI soils with static chamber-GC technique, in order to reveal the effects of AI on CO2 and N2O emissions from soils of greenhouse tomato fields in autumn-winter season. CO2 and N2O emissions from AI soils mainly concentrated in the blooming and fruit setting period compared to other periods. AI increased cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O by 11.8% (p = 0.394) and 10.0% (p = 0.480), respectively, compared to the control. The integrative global warming potential of CO2 and N2O on a 100-year horizon for the AI treatment was 6430.60 kg ha-1, increased by 11.7% compared with that for the control (p = 0.356). Both the emissions of CO2 and N2O from AI soils had the exponential positive correlation with soil water-filled pore space (WFPS). The highest peak of CO2 and N2O fluxes from AI soils was observed at 46.7% and 47.5% WFPS, with WFPS ranging from 43.3% to 51.5% and from 45.6% to 52.3% during the whole growth stage, respectively. In addition, the average yield for the AI treatment (34.52 t ha-1) was significantly greater (17.4%) compared with that of the control (p = 0.018). These results suggest that AI do not significantly increase the integrative greenhouse effect caused by CO2 and N2O from soils of greenhouse tomato fields, but significantly increase the tomato yield. The research results provide certain theoretical foundation and scientific basis for accurately evaluating the farmland ecological effect of AI technique.

  19. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375kgN/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH4 mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO2, and N2O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO2 flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH4 flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N2O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225kgN/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO2-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89t/ha in paddy fields. PMID:27179680

  20. Seasonal assessment of greenhouse gas emission from irrigated lowland rice field under infrared warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice fields are considered as one of the major sources of methane (CH4), and they also emit nitrous oxide (N2O). A field experiment was conducted at the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, in 2010 – 2011 using a temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) system. Our object...

  1. Compatible host/mycorrhizal fungus combinations for micropropagated sea oats. I. Field sampling and greenhouse evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, David M; Alagely, Abid K; Kane, Michael E; Philman, Nancy L

    2003-08-01

    Micropropagation technology promises to improve the supply of sea oats for restoring Florida's eroded beaches, but concerns about genetic diversity need to be addressed. These dune plants are colonized by a wide array of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, yet little is know of the diversity of these fungal communities. Our goal was to test the level of functional diversity that exists among communities of AM fungi that are present in divergent Florida dunes. Community pot cultures were established from samples collected from ten transects in two Gulf coast and two Atlantic coast locations in Florida, and these were used to conduct two greenhouse studies. The objective of the first study was to evaluate within-location variance in the mycorrhizal function of different AM fungal communities associated with endemic sea oats. The objective of the second study was to evaluate among-location responses of plant and fungal ecotypes using selected combinations obtained from the first experiment. Within locations, the AM fungal community had significant impacts on shoot mass and shoot-P contents, confirming a range of symbiotic effectiveness exists within the beach-dune system. Among locations, there was a tendency for greater root colonization between host clones and fungal communities from the same location, indicating a degree of specificity between host ecotypes and their symbiotic fungi. Relative to plant growth response, one fungal community was superior across plant genotypes from all locations, while one plant genotype tended to have the best response across all fungal communities. These data suggest that while it is possible to select effective AM fungal-host combinations for outplanting, origin of host and AM fungi have little predictive value in screening these combinations. PMID:12687447

  2. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  3. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  4. No evidence for local adaptation in an invasive alien plant: field and greenhouse experiments tracing a colonization sequence

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Anna T.; Kollmann, Johannes; Mayer, Andreas; Haider, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Local adaptation enables plant species to persist under different environmental conditions. Evolutionary change can occur rapidly in invasive annual species and has been shown to lead to local adaptation. However, the patterns and mechanisms of local adaptation in invasive species along colonization sequences are not yet understood. Thus, in this study the alien annual Impatiens glandulifera was used to investigate local adaptation to distinct habitats that have been consecutively invaded in central Europe. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment was performed using 15 populations from alluvial deciduous forests, fallow meadows and coniferous upland forests, and a greenhouse experiment was performed in which plants from these habitats were grown under treatments reflecting the main habitat differentiators (shade, soil acidity, competition). Key Results Biomass production, specific leaf area, plant height and relative growth rate differed between habitats in the field experiment and between treatments in the greenhouse, but not between seed origins. Overall, there was no indication of local adaptation in either experiment. Conclusions Since I. glandulifera is a successful invader in many habitats without showing local adaptation, it is suggested that the species is coping with environmental variation by means of high phenotypic plasticity. The species seems to follow a ‘jack-and-master’ strategy, i.e. it is able to maintain high fitness under a wide range of environmental conditions, but performs particularly well in favourable habitats. Therefore, the proposed colonization sequence is likely to be based primarily on changes in propagule pressure. It is concluded that invasive alien plants can become dominant in distinct habitats without local adaptation. PMID:24214934

  5. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION RATES AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMISSION FACTORS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field testing to develop more reliable green house gas (GHG) emission estimates for Wastewater treatment (WWT) lagoons. (NOTE: Estimates are available for the amount of methane (CH4) emitted from certain types of waste facilities, but there is not adeq...

  6. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of the Natural Saponin CAY-1, for Control of Several Strawberry Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The steroidal saponin from cayenne pepper, CAY-1, was tested as a potential fungicide in detached leaf assays and field trials. Efficacy of CAY-1 against strawberry anthracnose was compared to the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Both fungicides prevented anthracnose leaf lesions when applied to...

  7. Detection of changes in the global troposphere temperature field induced by greenhouse gasses

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, T.P.

    1985-05-01

    Several approaches to detecting the existence of a theoretically predicted CO/sub 2/ induced signal in the global temperature field are investigated. It appears that a relatively thin network of observing stations can, when properly analyzed, provide a first order estimate of global temperature change. Using these stations, it is possible to estimate the strength of an a priori CO/sub 2/ signal in the 3-dimensional tropospheric temperature field. This signal is derived from two different GCM simulations both with interactive oceans. The observed signal strength over 1960 to 1980 is half that expected theoretically but still demonstrated a trend that is marginally significant. If the discrepancy between observation and theory is due only to the delaying effects of inertial elements of the climate system, then the characteristic delay time is estimated to be roughly 20 years.

  8. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  9. Enabling Continuous, Field-Based Isotope and Greenhouse Gas Measurements with WS-CRDS-based Analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; van Pelt, A.

    2009-04-01

    When new instrumentation becomes widely available, it has the power to fundamentally change how measurements are made. In particular, technology developments that enable measurements to be done more simply, at lower cost, by a greater number of scientists, moving information-rich, laboratory-quality measurements from the lab out into the field -- these are the innovations that can aid in moving the science forward. Here we describe how the application of a novel cavity-enhanced spectroscopic technique called wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) has been pivotal in developing gas an isotope analyzers capable of being deployed in the field, unattended, for long periods of time. This particular implementation of the traditional cavity ring down technique employs several additional key aspects of control and design to achieve highly sensitive, highly stable measurements. WS-CRDS owes its high sensitivity to an extremely long optical interaction pathlengh, as well as to its complete immunity to laser noise since the laser is actually off during the measurement. To stabilize the spectroscopic line itself, the temperature and pressure of the gas are tightly controlled. The analyzer's optical cavity, gas handling system and analog electronics are themselves also tightly temperature controlled. The heart of the WS-CRDS technique is, however, the wavelength monitor which further ensures the stability of the measurement by continuously measuring and tightly controlling the laser wavelength. A key design aspect of the WS-CRDS analyzer is its three-mirror, traveling-wave cavity which allows optical backreflections to be avoided and further adds to the inherent stability of the optical train. The analyzer owes its ease of use to the design requirement that it be field-deployable, in locations without personnel, with the ability to restart itself and automatically resume collecting data even after a power failure. Beyond the design aspects of the analyzer

  10. Effects of agricultural practices on greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from corn fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, D.; Wang, J.; Jima, T.; Dennis, S.; Stockert, C.; Smart, D.; Bhattarai, S.; Brown, K.; Sammis, T.; Reddy, C.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is, by far, the largest producer of corn (Zea mays L.) in the world. Recent increases in fertilizer cost and concerns over global climate change have farmers and others interested in more efficient fertilization management and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. To seek the best management practices, we conducted field experiments during the 2012 growing season at Tennessee State University Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center in Nashville, TN. Six treatments were applied including regular URAN application [2 times], multiple URAN applications [4 times], denitrification inhibitor with regular URAN application, and chicken litter plus regular URAN application in no-tilled plots, and URAN application plus bio-char in tilled plots, all compared to regular URAN application in conventional tilled plots. Each treatment was replicated six times (blocks). We measured N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions using a closed chamber method after rainfall events, fertilizer applications or every two weeks whichever was shorter. Corresponding soil NH4+-N and NO3--N, soil temperature and moisture were also measured during the gas sampling. Plant physiology and growth were measured about every two weeks. While preliminary results indicate that N2O and CO2 fluxes were significantly influenced by the agricultural practices on some days, particularly after rainfall events, CH4 flux was not influenced by the treatments during most of the days. Plots with bio-char showed significantly lower N2O emissions. We also measured N2O flux in a commercial corn field using the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique to ground verify the chamber based N2O emissions at the field scale. Results obtained with the EC technique seem comparable with the chamber method.

  11. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddy fields under different nitrogen fertilization loads in Chongming Island, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianxian; Yin, Shan; Li, Yinsheng; Zhuang, Honglei; Li, Changsheng; Liu, Chunjiang

    2014-02-15

    Rice is one of the major crops of southern China and Southeast Asia. Rice paddies are one of the largest agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources in this region because of the application of large quantities of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to the plants. In particular, the production of methane (CH4) is a concern. Investigating a reasonable amount of fertilizers to apply to plants is essential to maintaining high yields while reducing GHG emissions. In this study, three levels of fertilizer application [high (300 kg N/ha), moderate (210 kg N/ha), and low (150 kg N/ha)] were designed to examine the effects of variation in N fertilizer application rate on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the paddy fields in Chongming Island, Shanghai, China. The high level (300 kg N/ha) represented the typical practice adopted by the local farmers in the area. Maximum amounts of CH4 and N2O fluxes were observed upon high-level fertilizer application in the plots. Cumulative N2O emissions of 23.09, 40.10, and 71.08 mg N2O/m(2) were observed over the growing season in 2011 under the low-, moderate-, and high-level applications plots, respectively. The field data also indicated that soil temperatures at 5 and 10 cm soil depths significantly affected soil respiration; the relationship between Rs and soil temperature in this study could be described by an exponential model. Our study showed that reducing the high rate of fertilizer application is a feasible way of attenuating the global-warming potential while maintaining the optimum yield for the studied paddy fields. PMID:24295754

  12. Five crop seasons' records of greenhouse gas fluxes from upland fields with repetitive applications of biochar and cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akira; Ikeya, Kosuke; Kanazaki, Naoya; Makabe, Shuhei; Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Akira

    2014-11-01

    The application of char to agricultural land is recognized as a potential way to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) assimilated by plants in soil, thus decelerating global warming. Such a process would also be expected to improve plant growth and the physical and chemical properties of soil. However, field investigations of the effects of continuous char application have not been reported. In the present study, the effects of repetitive bamboo char application on CO2, CH4, and N2O flux from soil, soil C content, and crop yield were investigated at two upland fields over five crop seasons. Three treatments: chemical fertilizer (CF) applied plots (Control plot); cattle manure (CM) (10 t ha(-1)) and CF applied plot (CM plot); and bamboo char (20 t ha(-1)), cattle manure (10 t ha(-1)), and CF applied plot (Char/CM plot), were arranged in each field. After three crop seasons, the fourth treatment with char was applied without CF (Char plot) was given to one of the fields. CM and/or char were applied every crop season. Gas fluxes were measured using the static chamber method. Seasonal variations in CO2 flux and total CO2 emissions were consistently similar between the CM and Char/CM plots and between the Char and Control plots. As such, the decomposition rate of bamboo char was quite small, and the positive or negative effect of char on CM decomposition was not significant in the fields. Soil C analysis provided confirmation of this. CM application enhanced N2O emission mainly in the summer crop season. The differences in total N2O emission between the Char/CM and CM plots as well as between the Char and Control plots were insignificant in most cases. Total CH4 flux was negligibly small in all cases. Although the yield of winter crop (broccoli) in the Char/CM plots was twice observed to be higher than that in the Control and CM plots at one of the fields, in general, the char application had no effect on overall crop yield. Thus, the repeated application of bamboo

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from cotton field under different irrigation methods and fertilization regimes in arid northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Guo, Wei; Feng, Jinfei; Li, Lanhai; Yang, Haishui; Wang, Xiaohua; Bian, Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Drip irrigation is broadly extended in order to save water in the arid cotton production region of China. Biochar is thought to be a useful soil amendment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, a field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) under different irrigation methods (drip irrigation (D) and furrow irrigation (F)) and fertilization regimes (conventional fertilization (C) and conventional fertilization + biochar (B)) during the cotton growth season. The accumulated N2O emissions were significantly lower with FB, DC, and DB than with FC by 28.8%, 36.1%, and 37.6%, while accumulated CH4 uptake was 264.5%, 226.7%, and 154.2% higher with DC, DB, and FC than that with FB, respectively. Irrigation methods showed a significant effect on total global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scaled GWP (P < 0.01). DC and DB showed higher cotton yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and lower yield-scaled GWP, as compared with FC and FB. This suggests that in northwestern China mulched-drip irrigation should be a better approach to increase cotton yield with depressed GHG. In addition, biochar addition increased CH4 emissions while it decreased N2O emissions. PMID:25133229

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Cotton Field under Different Irrigation Methods and Fertilization Regimes in Arid Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Feng, Jinfei; Li, Lanhai; Yang, Haishui; Wang, Xiaohua; Bian, Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Drip irrigation is broadly extended in order to save water in the arid cotton production region of China. Biochar is thought to be a useful soil amendment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, a field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) under different irrigation methods (drip irrigation (D) and furrow irrigation (F)) and fertilization regimes (conventional fertilization (C) and conventional fertilization + biochar (B)) during the cotton growth season. The accumulated N2O emissions were significantly lower with FB, DC, and DB than with FC by 28.8%, 36.1%, and 37.6%, while accumulated CH4 uptake was 264.5%, 226.7%, and 154.2% higher with DC, DB, and FC than that with FB, respectively. Irrigation methods showed a significant effect on total global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scaled GWP (P < 0.01). DC and DB showed higher cotton yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and lower yield-scaled GWP, as compared with FC and FB. This suggests that in northwestern China mulched-drip irrigation should be a better approach to increase cotton yield with depressed GHG. In addition, biochar addition increased CH4 emissions while it decreased N2O emissions. PMID:25133229

  15. Sporulation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Brazil Pine in the field and in the greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Milene; Nogueira, Marco A; Tsai, Siu M; Gomes-da-Costa, Sandra M; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the sporulation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at different forest sites with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. (Brazil Pine). In addition, a greenhouse experiment was carried out to test the use of traditional trap plants (maize + peanut) or A. angustifolia to estimate the diversity of AMF at each site. Soil samples were taken in two State Parks at southwestern Brazil: Campos do Jordão (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão [PECJ]) and Apiaí (Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira [PETAR]), São Paulo State, in sites of either native or replanted forest. In PECJ, an extra site of replanted forest that was impacted by accidental fire and is now in a state of recuperation was also sampled. The spore densities and their morphological identification were compiled at each site. In the greenhouse, soil samples from each site were used as inoculum to promote spore multiplication on maize + peanut or A. angustifolia grown on a sandy, low-fertility substrate. Plants were harvested, respectively, after 4 months or 1 year of growth and assessed for mycorrhizal root colonization. Spore counts and identification were also performed in the substrate, after the harvest of plants. Twenty-five taxa were identified considering all sites. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest areas, being Acaulospora, the genus with the most species. Differences in number of spores, diversity, and richness were found at the different sites of each State Park. Differences were also found when maize + peanut or A. angustifolia were used as trap plants. The traditional methodology using trap plants seems to underestimate the diversity of the AMF. The use of A. angustifolia as trap plant showed similar species richness to the field in PECJ, but the identified species were not necessarily the same. Nevertheless, for PETAR, both A. angustifolia and maize + peanut underestimated the species richness. Because the AMF

  16. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and

  17. Investigation of water productivity for maize with focus on the difference in global radiation between a greenhouse and a field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Simulation models for crop growth become increasingly important to investigate yield development and water consumption, which help reducing the experimental expenditures and performing scenario analyses, particularly in the light of finding adaption strategies to cope with limited water supply. Often, small pot greenhouse experiments are conducted to evaluate the suitability of a crop or a certain irrigation strategy. Results from such experiments serve then as a recommended management practice for application in the field. Previous investigations on water productivity for maize from greenhouse experiments have shown, that crop growth modeling was only successful when observed global radiation was increased by more than 50%. This suggests a higher exposure to global radiation of the crop in greenhouses and makes the transfer of results to the field difficult. In this contribution, a study is presented that investigates WP of maize with focus on the difference in global radiation between a greenhouse and field site. An intensively monitored irrigation experiment with containers in a greenhouse was conducted. Two deficit and one full irrigation treatments for two different soils were investigated. Irrigation was controlled by a soil-water potential sensor capable of measuring tensions between pF0 and pF7 with the goal to achieve a high WP. Other sensors included tensiometers, TDR, VH400 soil water sensors, and Hydra probes. Two containers were placed on scales which served as minilysimeters to determine the soil-water balance throughout the growing period of the crop. All containers were placed so that no shading would occur between them. The greenhouse was compared to an outdoor site with an equal setup of maize grown in containers and a field site with maize growing under field conditions. Measurements of the global radiation between those three sites were taken in weekly intervals with a sensor measuring the global radiation from six spatial directions at the same

  18. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  19. Addition of straw or sawdust to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from slurry produced by housed cattle: a field incubation study.

    PubMed

    van der Weerden, Tony J; Luo, Jiafa; Dexter, Moira

    2014-07-01

    The use of housed wintering systems (e.g., barns) associated with dairy cattle farming is increasing in southern New Zealand. Typically, these wintering systems use straw or a woodmix as bedding material. Ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (nitrous oxide [NO] and methane [CH]) associated with storage of slurry + bedding material from wintering systems is poorly understood. A field incubation study was conducted to determine such emissions from stored slurry where bedding material (straw and sawdust) was added at two rates and stored for 7 mo. During the first 4 mo of storage, compared with untreated slurry, the addition of sawdust significantly reduced NH and CH emissions from 29 to 3% of the initial slurry nitrogen (N) content and from 0.5 to <0.01% of the initial slurry carbon (C) content. However, sawdust enhanced NO emissions to 0.7% of the initial slurry-N content, compared with <0.01% for untreated slurry. Straw generally had an intermediate effect. Extending the storage period to 7 mo increased emissions from all treatments. Ammonia emissions were inversely related to the slurry C:N ratio and total solid (TS) content, and CH emissions were inversely related to slurry TS content. Mitigation of GHG emissions from stored slurry can be achieved by reducing the storage period as much as possible after winter slurry collection, providing ground conditions allow access for land spreading and nutrient inputs match pasture requirements. Although adding bedding material can reduce GHG emissions during storage, increased manure volumes for carting and spreading need to be considered. PMID:25603082

  20. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  1. Intermittent spring flooding of agricultural fields will increase net global-warming potential of greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smyth, E. M.; Smith, C. M.; Kantola, I. B.; Krichels, A.; Yang, W. H.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is currently a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous dioxide to the atmosphere but is also a weak sink for methane. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and duration of spring precipitation in the North American Midwest, resulting in intermittent flooding and ponding in agricultural fields. Inundation changes the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of the soil, especially by promoting methanogenesis under anoxic conditions. DNA and 16S cDNA sequencing results of earlier, similar experiments confirmed the presence of methanogens in soil samples, albeit in low abundance (representing <0.01% of reads per sample). We installed collars into bare ground of a central Illinois research field to experiment with flooding conditions and observe changes in gas fluxes, microbial community, and soil chemistry. We established three treatments of five replicates—control, continuously flooded, and intermittently flooded—each with separate collars for gas flux measurements, soil sample collection, and soil probe measurements. A drip irrigation system flooded the headspaces of the collars to produce flooding events. The continuously flooded collars were maintained in a flooded condition for the duration of the experiment, and the intermittently flooded collars were flooded for 72 hours per flooding event and then kept dry for at least 5 days before the next flooding event. We measured net concentrations of N2O, CH4, and CO2 in situ using a static chamber connected to a cavity ringdown spectrometer. We found that the periodicity of wetting and drying events induces hysteresis effects that push GHG shifts to occur rapidly (< 1 hr). Integrating fluxes across the period of the experiment, the intermittently flooded collars showed 88.7% higher global-warming potential of GHG fluxes at the 100-year horizon versus control, with most of change driven by increased net CO2 flux (87.1% higher) and net methane flux (29 times higher). These data indicate that

  2. Sugarcane field renovation: influence of tillage and no-tillage in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Ana Paula; Degaspari, Iracema A. M.; Ramos, Nilza Patricia; Vilela, Viviane A. A.; do Carmo, Janaina B.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Rossi, Paulo; de Andrade, Cristiano A.

    2015-04-01

    The management of agricultural soils can play an important role in the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance, depending on the adopted practices. In the agricultural system, current GHG emissions generated by anthropogenic activities include land use, land use change and management practices, which have contributed to disrupt the C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. The GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions from agricultural soils depend on the biophysical processes, and the incorporation/decomposition of organic residues. Agricultural soils preparation requires a combination of several implements, which can produce great soil disturbance as is the case of conventional tillage or minimum soil mobilization in the reduced tillage or no-tillage. Tillage breaks soil aggregates leading to enhanced organic matter decomposition and reduced C and N concentrations and no-tillage increases the stability of soil macroaggregates, reducing the emissions of CO2. In this study, we evaluated the CO2 emissions from different management practices widely used in the renewal of sugarcane fields previously planted with soybean, in an Acric Oxisol plantation in the southeast region of Brazil. The conventional tillage (CT) operation consisted of an offset disk harrowing using a tool with 36 disks x 26" and a subsoiling with an implement reaching nearly 50 cm depth. The reduced tillage (RT) was carried out with subsoiling operation in the row planting and in the no-tillage (NT), the soybean trash from the last harvest was left on the soil. The soil preparation and the establishment of four experimental plots (30 m x 30 m each) occurred within two days. During the studied period, two CO2 and N2O emission peaks were observed after the soil preparation, the first one on day 4 and the second on day 35 after a 55 mm rain. The cumulative emissions were measured during 40 days after soil preparation. We observed higher emissions in the conventional tillage (CT), and lower values in the reduced tillage

  3. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF... SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall be abandoned on the sites. Property abandoned in violation of the regulations in this part may be...

  4. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  5. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  6. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  7. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  8. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  9. The Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (Formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana Negatively Affect Cotton Aphid Reproduction under Both Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  10. Betalain and betaine composition of greenhouse- or field-produced beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; An, Dami; Nguyen, Chau T T; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun

    2014-02-12

    The composition of betalain, red or yellow pigments, and betaine (trimethylglycine or glycinebetaine) of nine beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars produced in the greenhouse or field was studied. Inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by betanin and betaine was also tested. Four predominant betalains, two betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin) and two betaxanthins (vulgaxanthin I and miraxanthin V), were isolated and quantified. Betanin and vulgaxanthin I were the major compounds in red and yellow beetroot extracts, respectively, and they comprised >90% of the betalain content in the tested cultivars. The total betalain content of beetroots produced from the field was between 650 and 800 μg/g fresh weight, approximately 25% higher than those from the greenhouse. The betaine content of the beetroot grown in the field was between 3.0 and 4.8 mg/g fresh weight, approximately 20% higher than in plants from the greenhouse. There was great variation among the cultivars with respect to their contents of betalains and betaine. In vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells after exposure to betanin and betaine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 μg/mL and from 0 to 800 μg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Betanin resulted in a 49% inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation at 200 μg/mL, and betaine yielded a 25% inhibition at 800 μg/mL, implying a higher cytotoxicity of betanin compared with betaine. The results indicated that the contents of health-beneficial compounds in beetroots, betalains and betaine, could be increased by modifying the growing conditions and that betanin and betaine extracted from beetroots had some anticancer effects against HepG2 cells. PMID:24467616

  11. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  12. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  13. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  14. Phenotyping soybean plants transformed with rd29A:AtDREB1A for drought tolerance in the greenhouse and field.

    PubMed

    de Paiva Rolla, Amanda Alves; de Fátima Corrêa Carvalho, Josirley; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Engels, Cibelle; do Rio, Alexandre; Marin, Silvana Regina Rockenbach; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Beneventi, Magda A; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Farias, José Renato Bouças; Neumaier, Norman; Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima

    2014-02-01

    The development of drought tolerant plants is a high priority because the area suffering from drought is expected to increase in the future due to global warming. One strategy for the development of drought tolerance is to genetically engineer plants with transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress defense responses. This work assessed the performance of soybean plants overexpressing the TF DREB1A under drought conditions in the field and in the greenhouse. Drought was simulated in the greenhouse by progressively drying the soil of pot cultures of the P58 and P1142 lines. In the field, the performance of the P58 line and of 09D-0077, a cross between the cultivars BR16 and P58, was evaluated under four different water regimes: irrigation, natural drought (no irrigation) and water stress created using rain-out shelters in the vegetative or reproductive stages. Although the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) plants did not outperform the cultivar BR16 in terms of yield, some yield components were increased when drought was introduced during the vegetative stage, such as the number of seeds, the number of pods with seeds and the total number of pods. The greenhouse data suggest that the higher survival rates of DREB plants are because of lower water use due to lower transpiration rates under well watered conditions. Further studies are needed to better characterize the soil and atmospheric conditions under which these plants may outperform the non-transformed parental plants. PMID:23807320

  15. Is it safe? Voles in an unfamiliar dark open-field divert from optimal security by abandoning a familiar shelter and not visiting a central start point.

    PubMed

    Eilam, David

    2010-01-01

    Open-field behavior is a common tool in studying exploration and navigation, as well as emotions and motivations. However, it has been suggested that this behavior might be parsimoniously interpreted as directed to optimize security, with no need to interpret the animal's mental state. This latter view was challenged here by providing voles with presumably sense of optimal security. For this, voles were introduced into a dark open-field inside a familiar shelter in which they previously lived in their home cage. Voles then emerged either to locomote only in the vicinity of the shelter, or to travel further out to explore the entire arena and only later to return to the shelter. While their staying near the shelter confirms the notion of optimizing security, their traveling further out along the perimeter negates this notion. This divergence of behavior under the same security conditions illustrates that open-field behavior, which is a multi-faceted and dynamic process, is also affected by an emotional component. That is, safety is a subjective emotional state dictated by various inputs and, therefore, the resulting dynamic behavior, which is the ultimate output of the central nervous system, may vary beyond the possibility of being parsimoniously interpreted by only one factor. In a similar vein, we show that the impact of the start point on the paths of locomotion is not an intrinsic property of that point, but depends on its physical location. PMID:19744526

  16. Field measurement of greenhouse gas emission rates and development of emission factors for wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; LaCosse, J.

    1997-09-01

    The report gives results of field testing to develop more reliable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Wastewater treatment (WWT) lagoons. Field tests of emissions were conducted for WWT lagoons that use anaerobic processes to treat large volumes of wastewater with large biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings. Air emissions and wastewater were measured at anaerobic lagoons at three meat processing plants and two publicly owned treatment works. The overall emission rates of CH4, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, ammonia (NH3), and chlorofluorocarbons were measured from each source using an open-path monitoring approach. The emitted compounds were identified and quantified by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Emission factors were developed for CH4 and NH3 as a function of the plant production rate, wastewater parameters (e.g., influent BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loadings), and WWT system performance (e.g., BOD and COD removal rates).

  17. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  18. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  19. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  20. Fungicidal activities of soil humic/fulvic acids as related to their chemical structures in greenhouse vegetable fields with cultivation chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng; Song, Mengya; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2016-01-01

    In the background of rapid expansion of plastic greenhouse vegetable production in China, many environmental risks have emerged in recent years. In this study, the soils with a chronosequence in greenhouse vegetable fields were collected and the soil humic acids (HAs) and fluvic acids (FAs) were extracted and purified. The soil HAs and FAs were found to show inhibition activities against phytopathogenic fungi for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to investigate the chemical structures of HAs and FAs. The variation of relative peak areas indicated the chemical structure of HAs become more complex and stable under continuous cultivation. The PCA analysis showed HAs and FAs could be distinctly separated from each other and cultivation years mainly determined the variation. Mantel test and RDA analysis indicated the active components (aliphatic peaks for HAs and COOH, OH peaks for FAs) had positive correlation with the inhibition rates of HAs and FAs against phytopathogenic fungi. According to our research, the active fungicidal components in soil HAs and FAs decreased along with the extension of cultivation years, which made the soil suffer more risk to phytopathogenic fugi. So we believe continuous cultivation too many years in PGVP systems is inadvisable. PMID:27597259

  1. Fungicidal activities of soil humic/fulvic acids as related to their chemical structures in greenhouse vegetable fields with cultivation chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Song, Mengya; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2016-01-01

    In the background of rapid expansion of plastic greenhouse vegetable production in China, many environmental risks have emerged in recent years. In this study, the soils with a chronosequence in greenhouse vegetable fields were collected and the soil humic acids (HAs) and fluvic acids (FAs) were extracted and purified. The soil HAs and FAs were found to show inhibition activities against phytopathogenic fungi for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to investigate the chemical structures of HAs and FAs. The variation of relative peak areas indicated the chemical structure of HAs become more complex and stable under continuous cultivation. The PCA analysis showed HAs and FAs could be distinctly separated from each other and cultivation years mainly determined the variation. Mantel test and RDA analysis indicated the active components (aliphatic peaks for HAs and COOH, OH peaks for FAs) had positive correlation with the inhibition rates of HAs and FAs against phytopathogenic fungi. According to our research, the active fungicidal components in soil HAs and FAs decreased along with the extension of cultivation years, which made the soil suffer more risk to phytopathogenic fugi. So we believe continuous cultivation too many years in PGVP systems is inadvisable. PMID:27597259

  2. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  3. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  4. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  5. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  6. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Surface Mining, Charleston Field Office, 1027 Virginia Street East, Charleston, West Virginia 25301-2816. Telephone: (304) 347-7158. (b) West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Office of...

  7. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  8. Changes in soil carbon and enzyme activity as a result of different long-term fertilization regimes in a greenhouse field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wei; Burger, Martin; Yang, Lijie; Gong, Ping; Wu, Zhijie

    2015-01-01

    In order to discover the advantages and disadvantages of different fertilization regimes and identify the best management practice of fertilization in greenhouse fields, soil enzyme activities involved in carbon (C) transformations, soil chemical characteristics, and crop yields were monitored after long-term (20-year) fertilization regimes, including no fertilizer (CK), 300 kg N ha-1 and 600 kg N ha-1 as urea (N1 and N2), 75 Mg ha-1 horse manure compost (M), and M with either 300 or 600 kg N ha-1 urea (MN1 and MN2). Compared with CK, fertilization increased crop yields by 31% (N2) to 69% (MN1). However, compared with CK, inorganic fertilization (especially N2) also caused soil acidification and salinization. In the N2 treatment, soil total organic carbon (TOC) decreased from 14.1±0.27 g kg-1 at the beginning of the long-term experiment in 1988 to 12.6±0.11 g kg-1 (P<0.05). Compared to CK, N1 and N2 exhibited higher soil α-galactosidase and β-galactosidase activities, but lower soil α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase activities (P<0.05), indicating that inorganic fertilization had different impacts on these C transformation enzymes. Compared with CK, the M, MN1 and MN2 treatments exhibited higher enzyme activities, soil TOC, total nitrogen, dissolved organic C, and microbial biomass C and N. The fertilization regime of the MN1 treatment was identified as optimal because it produced the highest yields and increased soil quality, ensuring sustainability. The results suggest that inorganic fertilizer alone, especially in high amounts, in greenhouse fields is detrimental to soil quality. PMID:25706998

  9. Changes in Soil Carbon and Enzyme Activity As a Result of Different Long-Term Fertilization Regimes in a Greenhouse Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wei; Burger, Martin; Yang, Lijie; Gong, Ping; Wu, Zhijie

    2015-01-01

    In order to discover the advantages and disadvantages of different fertilization regimes and identify the best management practice of fertilization in greenhouse fields, soil enzyme activities involved in carbon (C) transformations, soil chemical characteristics, and crop yields were monitored after long-term (20-year) fertilization regimes, including no fertilizer (CK), 300 kg N ha-1 and 600 kg N ha-1 as urea (N1 and N2), 75 Mg ha-1 horse manure compost (M), and M with either 300 or 600 kg N ha-1 urea (MN1 and MN2). Compared with CK, fertilization increased crop yields by 31% (N2) to 69% (MN1). However, compared with CK, inorganic fertilization (especially N2) also caused soil acidification and salinization. In the N2 treatment, soil total organic carbon (TOC) decreased from 14.1±0.27 g kg-1 at the beginning of the long-term experiment in 1988 to 12.6±0.11 g kg-1 (P<0.05). Compared to CK, N1 and N2 exhibited higher soil α-galactosidase and β-galactosidase activities, but lower soil α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase activities (P<0.05), indicating that inorganic fertilization had different impacts on these C transformation enzymes. Compared with CK, the M, MN1 and MN2 treatments exhibited higher enzyme activities, soil TOC, total nitrogen, dissolved organic C, and microbial biomass C and N. The fertilization regime of the MN1 treatment was identified as optimal because it produced the highest yields and increased soil quality, ensuring sustainability. The results suggest that inorganic fertilizer alone, especially in high amounts, in greenhouse fields is detrimental to soil quality. PMID:25706998

  10. Geothermal greenhouses in Kyushu, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-05-01

    The New Energy Foundation (NEF) invited two members of the Geo-Heat Center staff of Tokyo to present two workshops on the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Prior to the meetings, a field trip was arranged by NEF to visit geothermal power plants and direct use sites on Kyushu. Seven areas were toured on February 27 and 28th, including the Sensui Rose Garden greenhouse, a demonstration greenhouse at the Hatchobaru power station and the Kokonoe Bio Center.

  11. Ventures: Conoco abandons Iranian oil deal

    SciTech Connect

    Westervelt, R.

    1995-03-22

    Conoco (Houston), the oil and gas subsidiary of DuPont, has backed out of a deal to develop offshore oil fields for Iran as a result of a week of intense pressure from the Clinton Administration. Under the agreement, Conoco Iran, a Netherlands-based affiliate, would have developed two oil fields in the Persian Gulf. The deal, valued at $1 billion, would have been the first between Iran and a U.S. company since Washington severed relations with Teheran in 1980. Conoco says it operated within the law and with the knowledge of the U.S. government in the three years the deal was being negotiated. President Clinton announced an executive order barring such deals last Tuesday, after Conoco executives informed the Administration that the deal would be abandoned if an order was issued.

  12. FIELD AND GREENHOUSE EVALUATION OF BEAN GERMPLASM FOR ROOT ROT AND OTHER DISEASES IN NEW YORK, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot is a significant production constraint in beans worldwide in both temperate and tropical soils leading to complete crop loss under severe conditions. Two trials were conducted on common bean lines under root rot conditions in the field at the Cornell’s Vegetable Research Farm near Geneva, N...

  13. Field damage to yellow starthistle infected by Synchytrium solstitiale, and greenhouse maintenance and host range of the fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchytrium solstitiale damaged yellow starthistle (YST) plants in the field in France, causing reductions of 58, 82, 20, and 56 percent in plant height, plant area, stem diameter, and capitula production, respectively, compared to controls. It was therefore evaluated for biological control in the ...

  14. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotta, C.; Guglietta, D.; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load), a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 2001-2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  15. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the...

  16. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the...

  17. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the...

  18. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the...

  19. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  20. Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) flux associated with agricultural fields with residual poultry litter applied as banded and surface applied treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. One fertilization practice that can have long lasting impacts in greenhouse gas emissions is poultry litter. Poultry litter is increasingly being used as a source of fertilizer i...

  1. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  2. Measuring and modeling the effects of drainage water management on soil greenhouse gas fluxes from corn and soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Nangia, V; Sunohara, M D; Topp, E; Gregorich, E G; Drury, C F; Gottschall, N; Lapen, D R

    2013-11-15

    Controlled tile drainage can boost crop yields and improve water quality, but it also has the potential to increase GHG emissions. This study compared in-situ chamber-based measures of soil CH4, N2O, and CO2 fluxes for silt loam soil under corn and soybean cropping with conventional tile drainage (UTD) and controlled tile drainage (CTD). A semi-empirical model (NEMIS-NOE) was also used to predict soil N2O fluxes from soils using observed soil data. Observed N2O and CH4 fluxes between UTD and CTD fields during the farming season were not significantly different at 0.05 level. Soils were primarily a sink for CH4 but in some cases a source (sources were associated exclusively with CTD). The average N2O fluxes measured ranged between 0.003 and 0.028 kg N ha(-1) day(-1). There were some significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) CO2 fluxes associated with CTD relative to UTD during some years of study. Correlation analyses indicated that the shallower the water table, the greater the CO2 fluxes. Higher corn plant C for CTD tended to offset estimated higher CTD CO2 C losses via soil respiration by ∼100-300 kg C ha(-1). There were good fits between observed and predicted (NEMIS-NOE) N2O fluxes for corn (R(2) = 0.70) and soybean (R(2) = 0.53). Predicted N2O fluxes were higher for CTD for approximately 70% of the paired-field study periods suggesting that soil physical factors, such as water-filled pore space, imposed by CTD have potentially strong impacts on net N fluxes. Model predictions of daily cumulative N2O fluxes for the agronomically-active study period for corn-CTD and corn-UTD, as a percentage of total N fertilizer applied, were 3.1% and 2.6%, respectively. For predicted N2O fluxes on basis of yield units, indices were 0.0005 and 0.0004 (kg N kg(-1) crop grain yield) for CTD and UTD corn fields, respectively, and 0.0011 and 0.0005 for CTD and UTD soybean fields, respectively. PMID:23910796

  3. Scaling up from greenhouse resistance to fitness in the field for a host of an emerging forest disease

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Katherine J; Garbelotto, Matteo; Dodd, Richard; Wright, Jessica W

    2013-01-01

    Forest systems are increasingly threatened by emergent, exotic diseases, yet management strategies for forest trees may be hindered by long generation times and scant background knowledge. We tested whether nursery disease resistance and growth traits have predictive value for the conservation of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, the host most susceptible to sudden oak death. We established three experimental populations to assess nursery growth and resistance to Phytophthora ramorum, and correlations between nursery-derived breeding values with seedling survival in a field disease trial. Estimates of nursery traits’ heritability were low to moderate, with lowest estimates for resistance traits. Within the field trial, survival likelihood was increased in larger seedlings and decreased with the development of disease symptoms. The seed-parent family wide likelihood of survival was likewise correlated with family predictors for size and resistance to disease in 2nd year laboratory assays, though not resistance in 1st year leaf assays. We identified traits and seedling families with increased survivorship in planted tanoaks, and a framework to further identify seed parents favored for restoration. The additive genetic variation and seedling disease dynamics we describe hold promise to refine current disease models and expand the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of emergent infectious diseases in highly susceptible hosts. PMID:24062805

  4. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  5. Influences of Chemical Fertilizers and a Nitrification Inhibitor on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Corn (Zea mays L.) Field in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jumadi, Oslan; Hala, Yusminah; Muis, Abd; Ali, Alimuddin; Palennari, Muhiddin; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The influences of chemical fertilizers and a nitrification inhibitor on greenhouse gas fluxes (N(2)O and CH(4)) in a corn field in Indonesia were investigated using a closed chamber. Plots received 45+45 kg-N ha(-1) of nitrogen fertilizer by split applications of urea, a single application of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF-LP30) or urea+dicyandiamide (DCD; a nitrification inhibitor), and no nitrogen application (control). Cumulative amounts of N(2)O emitted from the field were 1.87, 1.70, 1.06, and 0.42 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) season(-1) for the urea, CRF-LP30, urea+DCD, and control plots, respectively. The application of urea+DCD reduced the emission of N(2)O by 55.8% compared with urea. On the other hand, the soil acted as a sink for CH(4) in the CRL-LP30, control, and urea+DCD plots with value of -0.09, -0.06 and -0.06 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) season(-1), respectively. When the viability of AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) were monitored, AOB numbers were correlated with the N(2)O emission. These results suggest that 1) there is a potential for reducing emissions of N(2)O by applying DCD, and 2) corn fields treated with CRF or urea+DCD can act as a sink for CH(4) in a tropical humid climate. PMID:21558684

  6. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 6. 8. cloud radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.E.

    1985-04-01

    The object of this study was to measure the relationship between the spatial distribution of the radioactive fission products and the resultant radioactive field in an atomic-bomb cloud. Data obtained by the high-intensity rate meters and the jet impactors lead to the following conclusions: (1) There is a definite correlation between the particulate fission-particle density and the gamma-radiation intensity measured within the cloud; (2) The effective energy of the gamma radiation within the atomic bomb cloud is quite low, being of the order of 200 keV; (3) The structure of the atomic bomb cloud resembles a chimney with puffs of radioactive matter in the flue of the chimney; (4) The average roentgen dose accumulated by a plane passing through a cloud of the type tested in the Dog and Easy Shots 210 sec after bomb detonation is approximately 125 r. The average contamination on a plane after passing through a cloud is between 10 and 20 r/hr; no contamination could be detected within the plane; (5) The gamma-radiation effects extend beyond the limits of the particulate radioactive fission products; and, (6) The visible cloud adn the fission-product particulate cloud from the bomb do not coincide exactly; the visible cloud extended beyond the fission-product-cloud in those instances where data were obtained.

  7. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  8. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from “bacterial canker” described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD). PMID:26840951

  9. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD). PMID:26840951

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  11. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  12. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  13. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  14. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  15. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  16. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  17. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  18. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  19. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  20. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  1. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  2. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  3. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency: a 5 year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.; Xiong, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of how net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a 5 year field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on NGWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from all sources (methane, CH4, and nitrous oxide, N2O, emissions, agrochemical inputs, Ei, and farm operations, Eo) and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon, SOC, sequestration). For the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), four ISSM scenarios consisting of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, N1 (25 % reduction), N2 (10 % reduction), N3 (FP rate) and N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios, i.e., N1, N2, N3 and N4, significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 86 and 82 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the N1 and N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar NGWPs. The N3 and N4 scenarios remarkably increased the NGWP and GHGI by an average of 67 and 36 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  4. Physics in the Global Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shelagh

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of exploring the subject of global warming within the context of a conventional physics syllabus are suggested. The physics underlying greenhouse phenomena, the process of modelling (especially computers), possible future climatic scenarios, and the differing nature of the uncertainties associated with the many fields of study that…

  5. SAFT-γ force field for the simulation of molecular fluids: 2. Coarse-grained models of greenhouse gases, refrigerants, and long alkanes.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S; Galindo, Amparo; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

    2013-03-01

    In the first paper of this series [C. Avendaño, T. Lafitte, A. Galindo, C. S. Adjiman, G. Jackson, and E. A. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B2011, 115, 11154] we introduced the SAFT-γ force field for molecular simulation of fluids. In our approach, a molecular-based equation of state (EoS) is used to obtain coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular potentials that can then be employed in molecular simulation over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions of the fluid. The macroscopic experimental data for the vapor-liquid equilibria (saturated liquid density and vapor pressure) of a given system are represented with the SAFT-VR Mie EoS and used to estimate effective intermolecular parameters that provide a good description of the thermodynamic properties by exploring a wide parameter space for models based on the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential. This methodology was first used to develop a simple single-segment CG Mie model of carbon dioxide (CO2) which allows for a reliable representation of the fluid-phase equilibria (for which the model was parametrized), as well as an accurate prediction of other properties such as the enthalpy of vaporization, interfacial tension, supercritical density, and second-derivative thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound). In our current paper, the methodology is further applied and extended to develop effective SAFT-γ CG Mie force fields for some important greenhouse gases including carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), modeled as simple spherical molecules, and for long linear alkanes including n-decane (n-C10H22) and n-eicosane (n-C20H42), modeled as homonuclear chains of spherical Mie segments. We also apply the SAFT-γ methodology to obtain a CG homonuclear two-segment Mie intermolecular potential for the more challenging polar and asymmetric compound 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf), a novel replacement

  6. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  7. Nitrate Leaching from Intensive Fiber Production on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantation treatments were much higher than the old field.

  8. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  9. Build a Solar Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

  10. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  11. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  12. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  13. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  14. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  15. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property...

  16. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  17. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  18. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhou; Wang, Jim J; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Zengqiang; Dodla, Syam K; Myers, Gerald

    2015-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH3 and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea+NBPT, and urea+DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N2O-N than NH3-N and the most N2O-N and NH3-N emissions were during the first 30-50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH3-N volatilization (by 58-63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N2O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N2O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea+DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH3-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N2O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO2-C and CH4-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N2O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH3 emission in the subtropical cotton production system of the Mississippi delta region. PMID:26172600

  19. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen dynamics in paddy fields under different water management practices and implications on green-house gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniotti, Eleonora; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Bertora, Chiara; Pelissetti, Simone; Sacco, Dario; Grignani, Carlo; Lerda, Cristina; Romani, Marco; Celi, Luisella

    2013-04-01

    The alternation of oxidizing and reducing conditions in paddy soils results in considerable complexity in the biogeochemical cycling of elements and their interactions, influencing important soil processes. Water management practices may play an important role in controlling the loss of nutrients from rice paddies to surface and subsurface waters, as well as soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and the emission of green-house gases (GHG) such as methane and nitrous oxide. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the interaction between changes in soil redox conditions and element cycling in temperate paddy soils as a function of different water management practices. The research was carried out within an experimental platform (1.2 ha) located at the Rice Research Center of Ente Nazionale Risi (Castello d'Agogna, PV, NW Italy) where three water management practices are being compared with two plots for each treatment. These included (i) rice cultivation under traditional submerged conditions (FLD); (ii) seeding under dry soil conditions and flooding delayed by about 40 days (DRY); (iii) seeding under dry soil conditions and rotational irrigation (IRR). Surface and subsurface (25, 50 and 75 cm) water samples were collected at regular intervals over the cropping season from V-notch weirs and porous ceramic suction cups installed in each plot, and subsequently analyzed for DOC, SUVA, Fe(II), ammonium and nitrate-N. Moreover, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes were measured in situ by the closed-chamber technique. DOC concentrations in soil solutions were generally higher in FLD and DRY treatments with respect to IRR throughout the cropping season. Higher DOC contents after field flooding in FLD and DRY treatments also corresponded with greater concentrations of reduced Fe, higher SUVA values, lower Eh values and higher pH values, suggesting that desorption of more aromatic, mineral-associated SOM could be responsible for the observed increase in DOC. These

  20. A greenhouse and field-based study to determine the accumulation of arsenic in common homegrown vegetables grown in mining-affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake of arsenic by plants from contaminated soils presents a health hazard that may affect home gardeners neighboring contaminated environments. A controlled greenhouse study was conducted in parallel with a co-created citizen science program (home garden experiment) to characterize the uptake of arsenic by common homegrown vegetables near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site in southern Arizona. The greenhouse and home garden arsenic soil concentrations varied considerably, ranging from 2.35 to 533 mg kg−1. In the greenhouse experiment four vegetables were grown in three different soil treatments and in the home garden experiment a total of 63 home garden produce samples were obtained from 19 properties neighboring the site. All vegetables accumulated arsenic in both the greenhouse and home garden experiments, ranging from 0.01 to 23.0 mg kg−1 dry weight. Bioconcentration factors were determined and show that arsenic uptake decreased in the order: Asteraceae > Brassicaceae > Amaranthaceae > Cucurbitaceae > Liliaceae > Solanaceae > Fabaceae. Certain members of the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families have been previously identified as hyperaccumulator plants, and it can be inferred that members of these families have genetic and physiological capacity to accumulate, translocate, and resist high amounts of metals. Additionally, a significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of arsenic that accumulated in the edible portion of the plant and the arsenic soil concentration for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Fabaceae families. The results suggest that home gardeners neighboring mining operations or mine tailings with elevated arsenic levels should be made aware that arsenic can accumulate considerably in certain vegetables, and in particular, it is recommended that gardeners limit consumption of vegetables from the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families. PMID:23201696

  1. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  2. 4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is the portion of the seed house to the right (south) of the double doors. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  4. Thoughts from the Greenhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

  5. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  6. Greenhouse climate factors

    SciTech Connect

    Popovski, K.

    1997-01-01

    There are many examples of geothermally heated greenhouses throughout the world, even in warmer climates. The main reason for using geothermal heating systems is that greenhouses are one of the largest energy consumers in agriculture. This concentrated demand for energy can be satisfied, in the case of geothermal, by siting facilities near wells even though they are located far from urban areas and industrial concentrations. The reasons for this high energy requirement are in the nature of the greenhouse construction itself: (1) Greenhouses are typically constructed of light materials that have very poor insulating qualities, and (2) The {open_quotes}internal{close_quotes} climate of the greenhouse are usually significantly different than the external one, especially during the colder seasons.

  7. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M.; Reid, Matthew C.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Celia, Michael A.; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Abandoned oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Little is known about methane fluxes from the millions of abandoned wells that exist in the United States. Here, we report direct measurements of methane fluxes from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, using static flux chambers. A total of 42 and 52 direct measurements were made at wells and at locations near the wells (“controls”) in forested, wetland, grassland, and river areas in July, August, October 2013 and January 2014, respectively. The mean methane flow rates at these well locations were 0.27 kg/d/well, and the mean methane flow rate at the control locations was 4.5 × 10−6 kg/d/location. Three out of the 19 measured wells were high emitters that had methane flow rates that were three orders of magnitude larger than the median flow rate of 1.3 × 10−3 kg/d/well. Assuming the mean flow rate found here is representative of all abandoned wells in Pennsylvania, we scaled the methane emissions to be 4–7% of estimated total anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. The presence of ethane, propane, and n-butane, along with the methane isotopic composition, indicate that the emitted methane is predominantly of thermogenic origin. These measurements show that methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells can be significant. The research required to quantify these emissions nationally should be undertaken so they can be accurately described and included in greenhouse gas emissions inventories. PMID:25489074

  8. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M; Reid, Matthew C; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Celia, Michael A; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-12-23

    Abandoned oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Little is known about methane fluxes from the millions of abandoned wells that exist in the United States. Here, we report direct measurements of methane fluxes from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, using static flux chambers. A total of 42 and 52 direct measurements were made at wells and at locations near the wells ("controls") in forested, wetland, grassland, and river areas in July, August, October 2013 and January 2014, respectively. The mean methane flow rates at these well locations were 0.27 kg/d/well, and the mean methane flow rate at the control locations was 4.5 × 10(-6) kg/d/location. Three out of the 19 measured wells were high emitters that had methane flow rates that were three orders of magnitude larger than the median flow rate of 1.3 × 10(-3) kg/d/well. Assuming the mean flow rate found here is representative of all abandoned wells in Pennsylvania, we scaled the methane emissions to be 4-7% of estimated total anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. The presence of ethane, propane, and n-butane, along with the methane isotopic composition, indicate that the emitted methane is predominantly of thermogenic origin. These measurements show that methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells can be significant. The research required to quantify these emissions nationally should be undertaken so they can be accurately described and included in greenhouse gas emissions inventories. PMID:25489074

  9. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  10. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  11. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  12. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  13. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  14. LOCATION OF ABANDONED WELLS WITH GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abandoned wells are sometimes an important element in the contamination of fresh underground water supplies. If a well is not properly plugged and the casing is leaky, it may serve as a conduit for brines or other pollutants to reach a fresh water aquifer. This study was made to ...

  15. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin or... portion of a cabin or other structure and its contents from a park area, to the extent of his or...

  16. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin or... portion of a cabin or other structure and its contents from a park area, to the extent of his or...

  17. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by... Patent and Trademark Office. Express abandonment of the application may not be recognized by the...

  18. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  19. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  20. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  1. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. A comparative analysis of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C; Barreda, P; Mendoza, V; Guzman, L; Gilbert, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims and Methods: A comparative study of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children was conducted in La Paz, Bolivia, representing the first such comparative assessment. Between August and December 1997, all abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia, who were willing to participate (n = 124) were interviewed repeatedly at night using standardised questionnaires to collect information on family history, demographics, socioeconomics, drug use, and physical/sexual abuse. The same questionnaires were administered to all former abandoned street children who chose to enter a local orphanage (n = 35). Results: The persistent street children differed greatly from those who entered the orphanage, most markedly in their higher risk of police abuse (95% versus 38%), absence from school (84% versus 19%), engagement in robbery (26% versus 4%), paint thinner use (88% versus 41%), alcohol use (58% versus 12%), and a serious medical problem (53% versus 20%). The risks for street children increased rapidly with age. Conclusions: A cascade of adverse outcomes afflicts the vast majority of abandoned street children in La Paz, which cumulate with age and diminish the likelihood of successful rehabilitation through lasting placement in an orphanage or residential home. Informed by these findings, the investigators operate a home for abandoned street children in La Paz. PMID:15321856

  3. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  4. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  14. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  15. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  16. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  17. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  18. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  19. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  20. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  1. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  2. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  3. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  4. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  5. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  6. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  7. Operating and Maintaining the Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresser, Priscilla A.

    This learning guide is designed to assist vocational agriculture students in mastering 20 tasks involved in the operation and maintenance of a greenhouse. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: identification of greenhouse designs, greenhouse construction, basic greenhouse maintenance to conserve energy,…

  8. A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Space Abandoned Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaohua, Zhang

    Abstract: Influenced by the limited space resources and the increased space debris, it is very exigent to clean the orbital abandoned satellite. The thermal characteristic of the abandoned satellite is a key parameter for the infrared radiation study, and it is also an important gist to estimate whether or not the satellite can be worked correctly. And this paper researched on the thermal analysis of the LEO and GEO abandoned satellite, and has been acquired the temperature variety law for the the space abandoned target, which is very significant for apperceiving the space situation and cleaning the space abandoned satellites and other debris initiatively.    

  9. Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bétournay, Marc C

    2009-10-01

    The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk. PMID:19645755

  10. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  11. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  12. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  13. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  14. Impacts of rice varieties and management on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields in China: A meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Huang, H.; Yao, L.; Liu, J.; He, H.; Tang, J.

    2014-07-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of cropping practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit yield (yield-scaled), rather than by land area (area-scaled), is needed to inform trade-off decisions to increase yields and reduce GHG emissions. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify impacts of rice varieties on the global warming potential (GWP) of GHG emissions at the yield scale in China. Our results showed that significantly higher yield-scaled GWP occurred with indica rice varieties (1101.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1) than japonica rice varieties (711.38 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1). Lower yield-scaled GHG emissions occurred within 120-130 days of growth duration after transplanting (GDAT; 613.66 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1), followed by 90-100 days of GDAT (749.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1, 100-110 days of GDAT (794.29 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1), and 70-80 days of GDAT (800.85 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1). The fertilizer rate of 150-200 kg N ha-1 resulted in the lowest yield-scaled GWP. Consequently, appropriate cultivar choice and pairs were of vital importance in the rice cropping system. A further life cycle assessment of GHG emissions among rice varieties at the yield scale is urgently needed to develop win-win policies for rice production to achieve higher yield with lower emissions.

  15. Impacts of rice varieties and management on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields in China: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Huang, H.; Yao, L.; Liu, J.; He, H.; Tang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of cropping practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit yield (yield-scaled), rather than by land area (area-scaled), is needed to inform trade-off decisions to increase yields and reduce GHG emissions. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify impacts of rice varieties on the global warming potential (GWP) of GHG emissions at the yield scale in China. The results showed that significantly higher yield-scaled GWP occurred with indica rice varieties (1101.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1) compared to japonica rice varieties (711.38 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1). Lower yield-scaled GHG emissions occurred within 120-130 days of growth duration after transplanting (GDAT; 613.66 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1), followed by 90-100 days of GDAT (749.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1), 100-110 days of GDAT (794.29 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1), and 70-80 days of GDAT (800.85 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1). The greatest reduction, 41%, occurred at a rate of 150-200 kg N ha-1 relative to the non-fertilized control. Consequently, appropriate cultivar choice and pairs was of vital importance in the rice cropping system. A further life cycle assessment of GHG emissions among rice varieties at the yield scale is urgently needed to develop win-win policies for rice production to achieve higher yield with lower emissions.

  16. Off-season greenhouse strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry production in the mid-South is mostly done in the field with harvest from April to June. There is year-round demand for fruit with the highest prices from November through February. Our research is ongoing to evaluate off-season strawberry production in polyethylene-covered greenhouses....

  17. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Planning of the reforestation at abandoned coal mines using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Oh, S.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents a prototype of decision support system for planning the reforestation at abandoned coal mines. The characteristics of deforested zone due to mine development were analyzed and categorized to define the schema of GIS database. Multiple criteria (i.e. forest-climate zone, mining method, visibility, managerial condition, slope gradient, reforestation purpose) were considered to classify the deforested zone and to assign unique IDs to the key index fields in tables. ArcMap, ArcObjects and Visual Basic.NET were used to implement the system. The application to the Samcheok coal block in Korea shows that the system could present a rational solution to select suitable trees for the reforestation and can also provide cost evaluation tools to support the environmental planning work.

  19. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  20. Methodology for assessing environmental impacts of offshore installation abandonment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, S.; Lind, E.; Sandgren, J.

    1996-12-31

    Many oil and gas producing fields in tile North Sea are now facing a period of production shut down and decommissioning as exploitable petroleum reserves in the earliest developments are decreasing. Most of the oil and gas fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) are located in areas with water depths in the range of 75-300 meters. Production installations on these fields are generally large, and removal of such installations may be costly and technically complex with high risk levels. It is therefore a major challenge to develop management tools for prioritizing and selection of abandonment solutions, to secure the best overall abandonment solution. Possibilities and problems associated with different abandonment and disposal options for installations should therefore be identified and assessed in detail on a case by case base. A specific methodology for performing Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and assessing impacts to the society of offshore installation abandonment and disposal is made. The methodology is based on the principles of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and is applicable for the whole spectrum of abandonment solutions including sea disposal, reuse, material recovery, and demolition. The methodology has so far been applied in four cases; three on the NCS and one on the UK Continental Shelf. The paper presents the principles which the methodology is based upon, with examples of application. Secondly, the paper presents how the results may be used in planning for decommissioning by oil operating companies. Finally, the paper focuses on general problems in performing such assessment work, and discuss how the methodology may be refined in the future.

  1. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhouse, L.; Davis, S.E.; Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J.H.; Jones, C.B.

    1983-06-15

    GREENHOUSE was a four-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon's test series conducted in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak Atoll in April and May 1951. This is a report of DOD personnel in GREENHOUSE with an emphasis on operational radiological safety.

  2. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  3. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  4. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  5. Multi-temporal analysis of an agricultural landscape transformation and abandonment (Lubietová, Central Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masný, Matej; Zaušková, Lubica

    2015-12-01

    Socio-political changes in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe in the era of socialism had significant effects on agricultural landscape. Collectivisation (1950 - 1970) lost almost all of traditional agricultural landscapes. On the other hand, the phenomenon of agricultural abandonment started to be significant after 1989. In the model area (part of The Polana Biosphere Reserve) these two processes that formed the agricultural landscape structure were analysed. The analyses were carried out using orthophotos that represented the landscape structure in 1949, 1986 and 2006. It was found that almost complete extinction of the traditional agricultural landscape represented by a mosaic of narrow fields and permanent grasslands occurred during the period. At the same time, increasing trend of abandonment processes was observed. In 2006, non-forestwoody vegetation covered 48% of agricultural land.Natural reforestation as the final stage of agricultural abandonment extended to 46% on the former agricultural land in 2006. Abandonment processes were the most significant already in the period of socialist agriculture. To describe the changes, landscape metrics such as Number of patches (NP), Mean patch size (MPS), Patch size standard deviation (PSSD) and Mean shape index (MSI) were used.

  6. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    bound, dissolved, and precipitated CO2 in form of specific mineral phases. Useful results, partly supported by laboratory and field experiments, can be gained by process simulations considering periods of hundreds or thousands of years. Risk management for the post-operational phases is another essential part of the workflow. A first version of a decision support system has been created by means of a number of high-level and low-level criteria, most of which had to be defined in advance. The system provides instructions for the operators on how to act in case of irregularities after site closure. A compilation of all relevant results will be available at the end of the project in form of best practice guidelines. However, dissemination of information about the latest results and developments in the field of site abandonment are given via the CO2CARE-website (www.co2care.org) and also in conferences, workshops or radio and TV interviews.

  7. The greenhouse trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, F.; Mintzer, I.; Courrier, K.; MacKenzie, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes evidence of global warming and the contributions of man's activities to the process. The impacts of greenhouse gases on climate and health are discussed and recommendations are made for mitigation of these effects. Changes in fuel use, expansion of carbon sinks through planting of trees, and personal commitments to energy conservation are among these recommendations. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base.

  8. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual is presented in its first revision, providing a current, basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. Its fourteen chapters are: Overview of the Greenhouse Industry; Greenhouse Structures; Controlling the Greenhouse Environment; Greenhouse Equipment and Lighting; Greenhouse Irrigation Systems; Root Media…

  9. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  10. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  11. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  12. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  13. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  14. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  15. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  16. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mark. 2.135 Section 2.135 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  18. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  2. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned...

  3. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned...

  4. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property. (a) This section applies to all...

  5. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....phmsa.dot.gov or contact the NPMS National Repository at 703-317-3073. A digital data format is... abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the operator's knowledge, the abandonment was...

  6. 42 CFR 498.69 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 498.69 Section 498.69 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.69 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss...

  7. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment...

  8. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... persons other than those authorized by the operator. (2) A mechanical device or fitting that will prevent... abandonment, diameter, method of abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the...

  9. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... persons other than those authorized by the operator. (2) A mechanical device or fitting that will prevent... abandonment, diameter, method of abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... persons other than those authorized by the operator. (2) A mechanical device or fitting that will prevent... abandonment, diameter, method of abandonment, and certification that, to the best of the operator's knowledge, all of the reasonably available information requested was provided and, to the best of the...

  11. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned by...

  12. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned by...

  13. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  14. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned by...

  15. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  16. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  17. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Compliance with paragraph (b) or (c) of this section provides a non-exclusive safe harbor from integration...

  18. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  19. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  20. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  1. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revival of abandoned applications. 2.66 Section 2.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Applicants § 2.66 Revival of abandoned applications. (a) The applicant may file a petition to revive...

  2. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revival of abandoned applications. 2.66 Section 2.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Applicants § 2.66 Revival of abandoned applications. (a) The applicant may file a petition to revive...

  3. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  4. Toward strict liability for abandoned mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    This note examines ways to impose responsibility for abating the pollution caused by mine drainage. It describes coal mine drainage and control techniques, then examines abatement responsibility under the common law doctrine of public nuisance, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. More statutory and regulatory controls will probably be devised in the near future, given the serious problem such drainage poses and the lack of existing controls. It is also likely, given the trend apparent in the statutes and cases, that such controls will adopt rules of strict liability for abandoned mine drainage based on mere ownership of property. 175 references.

  5. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérest, P.; Brouard, B.; Hévin, G.

    2010-06-01

    In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  6. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  7. Effects of fertilization on microbial abundance and emissions of greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) in rice paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xianfang; Yu, Haiyang; Wu, Qinyan; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing

    2016-02-01

    This study is to explore effects of nitrogen application and straw incorporation on abundance of relevant microbes and CH 4 and N2O fluxes in a midseason aerated rice paddy field. Fluxes of CH 4 and N2O were recorded, and abundance of relevant soil microbial functional genes was determined during rice-growing season in a 6-year-long fertilization experiment field in China. Results indicate that application of urea significantly changed the functional microbial composition, while the influence of straw incorporation was not significant. Application of urea significantly decreased the gene abundances of archaeal amoA and mcrA, but it significantly increased the gene abundances of bacterial amoA. CH 4 emission was significantly increased by fresh straw incorporation. Incorporation of burnt straw tended to increase CH 4 emission, while the urea application had no obvious effect on CH 4 emission. N2O emission was significantly increased by urea application, while fresh or burnt straw incorporation tended to decrease N2O emission. The functional microbial composition did not change significantly over time, although the abundances of pmoA, archaeal amoA, nirS, and nosZ genes changed significantly. The change of CH 4 emission showed an inverse trend with the one of the N2O emissions over time. To some extent, the abundance of some functional genes in this study can explain CH 4 and N2O emissions. However, the correlation between CH 4 and N2O emissions and the abundance of related functional genes was not significant. Environmental factors, such as soil Eh, may be more related to CH 4 and N2O emissions. PMID:26811747

  8. The greenhouse gambit

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, D. . Environmental Information Service)

    1992-01-01

    While forecasts of the economic costs and benefits of ameliorating global warming remain speculative, so, too, are the climate change projections that gird the debate. The consensus among most of the scientific community is that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is likely to raise the mean global temperature of the Earth 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050. To put this forecast in some perspective, the planet was about 10 degrees cooler during the last Great Ice Age and about 10 degrees warmer dozing the Age of the Dinsosaurs. Accordingly, the warming could bring about dramatic changes in climate. But a prudent investor must be careful not to invest too much in pat assumptions about the greenhouse effect. The climate may have many surprises in store. Indeed, it has surprised climate forecasters already by not warming nearly as fast as their general circulation models have suggested it would. This book examines four industries with the most at stake in the greenhouse debate: agriculture, forest products, automobiles and electric power. All of these industries essentially face two choices: Act now to blunt the possible momentum of climate change, or wait and see if the basic forecast is correct, accommodating any change as it occurs. These choices involve a trade-off between further information-gathering to ensure a proper course of action and implementing a strategy, quickly to its intended effect. Such a trade-off is the essence of risk, the stuff of investing. For the purposes of this book, it defines the greenhouse gambit.''

  9. Field, laboratory, and modeling studies of water infiltration and runoff in subfreezing snow on regional scales to estimate future greenhouse-induced changes in sea-level. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The current DOE-supported research program (Reduce Uncertainty in Future Sea-Level Change Due to Ice Wastage) addressed the question of how the refreezing of meltwater in cold snow affects sea-level changes in a future changing climate. The continuation of that research, proposed here, takes an additional new approach by focusing on processes which can be defined and characterized by measurements on regional scales. This new emphasis is intended to be directly applicable to a large-scale analysis from which runoff forecasts (and consequent sea level change) from the entire arctic region can be made. The research proposed here addresses the problem of forecasting future sea-level change due to greenhouse-induced changes in runoff from polar glaciers and ice caps. The objectives of this work are (1) to observe in the field the processes of infiltration and refreezing which lead to the formation of impermeable firn layers; (2) to reproduce these observed processes in the laboratory to confirm and further quantify their understanding; (3) to develop and calibrate a regional scale numerical model which can simulate these processes, based on measured parameters and driven by boundary conditions determined by climate; and (4) to apply this model to predict the development of impermeable firn (and consequent runoff and discharge to the ocean) in response to predicted future climate change.

  10. Extraction, drainage, rewetting, flooding - Patterns of greenhouse gas turnover in restoring temperate peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The disturbance of natural peatlands destroys carbon sink and is often associated with nitrous oxide emissions. Therefore, the general efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas sources and to create carbon sinks also include peatland restoration. The variety of peatland type (most importantly bog or fen), use (extraction or agriculture), and restoration technique (rewetting or flooding) result in specific patterns of greenhouse gas uptake or emission. Based on examples from own work, I present an overview of the greenhouse gas turnover of following sites: • Cutover peat bogs in Eastern Canada and following rewetting, flooding, and abandonment • Drained cutover and agriculturally used peat bogs in Northern Germany and following extensive agricultural management, paludiculture, rewetting, flooding, and abandonment • Drained agriculturally used fens in Northern Germany and following flooding and paludiculture I show that rewetting, but not flooding may succeed in re-establishing long-term carbon sinks with low methane release rates comparable to the greenhouse gas turnover known from natural peatlands. Flooding risks creating, at least in the short term, extremely strong methane sources. Extensive agricultural management and paludiculture may result in low methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide release rates and could be a sensible option when aiming at reconciling peatland use and protection.

  11. Nitrate Distribution in Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Intensive Plantation Management on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantations treatments were much higher than the old field.

  12. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G.; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Arora, Ramandeep S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment abandonment (TxA) is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC). However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data. Methods Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists), nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted. Results 602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%), practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83%) in general or children’s hospitals (79%). Results suggested, 23,854 (15%) of 155,088 children <15 years old newly diagnosed with cancer annually in the countries analyzed, abandon therapy. Importantly, 83% of new childhood cancer cases and 99% of TxA were attributable to LMC. The annual number of cases of TxA expected in LMC worldwide (26,166) was nearly equivalent to the annual number of cancer cases in children <15 years expected in HIC (26,368). Approximately two thirds of LMC had median TxA≥6%, but TxA ≥6% was reported in high- (9%), upper-middle- (41%), lower-middle- (80%), and low-income countries (90%, p<0.001). Most LMC centers reporting TxA>6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥6% (p<0.001). Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC. Conclusion Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally), confirm the suspected

  13. Applications of GIS and a Handheld XRF for Mapping Cu and Pb Contaminations in Abandoned Mine Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Choi, Y.; Yi, H.; Kim, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we used a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create soil contamination maps regarding Cu and Pb around abandoned mining areas. The Busan abandoned mine in Korea was selected as a study area. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)-based Terrain analysis was performed to identify locations for investigating the soil contamination. At the locations, Cu and Pb contaminations were investigated by using the handheld XRF. The field investigation data were inputted into GIS and utilized to create soil contamination maps using the ordinary kriging method (one of the geostatistical interpolation techniques used in GIS). High concentrations of Cu and Pb were shown at the waste and tailings dumps around abandoned mine openings. As a result, we could know that the method for creating soil contamination maps using a handheld and GIS can be utilized effectively.

  14. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Clare; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Thompson, Julian R; Loma, Rona Joy A; Koldewey, Heather J

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves provide vital climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) ecosystem services (ES), yet have suffered extensive tropics-wide declines. To mitigate losses, rehabilitation is high on the conservation agenda. However, the relative functionality and ES delivery of rehabilitated mangroves in different intertidal locations is rarely assessed. In a case study from Panay Island, Philippines, using field- and satellite-derived methods, we assess carbon stocks and coastal protection potential of rehabilitated low-intertidal seafront and mid- to upper-intertidal abandoned (leased) fishpond areas, against reference natural mangroves. Due to large sizes and appropriate site conditions, targeted abandoned fishpond reversion to former mangrove was found to be favourable for enhancing CCMA in the coastal zone. In a municipality-specific case study, 96.7% of abandoned fishponds with high potential for effective greenbelt rehabilitation had favourable tenure status for reversion. These findings have implications for coastal zone management in Asia in the face of climate change. PMID:27289287

  15. Litter contribution to soil organic carbon in the agriculture abandons processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Francaviglia, Dario; La Mantia, tommaso; Gristina, Luciano; La Bella, Salvatore; Tuttolomondo, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Mechanisms of litter decomposition, translocation and stabilization into soil layers are fundamental processes in ecosystem functioning as it regulates the cycle of soil organic matter (SOM), CO2 emission into the atmosphere, carbon sequestration into the soil. In this study, it was investigated the contribution of litters of different stages of Mediterranean secondary succession on Carbon sequestration, analyzing the role of earthworms on translocation of SOM into soil profile. For this purpose δ13C difference between meadow C4-C soil and C3-C litter were used in a field experiment. Four undisturbed litters of different stages of succession were collected (45, 70, 100 and 120 since agriculture abandon) and placed on the top of isolated soil cores. The litter contribution to C stock was affected by plant species and increased with the age of the stage of secondary succession. The soil organic carbon after 1 year since litter position increased up to 40% in comparison to no litter treatment in soil with litter of 120 years since abandon. The new carbon derived from C3-litter was decomposed and transferred into soil profile thanks to earthworms and dissolved organic carbon leaching. After 1 years the carbon increase attributed to earthworm activity ranged from 6% to 13% in soil under litter in field abandoned since 120 and 45 years, respectively.

  16. Litter contribution to soil organic carbon in the agriculture abandons processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, A.; Rühl, J.; La Mantia, T.; Gristina, L.; La Bella, S.; Tuttolomondo, T.

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms of litter decomposition, translocation and stabilization into soil layers are fundamental processes in ecosystem functioning as it regulates the cycle of soil organic matter (SOM), CO2 emission into the atmosphere, carbon sequestration into the soil. In this study, it was investigated the contribution of litters of different stages of Mediterranean secondary succession on Carbon sequestration, analyzing the role of earthworms on translocation of SOM into soil profile. For this purpose δ13C difference between meadow C4-Csoil and C3-Clitter were used in a field experiment. Four undisturbed litters of different stages of succession were collected (45, 70, 100 and 120 since agriculture abandon) and placed on the top of isolated soil cores. The litter contribution to C stock was affected by plant species and increased with the age of the stage of secondary succession. The soil organic carbon after 1 year since litter position increased up to 40% in comparison to no litter treatment in soil with litter of 120 years since abandon. The new carbon derived from C3-litter was decomposed and transferred into soil profile thanks to earthworms and dissolved organic carbon leaching. After 1 years the carbon increase attributed to earthworm activity ranged from 6 to 13% in soil under litter in field abandoned since 120 and 45 years, respectively.

  17. Litter contribution to soil organic carbon in the processes of agriculture abandon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, A.; Rühl, J.; La Mantia, T.; Gristina, L.; La Bella, S.; Tuttolomondo, T.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of litter decomposition, translocation and stabilization into soil layers are fundamental processes in the functioning of the ecosystem, as they regulate the cycle of soil organic matter (SOM) and CO2 emission into the atmosphere. In this study the contribution of litters of different stages of Mediterranean secondary succession on carbon sequestration was investigated, analyzing the role of earthworms in the translocation of SOM into the soil profile. For this purpose the δ13C difference between meadow C4-C soil and C3-C litter was used in a field experiment. Four undisturbed litters of different stages of succession (45, 70, 100 and 120 since agriculture abandon) were collected and placed on the top of isolated C4 soil cores. The litter contribution to C stock was affected by plant species and it increased with the age of the stage of secondary succession. One year after the litter position, the soil organic carbon increased up to 40% in comparison to soils not treated with litter after 120 years of abandon. The new carbon derived from C3 litter was decomposed and transferred into soil profile thanks to earthworms and the leaching of dissolved organic carbon. After 1 year the carbon increase attributed to earthworm activity was 6 and 13% in the soils under litter of fields abandoned for 120 and 45 years, respectively.

  18. Prediction of groundwater rebound at an abandoned coal mine in Korea using GRAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Shin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering generally results in groundwater rebound after closing an abandoned underground coal mine since the mine voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from groundwater rebound. This study developed a GRAM model-based program was developed for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems after mine closure. An application of the program to the Dongwon coal mine in Korea showed that the groundwater level modeled at the shaft of Dongwon coal mine is similar to the observed one in the field. The GRAM model-based program is transferable to other mining areas in both industrialized and less-developed countries. Therefore, the program could reduce the time and effort for predicting mine groundwater rebound and to support mine reclamation planning.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Power plants were the largest stationary source of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States in 2010, according to data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) GHG Reporting Program, the agency announced on 11 January. The GHG data set, which includes reports from more than 6700 facilities, provides information that the public can search to identify local sources of emissions and that businesses can use to track emissions. Gina McCarthy, assistant administrator for EPA's Office of Air and Radiation, said the program is “a transparent, powerful data resource available to the public” and that it provides “a critical tool” for businesses and others to find efficiencies to reduce emissions.

  20. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse warming; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.

  1. General view of north portals showing three abandoned roadbeds. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of north portals showing three abandoned roadbeds. View south - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to Lake Trapps. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  4. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  5. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  6. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.46... fair any article entered for a fair may be abandoned to the Government or destroyed under...

  7. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  8. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., destroyed or donated to a public body, upon a finding in writing by the DE (but in no event shall such... justify the decision to donate, abandon, or destroy the property proposed, without outside reference....

  9. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  10. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  12. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has become... of such notice, the Commissioner shall publish a notice in the Official Journal that the variety...

  13. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  14. Life-cycle assessment of a reed canary grass plantation in an abandoned peat extraction area to mitigate GHG emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Abandoned peat extraction areas are continuous emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG); hence, abandonment of peat extraction areas should immediately be followed by conversion to an appropriate after-use. Our primary aim was to clarify the atmospheric impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) cultivation on an abandoned peat extraction area and to compare it to other after-treatment alternatives. In addition to measurement of GHGs using the closed chamber and gas-chromatograph method, measuring C and N balance in study plots and aboveground and belowground biomass of RCG for the period April 2009-September 2011, we performed a life-cycle assessment for five different after-use options for a drained organic soil withdrawn from peat extraction: (I) bare peat soil (no management), (II) non-fertilised Phalaris cultivation, (III) fertilized Phalaris cultivation, (IV) afforestation, and (V) rewetting. Our results showed that on average the non-fertilised and fertilised Phalaris alternatives had a cooling effect on the atmosphere, whereas afforestation, rewetting, and no management alternatives contributed to global warming. The main components influencing the global warming potential of different after-use alternatives were site GHG emissions, carbon assimilation by plants, and emissions from combustion, while management-related emissions played a relatively minor role. The results of this study indicate that, from the perspective of atmospheric impact during following 10 years, the most suitable after-use option for an abandoned peat extraction area is cultivation of RCG. For the long term effect, dynamics of Phalaris production and carbon sequestration in soil must be taken into the consideration.

  15. Isotopic insights into smoothening of abandoned fan surfaces, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Nichols, K.; Finkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations measured on abandoned fan surfaces along the Mojave section of the San Andreas Fault suggest that sediment is generated, transported, and removed from the fans on the order of 30-40??kyr. We measured in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, and in some cases 26Al, in boulders (n??=??15), surface sediment (n??=??15), and one depth profile (n??=??9). Nuclide concentrations in surface sediments and boulders underestimate fan ages, suggesting that 10Be accumulation is largely controlled by the geomorphic processes that operate on the surfaces of the fans and not by their ages. Field observations, grain-size distribution, and cosmogenic nuclide data suggest that over time, boulders weather into grus and the bar sediments diffuse into the adjacent swales. As fans grow older the relief between bars and swales decreases, the sediment transport rate from bars to swales decreases, and the surface processes that erode the fan become uniform over the entire fan surface. The nuclide data therefore suggest that, over time, the difference in 10Be concentration between bars and swales increases to a maximum until the topographic relief between bars and swales is minimized, resulting in a common surface lowering rate and common 10Be concentrations across the fan. During this phase, the entire fan is lowered homogeneously at a rate of 10-15??mm??kyr-1. ?? 2006 University of Washington.

  16. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  17. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  18. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  19. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  20. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  1. Greenhouse gas fluxes in mountain grassland differing in land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladreiter-Knauss, Thomas; Schmitt, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kienzl, Sandra; Ingrisch, Johannes; Hasibeder, Roland; Bahn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Mountain grassland covers large areas, thus influences the global greenhouse gas (GHG) balance and is strongly affected by changes in land use. Effects of such changes on the GHG-balance have so far not been well documented. As a contribution to the EU-project GHG Europe we are studying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) on a mountain meadow, an adjacent and an abandoned pasture at 1820-1970m a.s.l. in the Austrian Central Alps. The GHG balance is estimated from manual and auto-chamber measurements, combined with already published CO2-NEE over almost a decade. Winter CO2-fluxes, primarily soil respiration underneath the snowpack, are estimated with solid state CO2-sensors using a validated diffusion model. We found that abandon the management decreases the NEE of CO2 while its component, soil respiration (Rs), increases. The decrease is explained by differences in leaf area index, biomass and leaf-area-independent changes that were likely related to photosynthetic physiology. The increase in Rs can be explained by higher belowground carbon input due to missing grazing or mowing. The abandoned pasture showed the highest uptake rates of CH4 and a slight uptake of N2O, possibly due to better soil aeration. Spring freeze-thaw events caused slight CH4 emissions in the managed grassland. The meadow and pasture had just low emission rates of N2O even at freeze-thaw cycles and organic fertilization. These results suggest that in mountain grassland the main contributor to the GHG balance are CO2 fluxes that can largely be influenced by land use changes.

  2. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Agricultural Research Service 2011), which aim to improve consistency of field measurement and data collection for soil carbon sequestration and soil nitrous oxide fluxes. Often these national-level activity data and emissions factors are the basis for regional and smaller-scale applications. Such data are used for model-based estimates of changes in GHGs at a project or regional level (Olander et al 2011). To complement national data for regional-, landscape-, or field-level applications, new data are often collected through farmer knowledge or records and field sampling. Ideally such data could be collected in a standardized manner, perhaps through some type of crowd sourcing model to improve regional—and national—level data, as well as to improve consistency of locally collected data. Data can also be collected by companies working with agricultural suppliers and in country networks, within efforts aimed at understanding firm and product (supply-chain) sustainability and risks (FAO 2009). Such data may feed into various certification processes or reporting requirements from buyers. Unfortunately, this data is likely proprietary. A new process is needed to aggregate and share private data in a way that would not be a competitive concern so such data could complement or supplement national data and add value. A number of papers in this focus issue discuss issues surrounding quantification methods and systems at large scales, global and national levels, while others explore landscape- and field-scale approaches. A few explore the intersection of top-down and bottom-up data measurement and modeling approaches. 5. The agricultural greenhouse gas quantification project and ERL focus issue Important land management decisions are often made with poor or few data, especially in developing countries. Current systems for quantifying GHG emissions are inadequate in most low-income countries, due to a lack of funding, human resources, and infrastructure. Most non-Annex 1 countries

  3. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  4. Solar greenhouse workshop; video documentary

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, B.; Devine B.; Taylor, C.

    1980-01-01

    A 38 minute video-tape documentary of the building of an attached solar greenhouse is presented. The tape follows the construction process from foundation preparation to greenhouse completion. The tape allows greater outreach to potential builders of solar greenhouses than a conventional construction workshop. It allows viewers to appreciate the simplicity of construction, and encourages, by example, interested people to start building. The process of making the documentary is briefly described, as are its potential uses. Copies of the video-tape are available, for the cost of the tape alone, from Antioch Video, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387.

  5. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  6. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. PMID:27179321

  7. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  8. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Rob

    1992-03-01

    A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse warming, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of warming (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse warming poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse warming. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.

  9. Overview of global greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Reck, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

  10. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  11. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  12. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  13. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  14. How do soil organic carbon stocks change after cropland abandonment in Mediterranean humid mountain areas?

    PubMed

    Nadal-Romero, E; Cammeraat, E; Pérez-Cardiel, E; Lasanta, T

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions. Afforestation is increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and is considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. Given the large quantity of CO2 that soils release annually, it is important to understand disturbances in vegetation and soil resulting from land use changes. The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, permanent pastureland, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, were analysed. SOC dynamics have been studied in the bulk soil, and in the fractions separated according to two methodologies: (i) aggregate size distribution, and (ii) density fractionation, and rates of carbon mineralization have been determined by measuring CO2 evolution using an automated respirometer. The results showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10cm), (ii) when all the profiles were considered no significant differences were observed between pastureland and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) pastureland should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration experiments did not show evidence of SOC stabilization. SOC mineralization was higher in the top layers and values decreased with depth. These results gain insights into which type of land management is most appropriate after land abandonment for SOC

  15. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  16. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  17. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules in soils from a tropical forest and an abandoned cornfield in Quintana Roo, Mexico: visual comparison of most-probable-number estimates.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Guadarrama, Patricia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge; Orellana, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing the number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) propagules found in soil from a mature tropical forest and that found in an abandoned cornfield in Noh-Bec Quintana Roo, Mexico, during three seasons. Agricultural practices can dramatically reduce the availability and viability of AMF propagules, and in this way delay the regeneration of tropical forests in abandoned agricultural areas. In addition, rainfall seasonality, which characterizes deciduous tropical forests, may strongly influence AMF propagules density. To compare AMF propagule numbers between sites and seasons (summer rainy, winter rainy and dry season), a "most probable number" (MPN) bioassay was conducted under greenhouse conditions employing Sorgum vulgare L. as host plant. Results showed an average value of 3.5 ± 0.41 propagules in 50 ml of soil for the mature forest while the abandoned cornfield had 15.4 ± 5.03 propagules in 50 ml of soil. Likelihood analysis showed no statistical differences in MPN of propagules between seasons within each site, or between sites, except for the summer rainy season for which soil from the abandoned cornfield had eight times as many propagules compared to soil from the mature forest site for this season. Propagules of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi remained viable throughout the sampling seasons at both sites. Abandoned areas resulting from traditional slash and burn agriculture practices involving maize did not show a lower number of AMF propagules, which should allow the establishment of mycotrophic plants thus maintaining the AMF inoculum potential in these soils. PMID:20714755

  19. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen's Bureau), which was established by the Congress on March 3, 1865, to assist former slaves in acquiring land, securing employment, legalizing marriages, and pursuing education. After the bureau's abolition through an act of Congress approved on June 10, 1872,…

  1. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....402 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or... an appeal if neither the party nor his representative participates significantly in the...

  2. 90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning arrester houses on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

    1993-01-22

    This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

  4. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56 Section 256.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT... separate trust account. You may obtain a copy of the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety...

  5. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  6. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... See 49 FR 15496. On May 16, 1984, the State repealed most of the Tennessee Coal Surface Mining Law of.... See 47 FR 34753. Withdrawal of Tennessee's Regulatory Program: As a result of Tennessee's failure to... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  8. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    .... See 49 FR 15496. On May 16, 1984, the State repealed most of the Tennessee Coal Surface Mining Law of..., 1982. See 47 FR 34753. Withdrawal of Tennessee's Regulatory Program: Because of the State's failure to... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  9. 7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. NOTE CANTILEVERED DECKING. SOUTH FORK OF EEL RIVER AT LEFT. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  10. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of fuel if the property contains fuel. This information must be— (i) Labeled on the property; or (ii... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of fuel if the property contains fuel. This information must be— (i) Labeled on the property; or (ii... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and...

  13. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Quality...

  14. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727 Section 192.727 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS...

  16. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  17. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  19. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  20. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  1. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  2. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations §...

  3. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  5. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  7. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  9. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  13. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  14. 48 CFR 45.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officers may abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies excess property that is not sensitive property... donate excess personal property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not...

  15. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies surplus property that is not sensitive property, and... donate surplus property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not bear any...

  16. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies surplus property that is not sensitive property, and... donate surplus property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not bear any...

  17. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  19. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  20. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  1. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  2. Predictive modelling of the mine water rebound in an old abandoned Dongwon mine in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Daehoon; Park, Seunghwan; Kim, Gyoungman

    2014-05-01

    The closure of over three-hundred deep coal mines in Korea since the late-1980s, primarily due to the energy and environmental concerns, has produced significant side effects. One of the major challenges is to assess the risk from mine water rebound to overlying aquifers and surface waters, which can produce significant environmental hazards. Some numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the quantity, timing and location of discharges resulting from mine water rebound. In this study, we developed a GRAM-based windows program for mine water rebound modelling in abandoned deep mine systems. The program consists of the simulation engine and the GUI modules, each has several subroutines. Changes in mine water level of the Dongwon coal mine, presumably hydrogeologically connected to nearby old abandoned mines, has been monitored after the mine was finally closed in 2005. The water level in the vertical shaft rised up to 420m during the period of 3 years. The system was modelled as two ponds connected by a pipe. Input data include the areas of each pond, catchment areas, the storage coefficient, etc. The predicted changes in the mine water level was very similar to the observed data in the field. For this modelling, in fact, some of the input variable were roughly assumed to match the field data. Nevertheless, this program can be effectively applied to predict the rising of the mine water after the mine closure.

  3. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis. PMID:25626521

  4. Ameliorants to immobilize Cd in rice paddy soils contaminated by abandoned metal mines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Kuk; Skousen, Jeffrey G; Lee, Jin-Soo; Cheong, Young-Wook; Kim, Su-Jung; Yang, Jae E

    2011-01-01

    The cadmium (Cd) content of rice grain grown in metal-contaminated paddy soils near abandoned metal mines in South Korea was found to exceed safety guidelines (0.2 mg Cd kg⁻¹) set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). However, current remediation technologies for heavy metal-contaminated soils have limited application with respect to rice paddy soils. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of amending contaminated rice paddy soils with zerovalent iron (ZVI), lime, humus, compost, and combinations of these compounds to immobilize Cd and inhibit Cd translocation to rice grain. Sequential extraction analysis revealed that treatment with the ameliorants induced a 50-90% decrease in the bioavailable Cd fractions when compared to the untreated control soil. When compared to the control, Cd uptake by rice was decreased in response to treatment with ZVI + humus (69%), lime (65%), ZVI + compost (61%), compost (46%), ZVI (42%), and humus (14%). In addition, ameliorants did not influence rice yield when compared to that of the control. Overall, the results of this study indicated that remediation technologies using ameliorants effectively reduce Cd bioavailability and uptake in contaminated rice paddy soils. PMID:21052787

  5. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  6. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  7. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  8. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  9. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry. 158.42 Section 158.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RELIEF FROM DUTIES ON MERCHANDISE LOST, DAMAGED, ABANDONED, OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned,...

  10. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you abandon property at a site, it may be removed without your consent and disposed of at your expense, if the...

  11. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you abandon property at a site, it may be removed without your consent and disposed of at your expense, if the...

  12. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  13. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  14. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  15. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... formula: EC15NO91.138 where PE is the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, CV is the...

  16. 78 FR 20714 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Dunn County, WI.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Dunn County, WI. Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a...

  17. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  18. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  19. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  20. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned... and Abandoned Merchandise Vesting in Government § 127.41 Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. (a) Vesting of title in Government. At the end of the 6-month period noted in § 127.11 of...

  1. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  2. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  3. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  4. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to seek the abandonment and all agreements which are dependent upon the approval of the proposed... abandonment. Concisely describe the changes of property, indicating the cost of property to be abandoned in place, the cost of property to be removed and salvaged, the proposed disposition of salvaged...

  5. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  6. 30 CFR 938.20 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land... PENNSYLVANIA § 938.20 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted on November 3, 1980, is approved. Copies of the approved...

  7. 78 FR 17468 - Alabama Railroad Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Monroe County, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama Railroad Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Monroe County, AL Alabama Railroad Co. (ALAB) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately...

  8. 49 CFR 1105.12 - Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... representative: (Name, address and phone number). Sample Local Newspaper Notice for Petitions for Abandonment... 20423, a notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F—Exempt Abandonments permitting the (abandonment... county in which the line is located and certify to the Board that it has done this by the date its...

  9. 49 CFR 1105.12 - Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... representative: (Name, address and phone number). Sample Local Newspaper Notice for Petitions for Abandonment... 20423, a notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F—Exempt Abandonments permitting the (abandonment... county in which the line is located and certify to the Board that it has done this by the date its...

  10. 7 CFR 97.22 - Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. 97.22 Section 97.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. An application abandoned for failure on the...

  11. 7 CFR 97.22 - Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. 97.22 Section 97.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply. An application abandoned for failure on the...

  12. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine....13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land... approved effective May 16, 1988. Copies of the approved program are available at: (a) The Navajo...

  13. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine....13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land... approved effective May 16, 1988. Copies of the approved program are available at: (a) The Navajo...

  14. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  15. 30 CFR 946.20 - Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. 946.20 Section 946.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 946.20 Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. Virginia Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan...

  16. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  17. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  18. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  19. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  20. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  1. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  2. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983, and...

  3. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920... § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on... Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Administration, Bureau of Mines, 160 South Water...

  4. 78 FR 66801 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in St. Joseph County, Ind.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in St. Joseph County... 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a total of approximately 1.5 miles of rail line located in the City of ] South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind., extending easterly from milepost PY 1.90...

  5. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, Ill. BNSF... Abandonments to abandon approximately 1.1 miles of rail line in Chicago, in Cook County, Ill., as follows:...

  6. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  8. Biological control in greenhouse systems.

    PubMed

    Paulitz, T C; Bélanger, R R

    2001-01-01

    The controlled environment of greenhouses, the high value of the crops, and the limited number of registered fungicides offer a unique niche for the biological control of plant diseases. During the past ten years, over 80 biocontrol products have been marketed worldwide. A large percentage of these have been developed for greenhouse crops. Products to control soilborne pathogens such as Sclerotinia, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium include Coniothyrium minitans, species of Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Streptomyces, and Bacillus, and nonpathogenic Fusarium. Products containing Trichoderma, Ampelomyces quisqualis, Bacillus, and Ulocladium are being developed to control the primary foliar diseases, Botrytis and powdery mildew. The development of Pseudomonas for the control of Pythium diseases in hydroponics and Pseudozyma flocculosa for the control of powdery mildew by two Canadian research programs is presented. In the future, biological control of diseases in greenhouses could predominate over chemical pesticides, in the same way that biological control of greenhouse insects predominates in the United Kingdom. The limitations in formulation, registration, and commercialization are discussed, along with suggested future research priorities. PMID:11701861

  9. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual provides a basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. At the beginning of each chapter, competencies are listed, along with related math and science concepts, and a list of "terms to know"; figures, tables, and photographs may be included. At the end of each chapter, a self-check can be made of the…

  10. Effect of land abandonment on soil organic carbon fractions along a precipitation gradient in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Trigalet, Sylvain; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Land abandonment has been the main land use change in rural European Mediterranean areas over the last decades. The secondary succession process following land abandonment is strongly affected by precipitation, which in consequence determines the parallel change of soil organic carbon (SOC) and other soil properties. SOC is usually assumed to increase due to the intensification of plant residues inputs to soil, above as well below ground. However, SOC is composed of different fractions with contrasting resistance to decomposition that can have different responses to land abandonment. The objectives of this study are: i) to determine the net effect of land abandonment on the different soil organic carbon fractions; ii) to assess the relation between vegetation evolution and SOC fractions; iii) to establish the conditions with the greater potential to store stable SOC along a precipitation gradient. Three field sites with contrasting annual precipitation (GAU: 1080.5 mm yr-1- ALM: 650 mm yr-1- GER: 350 mm yr-1) were selected. On each site Fields abandoned in different periods, as verified on aerial photographs taken in 1956, 1977, 1984, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2009, were selected using a chronosequence approach. The fractionation protocol implemented was based on the separation of different soil particle sizes, which are associated to SOC pools with different degree of stability. Samples of the first 10 cm of soil were added to a sodium-hexametaphosphate (HMP) solution (40 g L-1) and shaken horizontally for 1h (150 r.p.m.). The soil solution was then sieved consecutively through two meshes of 250 µm and 50 µm, obtaining the following fractions: i) >250 µm (coarse fraction), it contains coarse particles (coarse sand) and plant residues (particulate organic matter, POM), easily decomposable, that constitute the more labile SOC pool; ii) 50 - 250 µm (mid fraction), it contains fine sand, fine POM easily decomposable and stable microaggregates, that contains SOC

  11. On the Fluid Leakage Rate and Pressure Evaluation of Abandoned Non-Penetrating Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, J.; Zhan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding flow leakage through abandoned wells that are potential pathways of contamination due to injecting unwanted fluids in geologically deep storage aquifers have become an intensively investigated subject in the subsurface hydrology and petroleum engineering. This study represents a semi-analytical transient solution for estimating leakage rate by pressure change evaluation through an abandoned non-penetrating well (ANW) coupled with an injection well. The leakage rate can be estimated using the Darcy's law by evaluating pressure change between the upper and the lower aquifers through ANW. The analysis was conducted by solving the diffusivity equations of fluid flow in the aquifer coupled with the pipe flow through ANW. The single-phase flow is considered in this study that is capable of explaining both fluid and CO2 plume flow in an aquifer system by neglecting the variable density effect. The result is compared with that of Avci's (1994) which dealt with an abandoned fully penetrating well. The result indicates the similar type of curve trend, which is observed by applying a range of aquifer properties as well as distance between the injection and leakage pathway. The important finding is that the leakage rate through ANW is about 50% compared to the fully penetrating well of Avci's (1994). The sensitivity analyses indicate that parameter leakage coefficient (A), transmissivity ratio (TD) and radial distance (R) between injection and ANW are the most sensitive to the leakage rate and the rest of the parameters are less sensitive. Because of availability of limited analytical and complex numerical solution, this simple new approach is going to provide a simple means to estimate leakage flow for realistic field condition.

  12. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  13. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  14. Mardels, natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Slotboom, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this 'environmental catastrophe'. The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath

  15. "Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer" (AMULSE) dedicated to vertical profile measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) under stratospheric balloons: instrumental development and field application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maamary, Rabih; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albora, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Barrié, Joel; Moulin, Eric; Ramonet, Michel; Bréon, François-Marie; Durry, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Human activities disrupt natural biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and contribute to an increase in the concentrations of the greenhouse gases (carbone dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. The current atmospheric transport modeling (the vertical trade) still represents an important source of uncertainty in the determination of regional flows of greenhouse gases, which means that a good knowledge of the vertical distribution of CO2 is necessary to (1) make the link between the ground measurements and spatial measurements that consider an integrated concentration over the entire column of the atmosphere, (2) validate and if possible improve CO2 transport model to make the link between surface emissions and observed concentration. The aim of this work is to develop a lightweight instrument (based on mid-infrared laser spectrometry principles) for in-situ measuring at high temporal/spatial resolution (5 Hz) the vertical profiles of the CO2 and the CH4 using balloons (meteorological and BSO at high precision levels (< 1 ppm in 1 second integration time for the CO2 sensor, and smaller than several tenths of ppb in 1 second integration time for the CH4 sensor). The instrument should be lighter than 2.5 kg in order to facilitate authorizations, costs and logistics flights. These laser spectrometers are built on recent instrumental developments. Several flights were successfully done in the region Champagne-Ardenne and in Canada recently. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS défi instrumental and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  16. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  17. Mardels, natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Slotboom, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this 'environmental catastrophe'. The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath

  18. HYDROGEN GREENHOUSE PLANETS BEYOND THE HABITABLE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Gaidos, Eric E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu

    2011-06-10

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H{sub 2}-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the 'classical' habitable zone defined for CO{sub 2} greenhouse atmospheres. Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we find that 40 bars of pure H{sub 2} on a three Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280 K out to 1.5 AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H{sub 2}, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H{sub 2}-He are possible and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protecting magnetic fields. We predict that the microlensing planet OGLE-05-390Lb could have retained an H{sub 2}-He atmosphere and be habitable at {approx}2.6 AU from its host M star.

  19. Abandoned luggage detection using a finite state automaton in surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sooyeong; Bae, Guntae; Byun, Hyeran

    2010-02-01

    We present an abandoned luggage detection architecture that consists of an intelligent surveillance system for public places. Detection of abandoned luggage is necessary because unattended or abandoned luggage can be used as a means of terrorist attack, especially for bombs. Our proposed system relies on three modules: moving object detection, object tracking and classification, and event recognition. We focus on abandoned luggage detection. To recognize an abandoned luggage event, we constructed the finite state automaton (FSA), in which each FSA state represents a certain luggage status. The proposed algorithm shows good performance in a real-world environment and also works at real-time speed.

  20. Use of wet FGD material for revegetation of an abandoned acidic coal refuse pile

    SciTech Connect

    Mafi, S.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Wet FGD material has a neutralizing potential of 15% CaCO{sub 3}. These properties may make it a beneficial amendment for revegetation of hyper-acidic coal refuse. In greenhouse and field experiments, coal refuse (pH = 2.5) was amended with wet FGD (300, 500, and 700 tons/acre). Amendment with FGD was as effective as agricultural lime (AL) in increasing refuse pH and decreasing soluble Al and Fe. Addition of compost to the FGD further increased pH and decreased soluble Al and Fe. Downward transport of Ca was greater with FGD than AL, but FGD did not increase leachate concentrations of S. Amendment with FGD increased refuse, leachate and plant tissue concentrations of B. Other trace elements were not increased by FGD. In the greenhouse, plant growth was similar with AL and FGD except during the first three months when AL produced more growth than FGD. The initial growth suppression by FGD was likely due to high soluble salts, and possibly by high B concentrations. During the first year of the field experiment plant growth was greater with FGD than with AL. In both the field and greenhouse experiments compost increased plant growth when combined with FGD. These experiments show revegetation of toxic coal refuse and improvement in drainage water quality is possible by amendment with FGD. Revegetation success will be improved by combined amendment with FGD and compost.

  1. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  2. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  3. Commentary on Baddeley and Larsen (2007). The phonological store abandoned.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dylan M; Hughes, Robert W; Macken, William J

    2007-04-01

    Baddeley and Larsen (2007) argue that a number of key findings reported by Jones, Macken, and Nicholls (2004) and Jones, Hughes, and Macken (2006) pointing to shortcomings of the phonological store construct arise from the store being abandoned with long lists. In our rejoinder we point out that Baddeley and Larsen use a procedure in which retrieval from the supposed phonological storage would not--according to their own theory--have been possible, and we present theoretical, empirical, and logical problems with their "store abandonment" argument and highlight a number of difficulties associated with the interpretation of suffix and prefix effects. We conclude that our data are still problematic for the phonological store construct and suggest that a reformulation of short-term memory theory needs to embody (or indeed focus exclusively upon) perceptual and effector systems rather than bespoke storage modules. PMID:17455060

  4. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  5. Should High-Frequency Ventilation in the Adult Be Abandoned?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Albert P; Schmidt, Ulrich H; MacIntyre, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) can improve ventilation-perfusion matching without excessive alveolar tidal stretching or collapse-reopening phenomenon. This is an attractive feature in the ventilation of patients with ARDS. However, two recent large multi-center trials of HFOV failed to show benefits in this patient population. The following review addresses whether, in view of these trails, HFOV should be abandoned in the adult population? PMID:27235314

  6. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  9. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  10. Floodplain Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Vegetation Composition and Structure Through Channel Meander Migration and Channel Abandonment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremier, A. K.; Viers, J. H.; Hayden, M. K.; Stella, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Riparian vegetation composition and structure reflect the legacy of fine- and coarse-scale patterns of hydrology, geomorphology and ecology. Understanding the dynamics of complex systems requires scaling-up mechanistic patterns and processes. Coupling hydro-geomorphic processes with vegetation development is an integral step in understanding habitat evolution in riparian corridors. We quantified floodplain deposition dynamics and topographic complexity to better understand how riparian forest structure and composition changed through time and over the floodplain. We used LiDAR data and a temporally-rich dataset of aerial photography coupled with field data to analyze landscape-scale patterns with species composition and floodplain dynamics. We examined the significance of two definable large-scale floodplain processes - meander migration and channel abandonment - that set-up the spatial structure of riparian forest dynamics. In addition, we analyzed the potential feedback of riparian vegetation on floodplain formation. Canopy structure and floodplain heterogeneity generally showed a log-linear relationship over time and were highly correlated with species composition changes over time and with a range of past hydrologies (inter- and intra- annual patterns). These data suggest that analysis of landscape formation processes, in particularly during the early stages, improves our understanding of riparian forest dynamics and that channel abandonment can be a significant alternative pathway to cottonwood recruitment. By analyzing the coupled eco-geomorphic processes we can more effectively scale-up riparian vegetation patterns by applying a functional knowledge of the corridor-wide channel dynamics and floodplain hydrology.

  11. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y). PMID:22073728

  12. Geomorphic connectivity within abandoned small catchments (Stołowe Mts, SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latocha, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    Studying 5 small catchments (0.6-2.7 km2) located in the central part of the Stołowe Mountains (SW Poland), which are partly or totally abandoned, has revealed the substantial changes of connectivity within the catchments. Field investigation (geomorphic mapping, morphometric analyses) and GIS based analyses of historical data show that slope-channel coupling is much less efficient than in the past, mainly due to the decrease of unpaved road network, especially roads linked directly with streams. Also land-use change with considerable loss of arable land does not support erosion from slopes. The general direction of geomorphic change due to depopulation and lack of maintenance of anthropogenic features tends towards higher stability and lower efficiency of morphological processes, connected with a sustained decrease in slope-channel coupling. This tendency is evidenced by relict landscape features (e.g. road gullies, abandoned roads) formed in the period of more intensive land use, for which higher dynamics of the morphogenetic system may be inferred. The evidence of contemporary erosion and mineral material transport is very local and spatially limited to a few roads which are still in use. Sediment transfer is additionally slowed down by the presence of numerous anthropogenic barriers within slope and valley-floor domains. Even though their total impact may seem only local and negligible at the catchment scale, their contribution to increase the diversity of morphological processes is significant. Especially the neglect of hydrotechnical constructions enhances trapping of material within the catchments.

  13. Investigation on Health Effects of an Abandoned Metal Mine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Choi, Kyungho; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2008-01-01

    To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone mineral density were measured. Surface soil in the study area showed 2-10 times higher levels of metals compared to that of the control area. Metal concentrations in the groundwater and air did not show any notable differences between groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and copper in rice and barley from the study area were significantly higher than those of the control area (p<0.05). Geometric means of blood and urine cadmium in the study area were 2.9 µg/L and 1.5 µg/g Cr, respectively, significantly higher than those in the control area (p<0.05). There were no differences in the levels of urinary markers of early kidney dysfunction and bone mineral density. The authors conclude that the residents near the abandoned mine were exposed to higher levels of metals through various routes. PMID:18583882

  14. [Eco-restoration of abandoned farmland in the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujiang; Xiao, Jinyu; Nan, Zhibiao

    2002-08-01

    The vegetation on abandoned farmland was succeeded from Agriophyllum arenarium community to Lespedeza davurica community under cutting conditions. More plant species was recruited at the initial stage of restoration. The new plant species established earlier were annual Agriophyllum arenarium and perennial Pennisetum flaccidum which could be the dominant species or sub-dominant species. The perennial Artemisia capillaris established in early-middle stage could be the sub-dominant species, and leguminous plants appeared in late-middle stage could only be the associated species. The aboveground biomass of annual species reduced by 8.8% annually, while the perennial species increased with the similar rate. The aboveground biomass of leguminous species increased continuously. As the restoration proceeded, more underground biomass was distributed in upper soil layer. In 1-7 years of restoration of abandoned land, the clay and silt in 0-30 cm soil profile reduced, while grit increased, but the inverse trend occurred after 7 years. The water content in 0-100 cm soil profile increased continuously, especially during middle stage. Total and available nitrogen in 0-100 cm soil profile reduced in early stage, but increased in late stage. Total and available phosphorus and organic carbon in soil profile reduced continuously under cutting conditions. For the restoration of abandoned farmland to the current stable community, it would take 8-9 years for dominant population, 9-11 years for vegetative community and 11-12 years for soil system. PMID:12418248

  15. Dissolution of as and U in Abandoned Mine Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J.; Ali, A.; Avasarala, S.; Brearley, A. J.; Cerrato, J.

    2014-12-01

    The release of U and As from abandoned mine wastes obtained from a site in the Navajo Nation in Northeastern Arizona was assessed by integrating spectroscopy, microscopy, and aqueous chemistry techniques. X-ray fluorescence analyses detected concentrations of 0.6% U, 0.4 % V, and 0.3% Fe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of 73% Fe(II), 27% Fe(III), and the predominance of U(VI), V(V), and As(0). Transmission electron microscopy analyses detected the presence of amorphous carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O]. The proportional release of U and V into solution was measured for chemical extractions using 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.5) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy after 96 hours of reaction (sampled periodically). A similar proportional release of As and Fe after 2 hours of reaction was observed for chemical extractions using the same conditions mentioned previously. Lower concentrations of U, V, As, and Fe were released from chemical extractions using 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). The integration of spectroscopy, microscopy, and aqueous chemical extractions suggest that carnotite and an As-Fe-bearing mineral phase (likely arsenopyrite) control the dissolution of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. This has important environmental implications related to contamination of water sources in communities that live in the proximity of abandoned mine wastes.

  16. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support. PMID:16602351

  17. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  18. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

  19. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  20. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    PubMed

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. PMID:27118738

  1. FISCAL YEAR 1997 WELL INSTALLATION, PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT, AND REDEVELOPMENT SUMMARY REPORT Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION

    1997-09-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1997 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. No new groundwater monitoring wells were installed during FY 1997. However, 13 temporary piezometers were installed around the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) in the Y-12 Plant. An additional 36 temporary piezometers, also reported in this document, were installed in FY 1996 and, subsequently, assigned GW-series identification. A total of 21 monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1997. Three existing monitoring wells underwent redevelopment during FY 1997. All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures in the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988), the {ital Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document} (EPA 19?6), and {ital Guidelines for Installation of Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 Plant} (Geraghty & Miller 1985). All wells were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991). Health and safety monitoring and field screening of drilling returns and development waters were conducted in accordance with approved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) guidelines.

  2. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  3. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  4. Pesticide runoff from greenhouse production.

    PubMed

    Roseth, Roger; Haarstad, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    A research has been undertaken studying pesticide residues in water from greenhouses and the use of soils and filter materials to reduce such losses. The pesticides detected in water samples collected downstream greenhouses include 9 fungicides, 5 herbicides and 4 insecticides. 10 compounds from flower and vegetable productions were frequently found to exceed environmental risk levels, and with a few exceptions the compounds were found in higher concentrations than those typically found in agricultural runoff. Some compounds were found in high concentrations (>1 microg/l) in undiluted runoff from greenhouses producing vegetables. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were also sporadically very high, with phosphorous values varying between 0.85 and 7.4 mg P/l, and nitrogen values between 7.5 and 41.4 mg N/l. Undiluted runoff from the productions showed values of 60 mg P/l and 300 mg N/l. High values of pesticides correlated with high values of nutrients, especially P. Column experiments using a sandy agricultural soil and stock solutions of non-polar and slightly polar pesticides mixed with a complex binder and nutrients showed a significant reduction for nearly all of the compounds used, indicating that transport through soil will reduce the concentrations of the studied pesticides. The pesticide adsorption capacity of the filter materials pine bark, peat, Sphagnum moss, compost, oat straw, ferrous sand and clay soil were tested in batch and column experiments. Adsorption were studied contacting the filter materials with aqueous solutions containing greenhouse production pesticides. The batch experiments showed that pine bark and peat, both combining a high content of organic matter with a low ph, provided the highest adsorption for most of the tested pesticides. Sphagnum moss, compost and oat straw also showed high adsorption for most of the pesticides, while the mineral filters provided the lowest adsorption (30-55%). Further column experiments confirmed these

  5. Greenhouse gas budgets of managed European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands are directly and indirectly related to the respective carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budget. Within the framework of the NitroEurope project we investigated the greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen budgets of four European grassland systems over several years: Easter Bush (UK), Oensingen intensive and extensive (CH), and Bugac (HU). They span contrasting climatic conditions, management types (grazing, cutting) and intensity. While Easter Bush (pasture) and Oensingen int. (meadow) were intensively managed and received a considerable amount of fertiliser, the unfertilised sites Bugac (pasture) and Oensingen ext. (meadow) depended on atmospheric N input (wet and dry deposition) and biological N fixation. The experimental results of the four sites were also compared to published GHG fluxes of other European grasslands. While the ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured on the field scale with the eddy covariance method, the soil fluxes of the other greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O have been detected generally by means of static chambers (only occasional application of eddy covariance). The emission of CH4 by grazing ruminant resulting from enteric fermentation was estimated by animal type specific emission factors. For characterizing the total GHG effect of the grassland sites, the contributions of the different GHGs were normalised to CO2-equivalents. Except for Oensingen ext., all sites showed positive C budgets (sequestration). The observed positive correlation between C and N sequestration (with a ratio between 10 and 20) agrees with studies reported in the literature. The magnitude of N2O emission depended mainly on management intensity (fertiliser input) and on the soil moisture conditions. Whereas for the Oensingen and the Bugac sites, the total GHG budget was dominated by the carbon budget, for Easter Bush the combined effect of N2O and CH4 emission (including animal enteric fermentation) was in the same order of magnitude as the

  6. Problems getting from the laboratory to the field: Reclamation of an AML site

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.; Bigham, J.M.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    Acid and toxic abandoned mineland sites provide an opportunity whereby flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product can be beneficially used as a reclamation amendment material. Studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of FGD by-product, as compared with resoil, for reclamation purposes. Initial studies provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the FGD by-product and how to transport and blend the FGD by-product with yard waste compost. Greenhouse studies indicated that rates of 125 dry tons/acre of FGD and 50 dry tons/acre of yard waste compost would provide optimum results for reclamation of acid and toxic spoil contained at the Fleming abandoned mineland (AML) site. Their results showed that heavy metal loading rates were much lower using the FGD/compost mixture than using resoil material. Dioxin in the mixture was also less than the 5 ppt level considered as normal background. The technical problems of using FGD by-product for reclamation of an AML site were solved. However, considerable efforts to educate the public about the merits of reclaiming the Fleming AML site using this FGD/compost mixture were required before initiating field reclamation activities. Education efforts must continue if FGD by-products are to achieve general acceptance as a reclamation alternative to resoil in cases where resoil is of scarce supply.

  7. Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A.

    2009-07-01

    Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Assessment of wind energy potential at abandoned mining sites in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Mihyang; Choi, Yosoon

    2013-04-01

    Currently, about 84% of mining sites in Korea are abandoned after mine closure. Therefore, there is deep public concern about usage of the abandoned mining sites. This study presents a new idea to use the abandoned mines as wind power plants. An assessment of wind energy potential at abandoned mining sites in Korea was performed. The Gangwon province was selected as a study area because it has abundant wind resource as well as many abandoned mines. For the abandoned mines, both electric power production and economic effects were analyzed using RETScreen software. As a result, we revealed that the Sewon iron mine can produce 1.76 MWh per year. Other 46 mining sites that have high wind energy potential were determined and proposed in this study.

  9. Greenhouse gas induced climate change.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, G C; Cubasch, U

    1996-06-01

    Simulations using global coupled climate models predict a climate change due to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. Both are associated with the burning of fossil fuels. There has been considerable debate if this postulated human influence is already evident. This paper gives an overview on some recent material on this question. One particular study using optimal fingerprints (Hegerl et al., 1996) is explained in more detail. In this study, an optimal fingerprint analysis is applied to temperature trend patterns over several decades. The results show the probability being less than 5% that the most recently observed 30 year trend is due to naturally occurring climate fluctuations. This result suggests that the present warming is caused by some external influence on climate, e.g. by the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols. More work is needed to address the uncertainties in the magnitude of naturally occurring climate fluctuations. Also, other external influences on climate need to be investigated to uniquely attribute the present climate change to the human influence. PMID:24234957

  10. 25 CFR 247.10 - What will happen if I abandon property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What will happen if I abandon property? 247.10 Section 247.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.10 What will happen if I abandon property? If you abandon property at a site, it may be removed without...

  11. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D. L.; Drake, B. G.; Eckart, P.

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Hublitz, I; Henninger, D L; Drake, B G; Eckart, P

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. PMID:15846884

  13. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  14. Agroecosystems shape population genetic structure of the greenhouse whitefly in Northern and Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To predict further invasions of pests it is important to understand what factors contribute to the genetic structure of their populations. Cosmopolitan pest species are ideal for studying how different agroecosystems affect population genetic structure within a species at different climatic extremes. We undertook the first population genetic study of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), a cosmopolitan invasive herbivore, and examined the genetic structure of this species in Northern and Southern Europe. In Finland, cold temperatures limit whiteflies to greenhouses and prevent them from overwintering in nature, and in Greece, milder temperatures allow whiteflies to inhabit both fields and greenhouses year round, providing a greater potential for connectivity among populations. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped 1274 T. vaporariorum females collected from 18 greenhouses in Finland and eight greenhouses as well as eight fields in Greece. Results Populations from Finland were less diverse than those from Greece, suggesting that Greek populations are larger and subjected to fewer bottlenecks. Moreover, there was significant population genetic structure in both countries that was explained by different factors. Habitat (field vs. greenhouse) together with longitude explained genetic structure in Greece, whereas in Finland, genetic structure was explained by host plant species. Furthermore, there was no temporal genetic structure among populations in Finland, suggesting that year-round populations are able to persist in greenhouses. Conclusions Taken together our results show that greenhouse agroecosystems can limit gene flow among populations in both climate zones. Fragmented populations in greenhouses could allow for efficient pest management. However, pest persistence in both climate zones, coupled with increasing opportunities for naturalization in temperate latitudes due to climate change, highlight challenges for the

  15. Abandoning small-scale fish farming in western Kenya leads to higher malaria vector abundance.

    PubMed

    Howard, Annabel F V; Omlin, Francois X

    2008-01-01

    Fishponds become abandoned due to lack of access to both young fish and technical support and faster economic returns from other activities. Certain conditions found in abandoned fishponds, such as absence of fish and presence of aquatic vegetation, are conducive to the presence of malaria vectors. We conducted a district-wide fishpond census to determine the maintenance status and mosquito populations of fishponds in Kisii Central District in western Kenya. Two hundred and sixty one fishponds were found, 186 active (fish present) and 75 abandoned (fish absent). Vegetation was not significantly associated with the distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles funestus or culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) in active or abandoned ponds. The presence of fish, however, correlated significantly with the distribution of all mosquito species, with significantly higher mosquito densities in abandoned fishponds. An. gambiae s.l. was the most abundant mosquito species found in both active and abandoned ponds, being proportionally more abundant in the abandoned ponds. The proportion of An. funestus increased with altitude. Following the census the demand for fish to re-stock abandoned ponds rose by 67% when compared to the same time period in the previous year. This study highlights the potential public health problems associated with the abandonment of small-scale fish farming in the highlands of western Kenya. PMID:18068136

  16. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  17. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  18. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  19. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  20. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  1. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  2. Remediation of abandoned mines using coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, S.; Aydilek, A.H.; Petzrick, P.; Guynn, R.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a phenomenon that occurs when pyrite that is present in abandoned coal mines comes in contact with oxygen and water, which results in the formation of sulfuric acid and iron hydroxide. Grouting of an abandoned mine with alkaline materials provides a permanent reduction in acid production. This study investigates the success of coal combustion by-product (CCB)-based grout mixtures in reducing AMD. The laboratory phase included testing of grouts with different proportions of Class F fly ash, flue gas desulfurization by-product, fluidized bed combustion by-product, and quicklime, for slump, modified flow, bleed, and strength. Then the selected optimal grout mixture was injected into the Frazee mine, located in Western Maryland. Pre- and post-injection water quality data were collected to assess the long-term success of the grouting operation by analyzing mine water, surface water, and groundwater. Overall, the results indicated that CCB-based grouts can control the acid mine drainage. However, the mechanical properties of the grout are highly critical for the construction phase, and long-term monitoring is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of the grouting process.

  3. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation. PMID:10216814

  4. The return of the repressed: Abandoned parses facilitate syntactic reanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Staub, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Two eye movement experiments examined effects on syntactic reanalysis when the correct analysis was briefly entertained at an earlier point in the sentence. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences containing a noun phrase coordination/clausal coordination ambiguity, while in Experiment 2 they read sentences containing a subordinate clause object/main clause subject ambiguity. The critical conditions were designed to induce readers to construct the ultimately correct analysis just prior to being garden-pathed by the incorrect analysis. In both experiments, the earliest measures of the garden path effect were not modulated by this manipulation. However, there was significantly less regressive re-reading of the sentence in those conditions in which the correct analysis was likely to have been constructed, then abandoned, at an earlier point. These results suggest that a syntactic analysis that is abandoned in the course of processing a sentence is not lost altogether, and can be re-activated or retrieved from memory. Implications for models of initial syntactic analysis and reanalysis are discussed. PMID:19593394

  5. Greenhouse gas source identification and flux measurements using an optical remote sensing method and a photoacoustic multi-gas analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil properties such as particle size, soil organic carbon (SOC) and moisture contents, tillage operations and crop management practices influence greenhouse gas emission or consumption patterns from agricultural lands. Greenhouse gas (GG) emissions have been measured on small field plots, although ...

  6. Effect of irrigation on short-term pulses of greenhouse gas fluxes from manure-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas fluxes were monitored at a no-till continuous corn field site contrasting irrigation rates (60% versus 100%), overall nitrogen fertilizer rates (125 versus 200 kg N/ha), and biennial application of cattle feedlot manure. Greenhouse gas fluxes were assessed after the manure applicatio...

  7. Carbon implications of Virgin Lands Campaign cropland expansion and post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in Russia and Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Kurganova, I.; Schierhorn, F.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Müller, D.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Political economy and institutional changes regarding land use play crucial role in shaping land cover worldwide. Among such events was the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, when 45.2 million ha of virgin steppes were ploughed up from 1954 to 1963 in northern Eurasia. We took opportunity to evaluate carbon (C) costs of this Campaign, particularly with the account of massive cropland abandonment in the former Campaign area after demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Within cropland mask produced with remotely sensed data, we spatially disaggregated historical annual sown area statistics at the provincial level for Russia and Kazakhstan based on cropland suitability assessment. We also adjusted our cropland allocation model with the use of 1:3,000,000 map depicting cropland expansion in Northern Kazakhstan. We used C bookkeeping approach to assess C dynamics based on soil stratification and C field measurements. The Campaign resulted in huge C losses from soils, which accounted for 611±47 Mt C in Russia and 241±11 Mt C in Kazakhstan for upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation. Such C losses could be compared with C losses due to plowing up the prairies in the mid-1930s in USA. Despite the huge C losses from soils during the Campaign, the total C budget in soils of both countries at national level was positive after 1991 due to sequestered C on abandoned lands, albeit the patterns of C loss during the Campaign and C sink in post-Soviet period differed. The C sink from 1991 to 2010 on abandoned croplands in Russia (45.5Mha) comprised 976±108Mt C and Kazakhstan (12.9Mha) comprised 240±34Mt C. However, already ongoing recultivation of abandoned cropland in Kazakhstan and already planned such activities in Russia, can release stored C on abandoned lands. Our study highlights the importance of environmental evaluation of such governmental programs and their alternatives, particularly, since such programs are not rare events in modern land

  8. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  9. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  10. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  11. Significant Methane Emissions from Abandoned Oil and Gas wells in Northwest Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, X.; Reid, M. C.; Kanno, C.; Celia, M. A.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Sun, K.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.; Chen, Y.; Onstott, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Abandoned (no longer operated), Orphaned (abandoned and responsible party unavailable), and/or Lost (location unknown, cannot be confirmed, or not on record) (AOL) wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, and emissions to the atmosphere, of methane and other volatile hydrocarbons. However, little is known about methane fluxes from AOL wells. Of the 12,000 abandoned and orphaned oil and gas wells on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's (PA DEP) list, 36% are in McKean County. McKean County is home to the Bradford Oil Field, the world's first large oil field, which in 1881 produced 83% of America's output. A large fraction of the oil and gas wells in McKean County are AOL and some estimates of the number of AOL wells exceed the number of wells listed by the PA DEP by factors of 20 or more. To characterize AOL wells' potential as a significant methane source, we made first-of-a-kind measurements of methane fluxes from 8 abandoned wells in McKean County using static flux chambers. These wells are on a 40-acre lot, which includes various land cover types. Four of the eight measured wells are in forested areas, while three are in grassland, and one is in wetland areas. Two of the eight wells, one in a forested area and one in the grassland area, are plugged. Fluxes of methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane were measured using flame ionization gas chromatography. To gain insight into the source of methane (biogenic vs. thermogenic), carbon and hydrogen isotopes of methane were analyzed and the ratio of methane to heavier hydrocarbons were computed. In addition, a LI-7700 open path methane analyzer was used to provide on-line methane concentration measurement in the vicinity of AOL wells and in flux chambers. We found methane fluxes from the measured AOL wells to be significantly higher than fluxes observed in similar natural environments. Methane emissions from the two plugged wells were smaller than those from unplugged wells but

  12. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown. PMID:27616203

  13. Biofuels and the Greenhouse Gas Factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels have been scrutinized for their potential to be used as a fuel substitute to offset a portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. But quantifying that offset is complex. Bioenergy crops offset their greenhouse-gas contributions in three key ways: by rem...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is becoming more important world-wide. Although research suggests that farm land can serve as a sink for carbon, animal production is also an important source of emissions. Thus, strategies must be designed to reduce or eliminate net emissions of greenhouse ...

  15. Virtual Grower Software Helps in Greenhouse Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management decisions that are based on trial and error or “rules of thumb” are not consistently profitable for greenhouse producers. Since 2005, the USDA-ARS group in Toledo, OH has been working on software that helps take some of the guesswork out of greenhouse management generally, and help guide...

  16. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  17. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  18. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12564344

  19. Worker and Environmental Protection Issues in the Remediation Of an Abandoned Source Manufacturing Facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E.

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were Cs, Co, and Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12555034

  20. Reaching and abandoning the furthest ice extent during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Wirsig, Christian; Zasadni, Jerzy; Hippe, Kristina; Christl, Marcus; Akçar, Naki; Schluechter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the European Alps (late Würm) local ice caps and extensive ice fields in the high Alps fed huge outlet glaciers that occupied the main valleys and extended onto the forelands as piedmont lobes. Records from numerous sites suggest advance of glaciers beyond the mountain front by around 30 ka (Ivy-Ochs 2015 and references therein). Reaching of the maximum extent occurred by about 27-26 ka, as exemplified by dates from the Rhein glacier area (Keller and Krayss, 2005). Abandonment of the outermost moraines at sites north and south of the Alps was underway by about 24 ka. In the high Alps, systems of transection glaciers with transfluences over many of the Alpine passes dominated, for example, at Grimsel Pass in the Central Alps (Switzerland). 10Be exposure ages of 23 ± 1 ka for glacially sculpted bedrock located just a few meters below the LGM trimline in the Haslital near Grimsel Pass suggest a pulse of ice surface lowering at about the same time that the foreland moraines were being abandoned (Wirsig et al., 2016). Widespread ice surface lowering in the high Alps was underway by no later than 18 ka. Thereafter, glaciers oscillated at stillstand and minor re-advance positions on the northern forelands for several thousand years forming the LGM stadial moraines. Final recession back within the mountain front took place by 19-18 ka. Recalculation to a common basis of all published 10Be exposure dates for boulders situated on LGM moraines suggests a strong degree of synchrony for the timing of onset of ice decay both north and south of the Alps. Ivy-Ochs, S., 2015, Cuadernos de investigación geográfica 41: 295-315. Keller, O., Krayss, E., 2005, Vierteljahrschr. Naturforsch. Gesell. Zürich 150: 69-85. Wirsig, C. et al., 2016, J. Quat. Sci. 31: 46-59.