Science.gov

Sample records for abandoned hazardous waste

  1. Annual report on abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous-waste disposal sites and Hazardous Waste Remedial Fund, 1989. Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Section 455B.425 of the Code of Iowa requires the Director of the Department of Natural Resources to give a full account to the Legislature and the Governor each January 1st regarding the Hazardous Waste Remedial Fund. Section 455B.427 of the Code of Iowa requires the Director of the Department of Natural Resources to transmit a report to the Legislature and the Governor each January 1st regarding those sites listed on the Registry of Abandoned or Uncontrolled Disposal Sites. A copy of the report must also be sent to the board of supervisors of every county containing a site. This report is intended to fulfill both of these obligations.

  2. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  3. Rheological characteristics of waste rock materials in abandoned mine deposit and debris flow hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Lee, Choonoh; Cho, Yong-Chan; Wu, Ying-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    In Korea, approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread, but 50% of them are still abandoned without any proper remediation and cleanup. Summer heavy rainfall can result in the physicochemical modification of waste rock materials in the mountainous. From the geotechnical monitoring and field investigation, there are visible traces of mass movements every year. Soil erosion is one of severe phenomena in the study area. In particular, study area is located in the upper part of the Busan Metropolitan City and near the city's water supply. With respect to the supply of drinking water and maintenance of ecological balance, proper disposal of waste rock materials is required. For this reason, we examine the rheological properties of waste rock materials as a function of solid content using a ball- and vane-penetrated rheometer. In the flow curves, which are the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate of waste rock materials, we found that the soil samples exhibited a shear thinning beahivor regardless of solid content. The Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Power-law, and Papanastasiou models are used to determine the rheological properties. Assuming that the soil samples behaved as the viscoplastic behavior, the yield stress and viscosity are determined for different water contents. As a result, there are clear relationships between the solid content and rheological values (i.e., Bingham yield stress and plastic viscosity). From these relationships, the maximum and minimum of Bingham yield stresses are ranged from 100 to 2000 Pa. The debris flow mobilization is analysed using a 1D BING and 2D Debris flow models. In addition, the effect of wall slip and test apparatus are discussed.

  4. Hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1981-12-01

    An international meeting held at the State Department in Washington, DC on hazardous waste management is discussed. The conference was held by the Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Among the wastes considered at the meeting were chromium wastes, lead wastes, pesticides, mercury wastes, nickel wastes, oil refinery wastes, PCBs, cadmium wastes, and others. Radioactive wastes were not considered. Legislation, landfill use, recycling, and the Common Market's approach to these wastes were also discussed. (JMT)

  5. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  6. Hazardous waste tracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, R. )

    1993-08-01

    The concept of cradle-to-grave oversight of hazardous waste was established in 1976 under RCRA. Since then, the multicopy Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest has been a key component in the federal tracking system. The manifests ensure that generators, transporters and TSDFs maintain documentation of hazardous waste shipments. To a large extent, the tracking system has served its intended purpose; nevertheless, certain shortcomings exist. Anyone involved in shipping hazardous waste should be aware of the system's weaknesses and take appropriate measures to compensate for them.

  7. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a review and evaluation of vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring. It describes the applicability of selected monitoring methods to hazardous waste disposal sites. Topics covered include: geohydrologic framework of the vadose zone; premonitoring of storage at disposal sites; premonitoring of water movement at disposal sites; active and abandoned site monitoring methods; waste source pollutant characterization; geohydrologic settings for waste disposals and conceptual vadose zone monitoring descriptions.

  8. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  9. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  10. Health hazard prospecting by modeling wind transfer of metal-bearing dust from mining waste dumps: application to Jebel Ressas Pb-Zn-Cd abandoned mining site (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Manel; Munoz, Marguerite; Solmon, Fabien

    2014-10-01

    This work presents a modeling approach to simulate spatial distribution of metal contamination in aerosols with evaluation of health hazard. This approach offers the advantage to be non-intrusive, less expensive than sampling and laboratory analyses. It was applied to assess the impact of metal-bearing dust from mining wastes on air quality for a nearby community and agricultural lands in Jebel Ressas (Tunisia) locality. Dust emission rates were calculated using existing parameterization adapted to the contamination source composed of mining wastes. Metal concentrations were predicted using a Gaussian model (fugitive dust model) with, as input: emission rates, dump physical parameters and meteorological data measured in situ for 30 days in summertime. Metal concentration maps were built from calculated PM10 particle concentrations. They evidence the areas where Pb and Cd concentrations exceeded WHO guidelines (0.5 and 0.005 µg/m(3), respectively). Maximum concentrations of Pb and Cd in PM10 are, respectively, of 5.74 and 0.0768 µg/m(3) for measured wind speed values up to 22 m/s. Preferential areas of contamination were determined in agricultural lands to the NW from the source dump where Pb and Cd exceeded guidelines up to a distance of 1,200 m. The secondary spreading directions were SW and E, toward the village. Health hazard prospecting shown that a major part of the village was exposed to contaminated dust and that daily hazard quotient (HQ) values reached locally 118 and 158, respectively, for Pb and Cd during the study period. However, HQ variations in the village are high, both temporally and geographically.

  11. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  12. New hazardous waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1993-05-15

    From data supplied by industrial laboratories, from academia, and from the EPA's Superfund Innovative Site Evaluation (SITE) program, this paper presents an informal look at some new and innovative hazardous waste treatment processes. These processes show promise for sparing users off-site disposal costs as well as for remediation of contamination at Superfund or RCRA sites. Included are the following: equipment that will biodegrade water-based paint wastes and pesticide wastes; recycling of potliner and furnace dusts for metal recovery; a process that reduces PCBs and PAHs to lighter hydrocarbons such as methane. Finally, two radiofrequency (RF) processes are described that can be used to remove soil contaminants such as pentachlorophenols, Aroclor 1242, solvents, oils, jet fuel, and pesticides.

  13. Hazardous Wastes--New Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Harvey W.

    1979-01-01

    The need for effective disposal of hazardous medical and pathological wastes is discussed and the results of a test of five different models of incinerators in disposing of such wastes is presented. (MJB)

  14. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    PubMed

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  16. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  17. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-10

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

  18. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  19. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  20. Household hazardous waste in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, E.J. 3d.; Tuthill, R.W.; Willis, C.; Moore, G.S.

    1987-03-01

    Household wastes, when disposed of improperly, are hazardous to health. This paper reports a random digit dial telephone survey of Massachusetts households concerning household hazardous waste (HHW) disposal with a 54% response. Of the automotive oil disposed of by 33% of survey households, 57% was deposited in the ground, sewer, or landfill. Annually by household oil disposal in Massachusetts is estimated to be 8.8 million quarts. Four percent of hazardous waste generated in Massachusetts is from households. Improper disposal makes it a major environmental contaminant. More households (41.5%) in smaller communities disposed of oil compared with 26% of households in larger communities. Paint and pesticides were disposed of by 10% of the households, but were dumped on the ground sewer or landfills more than 90% of the time.

  1. RCRA hazardous waste contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, T.P. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) to prepare a contingency plan. The plan is a blueprint for emergency response, and must be designed to minimize health and environmental hazards resulting from fires, explosions or other unplanned hazardous releases. Hazardous waste contingency plans often are neglected and considered an unnecessary regulatory exercise by facility operators. However, an effective contingency plan is a valuable tool for reducing liability, protecting workers and the community, and avoiding costly shutdowns. The requirement under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) that regulated facilities report to EPA annually on releases to the environment has caused regulators to renew emphasis on the importance of RCRA contingency plans. However, regulatory agencies historically have provided insufficient information on the elements of an adequate contingency plan. Nevertheless, facility operators seriously should consider going beyond minimum regulatory requirements and create a comprehensive contingency plan.

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.406 - Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Abandonment or... CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.4-Sale, Abandonment, or Destruction of Surplus Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.406 Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials...

  3. 41 CFR 101-42.406 - Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Abandonment or... CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.4-Sale, Abandonment, or Destruction of Surplus Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.406 Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials...

  4. 41 CFR 101-42.406 - Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandonment or... CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.4-Sale, Abandonment, or Destruction of Surplus Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.406 Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials...

  5. 41 CFR 101-42.406 - Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment or... CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.4-Sale, Abandonment, or Destruction of Surplus Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.406 Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials...

  6. 41 CFR 101-42.406 - Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Abandonment or... CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.4-Sale, Abandonment, or Destruction of Surplus Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.406 Abandonment or destruction of surplus hazardous materials...

  7. Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.Y.

    1995-11-01

    A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

  8. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have identification numbers which must be displayed on hazardous waste manifests. See 40 CFR parts 262...: In 40 CFR part 263, the EPA sets forth requirements for the cleanup of releases of hazardous wastes. ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... have identification numbers which must be displayed on hazardous waste manifests. See 40 CFR parts 262...: In 40 CFR part 263, the EPA sets forth requirements for the cleanup of releases of hazardous wastes. ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section...

  10. Hazardous Waste and You. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Waste Management Corp., Toronto.

    This teaching guide provides an interactive introduction to hazardous waste, with particular emphasis on personal responsibility and action. Nine lessons engage advanced grade 10 and grade 11-12 science students in group discussions and actions that help them develop awareness of hazardous waste, understanding of the hazardous waste situation in…

  11. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have identification numbers which must be displayed on hazardous waste manifests. See 40 CFR parts 262...: In 40 CFR part 263, the EPA sets forth requirements for the cleanup of releases of hazardous wastes. ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... have identification numbers which must be displayed on hazardous waste manifests. See 40 CFR parts 262...: In 40 CFR part 263, the EPA sets forth requirements for the cleanup of releases of hazardous wastes. ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have identification numbers which must be displayed on hazardous waste manifests. See 40 CFR parts 262...: In 40 CFR part 263, the EPA sets forth requirements for the cleanup of releases of hazardous wastes. ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section...

  14. Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, C. ); Loehr, R.C. . Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. )

    1993-01-01

    Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

  15. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... petitioned waste on human health and the environment. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  16. 75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste..., Tennessee from the lists of hazardous wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero to delist F037 waste. The F037 waste is sediment generated in the Storm Water Basin. After careful...

  17. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

  18. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy. Our approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The dielectric-barrier discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. During the first phase of the program we demonstrated that a variety of hazardous species could be detected by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence. Species investigated included heavy metals, Hg, Cr, and Se, both chlorinated and non-chlorinated organics, and uranyl compounds. For most of these species we demonstrated sensitivity limits for their detection at parts per billion (ppb) levels. Our principal goals for this second phase of the program are to develop and breadboard test instrument components and to design a prototype instrument suitable for construction and evaluation in the final phase of the program. A secondary goal is to extend the ANET technology to encompass a greater number of hazardous species, primarily additional heavy metals and radionuclides.

  19. Ecotoxicological characterization of hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Wilke, B-M; Riepert, F; Koch, Christine; Kühne, T

    2008-06-01

    In Europe hazardous wastes are classified by 14 criteria including ecotoxicity (H 14). Standardized methods originally developed for chemical and soil testing were adapted for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes including leachate and solid phase tests. A consensus on which tests should be recommended as mandatory is still missing. Up to now, only a guidance on how to proceed with the preparation of waste materials has been standardized by CEN as EN 14735. In this study, tests including higher plants, earthworms, collembolans, microorganisms, duckweed and luminescent bacteria were selected to characterize the ecotoxicological potential of a boiler slag, a dried sewage sludge, a thin sludge and a waste petrol. In general, the instructions given in EN 14735 were suitable for all wastes used. The evaluation of the different test systems by determining the LC/EC(50) or NOEC-values revealed that the collembolan reproduction and the duckweed frond numbers were the most sensitive endpoints. For a final classification and ranking of wastes the Toxicity Classification System (TCS) using EC/LC(50) values seems to be appropriate.

  20. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. PMID:27179321

  1. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G.; Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  2. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Robert C. W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  3. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  4. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  5. Cities cooperate on household hazardous waste collection

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.D. )

    1994-03-01

    This article describes a household hazardous waste collection project. The project resulted from Missouri solid waste regulations and the recognition of five suburban cities of St. Louis that there was a need to provide residents with an environmentally sound method of disposing of household hazardous waste. The project was 90 percent funded by a state grant.

  6. Hazardous waste: 1998 Regulatory and judicial developments

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, M.E.; Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Every year, owners and operators of facilities generating, transporting, treating, storing, or disposing of hazardous waste, or persons held liable for past hazardous waste management practice through EPA`s Superfund program, are affected by changes in the application and interpretation of hazardous waste regulation. This paper will summarize the significant 1997 hazardous waste regulatory developments, including changes and additions to land disposal restrictions and treatment standards, hazardous waste determination procedures, used oil management practices. This paper will also summarize key judicial decisions addressing expanded definitions of solid and hazardous waste, activities constituting disposal, and circumstances constituting imminent and substantial endangerment. Finally, this paper will summarize new EPA Superfund guidance documents and judicial decisions addressing issues of liability and defenses to liability under Superfund.

  7. 41 CFR 101-42.1102 - Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of..., donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of property....

  8. 41 CFR 101-42.1102 - Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of..., donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of property....

  9. 41 CFR 101-42.1102 - Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of..., donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of property....

  10. 41 CFR 101-42.1102 - Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of..., donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of property....

  11. 41 CFR 101-42.1102 - Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Special requirements for utilization, donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of..., donation, sale, and abandonment or destruction of hazardous materials and certain categories of property....

  12. 75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of Direct Final Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Removal of...

  13. Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

    2003-02-26

    Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

  14. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag{sup 2+} or Ce{sup +4} are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  15. The hazardous waste scene in India

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, P.V.R.; Bhinde, A.D.; Sundaresan, B.B.

    1983-03-01

    India has made significant advances in the manufacture of basic organic chemicals, dyes, fertilizers, pesticides, drugs, and so forth during the last three decades, resulting in increased generation of hazardous wastes. Presently, these wastes are being indiscriminately disposed of into fallow land in the public domain. Legislation to control air and water pollution has not covered hazardous waste disposal. The magnitude of hazardous waste generation in general and the problems posed by such wastes from pesticide, dyes, and other industries are identified, and available data are presented and discussed.

  16. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  17. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann

    1992-03-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  18. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann.

    1992-01-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  19. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  20. 75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Refinery (Beaumont Refinery) to exclude (or delist) a certain solid waste generated by its Beaumont, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) Version... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  1. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  2. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... sludge from the list of hazardous wastes under 40 CFR 261.31 and 261.32 (see 70 FR 41358). EPA is... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities... also eligible for exclusion and remain hazardous wastes until excluded. See 66 FR 27266 (May 16,...

  3. Leaching behaviour of hazardous demolition waste.

    PubMed

    Roussat, Nicolas; Méhu, Jacques; Abdelghafour, Mohamed; Brula, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    Demolition wastes are generally disposed of in unlined landfills for inert waste. However, demolition wastes are not just inert wastes. Indeed, a small fraction of demolition waste contains components that are hazardous to human health and the environment, e.g., lead-based paint, mercury-contained in fluorescent lamps, treated wood, and asbestos. The objective of this study is to evaluate the release potential of pollutants contained in these hazardous components when they are mixed with inert wastes in unlined landfills. After identification of the different building products which can contain hazardous elements and which can be potentially pollutant in landfill scenario, we performed leaching tests using three different lysimeters: one lysimeter containing only inert wastes and two lysimeters containing inert wastes mixed with hazardous demolition wastes. The leachates from these lysimeters were analysed (heavy metals, chlorides, sulphates fluoride, DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon), phenol index, and PAH). Finally, we compared concentrations and cumulative releases of elements in leachates with the limits values of European regulation for the acceptance of inert wastes at landfill. Results indicate that limit values are exceeded for some elements. We also performed a percolation column test with only demolition hazardous wastes to evaluate the specific contribution of these wastes in the observed releases. PMID:18160273

  4. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  5. Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, G.L.; Holstein, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan (HWCPP) describes how the Rocky Flats Plant institutes a more effective waste management program designed to achieve and maintain strict adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Emphasis is given to improve integration of line operations with programmatic and functional support activities necessary to achieve physical compliance to RCRA regulated equipment, facilities and operations at the floor level. This program focuses on specific activities occurring or which need to occur within buildings containing RCRA regulated units and activities. The plan describes a new approach to achieving and maintaining compliance. This approach concentrates authority and accountability for compliance with the line operating personnel, with support provided from the programmatic functions. This approach requires a higher degree of integration and coordination between operating and program support organizations. The principal changes in emphases are; (1) increased line operations involvement, knowledge and accountability in compliance activities, (2) improved management systems to identify, correct and/or avoid deficiencies and (3) enhanced management attention and employee awareness of compliance related matters.

  6. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  7. Hazardous waste in the Asian Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Khwaja, Mahmood A

    2011-01-01

    The production and disposal of hazardous waste remains a substantial problem in the Asian Pacific region. Remediation of waste disposal sites, including landfill sites, is attracting considerable research attention within the region. A recognition of the need for community engagement in this process is also growing. This article reviews the work presented in the Hazardous Waste sessions at the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health held in November 2009 in Perth. PMID:21714379

  8. 75 FR 13066 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities, the... generator requirements, the standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and... bonds, Water supply. 40 CFR Part 266 Environmental protection, Energy, Hazardous waste,...

  9. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in soils of an abandoned e-waste site in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Ye, Jingjia; Chen, Jinyuan; Xu, Hangjie; Wang, Cui; Zhao, Meirong

    2014-02-01

    Risk assessment of abandoned e-waste recycling areas received little attention. Herein, we report the concentrations of 16 PCBs and 7 heavy metals in soils near an abandoned e-waste recycling plant in Taizhou, China. Our data showed that levels of tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-PCBs were 9.01, 5.56, 12.93, 3.13 mg/kg, and Pb, Cd, Cu were 6082.9, 42.3, 2364.2 mg/kg soil. Cd was the most prevalent contaminant with Nemerow index value of 44.3. Contaminants have been transported from the abandoned site to nearby areas. The ecology risk assessment based on the high toxicological effect in Chinese hamster ovary cells and earthworms showed that both PCBs and heavy metal residue pose high risk to the ecosystem. Hazard quotient showed that Pb, Cd, Hg and Cu pose high health risks for adults and children. Our results recommended a full examination of the risk and regulatory compliance of abandoned e-waste recycling areas in the future.

  10. The Control of Hazardous Wastes and the Role of Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfortner, Ray

    1984-01-01

    Discusses legislation aimed at hazardous waste issues which are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency and state governments. Particular attention is given to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). A case study of an abandoned acres superfund site is included with two related student…

  11. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  12. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. PMID:25746178

  13. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  14. GEOSTATISTICAL SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses field sampling design for environmental sites and hazardous waste sites with respect to random variable sampling theory, Gy's sampling theory, and geostatistical (kriging) sampling theory. The literature often presents these sampling methods as an adversari...

  15. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study.

  16. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. Except for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated m...

  17. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  18. Hazardous waste disposal and the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1990-01-01

    Negligent, unregulated hazardous waste management has resulted in real and potential threats to public health and safety. The federal government has responded with laws and regulations aimed at the producers of hazardous waste, including clinical laboratories. Clinical laboratory managers must understand how the requirements apply to their facilities and how to comply with them, or risk violating the law. The Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) imposes controls on hazardous waste management through the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation (DOT) regulate these activities through 40 CFR and 49 CFR, respectively. 49 CFR specifies the characteristics of hazardous waste and lists more than 400 toxic chemicals, including several commonly used in clinical laboratories. Laboratories must conduct chemical inventories to determine if they should obtain an EPA identification number as a hazardous waste generator. Most clinical laboratories can operate satellite accumulation points and accumulate, store, transport, and dispose of waste in accordance with EPA and DOT regulations. Regulations pertaining to infectious waste, sure to affect many clinical laboratories, are being developed now by the EPA. The tracking system mandated by the federal government can be supplemented by state and local authorities and poses a significant regulatory challenge to clinical laboratory managers.

  19. Hazardous Educational Waste Collections in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

    This report presents the status of programs designed to manage hazardous educational waste collections in secondary schools in the state of Illinois. Laboratory wastes, expired chemicals, unstable compounds, and toxic or flammable materials are accounted for in this document. The report contains an executive summary, a review of Illinois statutes…

  20. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  1. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B. ); Ramsey, W.G. . Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na[sub 2]O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO[sub 2]) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  2. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1992-10-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na{sub 2}O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO{sub 2}) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  3. Hazardous combustion products from municipal waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Marty, M A

    1993-01-01

    Metropolitan areas are experiencing waste management problems due to the considerable volume of municipal waste generated and the limited space for landfills. Some communities are including incineration as part of their waste management strategy. Incineration is the destruction of materials by the controlled application of heat and is a chemically complex process that leads to the de novo formation of a large number of compounds, many of which have known toxicologic properties. This article explores some of the de novo toxicants formed during incineration of municipal waste and hazardous waste.

  4. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites. Hazardous waste ranking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L.; Crutcher, M.R.

    1991-12-31

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  5. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Coyne, Martin J.; Fiscus, Gregory M.; Sammel, Alfred G.

    1998-01-01

    A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

  6. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

    1998-10-06

    A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

  7. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  8. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  9. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Violet N.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action. PMID:20040981

  10. Hazardous waste regulations: an interpretive guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, A.

    1981-01-01

    Compliance with hazardous-waste laws has been made difficult by new, lengthy, and complicated Environmental Protection Agency regulations. This book analyzes and reorganizes the 150 pages of three-column regulations, clarifying all aspects of the requirements. Paralleling the related sections of the law (Subtitle C of the Resources Act), the book begins with an overview of the law and regulations and an identification and listing of hazardous wastes. There are guidelines for authorized state programs along with notification requirements for those in hazardous-waste activities. A checklist format, using five different scenarios offers a practical approach to analyzing the unique requirements for generators and transporters as well as owners and operators. 3 figures.

  11. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hohnstreiter, G. F.; Glass, R. E.; McAllaster, M. E.; Nigrey, P. J.; Trennel, A. J.; Yoshimura, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas.

  12. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  13. 76 FR 5110 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    .... See Reynolds Metals Company at 62 FR 37694 and 62 FR 63458 where the delisted waste leached at greater... (that is, ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity), (2) the wastes meet the criteria for... any of the hazardous waste characteristics (that is, ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity,...

  14. Hazardous household wastes need careful disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Mackin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Hazardous wastes are everywhere, including the average American household.Some cleaners, automobile products, pesticides and paint products can be potentially hazardous substances. Such products may contain solvents, petroleum products, heavy metals, or other toxic chemicals. Chemicals found in the kitchen, bathroom, garage, garden shed to workshop can poison, corrode, explode, or burst into flames if improperly handled. If improperly discarded, they can injure people and pollute the environment. The author then lists the major classes of household wastes and outlines their proper use, storage, and disposal.

  15. 75 FR 12989 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... on May 14, 2009 (74 FR 22741) and thus the program's incentives, including the hazardous waste... 63 FR 28599-29600, May 26, 1998, EPA removed these K- listed wastes from Sec. 261.32, but failed to... hazardous waste and owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal...

  16. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  17. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  18. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  19. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  20. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  1. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  2. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Imports of hazardous waste. 262.60 Section 262.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60...

  3. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  4. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  5. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  6. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  7. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1992-06-30

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

  8. Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1998-07-01

    The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

  9. Hazardous Waste Certification Plan: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of hazardous waste (HW) handled in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). The plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end- product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; and executive summary of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. The plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Systems Group Manager to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with several requirements of the Federal Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Act (RCRA), the Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), and the State of California, Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22.

  10. Remote sensing investigations at a hazardous-waste landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohr, C.; Su, W.-J.; DuMontelle, P.B.; Griffin, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches. These features can be more effectively identified by photointerpretation than by conventional field reconnaissance. A ground-based, post-sunset survey of the trench covers that showed that a distinction between depressions which hold moisture at the surface from freely-draining depressions which permit rapid recharge to the burial trenches could be made using thermal infrared imagery.In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches.

  11. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

    1983-10-01

    This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

  12. Legislative aspects of hazardous waste management.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M

    1983-02-01

    In the fall of 1976 Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, commonly referred to as RCRA. The objective of the statute is to create an orderly system for the generation, handling and disposal of hazardous waste by means of a comprehensive tracking and record keeping mechanism. RCRA does not regulate directly by statute so much as it delegates rule making authority to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pursuant to its mandate to develop regulations in accordance with the broad criteria of RCRA, EPA has published extensive regulations. These regulations address hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage and handling and its final disposal. The statute also offers remedies available to both EPA and the public at large to ensure enforcement of the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations. Additionally, it sets guidelines for states to implement their own hazardous waste management programs. This article is intended to introduce this complicated statutory/regulatory package to scientists and health professionals. It outlines the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations, abbreviates early judicial decisions interpreting these provisions and sets forth a brief description of various state approaches to hazardous waste management.

  13. Legislative aspects of hazardous waste management.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M

    1983-01-01

    In the fall of 1976 Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, commonly referred to as RCRA. The objective of the statute is to create an orderly system for the generation, handling and disposal of hazardous waste by means of a comprehensive tracking and record keeping mechanism. RCRA does not regulate directly by statute so much as it delegates rule making authority to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pursuant to its mandate to develop regulations in accordance with the broad criteria of RCRA, EPA has published extensive regulations. These regulations address hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage and handling and its final disposal. The statute also offers remedies available to both EPA and the public at large to ensure enforcement of the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations. Additionally, it sets guidelines for states to implement their own hazardous waste management programs. This article is intended to introduce this complicated statutory/regulatory package to scientists and health professionals. It outlines the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations, abbreviates early judicial decisions interpreting these provisions and sets forth a brief description of various state approaches to hazardous waste management. PMID:6825630

  14. A generic hazardous waste management training program

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Karnofsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this training program element is to familiarize personnel involved in hazardous waste management with the goals of RCRA and how they are to be achieved. These goals include: to protect health and the environment; to conserve valuable material and energy resources; to prohibit future open dumping on the land; to assure that hazardous waste management practices are conducted in a manner which protects human health and the environment; to insure that hazardous waste is properly managed thereby reducing the need for corrective actions in the future; to establish a national policy to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste, wherever feasible. Another objective of this progam element is to present a brief overview of the RCRA regulations and how they are implemented/enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each of the fifty states. This element also discusses where the RCRA regulations are published and how they are updated. In addition it details who is responsible for compliance with the regulations. Finally, this part of the training program provides an overview of the activities and materials that are regulated. 1 ref.

  15. Management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at a conference on the management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Papers were presented in the following topics: federal and state programs; sampling and monitoring; leaking tanks; in-situ treatment; site remediation; banner technology; storage/disposal; endangerment assessment; risk assessment techniques; and research and development.

  16. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

  17. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  18. Integrating waste management with Job Hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The web-based Automated Job Hazard Analysis (AJHA) system is a tool designed to help capture and communicate the results of the hazard review and mitigation process for specific work activities. In Fluor Hanford's day-to-day work planning and execution process, AJHA has become the focal point for integrating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) through industrial health and safety principles; environmental safety measures; and involvement by workers, subject-matter experts and management. This paper illustrates how AJHA has become a key element in involving waste-management and environmental-control professionals in planning and executing work. To support implementing requirements for waste management and environmental compliance within the core function and guiding principles of an integrated safety management system (ISMS), Fluor Hanford has developed the a computer-based application called the 'Automated Job Hazard Analysis' (AJHA), into the work management process. This web-based software tool helps integrate the knowledge of site workers, subject-matter experts, and safety principles and requirements established in standards, and regulations. AJHA facilitates a process of work site review, hazard identification, analysis, and the determination of specific work controls. The AJHA application provides a well-organized job hazard analysis report including training and staffing requirements, prerequisite actions, notifications, and specific work controls listed for each sub-task determined for the job. AJHA lists common hazards addressed in the U.S. Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) federal codes; and State regulations such as the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Administration (WISHA). AJHA also lists extraordinary hazards that are unique to a particular industry sector, such as radiological hazards and waste management. The work-planning team evaluates the scope of work and reviews the work site to identify potential hazards. Hazards

  19. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Cord, Scottsburg (64 FR 3869, January 26, 1999). On April 22, 2010, the Agency was notified that...(d). ] List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 261 Environmental protection, Hazardous waste, Recycling,...

  20. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events.

  1. 76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... notice removes the proposed rule published in 76 FR 5110 (January 28, 2011) for public review and comment... Landfill (Gulf West) located in Anahuac, TX, published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5110). EPA subsequently... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  2. Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Korenberg, Jacob

    1990-01-01

    An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

  3. Decision analysis for INEL hazardous waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Roach, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In mid-November 1993, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) Manager requested that the INEL Hazardous Waste Type Manager perform a decision analysis to determine whether or not a new Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) was needed to store INEL hazardous waste (HW). In response to this request, a team was formed to perform a decision analysis for recommending the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. Personnel who participated in the decision analysis are listed in Appendix B. The results of the analysis indicate that the existing HWSF is not the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. The analysis detailed in Appendix C concludes that the best HW storage configuration would be to modify and use a portion of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) Waste Storage Building (WWSB), PBF-623 (Alternative 3). This facility was constructed in 1991 to serve as a waste staging facility for WERF incineration. The modifications include an extension of the current Room 105 across the south end of the WWSB and installing heating, ventilation, and bay curbing, which would provide approximately 1,600 ft{sup 2} of isolated HW storage area. Negotiations with the State to discuss aisle space requirements along with modifications to WWSB operating procedures are also necessary. The process to begin utilizing the WWSB for HW storage includes planned closure of the HWSF, modification to the WWSB, and relocation of the HW inventory. The cost to modify the WWSB can be funded by a reallocation of funding currently identified to correct HWSF deficiencies.

  4. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  5. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  6. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  7. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  8. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  9. Local governments take on hazardous waste collection

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.L.

    1989-03-01

    Diversion of toxic chemicals from solid waste disposal facilities is one major reason communities conduct collection programs for Household Hazardous Wastes (HHW). By keeping wastes like old cans of paint thinner, pesticides, waste oil and car batteries, out of the trash collection, the hypothesis is that leachate, air emissions and compost quality will be improved. While special HHW collection days are the most common technique used by local communities, there are varied perspectives and issues about the effort which include; low average participation rates, high cost of collection, liability of sponsoring communities, and environmental benefits from diverting a small portion of waste from the solid waste facility. The major benefits are clearly educational. As community recycling programs and material reclamation facilities develop, the public is becoming increasingly aware of the presence of HHW in their waste stream. This is a natural spinoff of source separation. The increased interest in solid waste composting facilities is also forcing communities to evaluate ways of producing compost with acceptable levels of contaminants.

  10. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L. ); Crutcher, M.R. and Associates, Inc., Columbia, IL )

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  11. The Scientific Management of Hazardous Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Keith S.

    According to the jacket of this book, three independent scientists carefully define the limits of scientific knowledge applicable to the management of hazardous wastes. It is claimed that the extrapolation and application of this knowledge is examined, significant areas of uncertainty are identified, and the authors reveal “the fallibility of certain interpretations.” It would be more accurate to claim these as possible goals of the book rather than its accomplishments.Chapter 1, Hazardous Wastes and Their Recycling Potential, includes 11 pages of lists of chemicals, some of which are poorly reproduced. The remaining pages describe, superficially, several recycling schemes. Connections between the chemicals previously listed and the recycling schemes are not given. Concerning the potential for recycling, the last sentence of the chapter reads, “Indeed, the concept of waste recycling, itself a contradiction in terms, is better politics than business.” Taken literally, this assertion itself contradicts venerable practice, as the farmer might observe as he transfers waste from his cows to the crops in his field. More pertinently, it can be argued that the recovery of solvents, metals, and oil from waste flows is much more than a political gesture.

  12. Biological treatment of hazardous aqueous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Opatken, E.J.; Howard, H.K.; Bond, J.J.

    1987-06-01

    Studies were conducted with a rotating biological conractor (RBC) to evaluate the treatability of leachates from the Stringfellow and New Lyme hazardous-waste sites. The leachates were transported from the waste sites to Cincinnati at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Testing and Evaluation Facility. A series of batches were run with primary effluent from Cincinnati's Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Facility. The paper reports on the results from these experiments and the effectiveness of an RBC to adequately treat leachates from Superfund sites.

  13. Technological innovation in hazardous waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Kovalick, W W; Cummings, J B

    1991-03-01

    The following is the first in a series of articles on various efforts to encourage and support innovation in hazardous waste treatment technologies for sites and affected groundwater. This article provides a brief discussion of the origins of the U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Technology Innovation Office (TIO), its mission, and the major initiatives underway or under contemplation. Subsequent articles will provide progress reports on these initiatives and other activities related to technology innovation by federal and state regulators, technology developers, responsible parties, the engineering community, and other interested parties.

  14. Assessment of hazardous wastes for genotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Houk, V.S.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a variety of manufacturing processes were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without Aroclor 1254-induced rat-liver S9. Ten of these wastes were fed by gavage to F-344 male rats, and the raw urines were assayed for mutagenicity in the presence of beta-glucuronidase in strain TA98 with S9. Six of these urines were extracted by C18/methanol elution, incubated with beta-glucuronidase, and evaluated in strain TA98 with S9 and beta-glucuronidase. Fourteen of the wastes were examined for their ability to induce prophage lambda in Escherichia coli in a microsuspension assay. A second set of wastes, consisting of four industrial wastes, were evaluated in Salmonella and in a series of mammalian cell assays to measure mutagenicity, cytogenetic effects, and transformation.

  15. OSHA training requirements for hazardous waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This guidance addresses training requirements for personnel working, auditing, touring, and visiting DOE hazardous waste areas, including treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and environmental restoration sites regulated under RCRA corrective action authority and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Applicable DOE Orders and the OSHA regulations should be consulted to ensure full compliance with all requirements.

  16. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  17. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  18. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  19. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  20. Special case waste hazard categorization. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1995-02-02

    In this document, the hazard categorization is determined for activities associated with Project W-272, Special Case Waste (SWC) Storage Modules that will be placed on concrete slabs in the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford site. In this categorization, the activities that take place within the boundaries of the SWOC are addressed; therefore, only the receipt, offloading, handling, and storing of the Special Case Waste at the SWOC are of concern. This revision updates the radioactive material inventory, reverses the assumption that the SCW meets the criteria of Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials (10 CFR 71), Section 71.75, Qualification of Special Form Radioactive Material, and evaluates the project based upon the criteria and guidance provided by US Department of Energy (DOE)-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory Building 324 B-Cell waste inventory consists of reactor fuel, irradiated fuel, fuel cladding, and vitrified forms of these fuel elements. The waste contains no toxic chemicals or hydrogenous materials. The proposed storage method is placement of the SCW in special waste overpacks (SWOs) that are then placed in a vendor-provided canister that is then placed in prefabricated, reinforced-concrete structures. These structures meet the requirements of Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72) and serve as a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) installation.

  1. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1988-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  2. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1990-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  3. Transportation of RCRA hazardous wastes. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) regulate the transport of hazardous wastes. Under these statutes, specific pretransport regulatory requirements must be met by DOE before the shipment of hazardous wastes, including radioactive mixed wastes. The pretransport requirements are designed to help reduce the risk of loss, leakage, or exposure during shipment of hazardous materials and to communicate information on potential hazards posed by the hazardous material in transport. These goals are accomplished through the tracking of shipments, correctly packaging and labeling containers, and communicating potential hazards. Specific requirements include manifesting, packaging, marking and labeling waste packages; placarding transport vehicles; choosing appropriate waste transporters and shipment destinations; and record keeping and reporting. This information Brief focuses primarily on the transporter requirements both for transportation within a DOE facility and using a commercial transporter to transport RCRA hazardous wastes off-site.

  4. Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Weaver, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

  5. Hazardous waste incineration: Evaluating the human health and environmental risks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.M.; Teaf, C.M.; Bean, J.A.

    1999-11-01

    this book investigates the issues regarding human health impacts from hazardous waste incinerators. It details the characterization of hazardous waste emissions; ways to model the atmospheric dispersion of these emissions; and steps to conduct a comprehensive risk assessment. This book also reviews epidemiology to study the effects of hazardous waste incineration. Background information on the fundamentals of hazardous incineration, and the regulations affecting operation of its facilities is provided.

  6. RFID technology for hazardous waste management and tracking.

    PubMed

    Namen, Anderson Amendoeira; Brasil, Felipe da Costa; Abrunhosa, Jorge José Gouveia; Abrunhosa, Glaucia Gomes Silva; Tarré, Ricardo Martinez; Marques, Flávio José Garcia

    2014-09-01

    The illegal dumping of hazardous waste is one of the most concerning occurrences related to illegal waste activities. The waste management process is quite vulnerable, especially when it comes to assuring the right destination for the delivery of the hazardous waste. The purpose of this paper is to present a new system design and prototype for applying the RFID technology so as to guarantee the correct destination for the hazardous waste delivery. The aim of this innovative approach, compared with other studies that employ the same technology to the waste disposal process, is to focus on the certification that the hazardous waste will be delivered to the right destination site and that no inappropriate disposal will occur in the transportation stage. These studies were carried out based on data collected during visits to two hazardous waste producer companies in Brazil, where the material transportation and delivery to a company in charge of the waste disposal were closely monitored.

  7. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company's hazardous waste program.

    PubMed

    Van Noordwyk, H J; Santoro, M A

    1978-12-01

    This paper discusses the present hazardous waste program of 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company). 3M's definition of hazardous waste and the company's position on hazardous waste disposal are first considered. The company position is that wherever and whenever the disposal of a waste material threatens the environment or public safety, then that waste should be considered a hazardous waste and treated accordingly in terms of its handling and ultimate disposal. The generation of hazardous wastes and the differentiation of "hazardous" and "nonhazardous" wastes are described next. Handling of hazardous wastes from their generation to their disposal is then covered. This includes a definition of internal 3M terminology and a description of the hazard rating system used by the company. Finally, 3M disposal practices are presented. It is 3M's position that thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, where appropriate, is the best method for their disposal. With this in mind, 3M has constructed incineration facilities throughout the country. The rotary kiln incinerator at the 3M Chemolite plant in Cottage Grove, Minnesota is briefly described. Disposal of certain hazardous wastes in controlled secure land disposal sites is then briefly discussed.

  8. Chemical fixation increases options for hazardous waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, G.J.; Tipton, G.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) govern the manner in which hazardous materials are managed. Disposing RCRA hazardous wastes on or in the land is no longer an accepted remedial option. This land disposal restriction requires that all listed and characteristic hazardous wastes must be treated according to specified standards before they are disposed. These treatment standards define technologies and concentration limits. Hazardous wastes that do not meet the standards are prohibited from being disposed on land, such as in landfills, surface impoundments, land treatment units, injection wells, and mines or caves.

  9. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem. PMID:7165025

  10. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  11. Vegetative soil covers for hazardous waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, Jerry L.

    Shallow land burial has been the preferred method for disposing of municipal and hazardous wastes in the United States because it is the simplest, cheapest, and most cost-effective method of disposal. Arid and semiarid regions of the western United States have received considerable attention over the past two decades in reference to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste disposal. Disposal is based upon the premise that low mean annual precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and low or negligible recharge, favor waste isolation from the environment for long periods of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that containment of municipal and hazardous wastes in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers utilizing natural soils and native vegetation i.e., vegetative soil covers, will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous waste landfills. Vegetative soil cover design combines layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem that maintains the natural water balance. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards' equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data from 1919 to 1996 are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 1 m (3 ft) cover is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  12. Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

  13. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  14. Hurricane Andrew: Impact on hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Kastury, S.N. )

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck the eastern coast of South Florida with winds of 140 mph approximately and a storm surge of 15 ft. The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation finds that the Hurricane Andrew caused a widespread damage throughout Dade and Collier County as well as in Broward and Monroe County and has also greatly harmed the environment. The Department has issued an emergency final order No. 92-1476 on August 26, 1992 to address the environmental cleanup and prevent any further spills of contaminants within the emergency area. The order authorizes the local government officials to designate certain locations in areas remote from habitation for the open burning in air certain incinerators of hurricane generated yard trash and construction and demolition debris. The Department staff has assisted the county and FEMA staff in establishing procedures for Hazardous Waste Management, Waste Segregation and disposal and emergency responses. Local governments have issued these burn permits to public agencies including FDOT and Corps of Engineering (COE). Several case studies will be discussed on the Hazardous Waste Management at this presentation.

  15. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations.

  16. Shedding a new light on hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, N.

    1991-02-01

    The sun's ability to detoxify waterborne chemicals has long been known; polluted streams, for example, become cleaner as they flow through sunlit areas. Solar detoxification harnesses this natural degradation process for beneficial ends, producing simple, nonhazardous substances from hazardous organic chemicals. Solar detoxification systems now being developed break down these chemicals without using the fossil fuels required by conventional technologies. Sunlight destroys hazardous waste because of the distinctive properties of photons, the packets of energy that make up sunlight. Low-energy photons add thermal energy that will heat toxic chemicals; high-energy photons add the energy needed to break the chemical bonds of these chemicals. The detoxification process discussed here takes advantage of this latter group of photons found in the ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum. 4 figs.

  17. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  18. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  19. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  20. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper. PMID:24213742

  1. Potentially hazardous waste produced at home

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental. Method It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used. Results We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses. Conclusion We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management. PMID:23806043

  2. In-plant management of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.W.; Howell, W.L. Jr. |

    1995-12-31

    One of the earliest sustainable technologies for the management of hazardous industrial wastes, and one of the most successful, is {open_quotes}In-Plant Control{close_quotes} Waste elimination, reuse and/or minimization can encourage improved utilization of resources, decreased environmental degradation and increased profits at individual industrial product ion sites, or within an industry. For new facilities and industries, putting such programs in place is relatively easy. Experience has shown, however, that this may be more difficult to initiate in existing facilities, especially in older and heavier industries. This task can be made easier by promoting a mutually respectful partnership between production and environmental interests within the facility or industry. This permits {open_quotes}common sense{close_quotes} thinking and a cooperative, proactive strategy for securing an appropriate balance between economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility. Case studies are presented wherein a phased, incremental in-plant system for waste management was developed and employed to good effect, using a model that entailed {open_quotes}Consciousness, Commitment, Training, Recognition, Re-engineering and Continuous Improvement{close_quotes} to promote waste minimization or elimination.

  3. 76 FR 72311 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... FR at 58319. Response 1. The electronic docket for this rule only contained the proposed rule and... conditions in an active municipal landfill with decomposing organic wastes, and yet it appears that the... select a relatively short list of hazardous constituents for analysis and delisting levels. 75 FR...

  4. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  5. Commercial innovative technologies for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.J.

    1998-12-31

    A number of innovative technologies have been developed since the late 1980`s for the treatment of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous wastes. The development of these technologies has been encouraged by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD). As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation program, the EPA has evaluated some of these technologies for the treatment of soils contaminated with RCRA hazardous constituents. The DOE has extensively studied and evaluated these technologies for the treatment of mixed (RCRA plus radioactive) waste. The DOD has also studied these technologies for the chemical demilitarization of chemical warfare agents. The following five innovative technologies have been demonstrated on a full-scale commercial basis: (1) Eco Logic Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Reactor; (2) GTS Duratek Electric, Joule-Heated Glass Melter; (3) Molten Metals Catalytic Extraction Process; (4) Retech Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment Process; and (5) Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) Steam Reforming Process. The technology experience and performance of these innovative technologies will be discussed.

  6. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    SciTech Connect

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  7. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  8. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-12-31

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  9. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D. ); Stevens, L. )

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  10. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  11. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  12. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information in the document is based on presentations at the EPA-sponsored seminar series on Operational Parameters for Hazardous Waste Combustion Devices. This series consisted of five seminars held in 1992. Hazardous waste combustion devices are regulated under the Resource...

  13. HAZ-ED Classroom Activities for Understanding Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Superfund Program investigates and cleans up hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Part of this program is devoted to informing the public and involving people in the process of cleaning up hazardous waste sites from beginning to end. The Haz-Ed program was developed to assist the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)…

  14. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  15. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  16. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  17. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  18. Hazardous waste research and development in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Carpenter, R.A.; Environment and Policy Inst., Honolulu, HI )

    1989-01-01

    The effective management of hazardous waste is an issue that all countries of the Pacific Basin must address. By very rough estimates, almost 272 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are being generated every year in the region. While the data are not consistently defined and reported, they do indicate the extent of the problem. Increasing development brings along an increase in the rate of hazardous waste generation. On this basis, the developing countries of the region can be expected to experience some of the same problems of the developed countries as their economies become more industrialized. Fundamental problems are involved in the compilation of consistent hazardous-waste generation statistics in the Pacific Basin. One involves the definition of what constitutes hazardous waste.

  19. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification.

  20. Vitrification: Destroying and immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Peters, R.D.; Perez, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Researchers at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have led the development of vitrification a versatile adaptable process that transforms waste solutions, slurries, moist powder and/or dry solids into a chemically durable glass form. The glass form can be safely disposed or used for other purposes, such as construction material if non-radioactive. The feed used in the process can be either combustible or non-combustible. Organic compounds are decomposed in the melters` plenum, while the inorganic residue melts into a molten glass pool. The glass produced by this process is a chemically durable material comparable to natural obsidian. Its properties typically allow it to pass the EPA Toxicity (TCLP) test as non-hazardous. To date, no glass produced by vitrification has failed the TCLP test. Vitrification is thus an ideal method of treating DOE`s mixed waste because of its ability to destroy organic compounds and bind toxic or radioactive elements. This article provides an overview of the technology.

  1. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  2. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol.

  3. Pollution due to hazardous glass waste.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Pooja

    2014-02-01

    Pollution resulting from hazardous glass (HG) is widespread across the globe, both in terms of quantity and associated health risks. In waste cathode ray tube (CRT) and fluorescent lamp glass, mercury and lead are present as the major pollutants. The current review discusses the issues related to quantity and associated risk from the pollutant present in HG and proposes the chemical, biological, thermal, hybrid, and nanotechniques for its management. The hybrid is one of the upcoming research models involving the compatible combination of two or more techniques for better and efficient remediation. Thermal mercury desorption starts at 100 °C but for efficient removal, the temperature should be >460 °C. Involvement of solar energy for this purpose makes the research more viable and ecofriendly. Nanoparticles such as Fe, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ag, and WS2 alone or with its formulation can immobilize heavy metals present in HG by involving a redox mechanism. Straight-line equation from year-wise sale can provide future sale data in comparison with lifespan which gives future pollutant approximation. Waste compact fluorescent lamps units projected for the year 2015 is 9,300,000,000 units and can emit nearly 9,300 kg of mercury. On the other hand, CRT monitors have been continuously replaced by more improved versions like liquid crystal display and plasma display panel resulting in the production of more waste. Worldwide CRT production was 83,300,000 units in 2002 and can approximately release 83,000 metric tons of lead. PMID:24281678

  4. Pollution due to hazardous glass waste.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Pooja

    2014-02-01

    Pollution resulting from hazardous glass (HG) is widespread across the globe, both in terms of quantity and associated health risks. In waste cathode ray tube (CRT) and fluorescent lamp glass, mercury and lead are present as the major pollutants. The current review discusses the issues related to quantity and associated risk from the pollutant present in HG and proposes the chemical, biological, thermal, hybrid, and nanotechniques for its management. The hybrid is one of the upcoming research models involving the compatible combination of two or more techniques for better and efficient remediation. Thermal mercury desorption starts at 100 °C but for efficient removal, the temperature should be >460 °C. Involvement of solar energy for this purpose makes the research more viable and ecofriendly. Nanoparticles such as Fe, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ag, and WS2 alone or with its formulation can immobilize heavy metals present in HG by involving a redox mechanism. Straight-line equation from year-wise sale can provide future sale data in comparison with lifespan which gives future pollutant approximation. Waste compact fluorescent lamps units projected for the year 2015 is 9,300,000,000 units and can emit nearly 9,300 kg of mercury. On the other hand, CRT monitors have been continuously replaced by more improved versions like liquid crystal display and plasma display panel resulting in the production of more waste. Worldwide CRT production was 83,300,000 units in 2002 and can approximately release 83,000 metric tons of lead.

  5. Evaluation and comparison of selected household hazardous waste collection facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, M; Brogan, J.A.; Sepanski, L.M.

    1990-05-01

    In 1988 the City of Seattle's Office for Long-range Planning and the Solid Waste Utility implemented a permanent household hazardous waste collection program in an effort to decrease hazardous waste disposal in municipal solid and liquid waste streams. A detailed description of this program may be found in Household Hazardous Waste: Implementation of a Permanent Collection Facility,'' published by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force. An integral part of Seattle's Household Hazardous Waste collection effort is a three part evaluation strategy that includes: an assessment of the effectiveness of the permanent facility; a comparison of the city's facility with other HHW collection programs; and a user survey to evaluate customer satisfaction and compare the Seattle and King County collection approaches. This evaluation strategy was conducted during Year 10 of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, and its results are document in this report. Several different collection programs were compared during the evaluation. 22 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Hazardous waste in Mexico: Just how much is there?

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, H.

    1994-12-31

    Mexico will probably follow the same basic regulatory path that was followed in the US, but at a faster pace to achieve equivalent protection of the environment. The redefinition of hazardous waste currently underway in both US and Mexico will require more stringent controls and less latitude in the available technology for disposal or recycling. Mexico`s General Law of Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection became effective March 1, 1988. It surpassed most preceding regulations and decrees regarding hazardous wastes generated in, imported to, or exported from Mexico. The law is comprehensive and unifies various environmental statutes. An earlier Presidential decree continues to regulate certain hazardous materials not considered to be hazardous wastes by the new regulations. The new hazardous waste regulations govern the following activities: management of hazardous wastes; permitting of generators and transporters; and permitting of the construction and operation of facilities for the treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous wastes. The environmental laws which address hazardous waste issues in Mexico were enacted in 1988 and new technical regulations have recently been added. Most of these laws and regulations have been inspired by US law and environmental experience.

  7. Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.

    1982-05-01

    This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require.

  8. Hazardous waste identification: A guide to changing regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, R.G. )

    1993-03-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacting in 1976 and amended in 1984 by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). Since then, federal regulations have generated a profusion of terms to identify and describe hazardous wastes. Regulations that5 define and govern management of hazardous wastes are codified in Title 40 of the code of Federal Regulations, Protection of the environment''. Title 40 regulations are divided into chapters, subchapters and parts. To be defined as hazardous, a waste must satisfy the definition of solid waste any discharged material not specifically excluded from regulation or granted a regulatory variance by the EPA Administrator. Some wastes and other materials have been identified as non-hazardous and are listed in 40 CFR 261.4(a) and 261.4(b). Certain wastes that satisfy the definition of hazardous waste nevertheless are excluded from regulation as hazardous if they meet specific criteria. Definitions and criteria for their exclusion are found in 40 CFR 261.4(c)-(f) and 40 CFR 261.5.

  9. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, Sonja L.; English, Charles J.

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  10. 40 CFR 261.3 - Definition of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste was listed (in 40 CFR 261 appendix VII) of this part; and the constituents in the table “Treatment Standards for Hazardous Wastes” in 40 CFR 268.40 for which each waste has a treatment standard (i.e., Land...-treatment system or provided the wastes, combined annualized average concentration does not exceed one...

  11. 40 CFR 261.32 - Hazardous wastes from specific sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delivery of waste to landfill, etc.) that the terms of the exclusion were met (T) K175 Wastewater treatment... testing requirements are reinstated if the manufacturing or waste treatment processes generating the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous wastes from specific...

  12. Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

  13. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  14. Physical and chemical methods for the characterization of hazardous wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. W.; Maskarinec, M. P.; Lee, D. W.

    Numerous test methods have been proposed and developed to evaluate the hazards associated with handling and disposal of wastes in landfills. The major concern is the leaching of toxic constituents from the wastes. The fate of hazardous constituents in landfilled wastes is highly dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste. Thus, the primary objective in the selection of waste characterization procedures should be focused on those methods that gauge the fate of the waste's hazardous constituents in a specific landfill environment. Waste characterization in the United States has centered around the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. The strategy employed in the development of most regulatory waste characterization procedures has been a pass or fail approach, usually tied to some form of a mismanagement scenario for that waste. For example, USEPA has chosen the disposal of a waste in a municipal waste landfill as a mismanagement scenario for the development of the waste leaching tests to determine the toxicity characteristic. Many wastes, such as large-volume utility wastes or mining wastes, are not disposed of in municipal waste landfills. As a consequence, more effort is needed in the development of waste leaching tests that determine the long-term leaching characteristics of that waste in the landfill environment in which the waste is to be disposed. Waste leaching models also need to be developed and tested as to their ability to simulate actual disposal environments. These models need to be compared with laboratory leaching tests, and, if practical, coupled with groundwater transport models.

  15. Mercury methylation in mine wastes collected from abandoned mercury mines in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Hines, M.E.; Biester, H.; Lasorsa, B.K.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Speciation and transformation of Hg was studied in mine wastes collected from abandoned Hg mines at McDermitt, Nevada, and Terlingua, Texas, to evaluate formation of methyl-Hg, which is highly toxic. In these mine wastes, we measured total Hg and methyl-Hg contents, identified various Hg compounds using a pyrolysis technique, and determined rates of Hg methylation and methyl-Hg demethylation using isotopic-tracer methods. Mine wastes contain total Hg contents as high as 14000 ??g/g and methyl-Hg concentrations as high as 88 ng/g. Mine wastes were found to contain variable amounts of cinnabar, metacinnabar, Hg salts, Hg0, and Hg0 and Hg2+ sorbed onto matrix particulates. Samples with Hg0 and matrix-sorbed Hg generally contained significant methyl-Hg contents. Similarly, samples containing Hg0 compounds generally produced significant Hg methylation rates, as much as 26%/day. Samples containing mostly cinnabar showed little or no Hg methylation. Mine wastes with high methyl-Hg contents generally showed low methyl-Hg demethylation, suggesting that Hg methylation was dominant. Methyl-Hg demethylation was by both oxidative and microbial pathways. The correspondence of mine wastes containing Hg0 compounds and measured Hg methylation suggests that Hg0 oxidizes to Hg2+, which is subsequently bioavailable for microbial Hg methylation.

  16. Hazardous waste treatment using fungus enters marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    When the announcement was made eight years ago that a common fungus had been found that could degrade a variety of environmental pollutants, the news stirred interest in the scientific community, the private sector, and the general public. Here was the promise of a new technology that might be effective and economical in treating hazardous waste, especially the most recalcitrant of toxic pollutants. Today, commercialization is beginning amid a mixture of optimism and skepticism. The organism in question is white rot fungus, or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and it belongs to a family of woodrotting fungi common all over North America. The fungi secrete enzymes that break down lignin in wood to carbon dioxide and water--a process called mineralization. These lignin-degrading enzymes are not very discriminating, however. The white rot fungi have been shown to degrade such materials as DDT, the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels, in many cases mineralizing these pollutants to a significant extent.

  17. Integrating Total Quality Management (TQM) and hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, N.

    1993-11-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.

  18. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, Delbert E.

    1998-01-01

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  19. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  20. An aggregate fuzzy hazardous index for composite wastes.

    PubMed

    Musee, N; Lorenzen, L; Aldrich, C

    2006-09-21

    In this paper, a fuzzy waste index for evaluating the hazard posed by composite wastes generated from industrial processes is proposed. Within this methodology, a fuzzy index as a measure of hazardousness of a given composite waste is derived from the crisp inputs of its component's flammability, corrosivity, toxicity and reactivity attributes based on the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) hazard rankings. The novelty of this work lies in establishing an integrated fuzzy hazardous waste index (FHWI) which provides a single-value representing the hazard ranking of a composite waste. This is contrary to current techniques which do not provide a final aggregated hazard index. The efficacy of the new proposed approach is illustrated through several worked examples. The results demonstrate that the fuzzy algorithm can be useful in aiding policy and decision-makers in conducting comprehensive initial evaluation of the status of waste hazardous status without the need for costly laboratory experiments. As such, the approach offers a robust and transparent decision-making methodology. PMID:16701941

  1. Nuclear hazardous waste cost control management

    SciTech Connect

    Selg, R.A.

    1991-05-09

    The effects of the waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are currently under study to adjust the glass frit content to optimize the glass waste loadings and therefore significantly reduce the overall waste disposal cost. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Changes in waste contents affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt% waste loading of DWPF glass would reduce disposal costs by about $50 million for Savannah River wastes generated to the year 2000. Optimization of the glass waste forms to be produced in the SWPF is being supported by economic evaluations of the impact of the forms on waste disposal costs. Glass compositions are specified for acceptable melt processing and durability characteristics, with economic effects tracked by the number of waste canisters produced. This paper presents an evaluation of the effects of variations in waste content of the glass waste forms on the overall cost of the disposal, including offsite shipment and repository emplacement, of the Savannah River high-level wastes.

  2. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  3. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., regulated hazardous waste means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, that is not excluded from regulation as a hazardous waste under 40 CFR 261.4(b) or was not generated by a... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20......

  4. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., regulated hazardous waste means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, that is not excluded from regulation as a hazardous waste under 40 CFR 261.4(b) or was not generated by a... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20...

  5. Complexed metals in hazardous waste: Limitations of conventional chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Diel, B.N.; Kuchynka, D.J.; Borchert, J.

    1994-12-31

    In the management of hazardous waste, more is known regarding the treatment of metals than about the fixation, destruction and/or immobilization of any other hazardous constituent group. Metals are the only hazardous constituents which cannot be destroyed, and so must be converted to their least soluble and/or reactive form to prevent reentry into the environment. The occurrence of complexed metals, e.g., metallocyanides, and/or chelated metals, e.g., M{center_dot}EDTA in hazardous waste streams presents formidable challenges to conventional waste treatment practices. This paper presents the results of extensive research into the destruction (chemical oxidation) of metallocyanides and metal-chelates, defines the utility and limitations of conventional chemical oxidation approaches, illustrates some of the waste management difficulties presented by such species, and presents preliminary data on the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photodecomposition of chelated metals.

  6. THE ROLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADDRESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment plays many important roles in addressing hazardous waste issues. In addition to providing a scientific framework and common health metric to evaluate risks. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") risk assessm...

  7. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing... rebuttable presumption for used oil of § 279.10(b)(1)(ii) applies to used oil managed by generators....

  9. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing... rebuttable presumption for used oil of § 279.10(b)(1)(ii) applies to used oil managed by generators....

  10. Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A.; Blackard, B.

    1996-12-31

    In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ``Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.`` To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste.

  12. Impact of household hazardous wastes on landfill leachates. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gapinski, D.P.

    1988-05-01

    Protective measures have been enacted to mitigate the deleterious effects of landfill leachate on ground and surface waters. One such measure has been to remove items classified as Household Hazardous Wastes from the solid-waste stream prior to landfill disposal. Even though the alternative methods of disposal may be very costly, no effort has been made to assess the impact of Household Hazardous Wastes on landfill leachates and, subsequently, on receiving waters. Therefore, a model is needed to assess this impact accurately and determine which, indeed if any, items should be removed from the solid-waste stream prior to landfill disposal. The model proposed to assess the impact of Household Hazardous Wastes is developed in two steps.

  13. Proceedings of the 6th national conference on hazardous wastes and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contained the proceedings of the 6th national Conference on Hazardous wastes and Hazardous materials. Topics covered include: federal and state policy papers, risk assessment, health and endangerment, contaminated groundwater control, treatment, spill control management and tank leakage control.

  14. 40 CFR 261.10 - Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristics of hazardous waste. 261.10 Section 261.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and for Listing Hazardous Waste § 261.10 Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste. (a) The Administrator shall identify and define...

  15. GUIDE TO TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past fewyears, it has become increasinsly evident that land disposal of hazardous wastes is at least only a temporary solution for much of the wastes present at Superfund sites. The need for more Iong-term, permanent "treatment solutions as alternatives to land disposal ...

  16. Hazardous Waste Management: A View to the New Century, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Gwen

    Like many parts of the United States, Colorado is facing a significant hazardous waste problem. Radioactive and chemical wastes generated by the Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant, the toxic Lowry Land Fill Site, industrial dumps, and heavy land and air traffic contribute to water, land, and air pollution in the state. As part of a statewide response…

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  18. A conflict model for the international hazardous waste disposal dispute.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kaixian; Hipel, Keith W; Fang, Liping

    2009-12-15

    A multi-stage conflict model is developed to analyze international hazardous waste disposal disputes. More specifically, the ongoing toxic waste conflicts are divided into two stages consisting of the dumping prevention and dispute resolution stages. The modeling and analyses, based on the methodology of graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR), are used in both stages in order to grasp the structure and implications of a given conflict from a strategic viewpoint. Furthermore, a specific case study is investigated for the Ivory Coast hazardous waste conflict. In addition to the stability analysis, sensitivity and attitude analyses are conducted to capture various strategic features of this type of complicated dispute.

  19. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  20. Which way is best to collect hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.

    1991-06-01

    This article evaluates municipal programs in Denmark for the collection of household hazardous materials. The average potential for this waste is approximately 11 pounds/household/year. The cost, efficiency, and participation of each approach is compared. Results show that permanent installations are least efficient and that the most efficient schemes are the most expensive. However, a significant part of the waste could be separated from regular household waste with less expensive schemes.

  1. Household hazardous waste and conditionally exempt small-quantity generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1993-02-01

    Each year, US consumers buy millions of pounds of paint, disinfectant, toilet bowl cleaner; furniture polish, drain cleaner, bleach and other products designed to beautify and clean their homes. Many do-it-yourselfers also buy automotive supplies, such as brake fluid, batteries, starting fluid, oil and antifreeze. Unused portions of these products often find their way into local landfills as household hazardous waste (HHW). Untreated, these wastes represent a possible threat to landfill employees, and a potential source of groundwater and surface water contamination. Recognizing the potential hazards posed by these materials, most states have established HHW management programs. California, Florida, Minnesota, Washington and New Jersey have well-established programs serving state residents and conditionally exempt small-quantity generators (CESQGs). CESQGs are commercial facilities that generate less than 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of hazardous waste per calendar month. RCRA established the statutory framework for identifying and managing hazardous wastes. However, household waste, including HHW, a specifically is excluded from regulation as a hazardous waste under 40 CFR 261.4(b)(1). Therefore, there are no current federal regulations governing HHW. Implementing and enforcing pollution legislation aimed at private citizens is a complex, if not impossible, task.

  2. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-09-19

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

  3. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous wastes or PCB wastes; (2) Records of any inspections; (3) Training of facility personnel to... States under Subtitle C of RCRA or the EPA Regional Administrator if in an unauthorized State if a..., regulated hazardous waste means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, that...

  4. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous wastes or PCB wastes; (2) Records of any inspections; (3) Training of facility personnel to... States under Subtitle C of RCRA or the EPA Regional Administrator if in an unauthorized State if a..., regulated hazardous waste means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, that...

  5. Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  7. Visible and infrared remote imaging of hazardous waste: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.; Aiello, Danielle P.; Haack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical global environmental problems is human and ecological exposure to hazardous wastes from agricultural, industrial, military and mining activities. These wastes often include heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals. Traditional field and laboratory detection and monitoring of these wastes are generally expensive and time consuming. The synoptic perspective of overhead remote imaging can be very useful for the detection and remediation of hazardous wastes. Aerial photography has a long and effective record in waste site evaluations. Aerial photographic archives allow temporal evaluation and change detection by visual interpretation. Multispectral aircraft and satellite systems have been successfully employed in both spectral and morphological analysis of hazardous wastes on the landscape and emerging hyperspectral sensors have permitted determination of the specific contaminants by processing strategies using the tens or hundreds of acquired wavelengths in the solar reflected and/or thermal infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reviews the literature of remote sensing and overhead imaging in the context of hazardous waste and discusses future monitoring needs and emerging scientific research areas.

  8. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  9. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  10. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  11. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory. PMID:18337002

  12. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  13. Proceedings of the seventeenth mid-Atlantic industrial waste conference on toxic and hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugelman, I.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on hazardous and toxic materials. Topics considered at the conference included methane production using anaerobic fluidized beds, thermal sludge conditioning, phosphorus removal, cooling tower water treatment, groundwater modeling, dry fly ash landfills, resource recovery, industrial wastes, the assessment of waste disposal sites utilizing expert systems, and the agricultural use of industrial wastes.

  14. Stabilization solutions to hazardous metals laden waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is limited to treatment of bottom and fly ash waste resulting from WTE and RTE Cogeneration plants, commonly known as trash burners. The body of the paper defines waste generation and conventional treatment schemes. This paper does not identify a best treatment, however, it does offer a general perspective of the treatments to lead the reader to further investigation. Advantages and disadvantages of the ash treatments is discussed in each treatment section. 29 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  16. The coast guard's cleanup of hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1989-11-01

    GAO concluded that the Coast Guard still has most of its major hazardous waste cleanup work to do - an effort that will cost millions and will take decades to complete. Yet the Coast Guard cannot confidently estimate long-term cleanup costs until it assesses and investigates potential hazardous waste locations. While Coast Guard data suggest that it is complying with hazardous waste regulations, this GAO report maintains that the Coast Guard may not be collecting the type of information needed to support long-term budget requests. The Coast Guard is planning to reissue reporting instructions in order to stress the importance of reporting violations and related costs. If successful, this effort could help ensure that the Coast Guard has the information necessary to estimate future funding needs.

  17. Hazardous Waste Site Remediation, Neighborhood Change, and Neighborhood Quality.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neighborhoods with hazardous waste sites may no longer be undesirable places to live if they have been at least partly remediated. We collected 377 questionnaires (42% response rate) administered from within one-half mile of the number 1, 4, and 12 hazardous waste sites on the National Priority List (Superfund). These neighborhoods were rated higher quality than neighborhoods with unremediated hazardous waste sites and about the same as neighborhoods in northern New Jersey and the United States as a whole. Newer residents considered these formerly tainted areas to be opportunities to upgrade their housing and living conditions. Long-term residents retained the negative image of the blemished neighborhood. Images p542-a PMID:9679112

  18. Hazardous waste incineration in context with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Tim; Richers, Ulf; Suchomel, Horst

    2008-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 demands an emission reduction of climate-affecting gases in various industrial sectors. In this context CO2 is one of the relevant gases and waste management is one of the relevant sectors. Referring to the situation in Europe, waste incineration is one of the major sources of CO2 in the waste management sector. The Kyoto Protocol, however, only covers CO2-emissions originating from fossil fuels, whereas the incineration of renewable materials, e.g. wood, is considered to be climate-neutral since it does not make any net contribution to the CO2 inventory of the atmosphere. Unlike the situation with municipal waste, there is little if any information on the CO2-emissions caused by the incineration of hazardous waste in specialized plants, and the renewable fraction in these materials. The present paper focuses on this gap of knowledge. Taking the full-scale hazardous waste incineration plant in Biebesheim, Germany, as an example, a carbon balance was set up for the whole-plant taking into account all other material flows. Afterwards the determination of the proportion of renewable materials in the hazardous waste incinerated by means of the radiocarbon method (14C) is reported. On the basis of the results, optimization potentials are discussed.

  19. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Bourne, Gary L.; McFee, John N.; Burdge, Bradley G.; McConnell, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the recovery of hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and radioactive elements from phenolic resin filter by a circulating a solution of 8 to 16 molar nitric acid at a temperature of 110 to 190 degrees F. through the filter. The hot solution dissolves the filter material and releases the hazardous material so that it can be recovered or treated for long term storage in an environmentally safe manner.

  1. Elevated Concentrations of U and Co-occurring Metals in Abandoned Mine Wastes in a Northeastern Arizona Native American Community.

    PubMed

    Blake, Johanna M; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Brearley, Adrian J; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; Hirani, Chris; Pacheco, Juan S Lezama; Cerrato, José M

    2015-07-21

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67-169 μg L(-1)) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L(-1). Elevated U (6,614 mg kg(-1)), V (15,814 mg kg(-1)), and As (40 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (∼pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (∼pH 8.3). These results suggest that U-V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As-Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.

  2. New hazardous waste management system: regulation of wastes or wasted regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The unsound management of hazardous wastes, as exemplified by Love Canal, causes a variety of environmental and health problems. A review of present state controls reveals the need for the Federal regulation that was incorporated in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). A detailed description of RCRA, however, faults the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for deferring regulation and for its failure to meet deadlines, issue standards, or include many dangerous wastes in the prohibited list. EPA's interim standards of essentially voluntary guidelines will offer little protection from contamination until final permit regulations are established. 326 references. (DCK)

  3. A successful petition to delist a hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, A.J.; Cormier, S.L.

    1997-12-31

    The prospect of a favorable ruling in an effort to have a hazardous waste delisted is remote, and few have been granted. This paper recounts the successful procedure used to have materials from a hazardous waste site delisted. Other property owners with sites affected with hazardous wastes will find the methodology discussed here instructive if they are contemplating a delisting petition. The regulatory agency with jurisdiction was the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality through its Waste Management Division (MDEQ WMD). The state has accepted authority for this function from the USEPA. The materials from discontinued electroplating operations were considered hazardous based on their contact with a listed F006 waste sludge generated from the electroplating operations. The sludge had been stored in surface impoundments. To initiate the delisting procedure, the requirements of a USEPA document were followed: Petition to Delist Hazardous Wastes, a Guidance Manual. The MDEQ WMD sanctioned the use of this guidance. This document is issued by the Office of Solid Waste. In observing the guidance, the following actions were taken: (1) Collection of soil samples from the area proposed for delisting; (2) Evaluation of data and the feasibility of preparing a delisting petition; (3) Development of the petition. In developing the details of the petition, the data from the site were scrutinized. Analytical results of metals in the soil samples were compared with pre-established maximum allowable concentrations that had been calculated in a closure plan. These values were also compared with delisting levels calculated by USEPA`s Composite Model for Landfills (EPACML). The data indicated that the levels of chemical constituents were below the appropriate regulatory criteria. Therefore, the petition was launched. This paper discusses their effective procedure and contents of each section of the delisting petition.

  4. Locating hazardous waste facilities: The influence of NIMBY beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    Groothuis, P.A.; Miller, G. )

    1994-07-01

    The [open quote]Not-In-My-Backyard[close quote] (NIMBY) syndrome is analyzed in economic decision making. Belief statements that reflect specific NIMBY concerns are subjected to factor analysis and the structure reveals two dimensions: tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance reflects an acceptance of rational economic arguments regarding the siting of a hazardous waste facility and avoidance reflects a more personal fear-of-consequences. Analysis identifies demographic characteristics of individuals likely to exhibit these two beliefs. These beliefs also are shown to influence the acceptance of a hazardous waste disposal facility in ones neighborhood when compensation is offered.

  5. 40 CFR 262.106 - When must a hazardous waste determination be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE University Laboratories XL Project-Laboratory Environmental Management Standard § 262.106 When must a hazardous waste determination be made? (a) For laboratory waste sent from a laboratory to an on-site hazardous...

  6. Hazardous-waste degradation by wood-degrading fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. The competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects one's ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemicals. Competence is often specified by the ability of the organisms to convert toxic chemicals to non toxic entities and most desirably to carbon dioxide. A wood degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated to determine its role as a degrader of toxic waste materials. Due to its widely recognized ability to degrade lignin, a persistent biogenic polymer, and the non specific enzyme systems supporting such activity, it was thought to have great promise as a toxic waste degrader.

  7. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  8. International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes.

    PubMed

    Castleman, B I; Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals.

  9. Treatment of hazardous petrochemical and petroleum wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.J. ); Ravishankar, K. )

    1989-01-01

    This book is a comparison of twenty-eight emerging technologies for the treatment of petrochemical wastes. It covers the full range of thermal, physical, chemical, and biological methods, providing information about processes, vendors, applications, state of development, and known or anticipated problems with each The most significant aspect of the book, however, is the detailed cost analysis and comparison. Each technology is evaluated in a table outlining: vendor and address, waste characteristics, system capacity, labor and supervision requirements, operating costs, capital costs, revenues generated, and total costs of operation on an annualized and a per unit basis.

  10. Making cleanup decisions at hazardous waste sites: the clean sites approach.

    PubMed

    Sarno, D J

    1991-09-01

    This paper provides a summary of the results of an 18-month study conducted by Clean Sites, Inc. of Alexandria, Virginia. The study was designed to take a critical look at the way remedies are selected for abandoned hazardous waste sites that are cleaned up under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and to develop recommendations for improving that process. The recommendations were released in an October 1990 report entitled "Improving Remedy Selection: An Explicit and Interactive Process for the Superfund Program." Through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Clean Sites is working to test these recommendations. At two actual Superfund sites, Clean Sites will assist EPA in performing the remedy selection in accordance with the process Clean Sites has developed. PMID:1756038

  11. Air emissions from the incineration of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, E T

    1990-10-01

    In the United States over the last ten years, concern over important disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste clean-up and control statutes of unprecedented scope. The impact of these various statutes will be a significant modification of waste management practices. The more traditional and lowest cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection will be replaced, in large measure, by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all of the "terminal" treatment technologies, properly-designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operational experience exists and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods. The objective of this paper is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding air emissions from hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put the associated technological and environmental issues into perspective.

  12. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Hazardous waste identification (40 cfr part 261) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The module introduces a specific hazardous waste identification process, which involves asking and analyzing a series of questions about any waste being evaluated. It analyzes in detail the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of `hazardous waste.` It explains concepts that are essential to identifying a RCRA hazardous waste: hazardous waste listing, hazardous waste characteristics, the `mixture` and `derived-from` rules, the `contained-in` policy, and the hazardous waste identification rules (HWIR).

  13. Waste Minimization via Radiological Hazard Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.; Coffield, T.; Hooker, K.L.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility in south-western South Carolina, incorporates pollution prevention as a fundamental component of its Environmental Management System. A comprehensive pollution prevention program was implemented as part of an overall business strategy to reduce waste generation and pollution releases, minimize environmental impacts, and to reduce future waste management and pollution control costs. In fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the Site focused on implementing specific waste reduction initiatives identified while benchmarking industry best practices. These efforts resulted in greater than $25 million in documented cost avoidance. While these results have been dramatic to date, the Site is further challenged to maximize resource utilization and deploy new technologies and practices to achieve further waste reductions. The Site has elected to target a site-wide reduction of contaminated work spaces in fiscal year 1998 as the primary source reduction initiative. Over 120,900 m{sup 2} of radiologically contaminated work areas (approximately 600 separate inside areas) exist at SRS. Reduction of these areas reduces future waste generation, minimizes worker exposure, and reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. This is a major focus of the Site`s As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program by reducing sources of worker exposure. The basis for this approach was demonstrated during 1997 as part of a successful Enhanced Work Planning pilot conducted at several specific contamination areas at SRS. An economic-based prioritization process was utilized to develop a model for prioritizing areas to reclaim. In the H-Canyon Separation facility, over 3,900 m{sup 2} of potentially contaminated area was rolled back to a Radiation Buffer Area. The facility estimated nearly 420 m{sup 3} of low level radioactive waste will be avoided each year, and overall cost savings and productivity gains will reach

  14. What was leaking from a hazardous-waste dump

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1988-05-15

    The city of Niagara Falls, N.Y., is the home of several toxic waste disposal sites, the most famous of which is Love Canal. Although less well known, the Hyde Park dump is equally noxious. This hazardous-waste dump was operated by the Hooker Chemical Company from about 1953 to 1975. Approximately 55,000 tons of halogenated waste were buried at this site, which is just north of the city. The Hyde Park dump is drained by Bloody Run Creek. Ronald A. Hites of Indiana University outlines the steps taken to identify the structures of organic compounds leaking from the Hyde Park dump.

  15. Sociological perspective on the siting of hazardous waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.S.; Williams, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The siting of hazardous waste facilities has been, and will likely continue to be, both an important societal need and a publically controversial topic. Sites have been denounced, shamed, banned, and moved at the same time that the national need for their installation and use has grown. Despite available technologies and physical science capabilities, the effective siting of facilitites stands more as a major contemporary social issue than it is a technological problem. Traditional social impact assessment approaches to the siting process have largely failed to meaningfully contribute to successful project implementation; these efforts have largely ignored the public perception aspects of risk and hazard on the success or failure of facility siting. This paper proposes that the siting of hazardous waste facilities could well take advantage of two rich but somewhat disparate research histories in the social sciences. A convergent and integrated approach would result from the successful blending of social impact assessment, which seeks to define and mitigate problems, with an approach used in hazards policy studies, which has sought to understand and incorporate public risk perceptions into effective public decision-making. It is proposed in this paper that the integration of these two approaches is necessary for arriving at more readily acceptable solutions to siting hazardous waste facilities. This paper illustrates how this integration of approaches could be implemented.

  16. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  17. The Future of Hazardous Waste Tracking: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability and performance of various RFID technologies to track hazardous wastes and materials (HAZMAT) across international borders will be verified in the El Paso, Texas-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico area under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)/Environmental and S...

  18. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES - RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND FIELD EVALUATIONS - 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings of the 1994 Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes, hosted by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the EPA in San Francisco, California. The symposium was the seventh annual meeting for the presentation of research conducted by EPA's Biosystem...

  19. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES - RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND FIELD EVALUATIONS - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings of the 1993 Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes, hosted by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the EPA in Dallas, Texas The symposium was the sixth annual meeting for the presentation of research conducts (by EPA's Biosystems Technology Dev...

  20. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  1. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed... in ecosystems. (vii) The plausible types of improper management to which the waste could be subjected... basis. (ix) The nature and severity of the human health and environmental damage that has occurred as...

  2. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed... in ecosystems. (vii) The plausible types of improper management to which the waste could be subjected... basis. (ix) The nature and severity of the human health and environmental damage that has occurred as...

  3. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed... in ecosystems. (vii) The plausible types of improper management to which the waste could be subjected... basis. (ix) The nature and severity of the human health and environmental damage that has occurred as...

  4. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed... in ecosystems. (vii) The plausible types of improper management to which the waste could be subjected... basis. (ix) The nature and severity of the human health and environmental damage that has occurred as...

  5. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed... in ecosystems. (vii) The plausible types of improper management to which the waste could be subjected... basis. (ix) The nature and severity of the human health and environmental damage that has occurred as...

  6. Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

  7. Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.

    1993-05-01

    Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.

  8. Household Hazardous Waste: Everyone's Problem--Everyone's Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Linda

    1985-01-01

    Examines the household hazardous waste problem, addressing several areas related to regulation, disposal, and control. Also gives a list of safer alternatives for household cleaners/disinfectants, paint products, and pesticides. Indicates that individuals can collectively make a difference in public exposure by changing purchases and practices.…

  9. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES - RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATIONS - 1995

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes, hosted by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the EPA in Rye Brook, New York. he symposium was the eighth annual meeting for the presentation of research conducted by EPA's Biosystems Technol...

  10. Children's Understandings Related to Hazardous Household Items and Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, George N.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on children's understanding of hazardous household items (HHI) and waste (HHW). Children from grades 4, 5 and 6 (n=173) participated in a questionnaire and interview research design. The results indicate that: (a) on a daily basis the children used HHI and disposed of HHW, (b) the children did not realize the danger of these…

  11. 77 FR 22229 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... FR 31716). Today's final rule corrects the misspelled chemical name. 2. Conforming Change to 40 CFR... recyclable materials have undergone a chemical reaction in the course of producing the products so as to... Final rule entitled, Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule (75 FR...

  12. TREATABILITY POTENTIAL FOR EPA LISTED HAZARDOUS WASTES IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study developed comprehensive screening data on the treatability in soil of: (a) specific listed hazardous organic chemicals, and (b) waste sludge from explosives production (K044) and related chemicals. Laboratory experiments were conducted using two soil types, an acidic s...

  13. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  14. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastes or PCB wastes; (2) Records of any inspections; (3) Training of facility personnel to recognize... Subtitle C of RCRA or the EPA Regional Administrator if in an unauthorized State if a regulated hazardous... waste means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, that is not...

  15. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    .... Individual waste streams may vary, however, depending on raw materials, industrial processes, and other... FR 27266 (May 16, 2001). III. EPA's Evaluation of the Waste Information and Data A. What Waste Did... contamination resulting from disposal of the petitioned waste in a landfill, and that a reasonable...

  16. Hazardous-waste incineration in a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary-kiln simulator was used to develop a better understanding of how hazardous materials are removed from sorbent clays. Experimental results and associated numerical modeling on the combustion and desorption of toluene from a montmorillonite clay sorbent are presented. The purpose of these tests was to understand the mass and heat transfer characteristics of the material in a rotary kiln environment. The experiments were done in a batch mode, simulating a control volume of solids moving down the length of a full-scale rotary kiln, exchanging time for distance as the independent variable. Studies investigating the effect of oxygen concentration, charge size, rotational velocity, and kiln cavity temperature on the desorption rate were completed. Also, effects of water in the montmorillonite were examined. Two comprehensive models were developed to predict the thermal and mass desorption characteristics of the bed, respectively. Another series of studies in the rotary kiln simulator was focused on NO, formation from nitrogenous waste constituents. These tests were performed to simulate materials (plastics, nylons, dyes, and process waste) usually destroyed in hazardous-waste incinerators. Four surrogate wastes, Aniline, Pyridine, Malononitrile, and Ethylenediamine, were absorbed onto the montmorillonite clay sorbent. A detailed discussion regarding the design, construction and operation of the rotary-kiln simulator for research on the destruction of hazardous waste materials is presented in the Appendices. All facility calibration techniques and calculations in addition to data acquisition and reduction algorithms are also discussed there.

  17. National annual dioxin emissions estimate for hazardous waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.J.; Rigo, H.G.

    1997-12-31

    On April 19, 1996, the EPA proposed Maximum Achievable Control [MACT] Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors. In that preamble, the EPA stated that annual estimated emissions of dioxins from the nation`s hazardous waste incinerators [HWIs] expressed as an equivalent amount of 2,3,7,8 TCDD (international toxic equivalents) are 77 grams. Commentors on EPA dioxin emission estimates from medical waste incinerators and cement kilns found them significantly overestimated. This paper presents an independent dioxin emissions estimate that takes advantage of correcting the errors in EPA`s HWI emissions database, an updated inventory of HWIs in the United States and statistical imputation techniques that maximum the information extractable from the limited dioxin emissions data for HWIs. Actual HWI dioxin emissions are probably between a quarter and half the HWC preamble estimate.

  18. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart or to the RCRA hazardous waste regulations. (b) If an unwanted material does not meet the definition of hazardous waste in § 261.3, it is no longer subject to this subpart or to the RCRA...

  19. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart or to the RCRA hazardous waste regulations. (b) If an unwanted material does not meet the definition of hazardous waste in § 261.3, it is no longer subject to this subpart or to the RCRA...

  20. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart or to the RCRA hazardous waste regulations. (b) If an unwanted material does not meet the definition of hazardous waste in § 261.3, it is no longer subject to this subpart or to the RCRA...

  1. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart or to the RCRA hazardous waste regulations. (b) If an unwanted material does not meet the definition of hazardous waste in § 261.3, it is no longer subject to this subpart or to the RCRA...

  2. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  3. Heavy metal immobilization in soil near abandoned mines using eggshell waste and rapeseed residue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Soo; Lim, Jung Eun; El-Azeem, Samy A M Abd; Choi, Bongsu; Oh, Sang-Eun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has received great concern due to potential risk to human health. Cadmium and Pb are largely released from abandoned or closed mines in Korea, resulting in soil contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eggshell waste in combination with the conventional nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizer (also known as NPK fertilizer) or the rapeseed residue on immobilization of Cd and Pb in the rice paddy soil. Cadmium and Pb extractabilities were tested using two methods of (1) the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and (2) the 0.1 M HCl extraction. With 5 % eggshell addition, the values of soil pH were increased from 6.33 and 6.51 to 8.15 and 8.04 in combination with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue, respectively, compared to no eggshell addition. The increase in soil pH may contribute to heavy metal immobilization by altering heavy metals into more stable in soils. Concentrations of TCLP-extracted Cd and Pb were reduced by up to 67.9 and 93.2 % by addition of 5 % eggshell compared to control. For 0.1 M HCl extraction method, the concentration of 0.1 M HCl-Cd in soils treated with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue was significantly reduced by up to 34.01 and 46.1 %, respectively, with 5 % eggshell addition compared to control. A decrease in acid phosphatase activity and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity at high soil pH were also observed. Combined application of eggshell waste and rapeseed residue can be cost-effective and beneficial way to remediate the soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  4. Heavy metal immobilization in soil near abandoned mines using eggshell waste and rapeseed residue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Soo; Lim, Jung Eun; El-Azeem, Samy A M Abd; Choi, Bongsu; Oh, Sang-Eun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has received great concern due to potential risk to human health. Cadmium and Pb are largely released from abandoned or closed mines in Korea, resulting in soil contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eggshell waste in combination with the conventional nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizer (also known as NPK fertilizer) or the rapeseed residue on immobilization of Cd and Pb in the rice paddy soil. Cadmium and Pb extractabilities were tested using two methods of (1) the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and (2) the 0.1 M HCl extraction. With 5 % eggshell addition, the values of soil pH were increased from 6.33 and 6.51 to 8.15 and 8.04 in combination with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue, respectively, compared to no eggshell addition. The increase in soil pH may contribute to heavy metal immobilization by altering heavy metals into more stable in soils. Concentrations of TCLP-extracted Cd and Pb were reduced by up to 67.9 and 93.2 % by addition of 5 % eggshell compared to control. For 0.1 M HCl extraction method, the concentration of 0.1 M HCl-Cd in soils treated with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue was significantly reduced by up to 34.01 and 46.1 %, respectively, with 5 % eggshell addition compared to control. A decrease in acid phosphatase activity and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity at high soil pH were also observed. Combined application of eggshell waste and rapeseed residue can be cost-effective and beneficial way to remediate the soil contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:22864756

  5. Hazardous waste management system; identification and listing of hazardous waste--EPA. Final rule and response to comments.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    On May 19, 1980, as part of its regulations implementing section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA promulgated a series of criteria for listing wastes as hazardous. On July 19, 1991, the Agency proposed to conform the language of the regulation to reflect the Agency's intent and consistent interpretation of that regulation. Today's rule finalizes the proposed rule.

  6. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    SciTech Connect

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  7. 75 FR 41121 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... 21, 2010 (75 FR 35128). Additional information on the proposed rule can be found at http://www.epa... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste...), 3001, 3004, 3005, and 4004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1970, as amended by the...

  8. Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, R P

    1978-01-01

    Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements. PMID:738242

  9. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tyrer, M; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage sludge ash samples would require disposal in a hazardous waste landfill because they exceed EU landfill waste acceptance criteria for stabilised non-reactive hazardous waste cells for soluble selenium (Se). Because Zn cannot be proven to exist predominantly as a phosphate or oxide in the ashes, it is recommended they be considered as non-hazardous waste. However leaching test results demonstrate that these ashes cannot be considered as inert waste, and this has significant implications for the management, disposal and re-use of sewage sludge ash.

  10. 75 FR 43409 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...-- ] Standards for Hazardous Waste Storage and Treatment Tank Systems, 51 FR 25422-25486, July 14, 1986 and 51 FR..., 1987; CL 52--Standards for Hazardous Waste Storage and Treatment Tank Systems, 53 FR 34079, Sept. 2... Ground-Water Monitoring Data from Hazardous Waste Facilities, 53 FR 39720, Oct. 11, 1988; CL...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1220 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1220 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  13. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  14. 76 FR 62303 - California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ..., effective August 1, 1992 (57 FR 32726), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA... (LDR) Treatment Standards for Listed Hazardous Wastes from Carbamate Production; (10) Extension of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  15. 76 FR 6561 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ..., effective December 31, 1984 (49 FR 48694) to implement its base hazardous waste management program. EPA....0112(b), (c). Cosmetic Colorants. 207--Uniform Hazardous Waste 70 FR 10776, 03/ 15A NCAC 13A.0102(b... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  16. 76 FR 36879 - Minnesota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ..., 1991 (56 FR 41164) Liners and Leak Detection Systems for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Units, Checklist 100, January 29, 1992 (57 FR 3462) Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Toxicity Characteristic; Corrections, Checklist 108, July 10, 1992 (57 FR 30657)...

  17. Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J

    2008-12-18

    This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and

  18. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2005-01-20

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge. PMID:15626384

  19. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai; Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  1. Mixed waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of mixed waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. Mixed waste is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington.

  2. 75 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... approving? EPA is approving the delisting petition submitted by Eastman to have three waste streams... waste. These waste streams are the rotary kiln incinerator (RKI) bottom ash, RKI fly ash, and RKI... produced by the RKI's air pollution control equipment is also derived from the management of several F-,...

  3. 75 FR 51678 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... CFR 261.31 and 261.32 (see 73 FR 54760). EPA is finalizing the decision to grant OxyChem's delisting... and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and waste.... Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Under Executive Order 12866, ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58...

  4. Method for solidification of radioactive and other hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Voskresenskaya, Elena N.; Kostin, Eduard M.; Pavlov, Vyacheslav F.; Revenko, Yurii A.; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Sharonova, Olga M.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Macheret, Yevgeny

    2002-01-01

    Solidification of liquid radioactive waste, and other hazardous wastes, is accomplished by the method of the invention by incorporating the waste into a porous glass crystalline molded block. The porous block is first loaded with the liquid waste and then dehydrated and exposed to thermal treatment at 50-1,000.degree. C. The porous glass crystalline molded block consists of glass crystalline hollow microspheres separated from fly ash (cenospheres), resulting from incineration of fossil plant coals. In a preferred embodiment, the porous glass crystalline blocks are formed from perforated cenospheres of grain size -400+50, wherein the selected cenospheres are consolidated into the porous molded block with a binder, such as liquid silicate glass. The porous blocks are then subjected to repeated cycles of saturating with liquid waste, and drying, and after the last cycle the blocks are subjected to calcination to transform the dried salts to more stable oxides. Radioactive liquid waste can be further stabilized in the porous blocks by coating the internal surface of the block with metal oxides prior to adding the liquid waste, and by coating the outside of the block with a low-melting glass or a ceramic after the waste is loaded into the block.

  5. Bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Research, development, and field evaluations, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, F.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Office of Research and Development (ORD) hosted the eighth annual Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes: Research, Development, and Field Evaluations in Rye Brook, New York, August 8-10, 1995. In this document, abstracts of paper and poster presentations from the symposium are organized within five key research and program areas: Bioremediation Field Initiative; Field research; Performance evaluation; Pilot-scale research; and Process research. The last section of the document includes abstracts of presentations on bioremediation research performed as part of the Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) program.

  6. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land. PMID:20811881

  7. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land.

  8. Simulation tools for hazardous waste removal

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, K.C.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The primary mission of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during World War 2 was the processing of pure plutonium metal in support of the Manhattan Project. By-products of this process include radioactive cesium-137 and strontium-90. Between 1943 and 1951, the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at ORNL were built to collect, neutralize, and storage these by-products. Currently, twelve gunite tanks and four stainless steel tanks are located on the ORNL complex. Characterization studies of these tanks in 1994 indicated that the structural integrity of some of the tanks is questionable. These risks provided the motivation for remediation and relocation of waste stored in the ORNL tanks. A number of factors complicate the remediation process. The material stored in these tanks ranges from liquid to sludge and solid and is composed of organic materials, heavy metals, and radionuclides. Furthermore, the tanks, which range from 12 to 50 ft in diameter, are located below ground and in the middle of the ORNL complex. The only access to these tanks is through one of three access ports that are either 12 or 24 in. in diameter. These characteristics provide a daunting challenge: how can material be safely removed from such a confined structure? This paper describes the existing strategy and hardware projected for use in the remediation process. This is followed by a description of an integrated hardware system model. This investigation has isolated a few key areas where further work may be needed.

  9. Elevated concentrations of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a northeastern Arizona Native American community

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Johanna M.; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul -Mehdi S.; Brearley, Adrian J.; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm. Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; Hirani, Chris; Pacheco, Juan S. Lezama; Cerrato, José M.

    2015-07-09

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67–169 μg L–1) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L–1. Elevated U (6,614 mg kg–1), V (15,814 mg kg–1), and As (40 mg kg–1) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). These results suggest that U–V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As–Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.

  10. Elevated concentrations of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a northeastern Arizona Native American community

    DOE PAGES

    Blake, Johanna M.; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul -Mehdi S.; Brearley, Adrian J.; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm. Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; et al

    2015-07-09

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67–169 μg L–1) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L–1. Elevated U (6,614 mg kg–1), V (15,814 mg kg–1), and As (40 mg kg–1) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Femore » were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). These results suggest that U–V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As–Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.« less

  11. Managing the Department of Energy's hazardous and mixed defense wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, G.H.; Sharples, F.E.; McBrayer, J.F.

    1986-04-01

    Like other large and complex industries, the nuclear weapons programs produce hazardous chemical wastes, many of which require special handling for the protection of health, safety, and the environment. This requires the interaction of a multiplicity of organizational entities. The HAZWRAP was established to provide centralized planning and technical support for DP RCRA- and CERCLA-related activities. The benefits of a centralized program integrator include DP-wide consistency in regulatory compliance, effective setting and execution of priorities, and development of optimal long-term waste management strategies for the DP complex.

  12. Review of commercial innovative technologies for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.J.

    1999-12-31

    A number of Innovative Technologies have been developed since the late 1980's for the treatment of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous wastes. The development of these technologies has been encouraged by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD). As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation program, the EPA has evaluated some of these technologies for the treatment of soils contaminated with RCRA hazardous constituents. The DOE has extensively studied and evaluated these technologies for the treatment of mixed (RCRA plus radioactive) waste. The DOD has also studied these technologies for the chemical demilitarization of chemical warfare agents. The technology experience and performance of five Innovative Technologies that have been demonstrated on a full-scale commercial basis are discussed.

  13. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  14. 1996 hazardous waste management survey in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.; Christie, K.; Tao, Hong-lei

    1996-12-31

    This report documents the results of a 42-question survey submitted to countries in Asia concerning their hazardous waste management programs and other issues. The same survey questions were distributed in 1992. This report compares the 1992 and 1996 responses. The respondents were Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, People`s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. 7 figs.

  15. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment. PMID:21504925

  16. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment. PMID:21504925

  17. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  18. Method for encapsulating hazardous wastes using a staged mold

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1989-01-01

    A staged mold and method for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  19. National annual dioxin emissions estimate for hazardous waste incinerators

    PubMed

    Cudahy; Rigo

    1998-11-01

    Reducing emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, commonly known as dioxins, is a high priority for environmental regulatory bodies throughout much of the world. In the United States, Section 112 (c)(6) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify and control emissions from sources that are responsible for at least 90% of the overall emissions of seven targeted hazardous air pollutants, including dioxins. On April 19, 1996, the EPA proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWCs). In that preamble, the EPA estimated annual dioxin emissions from the nation's hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) to be 79 grams expressed as 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD) international toxic equivalents (ITEQs). However, early EPA dioxin emission estimates from medical waste incinerators and cement kilns were significantly overestimated; so, the following independent national dioxin emissions estimate for HWIs was prepared. This estimate corrects the errors in the EPA's HWI emissions database, uses an updated inventory of HWIs in the United States, and applies statistical imputation techniques that take maximum advantage of the limited dioxin emissions data for HWIs.

  20. In Brief: Hazardous waste and air regulation compliance data released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released, on 6 November, new information on the enforcement of hazardous waste and air regulations by the agency and states. The information includes new summary reports and data from 2004 through 2008 on federal and state enforcement program performance with Clean Air Act (CAA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The agency also updated its Enforcement and Compliance Online (ECHO) Web site. Information on facility compliance with water, air, and hazardous waste requirements provides the public with more information about the environmental footprint of each facility. EPA noted that the compliance data do not relate directly to overall hazardous waste management or air quality, which have improved in the United States over the past 30 years owing to the implementation of various environmental programs. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/compliance/data/results/performance/rcra/index.html, http://www.epa.gov/compliance/data/results/performance/caa/index.html, and http://www.epa-echo.gov/echo/.

  1. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Mora, Juan C; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Sanz, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  2. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Mora, Juan C; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Sanz, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations. PMID:26921509

  3. Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to

  4. 75 FR 20942 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... included saccharin and its salts (45 FR 33084, May 19, 1980 and 45 FR 78532, November 25, 1980). The... in 2007, approximately 137 million tons of municipal waste went to landfills and other disposal (see http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/msw99.htm ). 2. Factors Considered for Waste...

  5. 77 FR 56558 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Remediation and Restoration, (Mail Code: OSRR07-01), EPA Region 1, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100, Boston, MA... for IBM, EPA proposed, on July 16, 2012 (77 FR 41720), to exclude the waste from the lists of... authorization to delist federal listed wastes. See 58 FR 26243 (May 3, 1993). Instead, the Vermont...

  6. Determinants of risk perceptions of a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Bord, R.J.; O`Conner, R.E.

    1992-09-01

    A before-stimulus-after quasi-experimental design is used to assess the factors relating to risk perceptions of a hazardous waste site. First, a pretest obtains measures of attitudes and beliefs about hazardous waste and waste sites. Second, a detailed hypothetical {open_quotes}Superfund{close_quotes} scenario, including a complex cleanup plan, is introduced. Finally, indices of health risk estimates, trust, knowledge, and other pertinent beliefs are obtained. levels of concern, both before and after cleanup, are the dependent variables. Independent variables include risk management options, health risk estimates, trust, and five sociodemographic characteristics. Concern is extremely high prior to cleanup and moderately high after cleanup. Concern is a clear function of health risk estimates. Toxic chemicals from waste sites are viewed as a major cause of multiple health problems, especially cancers. Accurate health risk estimates moderate fears and are linked to levels of education. Education, however, does not explain concern. Trust is a major factor explaining concern and health risk estimates. The implications of these findings for risk communication is discussed. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Wood-degrading fungi as degraders of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    The biological detoxification of hazardous waste is largely an underdeveloped technology. Bacterial species are known to possess a variety of detoxification skills, apparently associated with the need to survive. Single bacterial species may not have the ability to convert a toxicant to carbon dioxide and water. With the use of bacterial communities, there is the feature that each species of the consortium plays a role in the overall degradation of the waste with the inadequacies of one covered by the abilities of another. The stability of such consortia is of some concern since there may be environmental effects that permit the selection of certain members over others resulting in the loss or slowing of the degradation process. The use of fungi to degrade waste materials has not been investigated to any extent until recently. From the perspective of sewage treatment, filamentous fungi were to be avoided due to processing problems and in some cases fungi found in sewage can be pathogenic.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, W.H.

    1995-02-01

    Electrochemical treatment technologies for mixed hazardous waste are currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For a mixed waste containing toxic components such as heavy metals and cyanides in addition to a radioactive component, the toxic components can be removed or destroyed by electrochemical technologies allowing for recovery of the radioactive component prior to disposal of the solution. Mixed wastes with an organic component can be treated by oxidizing the organic compound to carbon dioxide and then recovering the radioactive component. The oxidation can be done directly at the anode or indirectly using an electron transfer mediator. This work describes the destruction of isopropanol, acetone and acetic acid at greater than 90% current efficiency using cobalt +3 or silver +2 as the electron transfer mediator. Also described is the destruction of cellulose based cheesecloth rags with electrochemically generated cobalt +3, at an overall efficiency of approximately 20%.

  9. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  10. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) of this chapter is empty if: (i) All wastes have been... container that has held an acute hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) is empty if: (i) The... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in...

  11. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) of this chapter is empty if: (i) All wastes have been... container that has held an acute hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) is empty if: (i) The... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in...

  12. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) of this chapter is empty if: (i) All wastes have been... container that has held an acute hazardous waste listed in §§ 261.31 or 261.33(e) is empty if: (i) The... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in...

  13. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  14. Hazardous Wastes and the Consumer Connection. A Guide for Educators and Citizens Concerned with the Role of Consumers in the Generation of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaff, Edith

    Many consumers do not see a strong connection between our lifestyles and buying decisions, and the amount of hazardous wastes generated in the United States. This guide was developed to be used by educators and citizens concerned with the role of consumers in the generation of hazardous wastes. It examines several products in terms of their…

  15. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  16. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-01-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  17. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  18. 66 FR 10059 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Paint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-02-13

    ... Substance Designation and Reportable Quantities; Designation of n-Butyl Alcohol, Ethyl Benzene, Methyl... the Treatment Standards of F039; and Designation of Styrene as an Underlying Hazardous Constituent... exclusively in tanks or containers prior to discharge to a publicly owned treatment works or discharged...

  19. 75 FR 78918 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities if the rule..., and Liability Act (CERCLA) to remove saccharin and its salts from the list of hazardous substances... Register notice. If you have questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular...

  20. Attitudes toward environmental hazards: where do toxic wastes fit?

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Martin, M; Cooper, K; Gochfeld, M

    1997-06-01

    The public is continually faced with making decisions about the risks associated with environmental hazards, and, along with managers and government officials, must make informed decisions concerning possible regulation, mitigation, and restoration of degraded sites or other environmental threats. We explored the attitudes regarding several environmental hazards of six groups of people: undergraduate science majors, undergraduate nonscience majors, and graduate students in environmental health, in ecological risk assessment, and in nonscience disciplines, as well as nonstudents over 35 yr of age. We had predicted that there would be significant differences in attitudes between science and nonscience majors and as a function of age. Relative concerns could be divided into three discrete classes (in descending order of concern): (1) general ecological problems (cutting tropical forests, polluting groundwater, trash along the coasts, lead in drinking water, and acid rain), (2) radon and nuclear wastes, and finally (3) specific nuclear waste facilities, chromium, fertilizers and pesticides, and electromagnetic waves. For any hazard, attitudes were consistent across groups with regard to ranking the severity of the environmental problem and willingness to expend funds to solve the problems. Attitudes about spending money to develop methods to evaluate risk fell in the middle level of concern. There were no major differences among classes of college-age students, or between them and older nonstudents.

  1. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  2. 40 CFR 261.35 - Deletion of certain hazardous waste codes following equipment cleaning and replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manner that minimizes or eliminates the escape of hazardous waste or constituents, leachate, contaminated drippage, or hazardous waste decomposition products to the ground water, surface water, or atmosphere. (1... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deletion of certain hazardous...

  3. 77 FR 69788 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... applied to the EPA for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The EPA proposes to grant final authorization to the hazardous...

  4. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  5. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  6. Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.; Claesson, A.; Larsson, L.; Suer, P.; Jacobson, T.

    2007-09-30

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

  7. Imaging data analyses for hazardous waste applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    David, N.; Ginsberg, I.W.

    1995-12-01

    The paper presents some examples of the use of remote sensing products for characterization of hazardous waste sites. The sites are located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) where materials associated with past weapons testing are buried. Problems of interest include delineation of strata for soil sampling, detection and delineation of buried trenches containing contaminants, seepage from capped areas and old septic drain fields, and location of faults and fractures relative to hazardous waste areas. Merging of site map and other geographic information with imagery was found by site managers to produce useful products. Merging of hydrographic and soil contaminant data aided soil sampling strategists. Overlays of suspected trench on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and trenches. Overlays of engineering drawings on recent and historical photos showed error in trench location and extent. A thermal image showed warm anomalies suspected to be areas of water seepage through an asphalt cap. Overlays of engineering drawings on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and drain fields. Analysis of aerial photography and spectral signatures of faults/fractures improved geologic maps of mixed waste areas.

  8. SB 1082 -- Unified hazardous materials/waste program: Local implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.

    1995-12-31

    California Senate Bill 1082 was signed into law in the fall of 1993 because business and industry believed there were too many hazardous materials inspectors asking the same questions, looking at the same items and requiring similar information on several variations of the same form. Industry was not happy with the large diversity of programs, each with its own inspectors, permits and fees, essentially doing what industry believed was the same inspection. SB 1082 will allow local city and county agencies to apply to the California Environmental Protection Agency to become a Certified Unified Program Agency (CUPA) or work with a CUPA as a Participating Agency (PA) to manage specific program elements. The CUPA will unify six regulatory programs including hazardous waste/tiered permitting, aboveground storage tanks, underground storage tanks, business and area plans/inventory or disclosure, acutely hazardous materials/risk management prevention and Uniform Fire Code programs related to hazardous materials inventory/plan requirements. The bill requires the CUPA to (1) implement a permit consolidation program; (2) implement a single fee system with a state surcharge; (3) consolidate, coordinate and make consistent any local or regional requirements or guidance documents; and (4) implement a single unified inspection and enforcement program.

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  10. Hazardous waste management system: standards applicable to generators of hazardous waste and standards applicable to owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities--Environmental Protection Agency. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1982-10-12

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is today proposing amendments to its hazardous waste regulations under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These amendments would replace the annual reporting requirements for hazardous waste generators and owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, ad disposal (TSD) facilities with a biennial survey of representative samples of those populations. This approach will provide verifiable data on a wider range of topics, better serve EPA's long term regulatory needs under RCRA, and reduce significantly the information burden on the regulated community.

  11. 75 FR 45583 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... provisions of the State regulations that are authorized and that EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... the codification of New York's authorized hazardous waste program which is set forth in...

  12. 78 FR 15338 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... applied to EPA for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Solid Waste... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  13. 77 FR 69765 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Solid Waste... limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). New federal requirements and... November 2, 1984 (49 FR 41036), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We...

  14. 77 FR 29275 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'',...

  15. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... held any hazardous waste, except a waste that is a compressed gas or that is identified as an acute... gallons in size. (2) A container that has held a hazardous waste that is a compressed gas is empty when... another method that has been shown in the scientific literature, or by tests conducted by the...

  16. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... held any hazardous waste, except a waste that is a compressed gas or that is identified as an acute... gallons in size. (2) A container that has held a hazardous waste that is a compressed gas is empty when... another method that has been shown in the scientific literature, or by tests conducted by the...

  17. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  18. 40 CFR 262.106 - When must a hazardous waste determination be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of 40 CFR Parts 260 through 270. ... wastes under RCRA and, if so, determine pursuant to § 262.11 (a) through (d) whether they are hazardous... must be managed as RCRA solid or hazardous waste. (b) For laboratory waste that will be sent from...

  19. 40 CFR 262.106 - When must a hazardous waste determination be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of 40 CFR Parts 260 through 270. ... wastes under RCRA and, if so, determine pursuant to § 262.11 (a) through (d) whether they are hazardous... must be managed as RCRA solid or hazardous waste. (b) For laboratory waste that will be sent from...

  20. 77 FR 15273 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... in its revised program application, subject to the limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste... limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). K. What is codification and is the EPA... 7004(b) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended 42 U.S.C. 6912(a), 6926, 6974(b). Dated: March...

  1. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Florida’s (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...

  2. 76 FR 56708 - Ohio: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., effective June 30, 1989 (54 FR 27170) to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted... Wastes; Checklist 50.1. Changes to Part 124 Not Accounted April 1, 1983, 48 FR 14146.... OAC 3745-50-21...; Checklist 203. Hazardous Waste--Nonwastewaters February 24, 2005, 70 FR 9138. OAC 3745-51-04;...

  3. 40 CFR 271.11 - Requirements for transporters of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documents must include the requirements of 40 CFR Part 3—(Electronic reporting) in their Program (except... hazardous wastes. 271.11 Section 271.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS...

  4. 40 CFR 271.11 - Requirements for transporters of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documents must include the requirements of 40 CFR Part 3—(Electronic reporting) in their Program (except... hazardous wastes. 271.11 Section 271.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS...

  5. 40 CFR 271.11 - Requirements for transporters of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documents must include the requirements of 40 CFR Part 3—(Electronic reporting) in their Program (except... hazardous wastes. 271.11 Section 271.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS...

  6. 75 FR 1235 - Revisions to the Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ..., 1996 (61 FR 16289). Since that time, the OECD has made a number of changes to the waste shipment regime... Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD Member Countries, Export Shipments of Spent Lead- Acid Batteries... Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD Member Countries, Export...

  7. Hazardous waste management system standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and EPA administered permit programs; hazardous waste permit program. Environmental Protection Agency. Interim final amendments to rule.

    PubMed

    1982-02-25

    On May 19, 1980, EPA promulgated regulations applicable to owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities which prohibited the landfill disposal of most containerized liquid waste or waste containing free liquid on and after November 19, 1981. Further on June 29, 1981, EPA amended its hazardous waste management regulations so as to extend the compliance date of the restriction on the landfill disposal of containerized liquid ignitable wastes to coincide with the compliance data of the general restriction on landfill disposal of liquids. The Agency is today extending the compliance date on both these requirements until May 26, 1982, and, in a separate action, is proposing amendments to these restrictions. This extension of compliance dates is provided for the sole purpose of allowing time to complete the rulemaking action on today's proposed amendments. The Agency is also today exempting from the requirements of the hazardous waste management regulations, the acts of adding absorbent material to hazardous waste in containers and adding hazardous waste to absorbent material in a container, at the time waste is first placed in the container, in order to reduce the free liquids in a container.

  8. 77 FR 41720 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... waste using the Agency's Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) described in 65 FR 58015 (September 27, 2000), 65 FR 75637 (December 4, 2000), and 73 FR 28768 (May 19, 2008) to predict the maximum... in light of EPA's experience. See Reynolds Metals Company at 62 FR 37694 and 62 FR 63458 where...

  9. 75 FR 62040 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... certain solid waste generated at its Mt. Athos facility near Lynchburg, Virginia. The Agency has... (wastewater treatment sludge from electroplating operations). On August 9, 1999 (64 FR 42317), EPA proposed, and on January 14, 2000 (65 FR 2337), EPA finalized, a conditional exclusion for the facility...

  10. 76 FR 4823 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...), in Owosso, Michigan to exclude (or ``delist'') up to 244 cubic yards of wastewater treatment sludge... permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage industrial solid waste. The rule also imposes... petitioned EPA to exclude an annual volume of 244 cubic yards of F006 wastewater treatment sludges...

  11. 77 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... water (F039) generated from its facility located in Baytown, Texas. The waste falls under the... final rule responds to the petition submitted by ExxonMobil to have the F039 underflow water generated at the North Landfarm (NLF) in Baytown, Texas excluded, or delisted, from the definition of...

  12. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... excluded. See 66 FR 27266 (May 16, 2001). III. EPA's Evaluation of the Waste Information and Data A. What... Beaumont Refinery's centrifuge solids. EPA applied the DRAS described in 65 FR 58015 (September 27, 2000), 65 FR 75637 (December 4, 2000) and 73 FR 28768 (May 19, 2008), to predict the maximum...

  13. 77 FR 43002 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... leachate extract used in the testing for constituents of concern listed above. SW-846 Method 1330A must be... leachate extract of the waste measured in any sample must not exceed the following concentrations (mg/L... exceed the specified delisting levels, Phillips 66 must collect and analyze two composite samples of...

  14. The hazardous waste facility siting controversy: the Massachusetts experience.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    Intense local opposition has frequently frustrated efforts to site hazardous waste facilities. This Note examines states' attempts to balance the increasing need for such facilities with growing community opposition. The Note focuses on the Massachusetts response to this problem, and argues that the Massachusetts program has failed to adequately preempt a locality's power to block facility siting. The Note proposes an alternative model, based on the National Environmental Policy Act, which addresses local concerns while achieving its purpose of siting safe containment facilities for toxic substances.

  15. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Rates EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments... respective annual market share of 88 percent for reusable wipes and 12 percent for disposable wipes (68 FR... of the Common Sense Initiative (CSI) for the printing industry (59 FR 27295). The CSI...

  16. Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, W M

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed. PMID:738239

  17. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Jr., Holt

    1995-01-01

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal.

  18. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    DOEpatents

    Murray, H. Jr.

    1995-02-21

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal. 40 figs.

  19. Development of consistent hazard controls for DOE transuranic waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, W.J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a re-engineering initiative undertaken with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) in order to standardize hazard analysis assumptions and methods and resulting safety controls applied to multiple transuranic (TRU) waste operations located across the United States. A wide range of safety controls are historically applied to transuranic waste operations, in spite of the fact that these operations have similar operational characteristics and hazard/accident potential. The re-engineering effort supported the development of a DOE technical standard with specific safety controls designated for accidents postulated during waste container retrieval, staging/storage, venting, onsite movements, and characterization activities. Controls cover preventive and mitigative measures; include both hardware and specific administrative controls; and provide protection to the facility worker, onsite co-located workers and the general public located outside of facility boundaries. The Standard development involved participation from all major DOE sites conducting TRU waste operations. Both safety analysts and operations personnel contributed to the re-engineering effort. Acknowledgment is given in particular to the following individuals who formed a core working group: Brenda Hawks, (DOE Oak Ridge Office), Patrice McEahern (CWI-Idaho), Jofu Mishima (Consultant), Louis Restrepo (Omicron), Jay Mullis (DOE-ORO), Mike Hitchler (WSMS), John Menna (WSMS), Jackie East (WSMS), Terry Foppe (CTAC), Carla Mewhinney (WIPP-SNL), Stephie Jennings (WIPP-LANL), Michael Mikolanis (DOESRS), Kraig Wendt (BBWI-Idaho), Lee Roberts (Fluor Hanford), and Jim Blankenhorn (WSRC). Additional acknowledgment is given to Dae Chung (EM) and Ines Triay (EM) for leadership and management of the re-engineering effort. (authors)

  20. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  1. 76 FR 55908 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of a final decision on a no migration petition reissuance... migration of hazardous constituents from the injection zone for as long as the waste remains hazardous....

  2. 77 FR 36447 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... excluded. See 66 FR 27266 (May 16, 2001). III. EPA's Evaluation of the Waste Information and Data A. What... concentration (mg/ TCLP delisting level L) (mg/L) Arsenic ND 1.64E-01 Barium 2.99E-02 1.00E+02 Benzene ND 5.00E... applied the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) described in 65 FR 58015 (September 27, 2000) and...

  3. Hazards associated with retrieval and storage of legacy waste at the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pannell, M.A.; Grogin, P.W.; Langford, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    Approximately 17,000 containers of solid transuranic and hazardous waste have been stored beneath earthen cover for nearly twenty years at Technical Area 4 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The mission of the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) is to retrieve, vent, and place these containers into an inspectable storage configuration in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, prior to final disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant hazards currently identified with TWISP activities include: (1) the pressurization of drums; (2) volatilization of organic compounds (VOCs) within the drums; and (3) the generation of elevated hydrogen levels by certain waste streams. Based on the retrieval of 15% of the waste containers, the following preliminary conclusions are presented to better protect personnel and the environment: (1) the likelihood of unvented drums becoming pressurized increases when environmental conditions change; (2) pressurized drums must be vented before they become bulging drums; (3) vented drums present the potential for VOC emissions and personnel exposure; (4) the vapor pressure and boiling points of waste stream constituents may be an indication of the likelihood of VOC emissions from stored hazardous waste containers; (5) large numbers of co-located vented drums may present the potential of increased hydrogen and VOC concentrations within unventilated storage domes; (6) monitoring and sampling vented drum storage domes is necessary to ensure that the levels of risk to drum handlers and inspection personnel are acceptable; (7) identifying, tagging, and segregating special case drums is necessary to prevent personnel overexposures and preclude environmental contamination; (8) applying rust inhibitor prolongs the useful life of waste containers stored under earthen cover; (9) acoustic drum pressure detection may be a viable tool in assessing elevated drum pressures.

  4. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  5. Transboundary hazardous waste management. Part I: Waste management policy of importing countries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Chang, Tien Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2005-12-01

    Mixed metal-containing waste, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) containing capacitors, printed circuit boards, steel mill dust and metal sludge were among the most common wastes exported from Taiwan. Before the implementation of the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention (secretariat of the Basel Convention 2001) in the Asia region, Taiwan conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project involving government authorities and the waste disposal facilities of the importing countries. A total of five countries and nine plants were visited in 2001-2002. The following outcomes can be drawn from these investigations. The Chinese government adopts the strategies of 'on-site processing' and 'relative centralization' on the waste management by tightening permitting and increasing site inspection. A three-level reviewing system is adopted for the import application. The United States have not signed the Basel Convention yet; the procedures of hazardous waste import rely on bilateral agreements. Importers are not required to provide official notification from the waste exporting countries. The operation, administration, monitoring and licensing of waste treatment plants are governed by the state environmental bureau. Finland, France and Belgium are members of the European Union. The procedures and policies of waste import are similar. All of the documents associated with transboundary movement require the approval of each government involved. Practically, the notification forms and tracking forms effectively manage the waste movement.

  6. Transboundary hazardous waste management. Part I: Waste management policy of importing countries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Chang, Tien Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2005-12-01

    Mixed metal-containing waste, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) containing capacitors, printed circuit boards, steel mill dust and metal sludge were among the most common wastes exported from Taiwan. Before the implementation of the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention (secretariat of the Basel Convention 2001) in the Asia region, Taiwan conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project involving government authorities and the waste disposal facilities of the importing countries. A total of five countries and nine plants were visited in 2001-2002. The following outcomes can be drawn from these investigations. The Chinese government adopts the strategies of 'on-site processing' and 'relative centralization' on the waste management by tightening permitting and increasing site inspection. A three-level reviewing system is adopted for the import application. The United States have not signed the Basel Convention yet; the procedures of hazardous waste import rely on bilateral agreements. Importers are not required to provide official notification from the waste exporting countries. The operation, administration, monitoring and licensing of waste treatment plants are governed by the state environmental bureau. Finland, France and Belgium are members of the European Union. The procedures and policies of waste import are similar. All of the documents associated with transboundary movement require the approval of each government involved. Practically, the notification forms and tracking forms effectively manage the waste movement. PMID:16379119

  7. Perceived risk impacts from siting hazardous waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, R.C.; Edwards, B.K.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes methods for evaluating perception-based economic impacts resulting from siting hazardous waste facilities. Socioeconomic impact analysis has devoted increasing attention to the potential implications of changed public perceptions of risk due to an activity or situation. This contrasts with traditional socioecconomic impact analysis, which has been limited to measuring direct and indirect consequences of activities, e.g., the employment effects of placing a military base in a specified location. Approaches to estimating economic impacts due to changes in public perceptions are ex ante or ex post. The former predict impacts prior to the construction and operation of a facility, while the later is based on impacts that become evident only when the facility is up and running. The theoretical foundations and practical requirements for demonstrating impacts, resulting from the siting of a hazardous facility are described. The theoretical rationale supporting the study of perceived risk research is presented along with discussion of problems that arise in demonstrating the existence and measuring the quantitative importance of economic impacts due to changes in perceived risk. The high-level nuclear waste facility being considered in Nevada is presented as an example in which there is potential for impacts, but where the link between perceived risk and economic conditions has not yet been developed.

  8. Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M; Esparza, J R

    1991-01-01

    Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators. PMID:1954928

  9. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment--a Swedish case study.

    PubMed

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  10. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-03-15

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1219 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1219 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1219 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1219 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1219 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1219 What are the replacement standards for hazardous...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1219 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1219 What are the replacement standards for hazardous...

  15. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-04-27

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation`s activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation`s activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0.

  16. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Hongchang

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  17. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC Uncle Sam, LA AGENCY: Environmental... Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, has been granted to Mosaic...

  18. Plasma destruction of North Carolina`s hazardous waste based on hazardous waste generated between the years of 1989 and 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the applicability of the plasma waste destruction technology to North Carolina hazardous waste streams. This study outlines the current regulations, existing technologies, and innovative technologies being considered as hazardous waste treatment alternatives. From this foundation, the study proceeds to identify the superiority of the plasma waste destruction technology. Specific areas of discussion include: temperature capabilities, waste residence time requirements, destruction removal efficiencies, operational efficiencies, economic issues, safety, and maintenance. This study finds the plasma destruction technology to be fully effective and superior to conventional facilities. The technology completely destroys hydrocarbons and can reduce the volume of many other hazardous wastes on the order of one part per million. The required residence time of waste in a plasma facility for effective destruction is a fraction of a second, while the rotary kiln incinerator maintains an average residence time of approximately 5 seconds. Also mass and heat balance calculations are performed to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of this technology. It is found that one day`s average amount of hazardous waste generated in the state of North Carolina can be destroyed in approximately thirty seconds using a standard one megawatt power source. Yet, before this technology is adopted as North Carolina`s primary hazardous waste destruction technology, further study is needed so that all issues considered in this research can be conducted in great detail.

  19. Preparation of waste oil for analysis to determine hazardous metals

    SciTech Connect

    Essling, A.M.; Huff, D.R.; Huff, E.A.; Fox, I.M.; Graczyk, D.G.

    1995-07-01

    Two methods for preparing waste-oil samples to permit measurement of their metals content were evaluated. For this evaluation, metals-in-oil standard reference materials were prepared by each method and the resulting solutions were analyzed for 20 metals, including those (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag) regulated as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. One preparation method involved combustion of the waste oil under oxygen at 25 atm pressure, as described in the American Society for Testing and Materials test method E926-88. As we applied it, this method gave recoveries well under 90% for most of the metals that we examined and, hence, proved unsatisfactory for routine application to waste-oil analysis. With the other method, nitric acid decomposition in a sealed vessel heated with microwave energy (analogous to US Environmental Protection Agency Method 3051), recoveries of all 20 metal contaminants were within 90 to 110% of the certified values. This microwave digestion procedure was also more efficient since it allowed six samples to be prepared together, whereas the oxygen combustion approach allowed processing of only one sample at a time.

  20. Hazardous Wastes. Two Games for Teaching about the Problem. Environmental Communications Activities. Bulletin 703.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Two games are presented which demonstrate the complexity of the hazardous waste problem through an introduction to the: (1) economics of waste disposal; (2) legislation surrounding waste disposal; (3) necessity to handle wastes with care; (4) damages to the environmental and human health resulting from improper disposal; (5) correct ways to…

  1. WHO collaboration in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Hisashi

    1996-12-31

    Since April 1989 when the World Health Organization`s (WHO`s) activities in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region were presented at the Pacific Basin Conference in Singapore, WHO and its Member States have carried out a number of collaborative activities in hazardous waste management. These activities focused on three main areas: national capacity building in the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in rapidly industrializing countries, management of clinical or medical waste, and hazardous waste management in Pacific Island countries. This paper summarizes these collaborative activities, identifies the main problems and issues encountered, and discusses future prospects of WHO collaboration with its Member States in the area of hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  3. Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

    1985-01-01

    A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Garbage imperialism: health implications of dumping hazardous wastes in Third World countries.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, K R

    1992-11-01

    This paper calls for studies of the potential health implications of today's hazardous waste disposal practices, and suggests that such studies are urgently needed in Third World countries where industrial nations are increasingly dumping their unwanted waste materials. The United States produces enormous quantities of hazardous waste each year, and approximately 1,200 "priority hazardous waste sites" presently threaten the nation's health. Because of environmental regulations, landfill closings, and citizen opposition to local waste facilities, industrialized countries are increasingly disposing of their problematic materials by shipping them to the Third World, where they pose substantial threats to human health and the environment. From a political economy perspective, this paper suggests that global health would be better served by reducing hazardous waste production, encouraging reusing and recycling, and restricting or banning international shipment of toxic wastes.

  5. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  6. Monitoring genetic damage to ecosystems from hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.L.

    1992-03-01

    Applications of ecological toxicity testing to hazardous waste management have increased dramatically over the last few years, resulting in a greater awareness of the need for improved biomonitoring techniques. Our laboratory is developing advanced techniques to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental contamination on ecosystems. We have developed a novel mutagenesis assay using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is potentially applicable for multimedia studies in soil, sediment, and water. In addition, we are conducting validation studies of a previously developed anaphase aberration test that utilizes sea urchin embryos. Other related efforts include field validation studies of the new tests, evaluation of their potential ecological relevance, and analysis of their sensitivity relative to that of existing toxicity tests that assess only lethal effects, rather than genetic damage.

  7. Final Hazard Classification for the FFTF Solid Waste Cask

    SciTech Connect

    HIMES, D.A.

    2002-07-03

    The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) (a major component of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel offload system) is a shielded, bottom-loading cask containing an internal hoist system used to transfer irradiated fuel or non-fuel components from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell (IEM Cell) to the Cask Loading Station (CLS). The SWC is assumed to be loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a Core Component Container (CCC) having maximum average burn-ups of 150,000 MWd/MTHM. Results show that the fuel handling activities with the SWC loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a CCC should be classified as a Category 3 hazard. This conclusion is consistent with the relative simplicity of the system and passive nature of the barriers for purposes of determining the graded approach specified in DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE 1992).

  8. Hazardous waste enforcement. [RCRA and Superfund regulatory programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A change is taking place in the enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Superfund, a change described by the terms ''environmental results'' and ''cooperation, no confrontation''. Examples are given of environmental results achieved through criminal enforcement. In June 1981, a New York businessman received a two and one-half year prison sentence for dumping PCB-laced oil along North Carolina roads; a second defendant received an 18-month jail term. Other important measures of environmental results achieved by enforcement are 1) commitment of private money and effort for hazardous waste management and 2) the number of facility inspections conducted under RCRA's regulatory program's compliance monitoring system. A new strategy of cooperation between U.S. EPA and the parties affected by RCRA and Superfund should change the pattern which produced the confrontational conflicts of the past. (JMT)

  9. RCRA/UST, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Hazardous waste identification (40 CFR part 261) updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This module introduces a specific hazardous waste identification process, which involves asking and analyzing a series of questions about any waste being evaluated. Analyzes in detail the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste. It explains the following concepts that are essential to identifying a RCRA hazardous waste: hazardous waste listing, hazardous waste characteristics, the mixture and derived-from rules, the contained-in policy, and the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR).

  10. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  11. A RULE-BASED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING FINAL COVERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter examines how rules are used as a knowledge representation formalism in the domain of hazardous waste management. A specific example from this domain involves performance evaluation of final covers used to close hazardous waste landfills. Final cover design and associ...

  12. 77 FR 15343 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Oklahoma has applied to EPA for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the... Oklahoma. In the ``Rules and Regulations'' section of this Federal Register, EPA is authorizing the...

  13. 75 FR 76633 - Oregon; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Rule promulgated and effective on January 7, 2010 (75 FR 918) under docket EPA-R10-RCRA-2009-0766... January 31, 1986 (51 FR 3779), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA granted..., 2003 (68 FR 44659) from the State of Oregon's federally authorized RCRA Hazardous Waste...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID EMULSION MEMBRANE FOR CLEAN UP OF AQUEOUS WASTE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    El-Reefy, Sohair A.; Selim, Y.T.; Hassan, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2003-02-27

    Four liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) systems are given to remove different hazardous elements such as uranium, thorium, cobalt, copper, lead, and cadmium from different aqueous waste effluents. The optimum conditions for use of these systems are deduced. The potentiality of LEM for removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous waste solutions is given.

  15. A Laboratory Exercise for Compatibility Testing of Hazardous Wastes in an Environmental Analysis Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, J. C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a new program at the University of Michigan in hazardous waste management. Describes a laboratory demonstration that deals with the reactivity and potential violence of several reactions that may be encountered on a hazardous waste site. Provides criteria for selecting particular compatibility testing methods. (TW)

  16. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip Dellinger, Chief Ground Water... Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF Corporation Freeport, Texas AGENCY: Environmental... 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste ] Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, has...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1220 What are the replacement standards for hazardous...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1220 What are the replacement standards for hazardous...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1219 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste incinerators? 63.1219 Section 63.1219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1219 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators? (a... percent oxygen; (4) Arsenic, beryllium, and chromium in excess of 92 µgm/dscm, combined...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1220 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste... oxygen; (4) For arsenic, beryllium, and chromium, both: (i) Emissions in excess of 2.1 × 10−5...

  1. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of ongoing hazardous waste generation and historic operations that have led to signif...

  2. 78 FR 79654 - Vermont: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...EPA proposes to grant final authorization to the State of Vermont for changes to its hazardous waste program. In the ``Rules and Regulations'' section of this Federal Register we are authorizing the changes to the Vermont hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as a direct final rule without prior proposed rule. EPA has determined that these changes......

  3. 78 FR 25678 - Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions... for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation...

  4. 76 FR 6594 - Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions... for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource...

  5. 76 FR 19004 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Oklahoma has applied to EPA for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under...

  6. 78 FR 43842 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY... authorization for changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA.... Federal eRulemaking Portal: http: www.regulations.gov. Follow the on-line instructions for...

  7. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive...

  8. 40 CFR 262.216 - Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... generator requirements of 40 CFR part 262, with respect to that hazardous waste; or (b) Remains subject to... generated at an eligible academic entity. 262.216 Section 262.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.216 Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at...

  9. 40 CFR 262.216 - Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generator requirements of 40 CFR part 262, with respect to that hazardous waste; or (b) Remains subject to... generated at an eligible academic entity. 262.216 Section 262.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.216 Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at...

  10. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.352 Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.352 Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.352 Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.352 Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to...

  14. 77 FR 61326 - Indiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...; Administrative Practice and Procedure; Confidential business information; Hazardous materials transportation.... Burning of Hazardous Wastes in September 30, 329 IAC 3.1-11-1 Boilers and Industrial 1992; 57 FR Effective... Made From July 24, 2002; 67 329 IAC 3.1-6-1; 3.1- Recycled Hazardous Secondary FR 48393. 6-2(17);...

  15. The MODAR process for the destruction of hazardous organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Swallow, K.C.; Killilea, W.R.; Malinowski, K.C.; Staszak, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    The MODAR process for destruction of hazardous organic waste materials employs an oxidation reaction to convert organic compounds to CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and, when heteroatoms are present, inorganic compounds. The reaction is carried out in a flowing aqueous stream heated and pressurized above the critical point of water. Residence times of less than one minute are usually sufficient to reduce the concentrations of all organic compounds to levels below analytical detection limits. The pilot-scale MODAR unit is skid-mounted and transportable by truck. It measures 12.2 m x 2.6 m x 2.9 m and can process 190 liters of organic liquid or 1900 liters of a 10% organic in water solution per day. In-house testing with pure chemicals and mixtures of chemicals confirmed that the pilot-scale unit met or exceeded the destruction efficiencies achieved with a laboratory-scale unit. A pilot-scale field test, conducted on toxic waste material, demonstrated that the MODAR process could destroy organic compounds with greater than 99.99% efficiency.

  16. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. PMID:22326245

  17. General requirements for RCRA regulated hazardous waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended, requires that tanks used for the storage or treatment of hazardous waste (HazW) be permitted, and comply with the requirements contained within the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) TItle 40 in Subpart J of Part 264/265, unless those tanks have been exempted. Subpart J specifies requirements for the design, construction, installation, operation, inspection, maintenance, repair, release, response, and closure of HazW tanks. Also, the regulations make a distinction between new and existing tanks. Effective December 6, 1995, standards for controlling volatile organic air emissions will apply to non-exempt HazW tanks. HazW tanks will have to be equipped with a cover or floating roof, or be designed to operate as a closed system, to be in compliance with the air emission control requirements. This information brief describes those tanks that are subject to the Subpart J requirements, and will also discuss secondary containment, inspection, restrictions on waste storage, release response, and closure requirements associated with regulated HazW tanks.

  18. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  19. Public policy impacts on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste in New York State.

    PubMed

    Deyle, R E; Bretschneider, S I

    1990-04-01

    A number of policies adopted by the federal government and the state have been designed to promote waste reduction or influence the choice of waste disposal technologies employed by generators of hazardous waste. Graphic analysis of smoothed time series data for hazardous wastes manifested in New York State for the period between June 1982 and February 1987 suggests that some of these policies have had the intended effects. Significant shifts in manifested waste volumes are evident that coincide with the following policy interventions: (1) increased state waste-end tax rates; (2) state and federal landfill bans; (3) federal restrictions on burning hazardous wastes and waste oils for energy recovery; and (4) changes in the federal regulatory definition of hazardous waste. Other changes in waste generation and management appear to be attributable to such factors as state and regional economic conditions and changes in instate treatment and disposal facility capacity. Analysis of the management of specific waste types supports evidence from the graphic analysis that waste generators changed from land disposal to "higher" waste handling technologies in response to several policy interventions. PMID:2340146

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION PROCESSES UNDER THE NEW EPA DRAFT RISK BURN GUIDANCE: MEASUREMENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurement issues relating to the characterization of organic emissions from hazardous waste incineration processes under EPA's new risk burn guidance. The recently published draft quidance recommends that hazardous waste combustion facilities complete a mass...

  1. A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

  2. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  3. Physiological aspects of vetiver grass for rehabilitation in abandoned metalliferous mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Pang, J; Chan, G S Y; Zhang, J; Liang, J; Wong, M H

    2003-09-01

    Physiological aspects of why vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can be tolerant to heavy metals and be used as an alternative method for rehabilitation of abandoned metalliferous mine wastelands have been investigated. The results showed that high proportions of lead and zinc (Pb/Zn) tailing greatly inhibited the leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, and photosynthesis of leaves, but stimulated the accumulation of proline and abscisic acid (ABA), and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), implying that different mechanisms to detoxify active oxygen species (AOS) existed in different parts of plants. Physiological responses to heavy metal treatments differed greatly between roots and shoots. Nitrogen fertilizer application could greatly alleviate the adverse effects of high proportions of Pb/Zn tailing on vetiver grass growth.

  4. Indoor household pesticides: hazardous waste concern or not?

    PubMed

    Owens, J M; Guiney, P D; Howard, P H; Aronson, D B; Gray, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many indoor household pesticides are efficient and useful tools for a variety of functions necessary to maintain clean, sanitary, and pleasant homes and institutional facilities, and to provide significant public health benefits. They do so by incorporating active ingredients and formulation technology that have not been associated with significant environmental impact in use or when disposed in landfills. Chemical and environmental fate properties, toxicological characteristics, and use patterns of indoor household pesticides that distinguish them from other categories of pesticides which have been associated with environmental contamination should be recognized when HHW policy is debated and established by governmental agencies. Most indoor household pesticides as defined here should not be considered hazardous waste or HHW because those relatively few containers, often no longer full, that have been disposed with MSW over the years have not been associated with environmental contamination. The tiny amounts of those product residues that will reach MSW landfills have been shown, in general, not to have chemical or environmental fate characteristics that would make them susceptible to leaching. Those that do have the potential to leach based on these characteristics, in most cases, do not represent a threat to human health based on toxicological considerations. However, compounds such as propoxur, which are very mobile and relatively persistent in soil and in addition have been associated with significant potential health effects, may be targeted by the screening process as described here and could be selected for further investigation as candidates for special waste management status (such as HHW). Our analysis and recommendations have not been extended to the many types of lawn and garden pesticides that are commonly used by homeowners and are frequently brought to HHW programs. However, their potential for groundwater contamination could also be judged using

  5. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  6. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  7. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  8. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  9. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1997-07-15

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  10. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  11. 75 FR 17332 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act... issued under the authority of sections 2002(a), 3006 and 7004(b) of the Solid Waste and Disposal Act, as... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste...

  12. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA... sections 2002(a), 3006 and 7004(b) of the Solid Waste and Disposal Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6912(a), 6926... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste...

  13. 77 FR 46994 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act...(b) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6912(a), 6926, and 6974(b). Dated: July 5... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mineral processing wastes from titanium dioxide production and mixed radioactive/newly identified D004... Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VIII Appendix...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral processing wastes from titanium dioxide production and mixed radioactive/newly identified D004... Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VIII Appendix...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminated soil and debris wastes. b The standard was revised in the Third Third Final Rule (55 FR 22520... Contaminated Soil and Debris (CSD) Restricted hazardous waste in CSD Effective date 1. Solvent-(F001-F005) and... soil and debris contaminated with First Third wastes for which treatment standards are based...

  17. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  18. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, Donald A.

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the normal'' municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan's programs. Focusing on the Plan's household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  19. Hazards of solid waste management: bioethical problems, principles, and priorities

    PubMed Central

    Maxey, Margaret N.

    1978-01-01

    The putative hazards of solid waste management cannot be evaluated without placing the problem within a cultural climate of crisis where some persons consider such by-products of “high, hard technology” to have raised unresolved moral and ethical issues. In order to assist scientific and technical efforts to protect public health and safety, a bioethical perspective requires us to examine three controversial aspects of policy-making about public safety. Failure to recognize the qualitative difference between two cognitive activities—risk-measurements (objective, scientific probabilities) and safety-judgments (subjective, shifting value priorities)—has had three unfortunate consequences. Sophisticated methods of risk analysis have been applied in a piecemeal, haphazard, ad hoc fashion within traditional institutions with the false expectation that incremental risk-reducing programs automatically ensure public health and safety. Ethical priorities require, first and foremost, a whole new field of data arranged for comparable risk-analyses. Critics of cost/risk/benefit quantifications attack the absurdity of “putting a price on human life” but have not been confronted with its threefold ethical justification. The widening discrepancy in risk-perceptions and loss of mutual confidence between scientific experts and ordinary citizens has placed a burden of social responsibility on members of the scientific and technical community to engage in more effective public education through the political process, notwithstanding advocates of a nonscientific adversary process. The urgency of effective public education has been demonstrated by the extent to which we have lost our historically balanced judgment about the alleged environmental hazards posed by advanced technology. PMID:738238

  20. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR CRITERIA AND PROCESSES FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF NON-RADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J; Gaylord, R

    2007-02-13

    This Technical Basis Document (TBD) identifies how the values presented in the ''Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes'' were derived. The original moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) applied only to hazardous wastes generated in Radioactive Materials Management Areas (RMMAs) that were destined for off-site Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) that did not possess a radioactive materials license. Since its inception, the original moratorium document has become the de facto free-release procedure for potentially volumetrically contaminated materials of all varieties. This was promulgated in a February 4, 1992 memo from Jyle Lytle, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management, entitled ''Update: Moratorium on Shipment of Potentially Radioactive Hazardous and Toxic Wastes''. In this memo, Ms. Lytle states, ''While the moratorium does not apply to non-hazardous/non-TSCA solid wastes and non-waste materials, the same release criteria apply''. Over the past few years, a considerable quantity of data and operating experience has been developed, which has shown the limitations of UCRL-AR-109662. The original Moratorium is out of date, and many of the organizations and procedures that it references are no longer in existence. In addition, the original document lacked sufficient detail to be used as an LLNL-wide procedure for free release, as it only addressed hazardous wastes. The original moratorium document also used highly optimistic ''action limits'', which were based on theoretically achievable minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels for various matrices. Years of operating experience has shown that these action limits are simply not achievable for certain analyses in certain matrices, either due to limitations in sample size, or underestimates of the contribution of naturally-occurring radioactive materials, resulting in the mis-characterization of samples of these matrices as radioactive

  1. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing...

  5. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 262.211 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.211 Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area. If an eligible academic entity makes the hazardous waste... central accumulation area. (e) If the unwanted material is a hazardous waste, the eligible academic...

  11. A paradigm of international environmental law: the case for controlling the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Asante-Duah, K; Nagy, I V

    2001-06-01

    The production of large quantities of wastes globally has created a commercial activity involving the transfrontier shipments of hazardous wastes, intended to be managed at economically attractive waste-handling facilities located elsewhere. In fact, huge quantities of hazardous wastes apparently travel the world in search of "acceptable" waste management facilities. For instance, within the industrialized countries alone, millions of tonnes of potentially hazardous waste cross national frontiers each year on their way for recycling or to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) because there is no local disposal capacity for these wastes, or because legal disposal or reuse in a foreign country may be more environmentally sound, or managing the wastes in the foreign country may be less expensive than at home. The cross-boundary traffic in hazardous wastes has lately been under close public scrutiny, however, resulting in the accession of several international agreements and laws to regulate such activities. This paper discusses and analyzes the most significant control measures and major agreements in this new commercial activity involving hazardous wastes. In particular, the discussion recognizes the difficulties with trying to implement the relevant international agreements among countries of vastly different socioeconomic backgrounds. Nonetheless, it is also noted that global environmental agreements will generally be a necessary component of ensuring adequate environmental protection for the world community-and thus a need for the careful implementation of such agreements and regulations.

  12. Well plugging and abandonment plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, R.G.; Huff, D.D.

    1992-06-01

    Site environmental characterization and remediation require data obtained from the installation and sampling of wells. When these wells are no longer needed or not producing reliable information, or are damaged and can act as conduits for contaminant migration, they should be identified and properly decommissioned. This is most important for wells of sufficient depth to create the potential for exchange of fluids between different hydrologic units. This plan presents the strategy and detailed approach for well plugging and abandonment (P A) at Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6). An inventory of 768 wells, the total number known to have been installed in WAG 6 based on a combined review of data and direct field inventory, is provided in Appendix A. All wells that are no required for closure or postclosure surveillance of WAG 6 will be decommissioned. A listing of 69 existing WAG 6 wells that will be maintained for postclosure surveillance is provided in Appendix B, and their locations are shown in Fig. 1. Appendix C contains a list of all WAG 6 wells that will be decommissioned, although some may no longer exist. Their locations are shown in Fig. 2. It is likely that some new wells will be drilled as part of postclosure monitoring of Solid Waste Area 6 (SWSA), but they are beyond the scope of this report. It is intended that this plan provide a basis for developing contracts for cost and schedule determinations for the P A process.

  13. Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

  14. Characterization of household hazardous waste from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rathje, W.L.; Wilson, D.C.; Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.

    1987-09-01

    There is a growing concern that certain constituents of common household products, that are discarded in residential garbage, may be potentially harmful to human health and the environment by adversely affecting the quality of ground and surface water. A survey of hazardous wastes in residential garbage from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana, was conducted in order to determine the amount and characteristics of such wastes that are entering municipal landfills. The results of the survey indicate that approximately 642 metric tons of hazardous waste are discarded per year for the New Orleans study area and approximately 259 metric tons are discarded per year for the Marin County study area. Even though the percent of hazardous household waste in the garbage discarded in both study areas was less than 1%, it represents a significant quantity of hazardous waste because of the large volume of garbage involved.

  15. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether the... determination. A person who generates a solid waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.2, must determine if that waste...

  16. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether the... determination. A person who generates a solid waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.2, must determine if that waste...

  17. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether the... determination. A person who generates a solid waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.2, must determine if that waste...

  18. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether the... determination. A person who generates a solid waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.2, must determine if that waste...

  19. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether the... determination. A person who generates a solid waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.2, must determine if that waste...

  20. Lowering standards of clinical waste management: do the hazardous waste regulations conflict with the CDC's universal/standard precautions?

    PubMed

    Blenkharn, J I

    2006-04-01

    Clinical waste is a costly and troublesome commodity. Comprising the detritus of medical care, the foremost hazard is the risk of infection from micro-organisms present in these wastes. Infection commonly occurs through penetrating injury, the so-called 'sharps' or 'needlestick' injury, although contamination of non-intact skin or splashes to the eye may transmit infection. Bloodborne viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus) are the most serious threat, although respiratory, soft tissue and enteric infections are not unknown. The European Hazardous Waste Directive, that harmonizes the categorization and control of wastes, permits downregulation of clinical wastes where the risk of infection may be low. Although strengthened by the requirement for risk assessment in waste classification, UK regulatory guidance promoting classification of some clinical wastes as non-hazardous completely ignores the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Universal Precautions for the prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and other bloodborne pathogens in healthcare settings, which seek to prevent bloodborne virus infection in healthcare workers and others, and the more extensive Standard Precautions that extend these principles to the prevention of healthcare-associated infections and the environmental spread of nosocomial pathogens. By creating a potent cost driver encouraging downregulation of some clinical wastes, UK legislation based on the European Hazardous Waste Directive conflicts with the CDC's Universal/Standard Precautions.

  1. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  2. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.M. ); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  3. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B.

  4. Wastewater treatment plant expansion encounters unexpected hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.

    1994-11-01

    On the face of it, it should have been a straightforward project. The contract provided for the expansion and upgrade of an 8-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. Essentially, it entailed the expansion of the plant`s capacity to 15 mgd and the replacement of process tankage with activated sludge and tertiary facilities designed to achieve superior effluent quality as mandated by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PADER). The entire project was to have been completed in a three-year period at a cost of just over $17 million. However, the discovery of PCB contaminated soils on the site after the work had already begun led to a series of complications that ultimately turned the project into a much more arduous and costly one than could have been foreseen. The complications involved issues ranging from a determination of pollution levels, to waste disposal permitting, to compliance with OSHA standards for health and safety training, to insurance coverage, to the need to modify operating procedures and reschedule the work. As an added contingency measure, the owner of the plant, the Pottstown Borough Authority, decided to retain a hazardous materials contractor to excavate, transport, and dispose of any further contaminated soils that might be encountered later on.

  5. Evaluation of pristine lignin for hazardous-waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, D.J.; Newman, C.J.; Chian, E.S.K.; Gao, H.

    1987-05-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to assess the utilization of lignin, isolated from a steam-exploded hardwood (Tulip poplar) with 95% ethanol and 0.1n NaOH, as a potential adsorbent for hazardous-waste treatment. Eight organic compounds and two heavy metals were selected to allow comparison of lignin isolates with activated carbon. It was found that the adsorption capacity of lignin for heavy metals (chromium and lead) is comparable to activated carbon, despite a huge divergence in surface area (0.1 mS/g vs. 1000 mS/g). The surface area discrepancy and the extensive aromatic substitution in lignin macromolecule impeded the achievement of an adsorption capacity of lignin for polar organic compounds which would allow it to be cost-competitive with activated carbon although results with phenol and, to a lesser degree, naphthalene indicate significant potential for achieving competitive capacities. A recommended plan for surface area and structural enhancement is presented on the basis that lignin can be developed as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for polar priority pollutants and/or as an ion-exchange resins for heavy-metal wastewater clean-up.

  6. Revisiting a hazardous waste site 25 years later.

    PubMed

    Harris, Glenn; Nelson, Leah

    2007-05-01

    The starting point for this research was a case study of illegal hazardous waste disposal published 25 years ago in the Journal of Environmental Health. The site, located in rural upstate New York, would eventually be managed under county, state, and national remediation programs. For this paper, the authors conducted a historical analysis of reports published about the site. They also interviewed federal, state, and local officials, as well as nearby residents. Drawing on the data obtained in these ways, the paper reviews remedial efforts and community involvement. Despite considerable time and resources invested by stakeholders, groundwater pollution persists at the site. As responsibility for remediation moved through higher levels of government, the character of community involvement shifted from proactive to reactive to quiescent. Today, neighboring residents perceive health problems and demonstrate feelings of powerlessness. Remedial activity has required greater investigation over time, resulting in more documents detailing a larger number of parameters with increasing scientific sophistication. This approach has boosted understanding of groundwater pollution. At the same time, recent remediation has been deprived of useful knowledge that could have been provided by greater local participation in decision making.

  7. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

  8. Investigation of separation, treatment, and recycling options for hazardous paint blast media waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1996-02-01

    U.S. Army depot depaint operations generate over 4 million kg per year of contaminated paint blast media wastes. The objective of this work was to investigate technologies that might significantly mitigate this Army hazardous waste disposal problem. Most of the technologies investigated either failed to meet acceptable TCLP levels for hazardous metals content, or failed to meet Army disposal requirements. However, based on a review of several commercially available services, it is recommended that Army depot depaint operations consider processing hazardous blast media waste through properly regulated contractors that offer safe, effective, and economical stabilization, fixation, and recycling technologies.

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of burning hazardous waste in a precalciner kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.; Kluesner, M.

    1997-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc., operates a precalciner kiln in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. In May 1992, the company started burning hazardous waste in the hot end of the kiln as a partial fuel replacement. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages Lone Star has experienced since it began using hazardous waste as an alternate fuel supply. The use of hazardous waste has produced a number of ancillary benefits and a few hindrances to kiln operations. How each of these aspects has affected kiln operation and performance will be examined. 4 tabs.

  10. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  11. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  12. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  13. 75 FR 31716 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...-HSWA RCRA authority and the authority of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act: 40 CFR 262.23, 40...) under the federal hazardous materials transportation laws, the manifest changes will be applicable federally in all states under the authority of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) on...

  14. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  15. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  16. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... trial POHCs, oxygen (O2) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). (iii) A quantitative analysis of the scrubber... analysis of each waste or mixture of wastes to be burned which includes: (A) Heat value of the waste in the... not be expected to be found in the waste. The constituents excluded from analysis must be...

  17. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION (EPA/625/K-96/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document contains abstracts and slide hardcopy for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "Seminar Series on Bioremediation of Hazardous Waste Sites: Practical Approaches to Implementation." This technology transfer seminar series, sponsored by EPA's Biosystems ...

  18. Assessment of the TLC/Salmonella assay for screening hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    Using a modified version of the TLC/Salmonella assay developed by Bjorseth et al. (1982), 10 complex hazardous wastes were tested for mutagenic activity. The method couples thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome (Ames) assay for the detection of mutagenic constituents in complex mixtures. Crude hazardous wastes and selected hazardous-waste extracts were fractionated on commercially available cellulose TLC plates. Mutagenicity testing was performed by applying a single overlay of minimal growth agar containing a tester strain of Salmonella and the optional metabolic activation system directly onto the developed chromatogram. Seven of 10 hazardous wastes demonstrated mutagenic activity when tested by the method. To assess the sensitivity of the modified TLC/Salmonella assay, 14 Salmonella mutagens from a wide range of chemical classes and polarities were tested. Eleven of the 14 mutagens were positive in the test system.

  19. 77 FR 25500 - Standard on Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER); Extension of the Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard on Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection... Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) approval of the information collection requirements specified...

  20. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardo...