Science.gov

Sample records for abandoned industrial sites

  1. Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Lee, M.B.; Diffendorf, A.F.; Hagarman, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of the landfill on top of preexisting waste beds on the shores of Onondaga Lake. The results of groundwater monitoring over a one-year period indicate no detectable chromium from the metal-waste leachate escaping through the soda ash wastes. Retention ofhexavalent chromium within the underlying highly alkaline soda ash wastes by adsorption, reduction, and precipitation suggests a viable means for in situ treatment of several metals-manufacturing waste products.

  2. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  3. Abandoned Mine Lands: Site Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A catalogue of mining sites proposed for and listed on the NPL as well as mining sites being cleaned up using the Superfund Alternative Approach. Also mine sites not on the NPL but that have had removal or emergency response cleanup actions.

  4. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  5. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  6. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected

  7. Siting of prison complex above abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the state of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. However, one masonry building was located within the potential draw zone of mine works that still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was designed accordingly to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase 2 prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the phase 1 complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was undertaken to (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical database of subsidence events in the Illinois coal basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations. However, for others that could be affected potentially by future subsidence movement preliminary subsidence resistant designs were completed using the expected level of potential subsidence movement.

  8. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Determining a PCB Concentration for Purposes of Abandonment or Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing... station downstream of the former gas flow, at a minimum, sample all ends of the abandoned pipe. (2) If...

  9. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Determining a PCB Concentration for Purposes of Abandonment or Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing... station downstream of the former gas flow, at a minimum, sample all ends of the abandoned pipe. (2) If...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OKLAHOMA ABANDONED DRILLING AND PRODUCTION SITES AND ASSOCIATED PUBLIC EDUCATION/OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Terry

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has participated with the Oklahoma Energy Resource Board (OERB) since 1995 by providing grant funding for on-going work in both environmental assessment of abandoned oilfield exploration and production sites and associated public education/outreach activities. The OERB, a state agency created in 1993 by the Oklahoma legislature, administers programs funded by an assessment of one tenth of one percent on all oil and natural gas produced and sold in the state of Oklahoma. Approximately one half of the funds are used to assess and remediate abandoned oilfield sites and the other half are being used to educate about the importance of the oil and natural gas industry and OERB's environmental efforts. Financial participation through grant funding by the U.S. D.O.E. has been $200,000 annually which represents approximately 3 percent of OERB's private funding. Most of OERB's revenues come from an assessment of 1/10th of 1% on the sale of crude and natural gas in Oklahoma. The assessment is considered voluntary in that any interest owner may ask for a refund annually of their contributions to the fund. On average, 95% of the assessment dollars have remained with OERB, which shows tremendous support by the industry. This Final Report summarizes the progress of the three year grant. The purpose of this three-year project was to continue the progress of the OERB to accomplish its environmental and educational objectives and transfer information learned to other organizations and producing states in the industry.

  11. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. Except for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated m...

  12. Well Abandonment at Various Sites, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damphousse, Sarah Joan

    2016-01-01

    Between January 29 and March 9, 2016, a total of 23 monitoring wells were properly abandoned-in-place at five KSC sites (OPF-1&2, OPF-3, RDG, SRB, and HSB). The total abandonment encompassed 489.06 linear feet. The wells abandoned were constructed of PVC with diameters ranging from 1-inch to 2-inches. The shallowest well abandoned was measured to be 11.6 ft bls (OPF) and the deepest well abandoned was documented to be 51.45 feet bls (HSB). All aboveground completions were removed and each area was re-graded and/or grouted to surface to match existing surroundings. All materials (concrete pads, well casings, etc.) were disposed of accordingly.

  13. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  14. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  15. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  16. Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns Sterna antillarum in New Jersey, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1986-01-01

    The presence of shells or pebbles in a sandy substrate, and short, sparse vegetation, were the habitat characteristics of New Jersey least tern colony sites most strongly correlated with colony site selection. Dredge spoil sites had significantly greater evidence of human disturbance, distance to water, and proportion of coarse particles in the substrate than beach sites. These differences may have contributed to the smaller colonines and greater colony turnover rates at spoil sites relative to beach sites. Overall, abandoned colony site characteristics did not differ significantly from occupied sites. However, human disturbance, over-growth of vegetation, predation, and flooding were all prevalent at colonies prior to abandonment. The results of this study suggest techniques for habitat management of both least and little terns.

  17. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    PubMed

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured.

  18. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  19. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  1. Comparison of Kriging and coKriging for soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination mapping around abandoned mines is an important task for the planning and design of mine reclamation. This study compared the ordinary Kriging and the co-Kriging methods for the soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites. Four approaches were conducted as follows: (1) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) data only; (2) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF) data only; (3) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF; and (4) soil contamination mapping using the co-Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF. Results indicate that the approach 3 provides substantial improvements over other three approaches including a more reasonable spatial pattern of soil contamination and reduction in the error of its estimates.

  2. Drilling and abandonment preparation of CO₂ storage wells – Experience from the Ketzin pilot site

    DOE PAGES

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Martens, Sonja; Norden, Ben; ...

    2014-12-31

    At Ketzin, located west of Berlin, the GFZ German Centre for Geosciences is operating Europe's largest CO₂ research storage site. This pilot site has been developed since 2004 and is comprised of one combined injection/observation well and four monitoring wells. From June 2008 to August 2013, a total of 67 kilotons of CO₂ were safely injected into the sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in a depth between 630 to 650 m. The paper discusses the well designs and lessons learned in drilling engineering and operations. The abandonment phase started in Ketzin with the first plug cementation ofmore » the observation well Ktzi 202 shortly after shut-in of CO₂ injection. The experience with the first CO₂ well killing operation will be reviewed.« less

  3. Drilling and abandonment preparation of CO₂ storage wells – Experience from the Ketzin pilot site

    SciTech Connect

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Martens, Sonja; Norden, Ben; Henninges, Jan; Freifeld, Barry M.

    2014-12-31

    At Ketzin, located west of Berlin, the GFZ German Centre for Geosciences is operating Europe's largest CO₂ research storage site. This pilot site has been developed since 2004 and is comprised of one combined injection/observation well and four monitoring wells. From June 2008 to August 2013, a total of 67 kilotons of CO₂ were safely injected into the sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in a depth between 630 to 650 m. The paper discusses the well designs and lessons learned in drilling engineering and operations. The abandonment phase started in Ketzin with the first plug cementation of the observation well Ktzi 202 shortly after shut-in of CO₂ injection. The experience with the first CO₂ well killing operation will be reviewed.

  4. The use of decoys to attract Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) to abandoned colony sites in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1984-01-01

    The number of Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey has declined in recent years. Decoys were used at two recently abandoned Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey to encourage nesting. The sites were chosen because of their apparent suitability as colony sites and the relative ease of protecting them from human disturbance and predators. Least Terns were observed flying over and landing at both sites, although nesting occurred at only one site. The effect of decoys was statically significant at the colony site used for nesting. At this site, 44.5% of the landings occurred in the plot containing decoys and only 10.6% o the landings were in the control plot. Nesting was initiated among the decoys. These results indicate that decoys can be used to attract Least Terns to abandoned colony sites and may be useful for managing Least Terns and other colonial nesting birds.

  5. The siting of a prison complex above an abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the State of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. The original plan for construction consisted of one phase. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. One masonry building, however, was located within the potential draw zone of mine works which still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was accordingly designed to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase two prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the Phase I complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. The first stage of design was to minimize subsidence potential by positioning the exposure of significant structures to the subjacent mining assuming the mine map was sufficiently accurate. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was then undertaken to: (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future; and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical data base of subsidence events in the Illinois Coal Basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in soils from abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone in Zhejiang province.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbin; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Tao; Mou, Yijun; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution in soils from an abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone (TCIZ) was investigated. By analysing soils, including sediments, collected from the study zone, the main pollutants were quantitatively identified and their spatial distribution patterns were clearly displayed. Eleven types of HM pollutants were obtained and the results indicated a significant correlation in most of the elements of the soil and sediment. A pollution index Pi was employed to classify the degree of contamination and characterize the main pollutant, which was controlled with the evaluation standard value instead of background one. As was characterized to be one of the main pollutants with the mean concentrations at the pollution source, in the surrounding area, and in the sediment of 603, 20.4, and 22.5 mg/kg, respectively. Our study suggested that the contaminated area of TCIZ may necessitate remediation before it can be considered for reuse. Pollution index method could be a useful tool for assessing soils quality to provide comparable criteria.

  7. Nitrate as electron acceptor in in situ abandoned refinery site bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Battermann, G.; Meier-Loehr, M.

    1995-12-31

    The aquifer beneath an abandoned refinery site is highly polluted with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). After removal of the free phase by hydraulic measures until 1986, the immobile residual concentration located 6 to 10 m beneath the surface is still present and causes hydrocarbon concentrations from 10 to 100 mg/L in the groundwater. Laboratory tests proved the biodegradability of the hydrocarbon compounds under denitrifying conditions. Based on the results of the pilot study, large-scale bioremediation covering an area of about 20 ha was initiated. About 500 m{sup 3}/h of groundwater were extracted, and 400 m{sup 3}/h were recharged. The large-scale plant has been operating since 1991. Nitrate as an electron acceptor has been used since 1992. About 300 metric tons (MT) of hydrocarbons have been removed to date. The area of groundwater pollution is diminished by a factor of about two. More than 60% of all groundwater observation wells are now free of dissolved hydrocarbons. In addition, the decrease of biological nitrate consumption gives evidence of advanced bioremediation of the soil.

  8. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  9. Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.; Seigel, Ben H.

    1994-03-13

    For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.

  10. Environmental assessment of Oklahoma abandoned drilling and production sites and associated public education outreach activities. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M.

    1996-01-29

    Oklahoma oil producers and royalty owners are taking part in the nation`s first oil industry funded environmental cleanup and education program. The program is administered by the Oklahoma Energy Resources Board (OERB), a state agency which was created by the Oklahoma Independent Energy Education and Marketing Act. The purpose of this project will be accomplished through two primary objectives: (1) Conduct environmental assessment of abandoned oil and gas drilling and production sites where no responsible owner can be found and transfer environmental technology to oil and gas operators; and (2) Provide a comprehensive public education/outreach program to increase public awareness of the importance of the Oklahoma oil (and gas) industry. Technical progress is reported for these tasks.

  11. Arsenic contaminated site at an abandoned copper smelter plant: waste characterization and solidification/stabilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chien-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2003-11-01

    A preliminary survey of an arsenic contaminated site from an abandoned copper smelting facility and feasibility study of using solidification/stabilization (S/S) process to treat the contaminant waste were undertaken. It was found that the waste, located in the three-flue gas discharge tunnels, contained 2-40% arsenic. The pH of the contaminated waste is extremely low (ranging from 1.8 to 3.6). The X-ray diffraction evidence indicates that the arsenic particles present in the flue gas mainly exist as As(III), or As(2)O(3). The total amount of arsenic contaminated waste is estimated to be 700 ton in the studied area. About 50% of the particle sizes are less than 2 mm. Arsenic is easily extracted from wastes with a variety of leaching solutions. In order to meet the arsenic leaching standard of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), an extremely high cement dosage is required in the S/S process (cement/waste weight ratio>6). The waste with lower particle size having higher specific surface area exhibits somewhat positive effect on the S/S performance. The use of fly ash from municipal waste incinerators, in conjunction with the reduced amount of cement, is able to meet the TCLP arsenic and lead standards. The use of lime alone could meet the TCLP arsenic standard, but lead leaching concentrations exceeded leaching Pb standard. The results of semi-dynamic leaching tests of some solidified samples indicate higher accumulated arsenic leaching concentrations after only a few leachant renewals.

  12. Web Site Design Benchmarking within Industry Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Eon; Shaw, Thomas; Schneider, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce focuses on Web site evaluation criteria and applies them to different industry groups in Korea. Defines six categories of Web site evaluation criteria: business function, corporate credibility, contents reliability, Web site attractiveness, systematic structure, and navigation; and discusses differences between…

  13. Nevada National Security Site Industrial Sites Project Closeout - 12498

    SciTech Connect

    Cabble, Kevin; Krauss, Mark; Matthews, Pat

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is responsible for environmental restoration (ER) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This includes remediation at Industrial Sites where past nuclear testing activities and activities that supported nuclear testing may have or are known to have resulted in the release of contaminants into the environment. Industrial Sites at the NNSS have included nuclear facilities that supported the nuclear rocket/missile development programs, gas stations, landfills, spill sites, ordnance sites, and numerous other waste disposal and release sites. The NNSS Industrial Sites activities neared completion at the end of fiscal year 2011 while other activities required under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and part of the same NNSS ER Project are forecasted to extend to 2027 or beyond. With the majority of Industrial Sites corrective action units (CAUs) completed (more than 250 CAUs and over 1,800 corrective action sites), it was determined that an activity closeout process should be implemented to ensure that the work completed over the past 15 years is well documented in a comprehensive and concise summary. While the process used to close each individual CAU is described in approved documents, no single document describes in summary fashion the work completed to close the many individual Industrial Sites. The activity closeout process will be used to develop an Industrial Sites closeout document that describes these years of work. This document will summarize the number of Industrial Sites closed under the FFACO and provide general descriptions of projects, contaminants removed, and sites closed in place with corresponding Use Restrictions. Other pertinent information related to Industrial Sites work such as the project history, closure decisions, historical declarations, remediation strategies, and final CAU status will be included in the closeout

  14. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  15. Lob Lolly Industrial Site NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0048194, Arboles Sand & Stone, LLC is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility at the Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Archuleta County, Colorado, to the Piedra River.

  16. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  17. Element concentrations in growth rings of trees near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.; Carmichael, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Multielement analysis was performed on individual annual rings of trees growing at and near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site in Jackson, Tennessee, that operated from the early 1930's until 1981. Numerous organic compounds associated with the wood-preserving process have been detected in soils, ground water, and surface water within much of the site. Tree-ring investigations were conducted prior to investigations of ground water downgradient from the site to determine if trees preserved an areal and temporal record of contaminant movement into offsite areas. Increment cores were collected from trees on the abandoned plant site, in downgradient areas west and south of the site, and at two locations presumably unaffected by contamination from the site. Multielement analysis by proton-induced X-ray emission was performed on 5 to 15 individual growth rings from each of 34 trees that ranged in age from about 5 to 50 years. Concentrations of 16 elements were evaluated by analyzing average concentrations within the 1987, 1989, and 1990 rings of all trees; analyzing element-concentration trends along entire core radii; and analyzing element correlations between and among trees. Concentrations of some nutrients and trace metals were elevated in the outermost sapwood rings of some trees that grow south and southwest of the most contaminated part of the site; small trees on the main part of the site and larger trees to the west generally contained fewer rings with elevated concentrations, particularly of trace metals. Concentrations of several elements elevated in tree rings also were elevated in water samples collected from the reach of a stream that flows near the southwestern part of the site. Multielement analysis of each ring of a willow growing along the southern boundary of the site detected extremely large concentrations of chromium, nickel, and iron in rings that formed in 1986 and thereafter. Relative increases in the concentrations of these elements also

  18. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  19. Pharma TARP: a troubled asset relief program for novel, abandoned projects in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Bartfai, Tamas; Lees, Graham Vaughan

    2011-02-14

    Within days of each other, Pfizer, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline announced that they will focus on a few therapeutic areas only and abandon others entirely. Pfizer alone will close well over a hundred drug development projects that have reached two-thirds of the way to launch. The programs are deemed to be too risky and not lucrative enough for Big Pharma in the current climate. Society has a real need for the drugs that are no longer going to be developed for, among others, drug-resistant epilepsy, neuropathic and cancer pain, type-2 diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia. The authors propose a radical response by the U.S. government and the National Institutes of Health to rescue these abandoned projects, and to continue selected programs for drug approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. The investment required is small compared to the Troubled Asset Relief Program bank bail out, but the return on investment in financial terms and in satisfying societal needs makes this proposal attractive.

  20. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgrun were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO(4)(3-) concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO(4)(3-) at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba carried with

  1. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  2. Factors influencing the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Hou, Minmin; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Ruize; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2017-02-01

    The diurnal atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China during winter and summer. Total PCB concentrations during winter and summer were 27.6-212 and 368-1704pg/m(3) in the particulate phase and 270-697 and 3000-15,500pg/m(3) in the gaseous phase, respectively. Both gaseous and particulate PCB concentrations and compositions exhibited significant difference between winter and summer samples, but no diurnal variations during the measurement period. The correlation analysis between PCB concentrations and meteorological conditions, including atmospheric temperature, humidity, and mixing layer height, suggested that the seasonal variability of atmospheric PCB concentrations was strongly temperature-dependent, while the diurnal variability was probably source-dependent. The temperature-driven variations can also be proved by the significant linear correlation between ln P and 1/T in the Clausius-Clapeyron plot. Although government has implemented controls to reduce e-waste pollution, both the relatively high concentrations of PCBs and the diurnal variation in the air suggested that emissions from occasional e-waste recycling activities may still exist in this recycling area. These results underline the importance of continuing e-waste recycling site management long after abandonment.

  3. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In geological underground utilisation, operating and abandoned wells have been identified as a main potential leakage pathways for reservoir fluids. In the scope of the well abandonment procedure currently carried out at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Germany, a hydro-mechanical model was built to carry out a coupled analysis of the integrity in the entire wellbore system. The main aim of the present study was to assess the impacts of stress changes associated with CO2 injection as well as the cement backfill undertaken in the scope of well abandonment. A numerical model comprising cement sheaths, steel casings, tubing, multiple packers and wellbore annuli was implemented to enable a detailed representation of the entire wellbore system. The numerical model grid has a horizontal discretisation of 5 m x 5 m to focus on near wellbore effects, whereby element sizes increase with increasing distance from the wellbore. Vertical grid discretisation uses a tartan grid type over the entire model thickness of 1,500 m to ensure a sufficient discretisation of all wellbore system elements as well as of the reservoir unit. The total number of elements amounts to 210,672. Mechanical model parameters were taken from geological, drilling, logging and laboratory test data based on Ketzin pilot site-specific information as well as related literature (Kempka et al., 2014). The coupled calculations were performed using an elasto-plastic constitutive law, whereby an initial simulation run ensured a static mechanical equilibrium to represent the initial state before the start of CO2 injection. Thereto, gravitational load of the overburden rocks and pore pressure distribution following available well logs were integrated for initial model parameterisation including a normal faulting stress regime defined by a horizontal to vertical total stress ratio of 0.85. A correction accounting for the temperature and pressure dependent CO2 density was carried out in advance of each

  4. Evaluation of existing wells at the Nevada Test Site for plugging and abandonment or for recompletion as monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-09-01

    In this investigation, various information sources from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), national laboratories and the Desert Research Institute were utilized to verify the existence of approximately 250 existing wells or boreholes at the NTS. Of these wells, 40 were determined to be located within one kilometer of underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 m) or below the water table. These 40 existing wells were then investigated in detail to determine their drilling and construction history, lithology and hydrologic units penetrated, and current conditions. These findings are presented for each well, as well as recommendations as to whether individual wells should be plugged and abandoned or could possibly be recompleted as groundwater quality monitoring locations. Two of the 40 wells, UE-20e and UE-2a, contain lost drilling strings and do not penetrate aquifers. These two wells should be plugged and abandoned and removed from the NTS well inventory. Three other wells, TestWell No. 1, TestWell No. 5, and TestWell No. 6, are reported stemmed with sand to the surface. These three wells did not penetrate the water table and would require substantial deepening to be recompleted as groundwater monitoring locations. If not recompleted, these wells should also be plugged and abandoned and removed from the NTS well inventory. Eleven of the 34 wells, Test Well No. 7, RNM No. 1, RNM No. 2, RNM No. 2S, U-3cn No. 5, UE-20n No. 1, UE-7ns, UE-5n, UE-4t, UE-3e No. 3 and U-15k Test Hole, penetrate aquifers and do not require recompletion to produce groundwater monitoring locations. These wells are either constructed such that recompletion is not needed or not possible. Several of the 11 wells may require the removal of tubing and the placement or replacement of pump equipment. All five of the wells require wellhead rehabilitation to ensure they are not contaminated by surface water or other materials.

  5. Work Plan for Bioventing System Removal and Well Abandonment at Sites 204.1, 228, and 510.8, Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This letter includes a brief work plan for bioventing system removal and the abandonment of vent wells (VWs), groundwater monitoring wells (MWs), and...vapor monitoring points (VMPs) at Sites 204.1, 228, and 510.8. The bioventing system at Site 924 has already been removed and is not included in this scope of work.

  6. Bioprospecting for acidophilic lipid-rich green microalgae isolated from abandoned mine site water bodies.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Joseph K; Corcoran, Jason D; Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Zhang, Kejian; Hosseini, Nekoo Seyed; Marsden, James; Laamanen, Corey A; Scott, John A; Ross, Gregory M

    2014-03-26

    With fossil fuel sources in limited supply, microalgae show tremendous promise as a carbon neutral source of biofuel. Current microalgae biofuel strategies typically rely on growing high-lipid producing laboratory strains of microalgae in open raceways or closed system photobioreactors. Unfortunately, these microalgae species are found to be sensitive to environmental stresses or competition by regional strains. Contamination by invasive species can diminish productivity of commercial algal processes. A potential improvement to current strategies is to identify high-lipid producing microalgae, which thrive in selected culture conditions that reduce the risk of contamination, such as low pH. Here we report the identification of a novel high-lipid producing microalgae which can tolerate low pH growth conditions. Lig 290 is a Scenedesmus spp. isolated from a low pH waterbody (pH = 4.5) in proximity to an abandoned lignite mine in Northern Ontario, Canada. Compared to a laboratory strain of Scendesmus dimorphus, Lig 290 demonstrated robust growth rates, a strong growth profile, and high lipid production. As a consequence, Lig 290 may have potential application as a robust microalgal species for use in biofuel production.

  7. Bioprospecting for acidophilic lipid-rich green microalgae isolated from abandoned mine site water bodies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With fossil fuel sources in limited supply, microalgae show tremendous promise as a carbon neutral source of biofuel. Current microalgae biofuel strategies typically rely on growing high-lipid producing laboratory strains of microalgae in open raceways or closed system photobioreactors. Unfortunately, these microalgae species are found to be sensitive to environmental stresses or competition by regional strains. Contamination by invasive species can diminish productivity of commercial algal processes. A potential improvement to current strategies is to identify high-lipid producing microalgae, which thrive in selected culture conditions that reduce the risk of contamination, such as low pH. Here we report the identification of a novel high-lipid producing microalgae which can tolerate low pH growth conditions. Lig 290 is a Scenedesmus spp. isolated from a low pH waterbody (pH = 4.5) in proximity to an abandoned lignite mine in Northern Ontario, Canada. Compared to a laboratory strain of Scendesmus dimorphus, Lig 290 demonstrated robust growth rates, a strong growth profile, and high lipid production. As a consequence, Lig 290 may have potential application as a robust microalgal species for use in biofuel production. PMID:24670060

  8. Super oxidation and solidification of organic solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides at an abandoned chemical factory site

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Kevin; Xu, Paul; Loo, Walter

    2013-07-01

    Large quantities of organic chemical such as VOCs, SVOCs and POPs were found in the soil of land at an abandoned Chemical Plant. Technology of super oxidation was applied to the soil for cleanup. Fenton process was utilized to treat soil contaminated heavily by BHC, benzene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, dichloroethane, dichloropropane, trichlorobenzene and dichloroether, etc. Super oxidation was coupled with method of stabilization for this case to enhance the remediation effect, which proved to be successful. Concentration of concerned pollutants was brought down below the national regulation level by approximately 8 folds. To make the treated soil strong and effective layer preventing pollutants breaking through, Iron powder was mixed in the soil, forming PBR (Permeable Barrier Reactor), to lower the risk to human health. The site after enhanced super oxidation above was totally safe to be developed into a residential community and/or commercial area. (authors)

  9. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects.

  10. Multivariate analysis combined with GIS to source identification of heavy metals in soils around an abandoned industrial area, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Feng, Ke; Pei, Zongping; Meng, Fang; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metals in soils polluted by industrial production are a meaningful topic worldwide. The purpose of this study is to understand the pollution status and spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils. The result can help decision-makers apportion possible soil heavy metals sources and formulate effective pollution control policies. In this paper, 155 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected and analyzed for eight heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni) from an abandoned industrial area of Tong County, located in Jiangsu Province of Eastern China. The multivariate analysis (including I(geo), Ei/RI, EF, PCA, and CA) and geostatistics (GIS) were used to assess the enrichment level and pollution level of soil heavy metals and identify their sources. The results indicated that eight heavy metals in soils had moderate variations, with CVs ranging from 19.63 to 63.34%. The pollution level of I(geo) of soil heavy metals decreased in the order of Cd~Zn > Cu > Hg~As~Pb~Cr~Ni. The enrichment level of soil heavy metals decreased in the order of Cd > Zn > Hg > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Cr. According to the Ei, except Cd and Hg were in the significant and moderate ecological risk levels respectively, other soil heavy metals were in the clean or light ecological risk levels, the level of potential ecological risk (RI) of the whole industrial area was moderate. Finally, the source identification of soil heavy metals indicated that Cd and Zn were primarily controlled by human activities, and Hg and Cu were controlled by natural and anthropogenic sources, and As, Pb, Cr, and Ni were mainly controlled by soil parent materials.

  11. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  12. Impact of fresh tailing deposition on the evolution of groundwater hydrogeochemistry at the abandoned Manitou mine site, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maqsoud, Abdelkabir; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Dionne, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The abandoned Manitou mine site has produced acid mine drainage (AMD) for several decades. In order to limit the detrimental environmental impacts of AMD, different rehabilitation scenarios were proposed and analyzed. The selected rehabilitation scenario was to use fresh tailings from the neighboring Goldex gold mine as monolayer cover and to maintain an elevated water table. In order to assess the impact of the Goldex tailing deposition on the hydrogeochemistry of the Manitou mine site, a network of 30 piezometers was installed. These piezometers were used for continuous measurement of the groundwater level, as well as for water sampling campaigns for chemical quality monitoring, over a 3-year period. Hydrochemical data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results clearly showed the benefic impact of fresh tailing deposition on the groundwater quality around the contaminated area. These findings were also confirmed by the evolution of electrical conductivity. In addition to the improvement of the physicochemical quality of water on the Manitou mine site, new tailing deposition induced an increase of water table level. However, at this time, the Manitou reactive tailings are not completely submerged and possible oxidation might still occur, especially after ceasing of the fresh tailing deposition. Therefore, complementary rehabilitation scenarios should still be considered.

  13. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

  14. Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zume, J.T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Characterization of a bacterial community in an abandoned semiarid lead-zinc mine tailing site.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Monica O; Neilson, Julia W; Maier, Raina M

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial diversity in mine tailing microbial communities has not been thoroughly investigated despite the correlations that have been observed between the relative microbial diversity and the success of revegetation efforts at tailing sites. This study employed phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial communities present in highly disturbed, extremely (pH 2.7) and moderately (pH 5.7) acidic lead-zinc mine tailing samples from a semiarid environment with those from a vegetated off-site (OS) control sample (pH 8). Phylotype richness in these communities decreased from 42 in the OS control to 24 in the moderately acidic samples and 8 in the extremely acidic tailing samples. The clones in the extremely acidic tailing sample were most closely related to acidophiles, none of which were detected in the OS control sample. The comparison generated by this study between the bacteria present in extremely acidic tailing and that in moderately acidic tailing communities with those in an OS control soil provides a reference point from which to evaluate the successful restoration of mine tailing disposal sites by phytostabilization.

  16. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee. Water resources investigations report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    An investigation of the water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during December 1990. The objectives of the study were to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and adverse affects on biota in the streams resulting from creosote-related discharge originating of this Superfund site.

  17. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    species has been evaluated. The exposure pathway considered has been oral ingestion, calculating the contribution of the plant to the daily dose based on the arsenic concentration in the leaves of the plants analyzed. The Bioconcentration Factors are generally very low, the transfer Factors being somewhat higher although rarely exceed the unity. When dealing with phytoremediation of contaminated sites, the contribution of the As level in plants to the daily diet of animals should be used as an indicator for a suitable selection of the vegetal species to be used.

  18. Industrial Sites - An Approach to Closure

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Nevada Site Office was created by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address the environmental legacy of contamination resulting from more than 50 years of nuclear weapons research, production and testing. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) is responsible for remediating portions of the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and the Tonopah Test Range, which is within the Nevada Test and Training Range.

  19. Effect of Intermittent Flow on the Mobility of Metals from Abandoned Uranium Mine Waste Sites on Native American Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Artyushkova, K.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    Column experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent flow on the mobility of metals from abandoned uranium mine waste sites in Blue Gap Tachee (BGT), AZ and Laguna, NM. Intermittent flow represent the rainfall patterns in the southwestern United States, involving alternate wet and dry cycles. In order to simulate these rainfall patterns shorter wet periods of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes, followed by longer dry periods of 24 hours, were adopted for the column experiments. The experiment involved sequential leaching of sediments from Laguna and BGT with 18MὨ water (pH 5.4), Synthetic Rain Water (SRW, pH 5.6), 10mM bicarbonate solution (pH 7.9) and 10mM acetic acid (pH 3.4) solution that represent the environmentally relevant conditions as witnessed in BGT water samples (pH 3.8 and 7.4). These reagents were specifically chosen to target most metal species through various transport mechanisms which include advective-dispersive forces, ion-exchange, desorption and dissolution. With just 18MὨ water and SRW almost 90 µg/L of U, 4500 µg/L of V and 20 µg/L of As were released from BGT mine waste while the Laguna sample showed the release of 380 µg/L of U, 2 µg/L of V and 40 µg/L of As. The released U concentrations were 3-13 times its EPA MCL for U which under natural circumstances could threaten the proximate communities. Bicarbonate and acetic acid extractions on the other hand released 3500-6000 µg/L of U, 50-3000 µg/L of V and 14-35 µg/L of As from both Laguna and BGT mine waste respectively. Based on our previously published results, U and V from the uranyl-vanadate (U-V) species within BGT mine waste samples were only partially released with bicarbonate unlike the column experiments where almost all of the U and V from the U-V species were dissolved and released using 10mM bicarbonate solution. For reference, the columns were also leached continuously with bicarbonate and acetic acid for a week (each), to identify if the phases were

  20. Effects on groundwater flow of abandoned engineered structures for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockgård, Niclas; Marsic, Niko; Follin, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Effects on groundwater flow of abandoned engineered structures in relation to a potential geological repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel in fractured crystalline rock at the Forsmark site, Sweden, are studied by means of numerical modeling. The effects are analyzed by means of particle tracking, and transport-related performance measures are calculated. The impacts of abandoned, partially open repository tunnels are studied for two situations with different climate conditions: a "temperate" climate case with present-day boundary conditions, and a generic future "glacial" climate case with an ice sheet covering the repository. Then, the impact of abandoned open boreholes drilled through the repository is studied for present-day climate conditions. It is found that open repository tunnels and open boreholes can act as easy pathways from repository level to the ground surface; hence, they can attract a considerable proportion of particles released in the model at deposition hole positions within the repository. The changed flow field and flow paths cause some changes in the studied performance measures, i.e., increased flux at the deposition holes and decreased transport lengths and flow-related transport resistances. However, these effects are small and the transport resistance values are still high.

  1. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  3. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  4. Geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells, DOE Gladys McCall test site, Cameron Parish, Louisiana and DOE Willis Hulin test site, Vermillion Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana--the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  5. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Adam N.; Seal, Robert R., II; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul L.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2006-01-01

    The Virginia gold-pyrite belt, part of the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, hosts numerous abandoned metal mines. The belt extends from about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., for approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. The rocks that comprise the belt include metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (noncarbonate) sedimentary rocks that were originally deposited during the Ordovician). Deposits that were mined can be classified into three broad categories: 1. volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, 2. low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, 3. gold placer deposits, which result from weathering of the vein deposits The massive sulfide deposits were historically mined for iron and pyrite (sulfur), zinc, lead, and copper but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The most intensely mineralized and mined section of the belt is southwest of Fredericksburg, in the Mineral district of Louisa and Spotsylvania counties. The Valzinco Piatak lead-zinc mine and the Mitchell gold prospect are abandoned sites in Spotsylvania County. As a result of environmental impacts associated with historic mining, both sites were prioritized for reclamation under the Virginia Orphaned Land Program administered by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy (VDMME). This report summarizes geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch. These data provide a framework for evaluating water-rock interactionsand geoenvironmental signatures of long-abandoned mines developed in massive sulfide deposits and low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in the humid temperate ecosystem domain in the eastern United States.

  6. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.; Kingsbury, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.

  7. The Abandoned E-Waste Recycling Site Continued to Act As a Significant Source of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: An in Situ Assessment Using Fugacity Samplers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Shaorui; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-08-16

    The recycling of e-waste has attracted significant attention due to emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants into the environment. We measured PCB concentrations in surface soils, air equilibrated with the soil, and air at 1.5-m height using a fugacity sampler in an abandoned electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. The total concentrations of PCBs in the soils were 39.8-940 ng/g, whereas the concentrations in air equilibrated with the soil and air at 1.5 m height were 487-8280 pg/m(3) and 287-7380 pg/m(3), respectively. The PCB concentrations displayed seasonal variation; they were higher in winter in the soils and higher in summer in the air, indicating that the emission of PCBs from the soil was enhanced during hot seasons for the relatively high temperature or additional sources, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. We compared two methods (traditional fugacity model and fugacity sampler) for assessing the soil-air partition coefficients (Ksa) and the fugacity fractions of PCBs. The results suggested that the fugacity sampler provided more instructive and practical estimation on Ksa values and trends in air-soil exchange, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. The abandoned e-waste burning site still acted as a significant source of PCBs many years after the prohibition on open burning.

  8. A spider population in flux: selection and abandonment of artificial web-sites and the importance of intraspecific interactions in Lephthyphantes tenuis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in wheat.

    PubMed

    Samu, Ferenc; Sunderland, Keith D; Topping, Chris J; Fenlon, John S

    1996-04-01

    Lepthyphantes tenuis, a small sheet-webbuilding linyphiid spider is one of the most abundant spider species of cereal fields in Europe. In the present study we examined the process of web-site selection and web-site tenacity by adult females of this species in a winter wheat field. Spiders were selective in their choice of web-site. Different immigration rates into various manipulated web-sites, in field and laboratory, suggested that structural support and suitable micro-climate (high humidity) are the most important factors in the selection. Small holes dug in the ground were the most favoured web-sites. Web-site occupation was influenced by the presence of other conspecific spiders. Territorial contests occurred between spiders attempting to occupy the same web, these almost invariably led to the take-over of the web when the intruder was heavier. Interference, but also a certain level of tolerance, between spiders within the same web-site but in different webs was suggested by direct and indirect evidence. Many holes supported two or even three spiders in vertically stratified webs. Leaving probability of marked spiders was significantly higher in multiply occupied holes than in holes with a single web. Comparison with the results of a no-interference stochastic model showed that multiple occupancy in nature is less frequent than predicted by the model. There was further evidence for weak extra-web-interference between spiders in that multiple occupancy was even less frequent and overall occupancy was lower in web-sites which were packed close to each other. However, a level of tolerance for crowding is shown by the fact that closely packed hole colonies supported a spider density 13 times higher than in natural web-sites in the field. A marking experiment was carried out to gain information on web-site tenacity (i.e. the length of time a spider spends in a web-site) and abandonment. The average duration of tenacity was less than 2 days. A random loss function

  9. Evaluation of the environmental contamination at an abandoned mining site using multivariate statistical techniques--the Rodalquilar (Southern Spain) mining district.

    PubMed

    Bagur, M G; Morales, S; López-Chicano, M

    2009-11-15

    Unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis have been applied to water samples recollected in Rodalquilar mining district (Southern Spain) in order to identify different sources of environmental pollution caused by the abandoned mining industry. The effect of the mining activity on waters was monitored determining the concentration of eleven elements (Mn, Ba, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Au and Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Box-Cox transformation has been used to transform the data set in normal form in order to minimize the non-normal distribution of the geochemical data. The environmental impact is affected mainly by the mining activity developed in the zone, the acid drainage and finally by the chemical treatment used for the benefit of gold.

  10. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the potential for using "Limbo Lands" as sites for renewable energy generating stations. Limbo Lands are considered as underused, formerly contaminated sites, and include former Superfund sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, former industrial...

  11. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site.

  12. 75 FR 28297 - Rexnord Industries, LLC Industrial Chain and Conveyor Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Rexnord Industries, LLC Industrial Chain and Conveyor Division... Industries, LLC, Industrial Chain and Conveyor Division, including on-site leased workers from Stivers, West... adjustment assistance was issued for all workers of Rexnord Industries, LLC, Industrial Chain and...

  13. A field study on phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus in an abandoned mine site - Alagoa, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo, R.; Kikuchi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Current engineering-based technologies used to clean up soils are very costly and need lots of work. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove pollutants (i.e. heavy metals) from the environment or render them harmless. In the phytoremediation process several plant species can be used to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in contaminated soils to environmentally acceptable levels. The idea of using rare plants which hyperaccumulate metals to selectively remove and recycle excessive soil metals has increasingly been examined as a potential practical and more cost effective technology than soil replacement, solidification, or washing strategies presently used. However, most hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for phytoremediation application in the field due to their small biomass and slow growth. Cultivation of woody plants in contaminated soils has showed potential for use in phytoremediation but also it provides aesthetic improvement in the field. In this study we studied the possibility of using the approach of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus in a lead-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine. Although Eucalytpus globulus prefer good ecological conditions in humid temperate climates, there are few studies that have showed their great potential in contaminated areas and important biomonitors of environmental quality. A test field was set up in an abandoned mine site (Alagoa, Portugal) in order to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus. The field soil was characterized as follows: humus - 2.56-7.08%, pH in the soil water - 4.50-5.10, silte - 18-15% and total Pb - 67-239 mg/kg. The soils in some areas exceed the critical value (150 mg/kg) according with Portuguese law. Eucalytus globulus growing on the abandoned mine, contaminated with lead was studied. The results of shoots sample analysis (n = 15) show the total Pb levels of 0.170-0.093 mg/kg in the stem and 2.94-5.14 mg/kg in the leaves

  14. Site-specific solar resource measurements for industrial solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W

    1994-06-01

    The solar industry can borrow solar radiation measuring equipment from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as part of NREL`s Solar Industrial Program. This program provides assistance to qualified parties in quantifying the solar radiation resource at prospective sites to reduce the risks of deploying industrial solar energy systems. Up-to-date solar radiation measurements permit comparisons of fresh data with existing data to verify established data bases and also provide data based on actual measurements instead of on less accurate models. This report outlines the responsibilities and obligations of NREL and the solar industry participant. It also describes the equipment for measuring solar radiation, the data quality assessment procedures, and the format of the data provided.

  15. Effect of Biogeochemical Redox Processes on the Fate and Transport of As and U at an Abandoned Uranium Mine Site: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Stone, James J.; Borch, Thomas

    2014-01-28

    Although As can occur in U ore at concentrations up to 10 wt-%, the fate and transport of both U and As at U mine tailings have not been previously investigated at a watershed scale. The major objective of this study was to determine primary chemical and physical processes contributing to transport of both U and As to a down gradient watershed at an abandoned U mine site in South Dakota. Uranium is primarily transported by erosion at the site, based on decreasing concentrations in sediment with distance from the tailings. equential extractions and U X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) fitting indicate that U is immobilised in a near-source sedimentation pond both by prevention of sediment transport and by reduction of UVI to UIV. In contrast to U, subsequent release of As to the watershed takes place from the pond partially due to reductive dissolution of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides. However, As is immobilised by adsorption to clays and Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in oxic zones and by formation of As–sulfide mineral phases in anoxic zones down gradient, indicated by sequential extractions and As XANES fitting. This study indicates that As should be considered during restoration of uranium mine sites in order to prevent transport.

  16. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal.

  17. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  19. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites, BLM lands, upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the Upper Animas River watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and metal concentrations below mines or dumps. Information on sites previously identified as needing reclamation is reviewed and available geochemical information is used to rank 26 sites into four classes of priority for reclamation. Although there are more than a thousand mining sites (productive mines and prospects) on BLM lands in the Upper Animas River watershed study area, the majority are very small (less than about 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. In the summers of 1997 and 1998 approximately 200 sites were observed and more than 100 of these that appeared to have the potential to geochemically impact the watershed were examined more carefully and sampled. Building upon the prior work of the BLM and associated agencies, this work attempted to identify the most significant sources of mine-related contamination and to rank those sites as to priority for reclamation. These most significant mining areas have been examined within a geologic framework and were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid and release toxic metals, observed damage to vegetation, potential to release metals based on leach tests, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. No single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, can be used to rank the sites. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations or interactions among several parameters. The most subjective estimate, while ranking

  20. Calcium-lead interactions in earthworms: observations on Lumbricus terrestris L. sampled from a calcareous abandoned lead mine site

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, B.; Morgan, A.J.

    1986-08-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to determine whether a positive Ca-Pb relationship exists in the tissues of L. terrestris. This species possesses well-developed Ca secretory/excretory glands and may thus be able to homeostatically regulate tissue (Ca). The worms were samples from six different stations across a heavily polluted disused Pb/Zn mine site, where the interstation (Ca) varied by as much as a factor of x 10. This heterogeneous site, therefore, offered a good opportunity to study additional aspects of Ca-Pb interactions in an earthworm population under field conditions.

  1. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    SciTech Connect

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Morales-Piga, Antonio; Pardo Romaguera, Elena; Tamayo, Ibon; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  2. Potential industrial sites in the Lynn Canal area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Arthur; Twenhofel, William Stephens

    1953-01-01

    Full development of a proposal to divert the headwaters of the Yukon River drainage from Canada into the Taiya River valley of Alaska would make available more than a half million kilowatts of electrical energy. Utilization of this block of power, for which there is at present no local market, will require an industrial and community development of appreciable magnitude. Suitable sites for industrial and community development near the proposed power source are limited because of the extremely rugged and mountainous terrain of the Lynn Canal area. This report considers potential industrial areas at Skagway, Taiya River, Ferebee River, Lutak Inlet, Haines and vicinity, Klukwan and vicinity, Haines to Klukwan along the Haines cutoff, Berners Bay, and Juneau and vicinity. The factors considered in their evaluation are topography, geology, climate, water supply, transportation facilities, and transmission-line routes from the source of power.

  3. Re-writing the historical perceptions of semi-arid agriculture at the abandoned site of Engaruka, NE Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Carol; Stump, Daryl

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations and surveys recognised as early as the 1960s that the extensive area of archaeological remains at Engaruka in northeast Tanzania were the remnants of former settlements overlooking c. 2000ha of agricultural fields and terraces served by a complex network of irrigation canals. Given that the area is now semi-arid and receives c. 400mm of rain per year, it was naturally assumed that this irrigation was necessary in order to undertake arable cultivation. However, recent and ongoing geoarchaeological research - including stratigraphy, micromorphology and geochemistry, complemented by archaeobotany and modelling of hydrology and sediment transport - demonstrates that the site was formerly much wetter. So much wetter, in fact, that farmers built fields containing soils with paddy-like characteristics, and constructed sediment traps that accumulated vast quantities of alluvium entrained within watercourses, resulting in deposits up to 60cm deep over an area of c. 900ha, and up to 2m deep (totally some 16,000 m3) within just one large terrace covering c. 0.6ha. This paper presents the stratigraphy, micromorphology and geochemistry of the site, discusses the importance of relating this wet phase (or phases) to broader palaeoclimatic signatures covering the period of the site's occupation between the 14th and mid- to late 18th century AD, and questions if and how data of this sort can inform assessments of systemic sustainability or resilience. Acknowledgements: European Research Council Starter Grand Scheme (FP/200702013/) ERC Grant Agreement No. ERC-StG-2012-337128-AAREA

  4. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  5. Do heavy metals existing in abandoned mining sites represent a real health risk? A study case in the SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Martínez-López, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Hernández-Cordoba, Manuel; Bech, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    Mining activities have been carried out for centuries in Sierra Minera (SE Spain) giving rise to a large number of sites distributed throughout the zone in which residues are accumulated. This communication reports studies as regards metal mobilization and analysis of the health risk that could be posed by inhalation, dermic contact or occasional ingestion of this type of sediments. Lead was used as the metal for the studies due to its particular abundance in the zone. A large number of samples were taken and general analytical determinations (pH, particle size, organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate content and mineralogical composition) were carried out in order its characterization. An in vitro method for obtaining formation on Pb bioaccessibility in these mine waste materials was also carried out. Our results prove that mineral associations, different alteration states and sorption/desorption processes play an important role in the bioavailability of lead. In addition, it is noteworthy that the metal fraction dissolved by the proposed in vitro methodology is lower than 100%, both in the stomach and intestinal phases. Finally an assessment of the risk posed by lead is achieved. To this respect it should be noted that the IRIS database provide cancer slope factor and reference dose, as a way to assess the risk caused by arsenic, cadmium and copper but no for lead, probably due to the wide variety of real situations, and the discrepancy of the sources. The way here suggested is a novelty in this sense, and the results could be extrapolated to other similar zones and be incorporated to the general protocol of risk assessment applied to contaminated sites.

  6. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2016-12-01

    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  7. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2016-01-01

    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. PMID:27916970

  8. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

  9. Inactive and abandoned noncoal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Volume 1 outlines the environmental, health and safety problems at IAMS (Inactive, Abandoned Mine Sites), remediation technologies, remediation costs, the methodology states used in preparing state reports, and state summary tables. It also describes the broad range of policy options for remediation of problems associated with IAMS. Volume 2 gives state reports for inactive and abandoned noncoal mines for the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming. Volume 3 lists the State reports for the inactive and abandoned noncoal mines for the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia. A separate abstract is included for each of the 3 volumes of this set.

  10. The Sedimentary Record of an Intraoceanic Magmatic Arc, from Inception through Maturation to Abandonment: IODP Expedition 351, Site U1438

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Li, H.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Tepley, F. J., III; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 351 recovered an unprecedented ~1.4-km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary record documenting the initiation and subsequent evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) intra-oceanic arc-basin system. The oldest sedimentary rocks in the 50 m above igneous basement may correspond to the time of subduction initiation to the east. They are lithologically complex, consisting of a mix of variably tuffaceous mudstone, sandstone and breccia-conglomerate with some basaltic andesite passing upsection into 50 m of reddish-brown, radiolarian-bearing hemipelagic mudstone with thin volcaniclastic siltstone to sandstone beds. Coarser volcaniclastic rocks (andesitic average whole rock composition) then dominate the overlying section from 1360 to 160 mbsf. Variably graded tuffaceous sandstone to conglomerate and breccia beds range from a few cm to 9 m in thickness and exhibit a wide range of bedding contact relationships and sedimentary structures, including partial to complete Bouma sequences. Gravel to silt-sized volcaniclastic sediment was likely delivered to the site by gravity flows ranging from low- to high-concentration turbidity currents to debris flows. The depositional setting was ~ 50 km from the main arc front (Palau-Kyushu Ridge, PKR), so these may represent very distal apron to fan deposits. The sharp decline in coarse volcanic sediment supply and switch to hemipelagic mud accumulation at ~160mbsf is coincident with the C. 25 Ma transformation of the KPR to a remnant arc by backarc spreading in the adjacent Shikoku Basin and the eastward migration of magmatic arc activity to the IBM.

  11. Industrial site particulate pollution monitoring with an eye-safe and scanning industrial fiber lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Brigitte; Fougeres, Andre; Talbot, Mario

    2001-02-01

    12 Over the past few years, INO has developed an Industrial Fiber Lidar (IFL). It enables the particulate pollution monitoring on industrial sites. More particularly, it has been used to take measurements of particulate concentration at Port Facilities of an aluminum plant during boat unloading. It is an eye-safe and portable lidar. It uses a fiber laser also developed at INO emitting 1.7 microJoules at 1534 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 5 kHz. Given the harsh environment of an industrial site, all the sensitive equipment like the laser source, detector, computer and acquisition electronics are located in a building and connected to the optical module, placed outside, via optical fibers up to 500 m long. The fiber link also offers all the flexibility for placing the optical module at a proper location. The optical module is mounted on a two axis scanning platform, able to perform an azimuth scan of 0 to 355 deg and an elevation scan of +/- 90 deg, which enables the scanning of zones defined by the user. On this industrial site, materials like bauxite, alumina, spathfluor and calcined coke having mass extinction coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 2.7 m2/g can be detected. Data for different measurement configurations have been obtained. Concentration values have been calculated for measurements in a hopper, along a wharf and over the urban area close to the port facilities. The lidar measurements have been compared to high volume samplers. Based on these comparisons, it has been established that the IFL is able to monitor the relative fluctuations of dust concentrations. It can be integrated to the process control of the industrial site for alarm generation when concentrations are above threshold.

  12. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites on U.S.D.A. Forest Service lands, Mineral Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    estimate in ranking feasibility of reclamation is the amount of natural and mine-related contamination at each mining area. Mitigation of natural contributions at mines or unmined areas is beyond the scope of these Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) investigations, but must be considered when planning reclamation. Available information for the 25 problem sites is adequate for ranking, but at some sites additional information on groundwater conditions is needed for a more reliable ranking and evaluation of reclamation methods.

  13. Speciation of mercury in mine waste: case study of abandoned and active gold mine sites at the Bibiani-Anwiaso-Bekwai area of South Western Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nartey, V K; Klake, R K; Doamekpor, L K; Sarpong-Kumankomah, S

    2012-12-01

    Speciation determines toxicity, transport pathways and residence time of a metal in different compartments of the environment. This study investigated the speciation of mercury in soils, derived from sites known for dumping of mine wastes in the Bibiani-Anwiaso-Bekwai district, a gold mining community of the Western Region of Ghana. Soil samples were taken from the surface; depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm from mine waste at both abandoned and active mine sites. Each sample was analysed for total mercury, organic mercury and elemental mercury. After sample treatment, digestion and reduction with stannous chloride (SnCl(2)), total mercury content was determined using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emissions Spectrometer (ICP-OES). Organic mercury content was determined employing a differential technique after disposing of elemental mercury by heating. Total mercury content in samples ranged from 0.067 to 0.876 mg/kg for surface soils. The same soil of depths 20, 40 and 60 cm had total mercury from 0.102 to 1.066, 0.037 to 4.037 and 0.191 to 4.998 mg/kg, respectively. For organic mercury, concentrations range from 0.012 to 0.260 mg/kg for surface soil. Soil depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm had organic mercury concentrations from 0.016 to 0.653, 0.041 to 1.093 and 0.101 to 2.546 mg/kg respectively. Elemental mercury concentrations in surface soils, soils at depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm ranged from 0.043 to 0.780; 0.017 to 0.749; 0.014 to 2.944 and 0.009 to 2.452 mg/kg respectively. Among the sites studied, only galamsey tailings (GM) showed a trend of increasing total mercury level with increasing depth. For the other sites, trends were not defined. There has been no defined trend for elemental mercury with depth at any of the sampling sites. Just as with total mercury, it was only GM that showed an increasing trend of organic mercury concentration with depth.

  14. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  15. Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the progress of EPA's cleanup of abandoned uranium mines on Navajo and Hopi lands and in other areas of Arizona and New Mexico, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  16. Bench-scale solid phase biotreatment: Benfield Industries Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Marlowe, M.W.; Harper, T.R.; Semenak, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund site located in Hazelwood, North Carolina has been found to have approximately 15,000 cubic yards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Risk based clean up goals were specified at the site for eight target PAH compounds including benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, and pentachlorophenol. Treatability studies were performed to evaluate solid phase bioremediation, which includes ex-situ and in-situ land treatment processes, for treatment of the site soil. All treatments were conducted using only indigenous microorganisms maintained under aerobic conditions. Two soil samples with different levels of PAH contamination were collected from the site for use in the treatability evaluations. The two soil samples were contaminated with total PAHs at concentrations of approximately 30 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 6,000 mg/kg, respectively. Three solid phase bioremediation studies were conducted over a one and one half year period using starting concentrations of total PAHs of approximately 30; 600; and 6,000 mg/kg. The objectives of the studies included determining (1) if clean up goals could be achieved, (2) the approximate biodegradation rate of PAHs in the site soils, and (3) the optimum environmental conditions for biodegradation of the PAHs. Some of the environmental parameters which were varied during the testing included moisture levels, soil conditioners, nutrients and pH. The results of the testing indicated that total and target PAHs can be reduced by up to 90 percent in less than 50 days, depending on environmental conditions maintained in the reactors. Clean up goals for all of the target compounds were achieved at some point during the study.

  17. Reconnaissance of Soil, Ground Water, and Plant Contamination at an Abandoned Oilfield-Service Site near Shawnee, Oklahoma, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, began a reconnaissance study of a site in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, in 2005 by testing soil, shallow ground water, and plant material for the presence of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Chemical analysis of plant material at the site was investigated as a preliminary tool to determine the extent of contamination at the site. Thirty soil samples were collected from 15 soil cores during October 2005 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Five small-diameter, polyvinyl-chloride-cased wells were installed and ground-water samples were collected during December 2005 and May 2006 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Thirty Johnsongrass samples and 16 Coralberry samples were collected during September 2005 and analyzed for 53 constituents, including trace elements. Results of the soil, ground-water, and plant data indicate that the areas of trace element and semivolatile organic compound contamination are located in the shallow (A-horizon) soils near the threading barn. Most of the trace-element concentrations in the soils on the study site were either similar to or less than trace-element concentrations in background soils. Several trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Levels 2007 for Tap Water, Residential Soils, Industrial Indoor Soils, and Industrial Outdoor Soils. There was little or no correlation between the plant and soil sample concentrations and the plant and ground-water concentrations based on the current sample size and study design. The lack of correlation between trace-element concentrations in plants and soils, and plants and ground water indicate that plant sampling was not useful as a preliminary tool to assess contamination at the study site.

  18. Application of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) for heavy metal analysis of soils in crop fields near abandoned mine sites.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min

    2010-06-01

    To get representative soil samples, a sampling method was verified for crop fields in the vicinity of abandoned mine sites. Application of appropriate sampling or analytical methods is very important as it affects the costs, time, and accuracy of the refined investigation of soil contamination. Two-time sampling for each crop field was conducted to verify the reproducibility of a zigzag method for soil sampling. The soil analysis using a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) device was conducted to measure concentrations of metal species in soils, and its results were compared to the extracted concentrations by the Korean Standard Test (KST) for soils. As a result, the determination coefficient (R (2)) of linear regression analysis for data obtained by ex situ precise measurement or in situ field screening using pXRF was closely related with the ratio of the extracted concentration by KST to interference-free detection limits (IFDL) of pXRF (designated as KST/IFDL). As the specific metal species had a higher ratio of KST/IFDL, its R (2) was even higher in the field screening tests. However, the slopes of linear regression analysis for most metal species extracted by aqua-regia were close to 1.0 so that extracted concentrations by aqua-regia were similar to the analytical values obtained by pXRF, whereas extraction using a weak acid (0.1 M HCl) had different slopes for soils contaminated with different ranges of concentrations of metal species. Especially Zn showed not only high ratios of KST/IFDL because of aqua regia extraction, but also high determination coefficients. Because of its simple, rapid, and accurate capacities for metal analysis, the pXRF analysis showed high applicability in ex situ precise measurements or in situ field screening of metal analysis. In terms of applicability for regulation, especially in situ pXRF field screening with the zigzag method could be effectively applied to achieve an economical survey by determining hot spots or non

  19. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical controls on the release of trace elements from slag produced by base- and precious-metal smelting at abandoned mine sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    toxicity guideline. Geochemical modeling of the leachate chemistry suggests that leachates from the Vermont, Tennessee and Clayton slags are saturated with amorphous silica and Al hydroxide. Therefore, the dissolution of silicate and oxide phases, the oxidation of sulfide phases, as well as the precipitation of secondary phases may control the composition of leachate from slags. The presence of secondary minerals on slag deposits in the field is evidence that these materials are reactive. The petrographic data and results of leaching tests from this study indicate slag may be a source of potentially toxic metals at abandoned mine sites.

  1. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  2. THE USE OF SPATIAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL BROWNFIELDS SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or underutilized properties where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. Most Brownfields sites are located in urban, commercial, and industrial areas. Under the Brownfields Program, the United...

  3. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  4. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  5. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  6. U.S. DOE Geopressured/Geothermal Program: Final report on well plug and abandonment operations and well site restoration, Louisiana and Texas wells

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-30

    Some of the critical operations conducted during the plugging and abandonment of the three producing wells of the U.S. DOE GEOPRESSURED/GEOTHERL PROGRAM were witnessed by D-O-R Engineering personnel. All operations witnessed by D-O-R personnel were in compliance with the respective state regulations and were conducted as per D-O-R's recommendations to the Department of Energy and their prime contractor, EG&G Idaho. It is our belief that competent cement plugs were left in all three wells. The following describes the work actually witnessed by D-O-R personnel.

  7. Characterization of colloidal arsenic at two abandoned gold mine sites in Nova Scotia, Canada, using asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tindale, Kathryn J; Patel, Pritesh J; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-11-01

    Asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to determine whether colloidal arsenic (As) exists in soil pore water and soil extract samples at two arsenic-contaminated abandoned gold mines (Montague and Goldenville, Nova Scotia). Colloidal arsenic was found in 12 out of the 80 collected samples (=15%), and was primarily associated with iron (Fe) in the encountered colloids. The molar Fe/As ratios indicate that the colloids in some samples appeared to be discrete iron-arsenic minerals, whereas in other samples, they were more consistent with As-rich iron (oxy)hydroxides. Up to three discrete size fractions of colloidal As were encountered in the samples, with mean colloid diameters between 6 and 14nm. The pore water samples only contained one size fraction of As-bearing colloids (around 6nm diameter), while larger As-bearing colloids were only encountered in soil extracts.

  8. Abandoning the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Barton, R

    1975-12-01

    Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.

  9. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, T.

    2001-10-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of $27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33): Steel, Aluminum, and Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation.

  10. Modeling injury rates as a function of industrialized versus on-site construction techniques.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Romero, J C; Suárez-Cebador, M; Abad, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    It is often predicted that the industrialization of building activities will lead to a reduction of accident rates in the construction sector, particularly as a result of switching activities from building sites to factories. However, to date no scientific research has provided objective quantitative results to back up this claim. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how industrialization affects the accident rate in different industrialized building systems in Spain. Our results revealed that the industrialized steel modular system presents the lowest accident rate, while the highest accident rate was recorded in the construction method with cast-in-place concrete. The lightweight construction system also presents a high accident rate. Accordingly, industrialized building systems cannot claim to be safer than traditional ones. The different types of "on-site work" seem to be the main variable which would explain the accident rates recorded in industrialized construction systems.

  11. Synergistic application of four remedial techniques at an industrial site

    SciTech Connect

    Dasch, J.M.; Abdul, A.S.; Rai, D.N.; Gibson, T.L.; Grosvenor, N.

    1997-12-01

    The soil and ground water at a General Motors plant site were contaminated with petroleum products from leaking underground storage tanks. Based on the initial assessment, the site was complex from the standpoint of geology, hydrology, and contaminant. After a thorough study of remedial alternatives, a synergistic remedial approach was adopted including pump and treat, product removal, vapor extraction, and bioventing. The system was designed and implemented at the site through 22 dual-extraction wells. Over a 21-month period, 4400 gallons of gasoline and oil were removed from the system, including 59% by vapor extraction, 28% by bioventing, and 13% by pump and treat. Synergism between the various remedial methods was demonstrated clearly. Ground water pump and treat lowered the water table, allowing air to flow for vapor extraction. The vacuum applied for vapor extraction increased the ground water removal rate and the efficiency of pump and treat. The vapor extraction system also added oxygen to the soil to stimulate aerobic biodegradation.

  12. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  13. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... 1992: This bill revised the AML program in areas of coal remining, and abandoned coal refuse sites, as... Disposal; Reclamation on Private Land; Rights of Entry; Public Participation Policies; Organization... include landslide hazards, highwalls, flooding, erosion, sedimentation, acid drainage, coal...

  14. Working with Communities on Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the EPA's work to inform and include communities in the cleanup of abandoned mines, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  15. Indoor source apportionment in urban communities near industrial sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunno, Brett J.; Dalton, Rebecca; Cambal, Leah; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E.

    2016-08-01

    Because fine particulate matter (PM2.5) differs in chemical composition, source apportionment is frequently used for identification of relative contributions of multiple sources to outdoor concentrations. Indoor air pollution and source apportionment is often overlooked, though people in northern climates may spend up to 90% of their time inside. We selected 21 homes for a 1-week indoor sampling session during summer (July to September 2011), repeated in winter (January to March 2012). Elemental analysis was performed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and factor analysis was used to determine constituent grouping. Multivariate modeling was run on factor scores to corroborate interpretations of source factors based on a literature review. For each season, a 5-factor solution explained 86-88% of variability in constituent concentrations. Indoor sources (i.e. cooking, smoking) explained greater variability than did outdoor sources in these industrial communities. A smoking factor was identified in each season, predicted by number of cigarettes smoked. Cooking factors were also identified in each season, explained by frequency of stove cooking and stovetop frying. Significant contributions from outdoor sources including coal and motor vehicles were also identified. Higher coal and secondary-related elemental concentrations were detected during summer than winter. Our findings suggest that source contributions to indoor concentrations can be identified and should be examined in relation to health effects.

  16. Geothermal-energy files in computer storage: sites, cities, and industries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    The site, city, and industrial files are described. The data presented are from the hydrothermal site file containing about three thousand records which describe some of the principal physical features of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Data elements include: latitude, longitude, township, range, section, surface temperature, subsurface temperature, the field potential, and well depth for commercialization. (MHR)

  17. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  18. Industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.F.

    1992-07-23

    The Industrial Hygiene Section of the Health Protection Department provides industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. This report describes support operations and summarizes the industrial hygiene data collected from July 31, 1989 through June 30, 1991. Air quality data were collected by means of personnel sampling by active and passive techniques using various kinds of industrial hygiene instrumentation and through localized and general area monitoring. The data collected were used to evaluate underground air quality and quantity requirements; evaluate worker exposures to a variety of air contaminants; determine the applicability and effectiveness of personal protective equipment.

  19. Site comparison of selected aerosol samplers in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Kauffer, Edmond; Wrobel, Richard; Görner, Peter; Rott, Christelle; Grzebyk, Michel; Simon, Xavier; Witschger, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Several samplers (IOM, CIP 10-I v1, ACCU-CAP, and Button) were evaluated at various wood industry companies using the CALTOOL system. The results obtained show that compared to the CALTOOL mouth, which can be considered to be representative of the exposure of a person placed at the same location under the same experimental conditions, the concentrations measured by the IOM, CIP 10-I v1, and ACCU-CAP samplers are not significantly different (respectively, 1.12, 0.94, and 0.80 compared to 1.00), the Button sampler (0.86) being close to the ACCU-CAP sampler. Comparisons of dust concentrations measured using both a closed-face cassette (CFC) and one of the above samplers were also made. In all, 235 sampling pairs (sampler + CFC) taken at six companies provided us with a comparison of concentrations measured using IOM, CIP 10-I v1, ACCU-CAP, and Button samplers with concentrations measured using a CFC. All the studied samplers collected systematically more dust than the CFC (2.0 times more for the IOM sampler, 1.84 times more for the CIP 10-I v1 sampler, 1.68 times more for the ACCU-CAP sampler, and 1.46 times more for the Button sampler). The literature most frequently compares the IOM sampler with the CFC: published results generally show larger differences compared with the CFC than those found during our research. There are several explanations for this difference, one of which involves CFC orientation during sampling. It has been shown that concentrations measured using a CFC are dependent on its orientation. Different CFC positions from one sampling session to another are therefore likely to cause differences during CFC-IOM sampler comparisons.

  20. Industrial heritage sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula: Sources of historical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacquebord, Louwrens; Avango, Dag

    2016-09-01

    Industrial heritage sites in Polar Regions are very important as sources of historical information. Together with archival documents this information gives us the possibility to complete the picture of the exploitation of natural resources in those regions. Thirty years of historical-archaeological field research at whaling and mining sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula has shown that these sites can provide unique evidence about the driving forces behind industrial development, the design of industrial technology, the structure of the settlements, strategies to control natural resources and achieve political influence, and the impact of resource extraction on the local environment. In this article we will give examples of the results of our research at these sites.

  1. Coastal flooding as a parameter in multi-criteria analysis for industrial site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christina, C.; Memos, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards can trigger major industrial accidents, which apart from affecting industrial installations may cause a series of accidents with serious impacts on human health and the environment far beyond the site boundary. Such accidents, also called Na-Tech (natural - technical) accidents, deserve particular attention since they can cause release of hazardous substances possibly resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions and/or fires. There are different kinds of natural events or, in general terms, of natural causes of industrial accidents, such as landslides, hurricanes, high winds, tsunamis, lightning, cold/hot temperature, floods, heavy rains etc that have caused accidents. The scope of this paper is to examine the coastal flooding as a parameter in causing an industrial accident, such as the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, and the critical role of this parameter in industrial site selection. Land use planning is a complex procedure that requires multi-criteria decision analysis involving economic, environmental and social parameters. In this context the parameter of a natural hazard occurrence, such as coastal flooding, for industrial site selection should be set by the decision makers. In this paper it is evaluated the influence that has in the outcome of a multi-criteria decision analysis for industrial spatial planning the parameter of an accident risk triggered by coastal flooding. The latter is analyzed in the context of both sea-and-inland induced flooding.

  2. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1996-06-03

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history.

  3. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  4. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from QPS Employment Group and Spherion... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  5. Industrial bottoming-cycle targeting of opportunities at the plant site. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, N.L.; Brown, H.L.; Hamel, B.B.; Toy, M.P.; Hedman, B.A.

    1982-09-01

    Bottoming cycle potential in the US industrial marketplace is identified using the General Energy Associates Industrial Plant Energy Profile Data Base. From the data base technology evaluations and economic estimates can be made directly at the plant site level. The top 10,000 plants in the country were individually analyzed for these bottoming cycle applications. Results are summarized as follows: potential number of plant sites and megawatts, potential energy savings, electric production, regional and state profiles, bottoming cycle/working fluid systems, and projection of future bottoming cycle applications.

  6. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Subsurface sampling using both Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger drilling method were evaluated in 1991 by the E.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the American Creosote Works, Inc. (ACW) abondoned plant site in Jackson, Tennessee. These methods were used to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by subsurface creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination. The ground-water samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GC/PID), (2) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) CHEMetrics colorimetric phenol analysis, and (4) Microtox toxicity bioassay.

  7. Assessment of Characteristics and Remedial Alternatives for Abandoned Mine Drainage: Case Study at Staple Bend Tunnel Unit of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Al2O3 + SiO2). The white surface coating on the slag samples consisted of ettringite, gypsum, and calcite, which are common minerals in portland cement...substantial silicon (SiO2 = 32.79 wt%), aluminum ( Al2O3 = 13.12 wt%), manganese (MnO = 0.68 wt%), and titanium ( TiO2 = 0.44 wt%) (table 4). Minor elements...demonstrated with cubitainer tests, an anoxic limestone drain ( ALD ) was indicated as inappropriate for any AMD source at the test site because all had

  8. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  9. 77 FR 13351 - Polaris Industries, Including On-site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ..., Supply Technologies, Aerotek Securitas Security Services, Volt Workforce Solutions and Select Staffing... of components for recreational vehicles. The company reports that workers leased from Select Staffing... leased from Select Staffing working on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin location of Polaris Industries....

  10. Chemical composition, mass closure and sources of atmospheric PM10 from industrial sites in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Du, Xin; Wu, Xuefang; Fu, Xiao; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Zongshuang; Bai, Zhipeng

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric PM10 and chemical components (including twenty-one elements, nine ions, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) were measured at five sites in a heavily industrial region of Shenzhen, China in 2005. Results showed that PM10 concentrations exhibited the highest values at 264 microg/m3 at the site near a harbor with the influence of harbor activities. Sulfur exhibited the highest concentrations (from 2419 to 3995 ng/m3) of all the studied elements, which may be related to the influence of coal used as fuel in this area for industrial plants. This was verified by the high mass percentages of SO4(2-), which accounted for 34.3%-39.7% of the total ions. NO3-/SO4(2-) ratios varied from 0.64-0.71, which implies coal combustion was predominant compared with vehicle emission. The anion/cation ratios range was close to 0.95, indicating anion deficiency in this region. The harbor site showed the highest OC and EC concentrations, with the influence of emission from vessels. Secondary organic carbon accounted for about 22.6%-38.7% of OC, with the highest percentage occurring at the site adjacent to a coal-fired power plant and wood plant. The mass closure model performed well in this heavily industrial region, with significant correlation obtained between chemically determined and gravimetrically measured PM10 mass. The main constituents of PM10 were found to be organic materials (30.9%-69.5%), followed by secondary inorganic aerosol (7.9%-25.0%), crustal materials (6.7%-13.8%), elemental carbon (3.5%-10.8%), sea salt (2.4%-6.2%) and trace elements (2.0%-4.9%) in this heavily industrialized region. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources for particulate matter in this industrial region were crustal materials and coal/wood combustion, oil combustion, secondary aerosols, industrial processes and vehicle emission.

  11. Assessing element distribution and speciation in a stream at abandoned Pb-Zn mining site by combining classical, in-situ DGT and modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Omanović, Dario; Pižeta, Ivanka; Vukosav, Petra; Kovács, Elza; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    The distribution and speciation of elements along a stream subjected to neutralised acid mine drainage (NAMD) effluent waters (Mátra Mountain, Hungary; Toka stream) were studied by a multi-methodological approach: dissolved and particulate fractions of elements were determined by HR-ICPMS, whereas speciation was carried out by DGT, supported by speciation modelling performed by Visual MINTEQ. Before the NAMD discharge, the Toka is considered as a pristine stream, with averages of dissolved concentrations of elements lower than world averages. A considerable increase of element concentrations caused by effluent water inflow is followed by a sharp or gradual concentration decrease. A large difference between total and dissolved concentrations was found for Fe, Al, Pb, Cu, Zn and As in effluent water and at the first downstream site, with high correlation factors between elements in particulate fraction, indicating their common behaviour, governed by the formation of ferri(hydr)oxides (co)precipitates. In-situ speciation by the DGT technique revealed that Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Mn and U were predominantly present as a labile, potentially bioavailable fraction (>90%). The formation of strong complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM) resulted in a relatively low DGT-labile concentration of Cu (42%), while low DGT-labile concentrations of Fe (5%) and Pb (12%) were presumably caused by their existence in colloidal (particulate) fraction which is not accessible to DGT. Except for Fe and Pb, a very good agreement between DGT-labile concentrations and those predicted by the applied speciation model was obtained, with an average correlation factor of 0.96. This study showed that the in-situ DGT technique in combination with model-predicted speciation and classical analysis of samples could provide a reasonable set of data for the assessment of the water quality status (WQS), as well as for the more general study of overall behaviour of the elements in natural waters subjected

  12. Use of biomarkers to show sub-cellular effects in meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living on an abandoned gold mine site.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jared R; Knopper, Loren D; Yagminas, Al; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2009-10-15

    Run-off from mine tailings ponds constitutes the main anthropogenic release of arsenic in Canada. As a potential consequence, wildlife not normally exposed to arsenic under other circumstances may receive toxicologically relevant concentrations of arsenic compounds in their food and water. To test this hypothesis, and to determine if arsenic is being transported through trophic levels, the arsenic concentrations in members of a short food chain (soil-plant-meadow vole) were measured. Arsenic concentrations were higher in exposed organisms compared with those from a reference location. However, elevated concentrations of arsenic do not necessarily indicate impact, and consequently a biomonitoring study was undertaken to determine if there were sub-cellular effects of exposure in meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) as a consequence of arsenic exposure. In this work, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and liver glutathione (GSH) levels were used as biomarkers of exposure and the frequency of red blood cell micronuclei (mono- and polychromatic) was used as a biomarker of effect. ATP results were not conclusive but there was a statistically significant relationship between a reduction of GSH in vole livers and increased liver arsenic concentrations. A statistically significant relationship was also observed between increased micronucleated monochromatic red blood cells in voles from arsenic contaminated sites compared to a background location. The results of the GSH and monochromatic red blood cell investigations suggest that there are possible sub-cellular effects on these voles as a consequence of dietary arsenic exposure. This is the first field study in which such effects have been observed in voles living near mine tailings.

  13. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  14. 76 FR 30393 - Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2011, applicable to workers of Bush Industries, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Express... Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals and Labor Ready, Erie, PA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

  15. In silico analysis of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase active site with toxic industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Nirmal K; Vindal, Vaibhav; Narayana, Siva Lakshmi; Ramakrishna, V; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Srinivas, M

    2012-05-01

    Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in various industrial oxidative processes like production of fine chemicals to bioremediation of contaminated soil and water. In order to understand the mechanisms of substrate binding and interaction between substrates and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase, a homology model was generated. The resulted model was further validated and used for docking studies with toxic industrial dyes- acid blue 74, reactive black 5 and reactive blue 19. Interactions of chemical mediators with the laccase was also examined. The docking analysis showed that the active site always cannot accommodate the dye molecules, due to constricted nature of the active site pocket and steric hindrance of the residues whereas mediators are relatively small and can easily be accommodated into the active site pocket, which, thereafter leads to the productive binding. The binding properties of these compounds along with identification of critical active site residues can be used for further site-directed mutagenesis experiments in order to identify their role in activity and substrate specificity, ultimately leading to improved mutants for degradation of these toxic compounds.

  16. 76 FR 21033 - Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Helpmates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Helpmates, Mattson, and Empire Staffing, Irvine, CA and Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star..., 2011, applicable to workers of Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac, Irvine, California. The notice...

  17. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  18. Case studies utilizing mobile on-site recycling of industrial oils for immediate reapplication{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.; Skidd, C.

    1995-09-01

    Since the early 1970s industrial oil users have sought effective and cost efficient methods of reducing the quantity of used oil entering our nations waste streams. Driven by environmental legislation and the ever growing cost and liability related to the handling and disposal of used oils, waste minimization has become the watchword of our times. Today`s industry is determined to eliminate waste by finding new methods to extend the useful life of their operating oils and fluids. The authors have seen the growth of a new service industry devoted to dealing with the complex problems of oil reclamation. Among these service organizations is a growing number of {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} mobile oil recycling companies. On-site services offer greater flexibility, speed and immediate emergency assistance. Additionally, they provide their clients with a high degree of environmental control. A physical analysis of recycled oil is given, showing the properties of viscosity, water content, and particle cleanliness for recycled oil approaches that of new oil. Outsourcing of fluids recycling via a mobile service provider has proven to be a cost effective and efficient means of extending the useful life of industrial fluids, while eliminating much of the cost and environmental concern related to used oil disposal. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  20. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  1. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  2. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  3. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  4. SMARTe: An Online Resource For Improving Revitalization Decisions For Potentially Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brownfields and Superfund sites contaminated from hazardous waste often occupy prime real estate. EPA estimates that about 450,000 abandoned and polluted waste sites nationwide have been affected by oil or chemicals or impacted by use by various industries. It is important to e...

  5. 77 FR 29456 - Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis-Abandonment Exemption-in Howard County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption-- in Howard... Industrial Lead, between mileposts 55.66 and 58.5 in Howard County, Ind.\\1\\ The line traverses United States...--Abandonment Exemption--in Howard County, Ind., AB 511 (Sub-No. 5X) (STB served July 22, 2010)....

  6. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  7. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  8. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  9. Identification of Anaerobic Aniline-Degrading Bacteria at a Contaminated Industrial Site.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Li, Yun; McGuinness, Lora R; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Weilin; Kerkhof, Lee J; Mack, E Erin; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic aniline biodegradation was investigated under different electron-accepting conditions using contaminated canal and groundwater aquifer sediments from an industrial site. Aniline loss was observed in nitrate- and sulfate-amended microcosms and in microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. Lag times of 37 days (sulfate amended) to more than 100 days (methanogenic) were observed prior to activity. Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify bacteria that incorporated (13)C-labeled aniline in the microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. In microcosms from heavily contaminated aquifer sediments, a phylotype with 92.7% sequence similarity to Ignavibacterium album was identified as a dominant aniline degrader as indicated by incorporation of (13)C-aniline into its DNA. In microcosms from contaminated canal sediments, a bacterial phylotype within the family Anaerolineaceae, but without a match to any known genus, demonstrated the assimilation of (13)C-aniline. Acidovorax spp. were also identified as putative aniline degraders in both of these two treatments, indicating that these species were present and active in both the canal and aquifer sediments. There were multiple bacterial phylotypes associated with anaerobic degradation of aniline at this complex industrial site, which suggests that anaerobic transformation of aniline is an important process at the site. Furthermore, the aniline degrading phylotypes identified in the current study are not related to any known aniline-degrading bacteria. The identification of novel putative aniline degraders expands current knowledge regarding the potential fate of aniline under anaerobic conditions.

  10. Egypt's Red Sea coast: phylogenetic analysis of cultured microbial consortia in industrialized sites

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ghada A.; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Siam, Rania

    2014-01-01

    The Red Sea possesses a unique geography, and its shores are rich in mangrove, macro-algal and coral reef ecosystems. Various sources of pollution affect Red Sea biota, including microbial life. We assessed the effects of industrialization on microbes along the Egyptian Red Sea coast at eight coastal sites and two lakes. The bacterial communities of sediment samples were analyzed using bacterial 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions. The taxonomic assignment of 131,402 significant reads to major bacterial taxa revealed five main bacterial phyla dominating the sampled sites: Proteobacteria (68%), Firmicutes (13%), Fusobacteria (12%), Bacteriodetes (6%), and Spirochetes (0.03%). Further analysis revealed distinct bacterial consortia that primarily included (1) marine Vibrio spp.—suggesting a “marine Vibrio phenomenon”; (2) potential human pathogens; and (3) oil-degrading bacteria. We discuss two divergent microbial consortia that were sampled from Solar Lake West near Taba/Eilat and Saline Lake in Ras Muhammad; these consortia contained the highest abundance of human pathogens and no pathogens, respectively. Our results draw attention to the effects of industrialization on the Red Sea and suggest the need for further analysis to overcome the hazardous effects observed at the impacted sites. PMID:25157243

  11. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  12. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  13. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  14. Combining ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction for industrial site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Saey, Timothy; De Smedt, Philippe; Delefortrie, Samuël; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    Industrial sites pose specific challenges to the conventional way of characterizing soil and groundwater properties through borehole drilling and well monitoring. The subsurface of old industrial sites typically exhibits a large heterogeneity resulting from various anthropogenic interventions, such as the dumping of construction and demolition debris and industrial waste. Also larger buried structures such as foundations, utility infrastructure and underground storage tanks are frequently present. Spills and leaks from industrial activities and leaching of buried waste may have caused additional soil and groundwater contamination. Trying to characterize such a spatially heterogeneous medium with a limited number of localized observations is often problematic. The deployment of mobile proximal soil sensors may be a useful tool to fill up the gaps in between the conventional observations, as these enable measuring soil properties in a non-destructive way. However, because the output of most soil sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the application of only one sensor is generally insufficient to discriminate between all contributing factors. To test a multi-sensor approach, we selected a study area which was part of a former manufactured gas plant site located in one of the seaport areas of Belgium. It has a surface area of 3400 m² and was the location of a phosphate production unit that was demolished at the end of the 1980s. Considering the long and complex history of the site we expected to find a typical "industrial" soil. Furthermore, the studied area was located between buildings of the present industry, entailing additional practical challenges such as the presence of active utilities and aboveground obstacles. The area was surveyed using two proximal soil sensors based on two different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR), to image contrasts in dielectric permittivity, and electromagnetic induction (EMI), to measure the apparent

  15. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later.

  16. A comparative study between the fluxes of trace elements in bulk atmospheric deposition at industrial, urban, traffic, and rural sites.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olmo, I; Puente, M; Irabien, A

    2015-09-01

    The input of trace elements via atmospheric deposition towards industrial, urban, traffic, and rural areas is quite different and depends on the intensity of the anthropogenic activity. A comparative study between the element deposition fluxes in four sampling sites (industrial, urban, traffic, and rural) of the Cantabria region (northern Spain) has been performed. Sampling was carried out monthly using a bulk (funnel bottle) sampler. The trace elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and V, were determined in the water soluble and insoluble fractions of bulk deposition samples. The element deposition fluxes at the rural, urban, and traffic sites followed a similar order (Zn > Mn> > Cu ≈ Ti > Pb > V ≈ Cr > Ni> > As ≈ Mo > Cd). The most enriched elements were Cd, Zn, and Cu, while V, Ni, and Cr were less enriched. An extremely high deposition of Mn was found at the industrial site, leading to high enrichment factor values, resulting from the presence of a ferro-manganese/silico-manganese production plant in the vicinity of the sampling site. Important differences were found in the element solubilities in the studied sites; the element solubilities were higher at the traffic and rural sites, and lower at the urban and industrial sites. For all sites, Zn and Cd were the most soluble elements, whereas Cr and Ti were less soluble. The inter-site correlation coefficients for each element were calculated to assess the differences between the sites. The rural and traffic sites showed some similarities in the sources of trace elements; however, the sources of these elements at the industrial and rural sites were quite different. Additionally, the element fluxes measured in the insoluble fraction of the bulk atmospheric deposition exhibited a good correlation with the daily traffic volume at the traffic site.

  17. 77 FR 53913 - River Bend Industries, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From FirstStaff, Trac Staffing, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... FirstStaff, Trac Staffing, and Worksource, Inc., Fort Smith, Arkansas; Amended Certification Regarding... Industries, LLC including on-site leased workers from FirstStaff, Trac Staffing, Worksource, Inc., Fort Smith... at the Fort Smith, Arkansas location of River Bend Industries, LLC. The Department has...

  18. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... bill revised the AML program in areas of coal re-mining, abandoned coal refuse sites, as well as... Selection; Coordination with Other Programs; Land Acquisition, Management and Disposal; Reclamation on... of OSM, Tennessee revised its proposed amendment to read, ``Land Acquisition, Management and...

  19. Eastern Agency Navajo Abandoned Uranium Mine Open House

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Contaminated Structures Program in the greater Eastern Agency with representatives from EPA, DOE, and Navajo Abandoned Mine Lands Program with updates on activities at NE Church Rock, Kerr-McGee/Quivira, and United Nuclear Co. Mill site.

  20. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  1. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  2. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  3. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  4. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  5. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.496 Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor...

  6. Industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. Progress report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.F.

    1992-07-23

    The Industrial Hygiene Section of the Health Protection Department provides industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. This report describes support operations and summarizes the industrial hygiene data collected from July 31, 1989 through June 30, 1991. Air quality data were collected by means of personnel sampling by active and passive techniques using various kinds of industrial hygiene instrumentation and through localized and general area monitoring. The data collected were used to evaluate underground air quality and quantity requirements; evaluate worker exposures to a variety of air contaminants; determine the applicability and effectiveness of personal protective equipment.

  7. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values <1 per mil. At the remaining two sites (Letnany and Velesin), the Cr isotope signature of the source of contamination was not known. At all four sites, most del53/52Cr values were positive, with means higer than 1 per mil: At Zlate Hory, del53/52Cr ranged between -2.2 and +3.0 per mil (mean of +1.5 per mil); at Loucna, del53/52Cr ranged between 0 and +4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of

  8. Microalgal diversity in relation to the physicochemical parameters of some Industrial sites in Mangalore, South India.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jyothi; Krishnakumar, G

    2015-11-01

    This study is undertaken to understand the microalgal species composition, diversity, abundance and their association with the polluted sites of an industrial area. The microalgae and the wastewater samples collected from these sites were preserved and analysed using standard methods. One hundred and eight species of the microalgae, belonging to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceace and Desmidaceae, were identified. Of these, the members of Cyanophyceae formed the dominant flora. It was observed that the family Oscillatoriaceae was the most diverse family. In this family, the most diverse genus was found to be the Oscillatoria, with 13 species. Further, the abundance of Oscillatoria princeps indicated that these species are tolerant to the pollution and therefore considered as the 'marker species' of the habitat. The abundance of the Cyanophyceae in these sites was found to be due to the favourable contents of the oxidizable organic matter and the presence of the nutrients, such as the nitrates and the phosphates, in abundance, with less dissolved oxygen. The lesser percentage of the Bacillariophyceae (14%), and the negligible number of the euglenoids (2%) indicated that the sites were rich in the inorganic pollutants and poor in the organic pollutants. The range of Shannon diversity indices was found between 2.10 and 3.50, while the dominance index was found between 0.03 and 0.14, the species evenness between 0.73 and 0.93 and the Margalef index between 1.8 and 6.3. The diversity indices indicated that there is light to moderate level of pollution in the studied sites, with moderate diversity level. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical parameters identified the four possible groups, which were responsible for the data structure, explaining the 74% of the total variance of the data set. In the PCA performed using all the variables, the first principal component showed the positive correlation with the total

  9. Pentachlorophenol remediation by Enterobacter sp. SG1 isolated from industrial dump site.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Geetanjali

    2014-02-01

    Chlorophenols contamination is serious concern to the environment due toxicity to all forms of life. Among all the chlorophenols, pentachlorophenol (PCP) is more detrimental to the environment. Pentachlorophenol used as pesticide, herbicide, antifungal agent and wood preservative which causes environmental pollution. In the present research a PCP degrading bacterium was isolated and characterized from industrial dump site. This isolate used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride, ring cleavage activity and biomass formation. Based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis this strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. SG1. Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis revealed that this strain was able to degrade PCP up to a concentration of 2 mM. This study showed that the removal efficiency of PCP by SG1 was found to be very effective and can be used in degradation of PCP contaminated site or waste in the environment.

  10. Decomposition of birch leaves in heavily polluted industrial barrens: relative importance of leaf quality and site of exposure.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-07-01

    The decrease in litter decomposition rate in polluted habitats is well documented, but the factors that explain the observed variation in the magnitude of this pollution effect on litter decomposition remain poorly understood. We explored effects of environmental conditions and leaf quality on decomposition rate of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) leaves in a heavily polluted industrial barren near the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk. Litter bags filled with leaves collected from two heavily polluted barren sites and from two control forest sites were buried at 2.5-cm depth and exposed for 2 and 4 years at each of these four sites. The relative mass loss of native leaves in the industrial barren during 2 years of exposure was reduced to 49% of the loss observed in the unpolluted forest. We found a similar reduction in mass loss when leaves from control sites were exposed to polluted sites and when leaves from polluted sites were exposed to control sites. We conclude that the reduction in leaf litter decomposition in an industrial barren is caused by pollution-induced changes in both environmental conditions and leaf quality. This reduction is much smaller than expected, given the four-fold decrease in soil microbial activity and nearly complete extinction of saprophagous invertebrates in the polluted soil. We suggest that a longer snowless period and higher spring and summer temperatures at the barren sites have partially counterbalanced the adverse effects caused by the toxicity of metal pollutants.

  11. Influence of Hydraulic Fracturing on Overlying Aquifers in the Presence of Leaky Abandoned Wells.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Joshua W; James, Scott C; Yelderman, Joe C

    2016-11-01

    The association between hydrocarbon-rich reservoirs and organic-rich source rocks means unconventional oil and gas plays usually occur in mature sedimentary basins-where large-scale conventional development has already taken place. Abandoned wells in proximity to hydraulic fracturing could be affected by increased fluid pressures and corresponding newly generated fractures that directly connect (frac hit) to an abandoned well or to existing fractures intersecting an abandoned well. If contaminants migrate to a pathway hydraulically connected to an abandoned well, upward leakage may occur. Potential effects of hydraulic fracturing on upward flow through a particular type of leaky abandoned well-abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells were investigated using numerical modeling. Several factors that affect flow to leaky wells were considered including proximity of a leaky well to hydraulic fracturing, flowback, production, and leaky well abandonment methods. The numerical model used historical records and available industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas. Numerical simulations indicate that upward contaminant migration could occur through leaky converted wells if certain spatial and hydraulic conditions exist. Upward flow through leaky converted wells increased with proximity to hydraulic fracturing, but decreased when flowback and production occurred. Volumetric flow rates ranged between 0 and 0.086 m(3) /d for hydraulic-fracturing scenarios. Potential groundwater impacts should be paired with plausible transport mechanisms, and upward flow through leaky abandoned wells could be unrelated to hydraulic fracturing. The results also underscore the need to evaluate historical activities.

  12. Spatial Risk Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing near Abandoned and Converted Oil and Gas Wells.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Joshua W; Yelderman, Joe C; James, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Interaction between hydraulically generated fractures and existing wells (frac hits) could represent a potential risk to groundwater. In particular, frac hits on abandoned oil and gas wells could lead to upward leakage into overlying aquifers, provided migration pathways are present along the abandoned well. However, potential risk to groundwater is relatively unknown because few studies have investigated the probability of frac hits on abandoned wells. In this study, actual numbers of frac hits were not determined. Rather, the probability for abandoned wells to intersect hypothetical stimulated reservoir sizes of horizontal wells was investigated. Well data were compiled and analyzed for location and reservoir information, and sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumed sizes of stimulated reservoirs. This study used public and industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas, with specific attention paid to abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells (converted wells). In counties with Eagle Ford Shale activity, well-data analysis identified 55,720 abandoned wells with a median age of 1983, and 2400 converted wells with a median age of 1954. The most aggressive scenario resulted in 823 abandoned wells and 184 converted wells intersecting the largest assumed stimulated reservoir size. Analysis showed abandoned wells have the potential to be intersected by multiple stimulated reservoirs, and risks for intersection would increase if currently permitted horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford Shale are actually completed. Results underscore the need to evaluate historical oil and gas activities in areas with modern unconventional oil and gas activities.

  13. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph; Boyle, James D.

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Sand Creek Industrial Site (Operable Unit 4), Commerce City, CO, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit 4 (OU4), Site-wide groundwater at the Sand Creek Industrial Superfund Site in Commerce City, Colorado. The Sand Creek Industrial Superfund Site has an extensive history of industrial use, including pesticide manufacturing, petroleum refining, acidic waste disposal, municipul landfilling, and chemical storage and distribution. OU4 addresses groundwater underlying the Site and is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, and metals. The remedy selected for OU4 will minimize direct contact with and ingestion of groundwater underlying the Site and prevents further offsite migration of contaminants in excess of federal and state groundwater standards. Municipal water for the area surrounding OU4 is supplied by the South Adams County Water and Sanitation District (SACWSD) and the Denver Water Department (DWD). Water supplied by the DWD is obtained primarily from surface-water sources located outside of the Site area. Residents near the OU4 area are not currently using contaminated groundwater for domestic purposes.

  15. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems.

  16. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  17. User-Interface Design Characteristics of Fortune 500 B2C E-Commerce Sites and Industry Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the user-interface design characteristics of 107 Fortune 500 B2C e-commerce Web sites and industry differences. Data were collected from corporate homepages, B2C product/service pages, B2C interactive shopping pages, as well as customer satisfaction of 321 online shoppers. The findings indicate that (a) to attract online…

  18. Trends of road dust emissions contributions on ambient PM levels at rural, urban and industrial sites in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; de la Rosa, J.; González Castanedo, Y.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Pandolfi, M.; Lozano, A.; Contreras González, J.; Querol, X.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of road dust emissions on PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations recorded from 2003 to 2010 at 11 locations (rural, urban and industrial) in Southern Spain was estimated based on the chemical characterization of PM and a the use of a constrained Positive Matrix Factorization, where the chemical profile of local road dust samples is used as a priori knowledge. Results indicate that road dust emissions increased PM10 levels on average by 21-35% at traffic sites, 29-34% at urban background sites, 17-22% at urban-industrial sites and 9-22% at rural sites. Road dust contributions to ambient PM levels show a marked seasonality with maxima in summer and minima in winter, likely due to the rainfall frequency. Decreasing concentrations trends over the sampling years where found at some traffic and urban sites but in most cases less significant than for vehicle exhaust emissions, while concentrations increased at industrial sites, probably due to local peculiarities. Concerning PM2.5, road dust contributions were lower than in PM10 as expected, but still important (21-31%, 11-31%, 6-16% and 7% for traffic, urban background, urban-industrial and rural sites respectively). In addition the three main sources of road dust (carbonaceous particles, brake wear and road wear/mineral) were identified and their contributions to road dust mass loadings estimated, supporting air quality managers to drive measures aimed at preventing the build-up of road dust particles on roads.

  19. Trends of road dust emissions contributions on ambient air particulate levels at rural, urban and industrial sites in southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Pandolfi, M.; Lozano, A.; Contreras González, J.; Querol, X.

    2014-04-01

    The impact of road dust emissions on PM10 and PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter with diameteer < 10 μm and 2.5 μm mass concentrations recorded from 2003 to 2010 at 11 locations (rural, urban and industrial) in southern Spain was estimated based on the chemical characterization of PM and the use of a constrained Positive Matrix Factorization, where the chemical profile of local road dust samples is used as a priori knowledge. Results indicate that road dust increased PM10 levels on average by 21-35% at traffic sites, 29-34% at urban background sites heavily affected by road traffic emissions, 17-22% at urban-industrial sites and 9-22% at rural sites. Road dust contributions to ambient PM levels show a marked seasonality with maxima in summer and minima in winter, likely due to the rainfall frequency. Decreasing concentration trends over the sampling years were found at some traffic and urban sites but in most cases the decreases were less significant than for vehicle exhaust emissions, while concentrations increased at industrial sites, probably due to local peculiarities. Concerning PM2.5, road dust contributions were lower than in PM10, as expected but still important (21-31%, 11-31%, 6-16% and 7% for traffic, urban background, urban-industrial and rural sites, respectively). In addition the three main sources of road dust (carbonaceous particles, brake wear and road wear/mineral) were identified and their contributions to road dust mass loadings estimated, supporting the idea that air quality managers should drive measures aimed at preventing the build-up of road dust particles on roads.

  20. Airborne concentrations of trivalent and hexavalent chromium from contaminated soils at unpaved and partially paved commercial/industrial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Falerios, M.; Schild, K. ); Sheehan, P.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This method described was used to quantify airborne Cr(VI) levels at both indoor and outdoor locations at 21 sites in Hudson County, New Jersey which have soils containing chromite ore processing residue. Of the 21 sites evaluated, nine were unpaved or partially paved industrial/commercial sites or roadways with a moderate to high level of heavy truck traffic. Most of the remainder were commercial facilities with partially paved or unpaved parking lots and only light vehicle traffic. In addition, 15 residential sites in the area which do not have contaminated soil were sampled to characterized background levels of Cr(VI). The overall arithmetic mean values for indoor and outdoor Cr(VI) in total suspended particulates at the 12 industrial sites were 3.0 ng/m{sup 3} and 9.9ng/m{sup 3}, respectively. The indoor Cr(VI) concentrations measured at the 15 residential sites ranged from 0.38 to 3.3 ng/m{sup 3}. Airborne Cr(VI) levels outdoors at sites with chromite ore residue appear to be primarily influenced by the level of local vehicle traffic. Measured outdoor concentrations at sites with light vehicle traffic were generally low, within the range of levels measured indoors at the residential sites, and not strongly influenced by Cr(VI) concentrations in surface soils. At sites with a high rate of vehicle traffic, outdoor Cr(VI) concentrations exceeded background levels only on days when surface soils were dry. The average concentrations measured at these sites were more than 5,000-times lower than the current occupational exposure limit for Cr(VI) (TLV = 0.05 mg/m{sup 3}).

  1. Rehabilitation prioritization of abandoned mines and its application to Nyala Magnesite Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhlongo, Sphiwe Emmanuel; Amponsah-Dacosta, Francis; Mphephu, Nndweleni Fredrick

    2013-12-01

    The issue of abandoned mine sites is a major environmental and social problem for the mining industry, communities and governments. Historical mine sites are characterized by significant environmental, health and safety problems. The aim of this study was to develop hazard maps that can assist in the prioritization of rehabilitation at Nyala Mine. The approach used involved site examination and characterization to establish the environmental conditions of the mine. Hazards at the mine were identified, scored, and rated using modified Historic Mine Site Scoring System. The scoring focused on source and exposure pathways. The developed hazard maps showed that the best approach of effectively reducing the physical and environmental hazards at Nyala Mine was to give priority to extremely and moderately hazardous pits; surface infrastructure and spoil dumps, and then to tailings dumps characterized with less physical hazards but extremely high environmental hazards. Pits and spoil materials which were found to be relatively less problematic in terms of physical hazards were to receive least attention. The use of this hazard-scoring and risk-ranking methodology coupled with the hazard maps would provide a more robust scientific basis for making sound decisions and prioritize actions that need to be taken to minimize or manage risks associated with various areas of the mine site.

  2. Source apportionment of PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2007-03-01

    PM 10 and its chemical species mass concentrations were measured once in a week at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata for a period of 24 h during November 2003 to November 2004. At each monitoring site, 53 sets of daily average PM 10 samples were collected during the study period. Approximately 55% of the monitoring days are weekdays, while 45% are weekends. The PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg m - 3 at the residential site, and 62.4 to 401.2 μg m - 3 at the industrial site. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using Gas Chromatoghaphy. Metals in PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) were analyzed using a Carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA)/absolute principal component scores (APCS) model was applied to the mass concentrations of PM 10 and its chemical species. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified five possible sources; solid waste dumping, vehicular emission, coal combustion, cooking and soil dust at residential site. The extracted possible sources at the industrial site were vehicular emissions, coal combustion, electroplating industry, tyre wear and secondary aerosol. A quantitative estimation by principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) model

  3. Lead concentration in soil from a small 15th-century industrial site: occupational and environmental health implications.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, E

    1999-01-01

    Former industrial sites are often reclaimed for new homes and other occupational uses. Such sites may still contain toxic chemicals that could put the health of the community at risk. The persistence of these residual chemicals and their effects on human health must not be underestimated. Hence, there is a need to analyze such sites to ensure that the public health will not be put at risk. It is also essential that the levels of release of heavy metals into the environment be monitored and regulated. In this study the lead (Pb) concentration in soil from a small 15th-century industrial site was determined to assess and evaluate its occupational and environmental health implications. Concentrations of Pb measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques were 4,298.755 mg/L (SD 0.316; RSD 0.5%) and 4,300 mg/L (SD 0.3809; RSD 0.8%), respectively, both above the safe limit. It is concluded that reclaiming a disused industrial site without adequate soil analysis and proper remediation would be likely to pose occupational and environmental health risks.

  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  6. Geochemistry and migration of anthropogenic arsenic emissions in Yara Siilinjärvi industrial site, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is a problematic element due to its relatively high mobility over a wide range of redox-conditions and its toxicity to humans, animals and plants. In extractive and industrial minerals arsenic is a common element and cannot be eluded in mining and quarrying activities. Therefore, mining and industrial activities are one of the most serious arsenic polluters at local scale. In assessing environmental effects, it is important to compare anthropogenic arsenic load to geological background. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental effects and risks of the arsenic bearing calcinate tailings to the surrounding environment. Yara Finland industrial site in Siilinjärvi, Eastern Finland produces mainly fertilizers and phosphoric acid, but also 250 000 t/a iron calcinate is recovered as by-product at the sulphuric acid plant. The tailings area is located about 200 m from Lake Kuuslahti and surrounded by double ditches collecting runoff and seepage waters to seepage ponds. Some seepage water migrates to a bedrock fracture zone under the tailings area and contaminant transport from the fracture zone is controlled by pumping the water back to seepage ponds. The arsenic content (500 mg/kg) of the calcinate tailings is very high considering that the natural arsenic concentrations of the local bedrock and soil are low (<2 mg/kg). A total of 55 soil and sediment samples were analyzed for hot aqua regia, ammonium oxalate and acetate extractable arsenic representing total, chemically adsorbed and bioavailable fractions. In addition 14 water samples were analyzed for total and soluble metal and metalloid concentrations, anions, DOC, TOC, pH, redox and alkalinity. The metal speciation in surface and ground waters was modeled by PhreeqC. According to the results main arsenic pathways from the tailings to environment and into the Lake Kuuslahti are by dust and surface runoff. Close to the tailings arsenic concentrations are high and exceed the Finnish threshold

  7. Grazing and abandonment determine different tree dynamics in wood-pastures.

    PubMed

    Oldén, Anna; Komonen, Atte; Tervonen, Kaisa; Halme, Panu

    2017-03-01

    Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing. In abandoned sites, deciduous trees and spruces regenerated abundantly. In the long term, both grazing and abandonment lead to changes in tree species compositions and low diversity wood-pastures. Landscape scale planning and disturbance dynamics are needed for the creation of new wood-pastures and the maintenance of all pasture types within the landscape.

  8. Microbacterium amylolyticum sp. nov., isolated from soil from an industrial waste site.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shailly; Bala, Kiran; Saxena, Anjali; Schumann, Peter; Lal, Rup

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, non-motile, non-endospore-forming, yellow-coloured rod, designated strain N5(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected at an industrial waste site in Noida, on the outskirts of Delhi, India. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain N5(T) was most closely related to members of established species in the genus Microbacterium (with sequence similarities of approximately 94.0-97.6 %), particularly Microbacterium indicum LMG 23459(T) (97.59 %) and Microbacterium gubbeenense LMG 19263(T) (97.18 %). In DNA-DNA hybridization studies, however, none of the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain N5(T) and members of the genus Microbacterium exceeded 11.3 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 68 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain N5(T), which had MK-11 and MK-10 as its major menaquinones and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (45 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (37 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (8.5 %) and C(16 : 0) (4.5 %) as its predominant fatty acids, were consistent with classification in the genus Microbacterium. Peptidoglycan in the novel strain, which contained ornithine, alanine, glycine, homoserine, glutamic acid, 3-hydroxyglutamic acid, muramic acid and traces of N-glycolyl residues, was of type B2β. The polar lipid profile of strain N5(T) comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid. The novel strain's major cell-wall sugars were glucose and galactose. Based on the phylogenetic, DNA-DNA hybridization, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain N5(T) represents a novel species within the genus Microbacterium for which the name Microbacterium amylolyticum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is N5(T) (= DSM 24221(T) = CCM 7881(T)).

  9. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  10. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  11. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  12. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-12

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

  14. Economic and environmental optimization of a multi-site utility network for an industrial complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hun; Yoon, Sung-Geun; Chae, Song Hwa; Park, Sunwon

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical companies consume a lot of steam, water and electrical resources in the production process. Given recent record fuel costs, utility networks must be optimized to reduce the overall cost of production. Environmental concerns must also be considered when preparing modifications to satisfy the requirements for industrial utilities, since wastes discharged from the utility networks are restricted by environmental regulations. Construction of Eco-Industrial Parks (EIPs) has drawn attention as a promising approach for retrofitting existing industrial parks to improve energy efficiency. The optimization of the utility network within an industrial complex is one of the most important undertakings to minimize energy consumption and waste loads in the EIP. In this work, a systematic approach to optimize the utility network of an industrial complex is presented. An important issue in the optimization of a utility network is the desire of the companies to achieve high profits while complying with the environmental regulations. Therefore, the proposed optimization was performed with consideration of both economic and environmental factors. The proposed approach consists of unit modeling using thermodynamic principles, mass and energy balances, development of a multi-period Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the integration of utility systems in an industrial complex, and an economic/environmental analysis of the results. This approach is applied to the Yeosu Industrial Complex, considering seasonal utility demands. The results show that both the total utility cost and waste load are reduced by optimizing the utility network of an industrial complex.

  15. MX Siting Investigation. Water Resources Program Industry Activity Inventory, Nevada-Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-02

    Agua Caliente Existing 150 gpm *One of five sites shown on Plate II may be the site of this project. There are also three additional sites outside the...SOURCE: Wells WATER RECIRCULATED: 80%, hopefully WATER QUALITY: POTABLE : STOCK AGRICULTURE OTHER ? OPERATION - REOPENED: Reopened NEW: WATER...year _________ TYPE OF BENEFICIAL USE: __ * ~~WATER SOURCE: ____-____ WATER RECIRCULATED: ___ _____ WATER QUALITY: POTABLE : STOCK ___AGRICULTURE

  16. Health assessment for Benfield Industries NPL Site Hazelwood, North Carolina, Region 4. CERCLIS No. NCD981026479. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-08

    The Benfield Industries National Priorities List (NPL) site is located within the city of Hazelwood, in southwestern North Carolina. The Benfield facility was a small commercial chemical packaging plant. Chemicals were dumped onto the ground at the plant during operations. The facility was destroyed by fire in April 1982. Several community health concerns were reported to county and State environmental health agencies from 1979 to 1982. Residents of the community expressed concerns regarding migration of chemical vapors from the site, dumping of chemicals onto the ground, smoke inhalation during the fire in 1982, and potential impacts of contaminants on children living near the facility. ATSDR has determined that this site is not of public health concern at this time since there is no known current human exposure to hazardous substances. A Health Study is not being considered due to the low potential for human exposure to hazardous substances at the site.

  17. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  18. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated to on-site prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in semi-arid N-Algeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought in Algeria is a recurring phenomenon and prolonged dry condition exerts a significant impact on local society. For instance, the most recent (1999-2002) drought, as part of a widespread drying in N-Hemisphere, brought this country considerable loss in regards to water resource and agricultural yields. A comprehensive understanding of past climate anomaly is relevant to predicting and mitigating future climate change effects. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and E-Mediterranean basin, but the scarcity of such records in W-Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin. Besides, climate deteriorations have long been argued to be linked with past cultural disruptions. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due that existing climatic evidence has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. Here we present the first decadal-resolution Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the W-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, N-Algeria. Comparing our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600 yr BP, ca. 5200 yr BP and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean. New radiocarbon dating from this study well constrains the age of anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave. In-situ comparisons of evidence of climate and cultural change show that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4400 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  19. Monitoring of a micro-smart grid: Power consumption data of some machineries of an agro-industrial test site.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Enrico; Biglia, Alessandro; Branciforti, Valeria; Filippi, Marco; Barbero, Silvia; Tecco, Giuseppe; Mollo, Paolo; Molino, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    For the management of a (micro)-smart grid it is important to know the patters of the load profiles and of the generators. In this article the power consumption data obtained through a monitoring activity developed on a micro-smart grid in an agro-industrial test-site are presented. In particular, this reports the synthesis of the monitoring results of 5 loads (5 industrial machineries for crop micronization, corncob crashing and other similar processes). How these data were used within a monitoring and managing scheme of a micro-smart grid can be found in (E. Fabrizio, V. Branciforti, A. Costantino, M. Filippi, S. Barbero, G. Tecco, P. Mollo, A. Molino, 2017) [1]. The data can be useful for other researchers in order to create benchmarks of energy use input appropriate energy demand values in optimization tools for the industrial sector.

  20. Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

  1. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  2. The Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Soils in the Vicinity of Industrial Sites in Dongguan, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Lu, Liwen; Huang, Ting; Huang, Yalin; Ding, Lei; Zhao, Weituo

    2016-01-01

    Exponential industrialization and rapid urbanization have resulted in contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Dongguan, China. The aims of this research were to determine the concentration and distribution of various metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) in soils and identify their potential health risks for local residents. A total of 106 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of industrial sites in Dongguan. Two types of samples were collected from each site: topsoil (0–20 cm, TS) and shallow soil (20–50 cm, SS). Results showed that the soils were contaminated by metals and pollution was mainly focused on TS. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution indexes (PI) implied that there was a slight increase in the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb, but the metal pollution caused by industrial activities was less severe, and elements of As and Cr exhibited non-pollution level. The risk assessment results suggested that there was a potential health risk associated with As and Cr exposure for residents because the carcinogenic risks of As and Cr via corresponding exposure pathways exceeded the safety limit of 10−6 (the acceptable level of carcinogenic risk for humans). Furthermore, oral ingestion and inhalation of soil particles are the main exposure pathways for As and Cr to enter the human body. This study may provide basic information of metal pollution control and human health protection in the vicinity of industrial regions. PMID:27548198

  3. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  4. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  5. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  6. The relation between air pollution data and planetary boundary layer quantities in a complex coastal industrial site nearby populated areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, M. C.; Grandoni, G.; Fernando, J.; Cacciani, M.; di Sabatino, S.; Favaron, M.; Fedele, P.

    2010-09-01

    The connection among boundary layer phenomena, atmospheric pollutant dynamics and human health is an established fact, taking many different forms depending on local characteristics, including slope and position of relief and/or coastline, surface roughness, emission patterns. The problem is especially interesting in complex and coastal terrain, where concurrence of slope and sea induced local circulation interact reciprocally, yielding a complex pattern whose interpretation may go beyond pure modeling, and devise specific measurements among which the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. An occasion for studying this important theme has been offered by Regione Molise and Valle del Biferno Consortium (COSIB), for the specific case of the industrial complex of Valle del Biferno, 3 km inland of Termoli, in Central Italy, on the Adriatic coast. The local government, sensitive to air quality and public health in the industrial area, together with COSIB has co-financed a research project aimed at gaining knowledge about local meteorology, PBL phenomena and atmospheric pollutant dispersion in the area. Expected results include new air quality monitoring and control methodologies in Valle del Biferno for a sustainable development in an environmentally respectful manner, at a site already characterized by a high environmental and landscape value. The research project, developed by ENEA, has began in 2007 and will conclude in December 2010. Project activities involve research group from Europe, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical results will be published and presented in occasion of the final workshop to be held on project conclusion. The scientific interest of Valle del Biferno case stems from the specific local characteristics at site. Given the valley orientation respect to mean synoptic circulation, local effects as sea and slope breezes are dominant, and a complex wind regime develops affecting local transport and

  7. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established.

  8. Characterization of PM2.5-bound nitrated and oxygenated PAHs in two industrial sites of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shilong; Huang, Bo; Liu, Ming; Bi, Xinhui; Ren, Zhaofang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-06-01

    Daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected between August 5 and 16, 2009 and between January 24 and February 4, 2010 in an industrial complex site (site A) and an e-waste recycling site (site B) to determine the seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrated (nitro-) and oxygenated (oxy-) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The two sites show similar composition for nitro- and oxy-PAHs although the composition of parent PAHs was quite different. 3 + 2-Nitrofluoranthene (3 + 2NFL) was the most abundant nitro-PAH, while 9,10-anthraquinone (Anquin), benzanthrone (Bzone) and 6H-benzo[cd]pyrene-6-one (Bpone) were the three major oxy-PAHs species. The concentrations of Σnitro-PAHs and Σoxy-PAHs were about 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those of Σparent PAHs. Most of the nitro- and oxy-PAHs show notable seasonal variation. 7-Nitrobenz[a]anthracene (7NBaA), Bzone and benzo[a]anthrancene-7,12-dione (Bzdion) demonstrated a pronounced diurnal variation. The occurrence of nitro- and oxy-PAHs in the two sites can be accounted by direct emission and atmospheric secondary formation.

  9. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property on behalf of the borrower when such action is in the Agency's financial interest. If the security is...

  10. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.

    1998-08-03

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

  11. Quantity and quality of stormwater collected from selected stormwater outfalls at industrial sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, Doug D.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff associated with industrial activities at Fort Gordon was conducted from January through December 2011. The assessment was provided to satisfy the requirements from a general permit that authorizes the discharge of stormwater under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System from a site associated with industrial activities. The stormwater quantity refers to the runoff discharge at the point and time of the runoff sampling. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. The initial scope of this study was to sample stormwater runoff from five stations at four industrial sites (two landfills and two heating and cooling sites). As a consequence of inadequate hydrologic conditions during 2011, no samples were collected at the two landfills; however, three samples were collected from the heating and cooling sites. The assessment included the collection of physical properties, such as water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH; the detection of suspended materials (total suspended solids, total fixed solids, total volatile solids), nutrients and organic compounds, and major and trace inorganic compounds (metals); and the detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Nutrients and organic compounds, major and trace inorganic compounds, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds were detected above the laboratory reporting levels in all samples collected from the three stations. The detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds included anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, cis,1, 2-dichloroethene, dimethyl phthalate, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, acenaphthylene (station SWR11-3), and di-n-butyl phthalate (station SWR11-4).

  12. Asymptomatic bowel perforation by abandoned ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A; Williams, Todd R; Spizarny, David L

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management.

  13. Control of industrial VOC (volatile organic compound) emissions by catalytic incineration. volume 5. catalytic incinerator performance at industrial site c-3. Final report, May 1982-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Blacksmith, J.R.; Randall, J.L.

    1984-07-01

    The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incineration for VOC control. Results included: (1) a review of current and developing catalytic incineration technology, (2) an assessment of the overall performance of catalytic incinerators, (3) a review of applications where catalytic incinerators are used, (4) a comparative analysis of catalytic incineration with other competing VOC controls, (5) an examination of available methods for emission testing catalytic incinerators, and (6) an assessment of the need for additional performance test data. Phase 2 was a test program designed to increase the catalytic incinerator performance data base. It resulted in reports documenting the performance of eight catalytic incinerators at six industrial sites. The incinerators were used to control VOC emissions from solvent evaporation processes at can coating, coil coating, magnet wire, and graphic arts printing plants. Performance was measured at several process conditions at each site. Incinerator performance was characterized in terms of destruction efficiency, outlet solvent concentration, and energy usage. Design and operating data were collected. This report preseents test resultls and data evaluation for the testing conducted at the third test site, which involved the testing of two catalytic incinerators at Plant C-3, a graphic arts printing establishment.

  14. Report: Review of Actions at Industrial Excess Landfill Superfund Site, Uniontown, Ohio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00031, September 29, 2004. The OIG found that EPA policy was followed in selecting monitored natural attenuation; that the landfill site was appropriately sampled and analyzed, according to EPA policy.

  15. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inventory impacts of abandoned wells for the U.S. . Available methane emission rate data for abandoned wells is reviewed and some of the ongoing research to better characterize emissions is discussed. Efforts to compile a database of well drilling activities since the 1870’s for each state and each state’s establishment of well plugging standards for abandoned wells is described. Progress towards an estimate of national methane emissions from abandoned wells and major sources of uncertainty are presented. These emissions are put in to context by comparing to other sources of methane emissions from oil and gas production activities. This is an abstract for a presentation at the Natural GasSTAR Annual Implementation Workshop on November 16-18, 2015 in Pittsburgh, PA. The subject is methane emissions fro abandoned wells. This is a report on interim progress on a effort we have with ERG. OAP is involved in the project and will review slides.

  16. The Federal Government should Encourage Early Public, Regulatory, and Industry Cooperation in Siting Energy Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-13

    powerplants, but others included electricity transmission lines, pumped storage for hydroelectricity, and coal gasification . Two of the open site...EIS process for the Authority’s proposed coal - gasification demonstration facility and found it moderately effective in involving regulators and the...projects--developing more detailed evaluations of potential sites. A strong point in the early planning for the Authority’s coal gasification facility was

  17. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application abandoned because the applicant did not timely respond to an Office action or notice of allowance... abandonment, if the applicant did not receive the notice of abandonment, and the applicant was diligent in... for filing a petition to revive an application abandoned because the applicant did not timely...

  18. Heavy vehicle industry site visits: comments from companies and conclusions from technical committee

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report documents the results of several visits with industry as part of the Department of Energy (DOE), office of Transportation Technology, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology, supported Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamics Project. The purpose of the DOE Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamics Project is to use government resources to bring the aerodynamic expertise available in government organizations and academia to bear in assisting the heavy vehicle industry to reduce aerodynamic drag on trucks. The obvious payback from this investment is the reduction in fuel usage and derivative reduction in the US's dependence on foreign oil imports. This report covers 2 projects: (1) The stated purpose of Project 1 was to provide near-term impact through emphasis on existing tools and capabilities and to focus on the trailer drag problem. (2) The stated purpose of Project 2 was to provide the tools necessary to accomplish the longer term goal of a fully-integrated, aerodynamic tractor-trailer combination.

  19. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  20. An Approach to Industrial Stormwater Benchmarks: Establishing and Using Site-Specific Threshold Criteria at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C G; Mathews, S

    2006-09-07

    Current regulatory schemes use generic or industrial sector specific benchmarks to evaluate the quality of industrial stormwater discharges. While benchmarks can be a useful tool for facility stormwater managers in evaluating the quality stormwater runoff, benchmarks typically do not take into account site-specific conditions, such as: soil chemistry, atmospheric deposition, seasonal changes in water source, and upstream land use. Failing to account for these factors may lead to unnecessary costs to trace a source of natural variation, or potentially missing a significant local water quality problem. Site-specific water quality thresholds, established upon the statistical evaluation of historic data take into account these factors, are a better tool for the direct evaluation of runoff quality, and a more cost-effective trigger to investigate anomalous results. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a federal facility, established stormwater monitoring programs to comply with the requirements of the industrial stormwater permit and Department of Energy orders, which require the evaluation of the impact of effluent discharges on the environment. LLNL recognized the need to create a tool to evaluate and manage stormwater quality that would allow analysts to identify trends in stormwater quality and recognize anomalous results so that trace-back and corrective actions could be initiated. LLNL created the site-specific water quality threshold tool to better understand the nature of the stormwater influent and effluent, to establish a technical basis for determining when facility operations might be impacting the quality of stormwater discharges, and to provide ''action levels'' to initiate follow-up to analytical results. The threshold criteria were based on a statistical analysis of the historic stormwater monitoring data and a review of relevant water quality objectives.

  1. Quantification of methane fluxes from industrial sites using a combination of a tracer release method and a Gaussian model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ars, S.; Broquet, G.; Yver-Kwok, C.; Wu, L.; Bousquet, P.; Roustan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations keep on increasing in the atmosphere since industrial revolution. Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic GHG after carbon dioxide (CO2). Its sources and sinks are nowadays well identified however their relative contributions remain uncertain. The industries and the waste treatment emit an important part of the anthropogenic methane that is difficult to quantify because the sources are fugitive and discontinuous. A better estimation of methane emissions could help industries to adapt their mitigation's politic and encourage them to install methane recovery systems in order to reduce their emissions while saving money. Different methods exist to quantify methane emissions. Among them is the tracer release method consisting in releasing a tracer gas near the methane source at a well-known rate and measuring both their concentrations in the emission plume. The methane rate is calculated using the ratio of methane and tracer concentrations and the emission rate of the tracer. A good estimation of the methane emissions requires a good differentiation between the methane actually emitted by the site and the methane from the background concentration level, but also a good knowledge of the sources distribution over the site. For this purpose, a Gaussian plume model is used in addition to the tracer release method to assess the emission rates calculated. In a first step, the data obtained for the tracer during a field campaign are used to tune the model. Different model's parameterizations have been tested to find the best representation of the atmospheric dispersion conditions. Once these parameters are set, methane emissions are estimated thanks to the methane concentrations measured and a Bayesian inversion. This enables to adjust the position and the emission rate of the different methane sources of the site and remove the methane background concentration.

  2. 76 FR 9634 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lafayette County, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Lafayette County... Industrial Lead extending from milepost 246.49 near Myrick to milepost 243.58 near Lexington, in...

  3. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  4. 76 FR 22729 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ..., Supply Technologies, Aerotek, Securitas Security Services, and Volt Workforce Solutions, Osceola, WI... reports that workers leased from Volt Workforce Solutions were employed on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin... Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from Volt Workforce Solutions working...

  5. Saugus Iron Works: Life and Work at an Early American Industrial Site. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Maryann

    In 1948 archeologists verified that a now overgrown and urbanized landscape along the Saugus River (Massachusetts) was the site of the Saugus Iron Works from 1646 until 1648. That discovery led to a careful, though partly conjectural, reconstruction of the first successful integrated ironmaking plant in the colonial America. The early Puritan…

  6. Environmental investigation and remedial action at an industrial site: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1920 and 1957, Southern California Edison Company operated a pole treating facility on property in the City of Alhambra. Prior to its demolition in 1957, the facility treated wood products with both creosote and pentachlorophenol. An environmental sampling plan was developed to determine if pole treating fluids from the operation of the former pole yard have contaminated soil or ground water beneath the property. Core samples were taken from various depths and were analyzed for the presence of pole treating fluid chemicals. Creosote, pentachlorophenol, PCBs, and chlorinated dioxins and furans were found to have contaminated approximately 17,000 cubic yards of soil beneath the site pavement. There is no infiltration of ground water at the site due to paving, and depth to ground water beneath the site is steady at about 230 feet. Impedance of ground water flow from the north by the Raymond fault zone upgradient of the site results in the deep water table. Five alternative remedial actions were evaluated on economics, risk to public health, and effectiveness in detoxifying the contaminated soil.

  7. Characterizing PCB Contamination in Painted Concrete and Substrates: The Painted History at Army Industrial Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    considered to be PCB Remediation Waste, halting demolition and be disposal on in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill.  May 2010 –EPA site visit to...product and may be disposed of in a municipal solid waste  EPA region 7 claims PCB remediation waste as PCB’s from the paint may have migrated into

  8. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data for three phosphate industry waste-disposal sites in central Florida, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1982-01-01

    This report is a complilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at thee AMAX Phosphate, Inc., chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS AgriChemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximmmtely 5,400 field and laboratory water-quality determinations on water samples were collected from about 78 test holes and 31 surface-water, rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste-disposal operations. Maps show locations of sampling sites. (USGS)

  9. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  10. Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-28

    Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

  11. Air assimilative capacity-based environment friendly siting of new industries--a case study of Kochi region, India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Chalapati Rao, C V

    2007-09-01

    Air pollution has become a matter of grave concern, particularly in mega-cities and urban areas, where the situation is alarming and becoming more and more severe day-by-day and warrants, therefore, careful planning to facilitate future industrial development. Site selection, with the objective of minimizing adverse environmental impacts based on environmental criteria is a vital prerequisite, particularly for air polluting industries. In order to locate any air polluting industry, the assimilative capacity of the region needs to be assessed carefully and planned accordingly, so that the receiving environment is not adversely affected. Assimilative capacity of a region/airshed, widely represented through the ventilation coefficient by many researchers in the past, does not give a clear picture about the amount of emission load that can be assimilated in a given region. The ventilation coefficient, at best, can only present a broad picture about the air pollution dispersion potential (low, medium or high) of the region. A modified approach, which utilizes air quality modelling as a tool to estimate the maximum allowable emission load that a region can assimilate without violating the stipulated standards, has been used for estimating the assimilative capacity of the air environment. Details of this approach have been presented in this paper through a case study carried out for the Kochi region, located in the Kerala State of India. A variety of emission and meteorological scenarios have been considered and critical emission loads have been estimated. This approach shall provide necessary technical guidance to the environmental regulatory authorities as well as to the industries in planning environment friendly industrial development.

  12. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  13. Radon emanation from NORM-contaminated pipe scale and soil at petroleum industry sites.

    PubMed

    White, G J; Rood, A S

    2001-01-01

    Radon-222 emanation fractions were determined for barite scale deposits associated with petroleum production tubing and soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were analyzed for 226Ra concentration, the results of which were used to calculate the 222Rn emanation fraction for the sample. An important parameter determining the overall Rn activity flux from a solid medium, 222Rn emanation fraction represents the fraction of 222Rn produced that enters the interconnected pore space within a medium contaminated with 226Ra before the 222Rn undergoes radioactive decay. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether 222Rn emanation fractions from pipe scale and soil from petroleum production sites are similar to those of uranium mill tailings. Pipe scale samples were collected at four sites representing a wide geographical area, and consisted primarily of barite scale where Ra atoms have replaced a fraction of the Ba within the crystal lattice of the scale. Soil samples were collected at five sites, from areas exhibiting elevated surface gamma exposure rates indicating the presence of NORM. For comparison, 226Ra concentrations and 222Rn emanation fraction were also determined for uranium mill tailings samples provided from a site in Utah. Although 2226Ra concentrations from pipe scale samples were similar to those found in uranium mill tailings, 222Rn emanation fractions from scale were generally lower. Emanation fractions from each data set were statistically different from those of mill tailings (p < or = 0.01). The differences are probably due to physical differences between the two media and to the method by which the Ra is deposited in the material. Radon emanation from soils was extremely variable owing not only to differences in physical and chemical soil properties, but also to the means by which NORM has entered the soil. Although additional emanation measurements from other sites are needed, the data collected

  14. Dendrochemistry of multiple releases of chlorinated solvents at a former industrial site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balouet, Jean Christophe; Burken, Joel G.; Karg, Frank; Vroblesky, Don; Smith, Kevin T.; Grudd, Hakan; Rindby, Anders; Beaujard, Francois; Chalot, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Trees can take up and assimilate contaminants from the soil, subsurface, and groundwater. Contaminants in the transpiration stream can become bound or incorporated into the annual rings formed in trees of the temperate zones. The chemical analysis of precisely dated tree rings, called dendrochemistry, can be used to interpret past plant interactions with contaminants. This investigation demonstrates that dendrochemistry can be used to generate historical scenarios of past contamination of groundwater by chlorinated solvents at a site in Verl, Germany. Increment cores from trees at the Verl site were collected and analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) line scanning. The EDXRF profiles showed four to six time periods where tree rings had anomalously high concentrations of chlorine (Cl) as an indicator of potential contamination by chlorinated solvents.

  15. Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

    In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity

  16. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Industrial Excess Landfill site, Uniontown, Ohio (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    The Industrial Excess Landfill (IEL) is a 30-acre closed sanitary landfill located in Uniontown, Stark County, Ohio. Over 400 residential homes, located within a 0.5 mile radius of the landfill, rely entirely on individual or private well supplies for drinking water. Prior to 1961, the landfill property may have been utilized as a coal mine and later for mining sand and gravel. Gradually, the mining/excavation pit was converted into a landfill which received a variety of wastes. Between 1964 and 1968, the site was used to store fly ash, masonry rubble, paper and lumber scrap. From 1968 to 1980, IEL accepted municipal, commercial, industrial, and chemical wastes of substantially undetermined and unknown composition, primarily from the nearby rubber industry. Large quantities of chemical and liquid waste were dumped onto the ground either from 55-gallon drums or from tanker trucks. In January of 1972, the Stark County Board of Health (SCBH) ordered the dumping of chemical wastes stopped. In 1980, due to public concern and facility volume limitations, the landfill was ordered to close.

  18. The role of PV in demand-site management: Policy and industry challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, John; Hadjilambrinos, Constantine; Wang, Young-Doo

    1992-12-01

    Most electric utility planners consider photovoltaics to be a frontier technology which is not yet mature enough to contribute to the U.S. electric generation market. Over the past decade, utilities and their regulators have begun to emphasize demand-side management (DMS) to meet an increasing proportion of their service needs. For PV to be a valued technology in the electricity sector, DSM applications need to be identified that can provide a significant market for this technology. DSM programs of 20 of the most active utilities in the DSM market are analyzed in this research to determine the size, prices, demand, and impact of policy. Target PV-DSM markets are identified and the policy and industry challenges that must be met are defined.

  19. Which accesses should be abandoned or revised?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the factors in deciding whether to abandon a functioning access. Strong indications for ligation or excision of an access are infection or severe early-onset steal. Access ligation may also be required for central vein occlusion or high-output cardiac failure. In general, a failing or thrombosed access should be restored to function unless it is no longer required. For failing or thrombosed distal arteriovenous fistulas, it may be easiest to abandon it and create a new fistula a few centimetres proximally rather than perform angioplasty, which is likely to require repeating. Other accesses may be abandoned after repeated treatment of the same stenosis over a short period provided other options exist.

  20. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields.

    PubMed

    Elhottová, D; Szili-Kovács, T; Tríska, J

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological evaluation of sandy grassland soils from two different stages of secondary succession on abandoned fields (4 and 8 years old fallow) was carried out as a part of research focused on restoration of semi-natural vegetation communities in Kiskunság National Park in Hungary. There was an apparent total N and organic C enrichment, stimulation of microbial growth and microbial community structure change on fields abandoned by agricultural practice (small family farm) in comparison with native undisturbed grassland. A successional trend of the microbial community was found after 4 and 8 years of fallow-lying soil. It consisted in a shift of r-survival strategy to more efficient C economy, in a decrease of specific respiration and metabolic activity, forced accumulation of storage bacterial compounds and increased fungal distribution. The composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids mixture of soils abandoned at various times was significantly different.

  1. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ..., CA (San Jose Industrial Lead) On April 4, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) and Santa Clara... petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 10903 for UP to abandon its... obligation for, a portion of the San Jose Industrial Lead between milepost 7.35 near Warm Springs...

  2. Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen following land abandonment of farmland on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Sweeney, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN). However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grassland sites were established on farmland abandoned for 1, 7, 13, 20, and 30 years. Top soil OC and TN were higher in older grassland, especially in the 0-5 cm soil depths; deeper soil OC and TN was lower in younger grasslands (<20 yr), and higher in older grasslands (30 yr). Soil OC and N storage (0-100 cm) was significantly lower in the younger grasslands (<20 yr), had increased in the older grasslands (30 yr), and at 30 years SOC had increased to pre-abandonment levels. For a thirty year period following abandonment the soil C/N value remained at 10. Our results indicate that soil C and TN were significantly and positively correlated, indicating that studies on the storage of soil OC and TN needs to focus on deeper soil and not be restricted to the uppermost (0-30 cm) soil levels.

  3. Changes in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen following Land Abandonment of Farmland on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lei; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Sweeney, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN). However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grassland sites were established on farmland abandoned for 1, 7, 13, 20, and 30 years. Top soil OC and TN were higher in older grassland, especially in the 0–5 cm soil depths; deeper soil OC and TN was lower in younger grasslands (<20 yr), and higher in older grasslands (30 yr). Soil OC and N storage (0–100 cm) was significantly lower in the younger grasslands (<20 yr), had increased in the older grasslands (30 yr), and at 30 years SOC had increased to pre-abandonment levels. For a thirty year period following abandonment the soil C/N value remained at 10. Our results indicate that soil C and TN were significantly and positively correlated, indicating that studies on the storage of soil OC and TN needs to focus on deeper soil and not be restricted to the uppermost (0–30 cm) soil levels. PMID:23940793

  4. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  5. A multi-site approach towards integrating environmental management in the wine production industry.

    PubMed

    Walsdorff, A; van Kraayenburg, M; Barnardt, C A

    2005-01-01

    Nine wineries and a water bottling plant situated in the Franschhoek Valley, South Africa, have decided to lead the way towards creating a safer and more sustainable environment in the Valley. As part of the Vignerons de Franschhoek ECO Association (VFEA), they adopted a multi-site approach and obtained, in December 2003, the first ISO 14001 multi-site certification in South Africa. This proactive approach allows them better overall environmental performances through mutual motivation, information sharing and comparison of practices by the different participating organisations of Franschhoek Valley. At the initiation of the project, the major concerns were associated with a lack of sound environmental management and training of employees. Of particular concern was also the lack of monitoring and measurement of environmental performance key indicators, especially in water consumption and wastewater disposal areas. Although the system is still in its juvenile stage, it already showed some effluent quality improvements through better wastewater management, better control over chemical stores as well as definite improvement in water management and increase in solid wastes recycling. The latter improvements will definitely entail long-term cost savings should the system be continually and properly maintained. It is the intention of the VFEA to create a more environmentally friendly and sustainable Valley by convincing others to be more environmentally responsive and expanding the ISO 14001 principles to other areas of the organisations including the farms, to other wineries and ultimately to the whole Franschhoek Valley.

  6. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  7. History of ground-water contamination and summary of ground-water investigations through 1985 at four industrial sites, Logan Township, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.C.; Hochreitner, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Investigations of potential sources of groundwater contamination conducted by various regulatory agencies and consultants at four industrial sites in Logan Township, New Jersey found groundwater contamination at all four sites and at properties adjoining two of the sites. The four sites directly overlie the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, the Township's sole source of potable water. One site was a waste-oil processing and storage facility. The major source of groundwater contamination at the site is a lagoon containing waste oil. Groundwater within 1,000 ft of the lagoon is contaminated. The second site is used to maintain, dispatch, and clean chemical-transportation tanks. Potential sources of groundwater contamination at the site include former wastewater lagoons, leaking storage drums, and leaking tank trucks. Groundwater at and immediately north of the property is contaminated. Organic compounds are manufactured at the third site. Potential sources of groundwater contamination at this site include landfilled industrial wastes. Groundwater underlying the property is contaminated, but there is no evidence of offsite groundwater contamination from this source. The fourth site is used to treat and dispose of hazardous wastes. The major source of groundwater contamination at this site is landfilled residue from waste-treatment processes. Groundwater underlying the property is contaminated, but there is no evidence of off-site groundwater contamination from this source.

  8. Detection of genotoxicity of the gaseous agents emitted from two industrial sites with Tradescantia bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, A.; Hafner, C.; Schachner, J.; Sallenave, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay was used to determine the genotoxicity of gaseous agents emitted from a car painting factory and from an incinerator. The fumigation chambers consisted of small greenhouses placed on the roofs of the factory and incinerator, into which mixtures of flue gases and clean air could be directly pumped. Plant cuttings bearing young flower buds were exposed to various concentrations of the emissions for 8 or 24 hours. The treated and control flower buds were fixed in aceto-ethanol (1:3 ratio) and slides of the early tetrads were prepared to score the micronuclei frequencies. The genotoxicity of fumes emitted from two paint formulations (P1, P2) used at the paint factory were compared, The average MCN frequencies of the groups exposed to P2 fumes increased with increasing concentration, and were as high as 6 times those of the control groups at full strength. Average MCN frequencies of groups exposed to full strength P1 fumes were 3.6 times higher than those of the control groups. Although the results of the incinerator trials were more variable, the average MCN frequencies of groups exposed to 1:1,000 diluted incinerator emissions were significantly higher than those in the control groups, on most dates. The results of the study demonstrated the potential genotoxicity of the emissions, and the usefulness of in-situ monitoring of gaseous emissions from incinerators and industrial sources.

  9. Risk Assessment Related to Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gas and Particle Phases near Industrial Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Noelia; Cuadras, Anna; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Inhalation is one of the main means of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their ubiquitous presence in the atmosphere. However, most studies have considered only PAHs found in the particle phase and have omitted the contribution of the gas-phase PAHs to the risk. Objective: We estimated the lifetime lung cancer risk from PAH exposure by inhalation in people living next to the largest chemical site in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area. Methods: We determined 18 PAHs in the atmospheric gas and particle phase. We monitored the PAHs for 1 year in three locations near the chemical site in different seasons. We used toxic equivalence factors to calculate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalents (BaP-eq) for individual PAHs and applied the World Health Organization unit risk (UR) for BaP (UR = 8.7 × 10–5) to estimate lifetime cancer risks due to PAH exposures. Results: We observed some spatial and seasonal variability in PAH concentrations. The contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the total BaP-eq value was between 34% and 86%. The total estimated average lifetime lung cancer risk due to PAH exposure in the study area was 1.2 × 10–4. Conclusions: The estimated risk was higher than values recommended by the World Health Organization and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency but lower than the threshold value of 10–3 that is considered an indication of definite risk according to similar risk studies. The results also showed that risk may be underestimated if the contributions of gas-phase PAHs are not considered. PMID:21478082

  10. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  11. Prediction of drilling site-specific interaction of industrial acoustic stimuli and endangered whales: Beaufort Sea (1985). Final report, July 1985-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, P.R.; Malme, C.I.; Shepard, G.W.; Richardson, W.J.; Bird, J.E.

    1986-10-01

    Research was performed during the first year (1985) of the two-year project investigating potential responsiveness of bowhead and gray whales to underwater sounds associated with offshore oil-drilling sites in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The underwater acoustic environment and sound propagation characteristics of five offshore sites were determined. Estimates of industrial noise levels versus distance from those sites are provided. LGL Ltd. (bowhead) and BBN (gray whale) jointly present zones of responsiveness of these whales to typical underwater sounds (drillship, dredge, tugs, drilling at gravel island). An annotated bibliography regarding the potential effects of offshore industrial noise on bowhead whales in the Beaufort Sea is included.

  12. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS ABANDONED MINE LAND REMEDIATION WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  13. LAND REBORN: TOOLS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY/NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ABANDONED MINE LAND PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  14. 30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906.25 Section 906.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... publication Citation/description April 29, 1985 January 9, 1986 Reclamation of noncoal sites. October 29,...

  15. Beneficial reuse of treated media from remediation at an industrial site

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, D.E.; Weston, A.F.; Morrissey, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation at an active PVC resin manufacturing plant in southeastern Pennsylvania has involved closure of lagoons under a RCRA plan and design of a groundwater pump and treat program under CERCLA. Both the CERCLA and RCRA programs involve beneficial reuse of the treated media, which in effect has offset some costs of the remediation. The lagoons were used to settle the PVC residual material from wastewater generated by the facility. Analysis of the residual material showed that the polymer content would allow it to be used as a low-grade PVC resin after drying. The treatment process selected for the RCRA lagoon closure involved indirect steam stripping and filter pressing which produced a filter cake that was both nonhazardous and marketable. Approximately 6,000 tons of product was sent to market from the lagoons. The groundwater, which will be remediated at the site, contains trichlorethylene (TCE), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and other volatile organic compounds. An average 400 gpm of groundwater will be extracted and treated by carbon absorbents and an air stripper. The groundwater will be used by the plant in the production process after it is treated by the CERCLA remediation system.

  16. Use of borehole geophysical logs for improved site characterization at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anaya, Roberto; Braun, Christopher L.; Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2000-01-01

    A shallow alluvial aquifer at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant near Dallas, Texas, has been contaminated by organic solvents used in the fabrication and assembly of aircraft and aircraft parts. Natural gamma-ray and electromagnetic-induction log data collected during 1997 from 162 wells were integrated with existing lithologic and cone-penetrometer test log data to improve characterization of the subsurface alluvium at the site. The alluvium, consisting of mostly fine-grained, low-permeability sediments, was classified into low, intermediate, and high clay-content sediments on the basis of the gamma-ray logs. Low clay-content sediments were interpreted as being relatively permeable, whereas high clay-content sediments were interpreted as being relatively impermeable. Gamma-ray logs, cone-penetrometer test logs, and electromagnetic-induction logs were used to develop a series of intersecting sections to delineate the spatial distribution of low, intermediate, and high clay-content sediments and to delineate zones of potentially contaminated sediments. The sections indicate three major sedimentary units in the shallow alluvial aquifer at NWIRP. The lower unit consists of relatively permeable, low clay-content sediments and is absent over the southeastern and northwestern part of the site. Permeable zones in the complex, discontinuous middle unit are present mostly in the western part of the site. In the eastern and southeastern part of the site, the upper unit has been eroded away and replaced by fill material. Zones of potentially contaminated sediments are generally within the uppermost clay layer or fill material. In addition, the zones tend to be local occurrences.

  17. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  18. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned Wells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inv...

  19. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  20. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  1. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  2. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  3. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Assessing Degradation of Abandoned Farmlands for Conservation of the Monte Desert Biome in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannelli, Florencia A.; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E.; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits ( p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery.

  5. Assessing degradation of abandoned farmlands for conservation of the Monte Desert biome in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Yannelli, Florencia A; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits (p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery.

  6. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China --- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenqi Hu; Hehe Gu

    1995-09-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. Since the Chinese government enacted a reclamation stipulation in 1989, many abandoned mining subsidence lands were produced before 1989. Therefore, reclamation of abandoned subsidence lands has become the focus of research activities in our country. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands --- some parts of the abandoned lands were wetland or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation.

  7. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  8. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  9. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  10. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  11. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event that exportation is abandoned at any time after merchandise has been placed under cover of a TIR carnet, the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section...

  12. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  13. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  14. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  15. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  6. Microgravity method for detection of abandoned mines in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatge, S.L. )

    1993-03-01

    The microgravity method has been used to detect two shallow, subsurface abandoned mines in northern New Jersey. Synthetic models simulated the expected gravity anomalies in the two areas. The first site, Lawrence Iron Mine, tested the applicability of microgravity for abandoned-mine detection. Two profile lines were laid out at right angles to the strike of the magnetite deposit in an amphibolite host rock. The broad gravity lows (magnitude 0.04 and 0.07 mGals) on the gravity profiles were modeled to show mine workings about 10 ft square and 5 ft deep that were filled with loose soil. Trenching confirmed the location of the buried mine. At the Schuyler Copper Mine, located in an urban area, data were collected along four parallel profile lines spaced 10 ft apart. An anomalous low (magnitude 0.03 mGals) on the gravity map was modeled and interpreted to be due to an empty vertical shaft. The shaft is more than 60 ft deep, about 12 ft long and 8 to 10 ft wide. It is capped by about 10 ft of unconsolidated material overlying sandstone bedrock. Drilling confirmed the results of the gravity model. The success of the method depended on the depth and size of the mine instrument accuracy, station spacing, station location and elevation control. Minimizing errors due to the instrument drift, station location and station elevation maximized the resolution of the technique.

  7. 76 FR 31008 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Erie County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Abandonments to abandon an approximately 0.56-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Buffalo... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  8. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  9. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  10. A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Space Abandoned Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaohua, Zhang

    Abstract: Influenced by the limited space resources and the increased space debris, it is very exigent to clean the orbital abandoned satellite. The thermal characteristic of the abandoned satellite is a key parameter for the infrared radiation study, and it is also an important gist to estimate whether or not the satellite can be worked correctly. And this paper researched on the thermal analysis of the LEO and GEO abandoned satellite, and has been acquired the temperature variety law for the the space abandoned target, which is very significant for apperceiving the space situation and cleaning the space abandoned satellites and other debris initiatively.    

  11. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  12. Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bétournay, Marc C

    2009-10-01

    The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk.

  13. Application of microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) for environmental monitoring of industrially contaminated sites in Hyderabad city.

    PubMed

    Kamala C T; Balaram V; Dharmendra V; Satyanarayanan M; Subramanyam K S V; Krishnaiah A

    2014-11-01

    Recently introduced microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) represents yet another and very important addition to the existing array of modern instrumental analytical techniques. In this study, an attempt is made to summarize the performance characteristics of MP-AES and its potential as an analytical tool for environmental studies with some practical examples from Patancheru and Uppal industrial sectors of Hyderabad city. A range of soil, sediment, water reference materials, particulate matter, and real-life samples were chosen to evaluate the performance of this new analytical technique. Analytical wavelengths were selected considering the interference effects of other concomitant elements present in different sample solutions. The detection limits for several elements were found to be in the range from 0.05 to 5 ng/g. The trace metals analyzed in both the sectors followed the topography with more pollution in the low-lying sites. The metal contents were found to be more in ground waters than surface waters. Since a decade, the pollutants are transfered from Patancheru industrial area to Musi River. After polluting Nakkavagu and turning huge tracts of agricultural lands barren besides making people residing along the rivulet impotent and sick, industrialists of Patancheru are shifting the effluents to downstream of Musi River through an 18-km pipeline from Patancheru. Since the effluent undergoes primary treatment at Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at Patanchru and travels through pipeline and mixes with sewage, the organic effluents will be diluted. But the inorganic pollutants such as heavy and toxic metals tend to accumulate in the environmental segments near and downstreams of Musi River. The data generated by MP-AES of toxic metals like Zn, Cu, and Cr in the ground and surface waters can only be attributed to pollution from Patancheru since no other sources are available to Musi River.

  14. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  15. Why are pharmaceutical companies gradually abandoning vaccines?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    During the past fifty years, the number of pharmaceutical companies making vaccines has decreased dramatically, and those that still make vaccines have reduced resources to make new ones. Pharmaceutical companies are gradually abandoning vaccines because the research, development, testing, and manufacture of vaccines are expensive and because the market to sell vaccines is much smaller than the market for other drug products. Congressional action could assure both a steady supply of existing vaccines and the promise of vaccines for the future.

  16. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  17. Fiscal Year 1998 Well Installation, Plugging and Abandonment, and Redevelopment summary report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment, and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1998 at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Five new groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the Y-12 Plant under the FY 1998 drilling program. Two of the wells are located in west Bear Creek Valley, one is in the eastern Y-12 Plant area near Lake Reality, and two are located near the Oil Landfarm Waste Management Area, which were installed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (Bechtel Jacobs) as part of a site characterization activity for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Disposal Cell. Also, two existing wells were upgraded and nine temporary piezometers were installed to characterize hydrogeologic conditions at the Disposal Cell site. In addition, 40 temporary piezometers were installed in the Boneyard/Bumyard area of Bear Creek Valley by Bechtel Jacobs as part of the accelerated remedial actions conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program. Ten monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1998. Two existing monitoring wells were redeveloped during FY 1998 (of these, GW-732 was redeveloped tsvice). All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures from the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA 1992); and the Monitoring Well Installation Plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Energy Systems 1997a). Well installation and development of the non-Y-12 Plant GWPP oversight installation projects were conducted using procedures/guidance defined in the following documents: Work Plan for Support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek East End Volatile Organic Compound Plumes Well Installation Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge

  18. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  19. Seasonal variations and chemical characterization of ambient PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata (Calcutta), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring of ambient PM 10 (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) has been done at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003 to November 2004. The measurements have been performed once a week during the study period. PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg/m 3 at a residential site and 62.4 to 401.2 μg/m 3 at an industrial site. Metal constituents of ambient PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Results identified zinc with maximum contribution of PM 10 among measured metals having concentrations of 0.49 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 0.53 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. The PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) compounds namely, fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using gas chromatography. The major PAH compound at the monitoring sites was BbF with 0.03 μg/m 3 at the residential site and 0.02 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) of PM 10 were analyzed using a carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. Sulfate was found in maximum concentration among anionic species with a value of 1.2 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 1.7 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were collected

  20. Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 3. soil and vegetation development of abandoned mines. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Wali, M.K.; Pemble, R.H.

    1982-06-01

    Soil and vegetation development were studied on abandoned mine sites near Velva in Ward County, North Dakota. The sites studied were 1, 7, 17, 30 and 45 years old since abandonment; unmined sites were also studied to provide measures of comparison. Species diversity was the highest at unmined sites (114) and lowest at the 1 year old site (26). Stand-environmental complex ordinations encompassing 53 variables showed topographic variables to be the most important followed by site ages. Rates of nutrient accumulations were given in the report.

  1. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  2. Validation of the MUFITS reservoir simulator against standard industrial simulation tools for CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    We give an overview of the reservoir simulator MUFITS capabilities for modelling underground carbon dioxide storage using the EOS-modules GASSTORE and BLACKOIL. The GASSTORE module covers three-phase solid-liquid-gas flows of water, carbon dioxide and salt components. The extended black-oil model is utilized in the BLACKOIL module, which can be applied in the CO2 storage scenarios to two-phase flows of CO2 and brine components. The modules allow comprehensive options including salt precipitation/dissolution, thermal processes, multiple properties regions, and complicated initial vertical equilibration. The PVT tables for the BLACKOIL module can be generated automatically from the GASSTORE module for a given reservoir temperature and brine salinity. We test the simulator against published benchmarking studies. We then consider an application case of CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site in Germany. For that purpose, we use a calibrated 3D geological reservoir model comprising a highly heterogeneous distribution of porosity and permeability in a fluvial geological setting. The simulation is conducted using the EOS-module BLACKOIL and the modelling results are in excellent agreement with the results of the industrial simulators applied in previous benchmarks. In particular, the bottom-hole pressure in the injection well, the total mass of dissolved CO2 and spatial CO2 distribution are identical with previously published results.

  3. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert

    2004-06-01

    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas.

  4. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  5. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  6. Site clearance working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  7. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  8. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  9. 77 FR 31643 - AI-Shreveport, LLC A Subsidiary of Android Industries Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration AI-Shreveport, LLC A Subsidiary of Android Industries Including On...-Shreveport, LLC, a subsidiary of Android Industries, Shreveport, Louisiana. The Notice of determination was... Android Industries. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-80,515 is hereby issued as follows: All...

  10. Lexicogrammar in the International Construction Industry: A Corpus-Based Case Study of Japanese-Hong-Kongese On-Site Interactions in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Michael; Matous, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and interpret statistically significant lexicogrammatical items that are used in on-site spoken communication in the international construction industry, initially through comparisons with reference corpora of everyday spoken and business language. Several data sources, including audio and video…

  11. EPA to Hold a Public Meeting About Proposed Plan to Clean Up Soil Contamination at Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund Site in Waynesville, N.C.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - On Tuesday, Jan. 13, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will hold a public meeting about plans to clean up residual soil contamination at the Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund Site in Waynesville, N.C. The meeting will be hel

  12. Environmental assessment of a site contaminated by organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, C; Berardi, S; Di Basilio, M; Gariazzo, C; Giardi, P; Villarini, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study on environmental assessment of an abandoned industrial area located in central Italy. Main production was refractory materials and compounds for treatment of industrial wastewater. The present work deals with a methodology for development of a sound sampling design, chemical characterization of soil samples, definition of the degree of site contamination according to law limits and evaluation of the fate and transport of contaminants by EPA simulation model (VLEACH 2.2a). Results indicate that toxic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plasticizers) are uniformly distributed in the contaminated site and only in one sampling point their concentrations exceed law limits. Modeling results confirm that contaminants migration to groundwater can be excluded, addressing for a site remediation limited to the surface layer.

  13. Major congenital malformations and residential proximity to a regional industrial park including a national toxic waste site: An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana; Polyakov, Marina; Bilenko, Natasha; Sarov, Batia

    2006-01-01

    Background Public concern about exposure to emissions from the regional industrial park (IP), including 17 chemical plants and the national industrial toxic waste site, initiated this study of the possible association between major congenital malformations (MCM) and residence near the IP in Israel's Southern District. Methods The study was conducted during the period 1995–2000 and included 63,850 deliveries. Data on deliveries and MCM detected at births were obtained from the regional medical center, and stratified by ethnicity and type of locality. As exposure indicator we used distance categories (proximal and distant) and predominant wind direction from the IP. Distance stratification was based on the geographical distribution of the localities and complaints about the odor related to IP emissions. Based on these complaints, localities up to 20 km from the IP were considered proximal to the IP. Results Average rates of MCM were 5.0% and 4.1% for Bedouin and Jewish newborns, respectively. The rate of MCM for Bedouin from proximal localities was significantly greater compared with distant localities (5.6% vs. 4.8%; RR = 1.17 with 95% CI: 1.04–1.29). In the proximal Bedouin permanent localities, the MCM rate reached 8.2 %, which was significantly higher than in distant areas (RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39–1.80). Significant risk increase of central nervous system MCM was found in these localities, compared to distant ones (RR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.44–3.60). Among newborns from the traditional tribal settlements, proximity to the IP was associated with increased rates of the following MCM: 1) all combined, 2) those associated with chromosomal abnormalities, and 3) those defined as "others unclassified MCM." Comparison of autosomal recessive disease rates by proximity to the IP in Bedouin newborns indicates that the observed increased risk of MCM is not explained by consanguineous marriages. The rates of MCM in the Jewish population were similar among "exposed" and

  14. A hierarchical approach measures the aerial extent and concentration levels of PAH-contaminated shoreline sediments at historic industrial sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Page, David S; Brown, John S; Boehm, Paul D; Bence, A Edward; Neff, Jerry M

    2006-04-01

    A field study was conducted in 2003 to estimate the areal distribution and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in intertidal sediments at sites of past human and industrial activity (HA sites) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, the site of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. More than 50 HA sites, primarily in western PWS, were identified through analysis of historic records and prior field studies, and nine sites were selected for detailed surveys. The areal assessment process consisted of seven steps: (1) identify site from historic records and field surveys; (2) locate visual evidence of surface oil/tar at a site; (3) prepare a site map and lay out a sampling grid over the entire site with 10-m grid spacing; (4) excavate pits to 50 cm depth on the grid; (5) perform a field colorimetric test to estimate total PAH (TPAH) in sediments from the wall of each pit and record the results in the ranges <1 ppm; 1-10 ppm; >10 ppm TPAH; (6) expand grid size if necessary if elevated PAH levels are detected colorimetrically; (7) select 20 samples from each site for same-day shipboard PAH analysis by immunoassay (SDI RaPID PAH) and, based on these results, select sediment samples from each site for full PAH analysis in the laboratory to identify PAH sources. A total of 416 pits were dug at the nine sites. Nine acres of sediments with TPAH >2500 ppb dry wt. were mapped at the nine sites. TPAH concentrations obtained by immunochemical analysis of 181 samples from the nine sites ranged from 20 to 1,320,000 ppb (wet wt.). The contaminants are mixtures of petroleum products (2-3 ring PAH) and combustion products (4-6 ring PAH) unrelated to the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Mussels and clams collected at these sites have elevated levels of PAH that are compositionally similar to the PAH in the sediments. These findings indicate that at least a portion of the sediment PAH is bioavailable. The PAH sources at these historic industrial sites are chronic. They

  15. Investigation of subsidence damages above abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Po-Ming.

    1988-01-01

    Abandoned mine lands (AML) subsidence is one of the most hazardous problems for personal property and community development. In order to improve the technique for subsidence diagnosis and the effectiveness of remedial measures, several methods and techniques have been developed in this research. A subsidence site investigation checklist is developed to guide the investigators with or without hands-on experience to collect a complete and necessary information for subsidence analysis during site investigation. A subsidence cause identification system is developed to streamline the process of analysis and for subsidence cause differentiation and identification over AML. A damage severity system is developed to evaluate the intensity of the damage to structures. A subsidence deduction model is developed based on the probability function integration method to reconstruct subsidence profile and subsurface failure zone for AML subsidence. The study is based on the case studies which include site investigation, surface subsidence survey, subsurface instrumentation, damage severity evaluation, subsidence deduction and statistical analysis. The results show that geologic conditions such as seam depth, seam height, ratios of strong and weak rocks do affect the subsidence damage area, subsidence factor, and damage severity. The relationship between above parameters can be expressed by a second order polynomial with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  16. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m(2) per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  17. Factors of land abandonment in mountainous Mediterranean areas: the case of Montenegrin settlements.

    PubMed

    Kerckhof, Annelies; Spalevic, Velibor; Van Eetvelde, Veerle; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes have been investigated in the surroundings of 14 rural Montenegrin settlements in order to get specific information about trends in land abandonment since around 1950. Permanently, seasonally and less inhabited settlements with different geographic conditions were studied. This was done by interviewing local inhabitants, which enabled a holistic approach to reveal the underlying processes of land abandonment. According to the observed patterns of land use change, the study sites can be categorized into intensified, urbanized, extensified, overgrown and forested cases. The category of extensified settlements is characterized by a highly reduced agricultural management intensity, resulting in an increase in grasslands and fruit trees at the expense of cropland. This land use change is mainly related to emigrating and aging inhabitants, having less livestock. Such extensive land use is found in both permanently inhabited and abandoned villages. Only some studied settlements became largely overgrown by bushes and forest. The steep average slope gradients and a large distance to the nearest city are explanatory factors of such land abandonment. Land use intensification takes place in low-lying areas located nearby towns.

  18. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  19. The optimization of microwave digestion procedures and application to an evaluation of potentially toxic element contamination on a former industrial site.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Alexander; Entwistle, Jane; Dean, John R

    2010-09-15

    The optimization of a microwave dissolution procedure for potentially toxic elements in a contaminated soil sample has been evaluated using a central composite design approach. By considering the operating parameters of temperature, digestion time, microwave power and acid volume it was possible to identify the following optimum conditions: temperature, 160 degrees C; power, 750 W; digestion time, 25 min; and, an aqua regia volume of 13 mL. These microwave digestion conditions were then applied to 19 samples obtained from a former industrial site in Newcastle upon Tyne. Of the range of potentially toxic elements present at the site as a consequence of former industrial activity (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), the majority of topsoil samples indicated elevated concentrations of one or more of these elements. In particular, data obtained using either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy indicates the high and wide concentration of Pb on the site (188-60300 mg/kg). Comparing the resulting potentially toxic elements data with UK soil guidelines values (SGVs) suggests at least parts of the site represent areas of potential human health risk. It was found that lead soil values exceeded the SGV on 17 out of the 19 sampling sites; similarly for As 6 out of 19 sampling sites exceeded the SGV. While for Cd, Cr and Ni the soil levels were below the stated SGVs.

  20. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon storage potential in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Baumann, M.; Radeloff, V. C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Hostert, P.

    2010-12-01

    Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is the former Eastern Bloc, where land use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, resulting in widespread farmland abandonment and forest regrowth. The aim of this study was to examine how land use trends altered net carbon fluxes in Western Ukraine (57,000 km2) for the communist (1945-1991) and the post-communist period (1991-2007), and to assess the regions’ future carbon sequestration potential. Forest disturbance and farmland abandonment between 1988 to 2007 was estimated from Landsat imagery in former study. Historical land use change rates were obtained from forest inventories to reconstruct forest trends back to the mid-1800s. Using a carbon book-keeping model, we quantified net carbon fluxes from land use change and assessed potential future carbon fluxes for a range of reforestation and logging scenarios. Our results suggest that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion in the second half of the 20th century turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite heavy logging during Soviet times. The current land-use related sink strength is about 1.5 Tg of carbon per year. Sequestration potential on abandoned farmland is enormous, even when assuming that only a minor fraction of the currently abandoned land will revert to forests. Beyond our study area, farmland abandonment has been widespread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the regions’ industrial carbon emissions may be offset by reforesting farmland.

  1. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2000-12-11

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  2. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

    2001-01-10

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  3. 77 FR 57094 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Identification of Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Identification of... announced a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Self-Identification of Generic Drug Facilities,...

  4. Factors Affecting Groundwater Chemistry in Abandoned Terraced Paddy Fields on Sado Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Nobuhiro; Nakata, Makoto; Matsuyama, Keiko; Tsujii, Norie; Tsuchida, Takeyoshi

    The factors affecting the groundwater level and chemistry in abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island, Japan, were investigated. Seasonal changes of the groundwater level in site A, which is on the bottom of the slope, was slight throughout the year compared with that in site B, which is on the middle part of the gentle slope. EC, pH, and some components involved in mineral weathering (Na+, Ca2+ and alkalinity) in the groundwater from site A were higher than those from site B. These results showed that the infiltrating water from the upper part of the slope was the main source of the groundwater in site A. On the other hand, the impact of sea salt components (Na+ and Cl-) was evident in site B, because the concentration of these components increased during winter. Groundwater chemistry was also affected by other factors such as the dilution of groundwater caused by rainfall, sulfur redox, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. The effects of each factor on groundwater chemistry differed between sites because the topography of the two adjacent sites was different. The characteristics of water environment, such as the groundwater level and chemistry, should be considered in the management of abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island.

  5. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g-1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha-1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g-1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha-1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g-1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were only

  6. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers.

  7. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two industrial sites in the Pearl River Delta, south China.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Zhou, Guo-yi; Wen, Da-zhi; Li, Jiong; Sun, Fang-fang

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined and potential sources of PAHs were identified from the dated tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) near two industrial sites (Danshuikeng, DSK and Xiqiaoshan, XQS) in the Pearl River Delta of south China. Total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) were revealed with similar patterns of temporal trends in the tree-rings at both sites, suggesting tree-rings recorded the historical variation in atmospheric PAHs. The differences of individual PAHs and of ∑PAHs detected in the tree-rings between the two sites reflected the historical differences of airborne PAHs. Regional changes in industrial activities might contribute to the site-specific and period-specific patterns of the tree-ring PAHs. The diagnostic PAH ratios of Ant/(Ant + PA), FL/(FL + Pyr), and BaA/(BaA + Chr)) revealed that PAHs in the tree-rings at both sites mainly stemmed from the combustion process (pyrogenic sources). Principal component analysis further confirmed that wood burning, coal combustion, diesel, and gasoline-powered vehicular emissions were the dominant contributors of PAHs sources at DSK, while diesel combustion, gasoline and natural gas combustion, and incomplete coal combustion were responsible for the main origins of PAHs at XQS. Tree-ring analysis of PAHs was indicative of PAHs from a mixture of sources of combustion, thus minimizing the bias of short-term active air sampling.

  8. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  9. Pediatric Malignancies, Treatment Outcomes and Abandonment of Pediatric Cancer Treatment in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jeremy S.; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Perez, Marta; Mutalima, Nora; Newton, Robert; Chintu, Chifumbe; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chipeta, James; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Vermund, Sten H.; Friedman, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. Methods Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0–15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. Results Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.97). Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.05–2.58). Conclusions Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

  10. The Band Must Not Be Abandoned.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy A; O'Brien, Paul E

    2017-03-06

    The use of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is on the decline around the world despite the evidence base suggesting that it is a safe, effective and durable short-stay procedure which can be safely revised and is well tolerated by patients when they are appropriately supported. Currently, less than 1% of eligible obese persons are choosing to undergo bariatric surgery. If we are to improve uptake of bariatric surgery we need a raft of therapeutic options, including the LAGB, which sit between the relative impotence of medical therapies and the aggression of stapling procedures. This brief communication discusses what some of the drivers may be that are leading surgeons to abandon the band.

  11. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  12. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  13. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  14. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  15. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section 2.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written...

  16. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  17. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. 904.508 Section 904.508 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner...

  18. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. 904.508 Section 904.508 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner...

  19. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  1. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  2. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  3. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  4. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  5. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  6. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  7. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  8. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  14. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE... prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  15. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned mining

  16. A chicken in every pot, a new boiler in every powerplant, a new powerplant at every industrial site

    SciTech Connect

    Bessette, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the pressures on the industrial boiler owner today which affect how he meets his energy needs. As a result of these pressures, especially the environmental regulations, the author sees some major trends which may be indicative of what the future will hold and he discusses these. The author finally describes what the industrial power plant will be in the next 10--20 years.

  17. Evaluation of TVA`s model site and individual technology pollution prevention demonstration programs and their impact on the agrichemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-06-01

    The high volume of fertilizer and pesticides funneled through a relatively small number of distribution outlets has made these agribusiness sites potential sources of surface/groundwater contamination in watersheds surrounding the agrichemical facilities. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. Since inception, the pollution prevention program and the technologies advanced by it have made a very positive impact on the US agrichemical industry, as well as on other TVA programs. This paper is an attempt to document these impacts, with primary focus being placed on the program`s impact on the agribusiness dealer who implements the pollution prevention technologies/practices recommended by TVA.

  18. From Science to Industry: The Sites of Aluminium in France from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Muriel

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the history of the isolation and industrial production of aluminium in France, from the work of Henri Sainte-Claire Deville in the 1850s to the latter part of the twentieth century, focusing on the relationships between academic research and industrial exploitation. In particular, it identifies a culture and organisation of research and development, "learning-by-doing," that emerged in the French aluminium industry following the establishment of the first electrolytic production facilities in the late 1880s by Paul Héroult, who, along with the American Charles Hall, patented the electrolytic method of producing the metal. This French method of R&D was a product both of a scientific culture that saw a continuity between scientific research and industrial application, and of a state policy that, unlike in Germany or the United States, was late to recognise the importance of fostering, on a large scale, the relations between academic chemistry and industry. It was only after World War II that the French state came fully to recognise the importance of underpinning industry with scientific research. And it was only from the 1960s, in the face of intensifying global competition, the risks of pollution, and the cost of energy, that the major aluminium firm Pechiney et Cie was able to replace a culture of "learning-by-doing" by one that integrated fundamental science with the production process.

  19. Evaluation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulation in plants from typical industrial sites: potential candidate in phytoremediation for co-contamination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Liao, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiulan; Zhu, Ganghui; Ma, Dong

    2014-11-01

    The heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were evaluated in surface soil and plant samples of 18 wild species collected from 3 typical industrial sites in South Central China. The accumulative characteristics of the plant species for both heavy metal and PAHs were discussed. The simultaneous accumulation of heavy metal and PAHs in plant and soil was observed at all the investigated sites, although disparities in spatial distributions among sites occurred. Both plant and soil samples were characterized by high accumulation for heavy metal at smelting site, moderate enrichment at coke power and coal mining sites, whereas high level of PAHs (16 priority pollutants according to US Environmental Protection Agency) at coke power site, followed sequentially by coal mining and smelting sites. Based on the differences of heavy metal and PAH accumulation behaviors of the studied plant species, heavy metal and PAH accumulation strategies were suggested: Pteris vittata L. and Pteris cretica L. for As and PAHs, Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud for Pb, As, and PAHs, and Miscanthus floridulu (Labnll.) Warb for Cu and PAHs. These native plant species could be proposed as promising materials for heavy metal and PAHs combined pollution remediation.

  20. Quantity and quality of stormwater collected from selected stormwater outfalls at industrial sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, Doug D.

    2013-01-01

    Samples from sites SWR11–3, SWR11–4, and SWR11–5 were analyzed for 83 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, were detected at all three sites. Of the 86 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds that were analyzed in stormwater samples from heating and cooling sites, 15 (18 percent) were detected at site SWR11–3, 12 (14 percent) were detected at site SWR11–4, and 17 (20 percent) were detected at site SWR11–5.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  2. Simulation of zones of contribution to wells at site GM–38, Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Bethpage, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misut, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater-flow model is coupled with the particle-tracking program MODPATH to delineate zones of contribution to wells pumping from the Magothy aquifer and supplying water to a chlorinated volatile organic compound removal plant at site GM–38, Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Bethpage, New York. By use of driller’s logs, a transitional probability approach generated three alternative realizations of heterogeneity within the Magothy aquifer to assess uncertainty in model representation. Finer-grained sediments with low hydraulic conductivity were realized as laterally discontinuous, thickening towards the south, and comprising about 17 percent of the total aquifer volume. Particle-tracking evaluations of a steady state present conditions model with alternative heterogeneity realizations were used to develop zones of contribution of remedial pumping wells. Because of heterogeneity and high rates of advection within the coarse-grained sediments, transport by dispersion and (or) diffusion was assumed to be negligible. Resulting zones of contribution of existing remedial wells are complex shapes, influenced by heterogeneity of each realization and other nearby hydrologic stresses. The use of two particle tracking techniques helped identify zones of contribution to wells. Backtracking techniques and observations of points of intersection of backward-tracked particles at shells of the GM–38 Hot Spot, as defined by surfaces of equal total volatile organic compound concentration, identified the source of water within the GM–38 Hot Spot to simulated wells. Forward-tracking techniques identified the fate of water within the GM–38 Hot Spot, including well capture and discharge to model constant head and drain boundaries. The percentage of backward-tracked particles, started at GM–38 wells that were sourced from within the Hot Spot, varied from 72.0 to 98.2, depending on the Hot Spot delineation used (present steady state model and

  3. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Clare; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Thompson, Julian R; Loma, Rona Joy A; Koldewey, Heather J

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves provide vital climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) ecosystem services (ES), yet have suffered extensive tropics-wide declines. To mitigate losses, rehabilitation is high on the conservation agenda. However, the relative functionality and ES delivery of rehabilitated mangroves in different intertidal locations is rarely assessed. In a case study from Panay Island, Philippines, using field- and satellite-derived methods, we assess carbon stocks and coastal protection potential of rehabilitated low-intertidal seafront and mid- to upper-intertidal abandoned (leased) fishpond areas, against reference natural mangroves. Due to large sizes and appropriate site conditions, targeted abandoned fishpond reversion to former mangrove was found to be favourable for enhancing CCMA in the coastal zone. In a municipality-specific case study, 96.7% of abandoned fishponds with high potential for effective greenbelt rehabilitation had favourable tenure status for reversion. These findings have implications for coastal zone management in Asia in the face of climate change.

  4. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  5. Effects of habitat on avian productivity in abandoned pecan orchards in southern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs and nestlings were determined for Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum) and Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) occupying abandoned pecan orchards in a highly fragmented and intensively farmed area of southern Georgia. The effects of nest placement parameters, seasonal factors and habitat disruptions on DSRs for all species combined were statistically analyzed. Egg and nestling DSRs varied significantly by month of nesting, percent cover, vegetative form and position of nest in substrate. Causes of nest failure (no fledglings produced) in order of decreasing importance were predation by small mammals/snakes, avian predation, predation by large mammals, and abandonment. Results provide further evidence that the importance of nest placement and habitat disruptions in nesting success is influenced by foraging strategies of the predator community. Site-specific predator/habitat complexes may be a more appropriate criterion than habitat conditions alone for evaluating avian nesting habitat

  6. Options for streamlining the site assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, R.

    1996-12-31

    The current site assessment process consists of entry into the CERCLA Information System (CERCLIS) database; completion of the Preliminary Assessment (PA), Site Inspection (SI), and Hazard Ranking System (HRS) documents; and placement on the National Priorities List (NPL). The purpose behind site assessment has been to identify sites for the NPL, not identify the most appropriate means for clearup. Several developments have led EPA to consider redesigning the process, including; the need to encourage brownfields redevelopment; the unintended stigma associated with being on CERCLIS; and the increased expertise of State and some Tribal programs. (For purposes of this paper, brownfields are considered abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.) EPA has begun various site assessment pilots to aid in developing a more efficient and effective Superfund site assessment program. Key goals are to give States increased responsibility, encourage early/more efficient cleanups, reduce costs, and promote environmental recovery and economic revitalization. Possible components of a revised site assessment program are presented.

  7. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared.

  8. Prioritizing abandoned coal mine reclamation projects within the contiguous United States using geographic information system extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Gorokhovich, Yuri; Reid, Matthew; Mignone, Erica; Voros, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    Coal mine reclamation projects are very expensive and require coordination of local and federal agencies to identify resources for the most economic way of reclaiming mined land. Location of resources for mine reclamation is a spatial problem. This article presents a methodology that allows the combination of spatial data on resources for the coal mine reclamation and uses GIS analysis to develop a priority list of potential mine reclamation sites within contiguous United States using the method of extrapolation. The extrapolation method in this study was based on the Bark Camp reclamation project. The mine reclamation project at Bark Camp, Pennsylvania, USA, provided an example of the beneficial use of fly ash and dredged material to reclaim 402,600 sq mi of a mine abandoned in the 1980s. Railroads provided transportation of dredged material and fly ash to the site. Therefore, four spatial elements contributed to the reclamation project at Bark Camp: dredged material, abandoned mines, fly ash sources, and railroads. Using spatial distribution of these data in the contiguous United States, it was possible to utilize GIS analysis to prioritize areas where reclamation projects similar to Bark Camp are feasible. GIS analysis identified unique occurrences of all four spatial elements used in the Bark Camp case for each 1 km of the United States territory within 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 km radii from abandoned mines. The results showed the number of abandoned mines for each state and identified their locations. The federal or state governments can use these results in mine reclamation planning.

  9. 77 FR 51811 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Identification of Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Identification of... written comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630... enhancements to FDA's generic drugs program. GDUFA will also significantly improve global supply...

  10. Site selection and preliminary evaluation of potential solar-industrial-process-heat applications for federal buildings in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, M A

    1980-09-30

    The potential for solr process heat applications for federal buildings in Texas is assessed. The three sites considered are Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock; Fort Bliss, El Paso; and Dyess Air Force Base, Abilene. The application at Lubbock is an electroplating and descaling facility for aircraft maintenance. The one at El Paso is a laundry facility. The Abilene system would use solar heat to preheat boiler feedwater makeup for the base hospital boiler plant. The Lubbock site is found to be the most appropriate one for a demonstration plant, with the Abilene site as an alternate. The processes at each site are described. A preliminary evaluation of the potential contribution by solar energy to the electroplating facility at Reese AFB is included. (LEW)

  11. Geophysical and chemical investigations of ground water at five industrial or waste-disposal sites in Logan Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1983-87

    SciTech Connect

    Kzonski, J.; Lacombe, P.J.; Hochreiter, J.J.; Lewis, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Five former or active industrial or waste disposal sites in Logan Township were identified by the Federal government and by the State of New Jersey as potential threats to the quality of groundwater there. The sites are: (1) Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. waste disposal site; (2) Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc.; (3) Chemical Leaman Tank Lines, Inc.; (4) Monsanto Company; and (5) Rollins Environmental Services, Inc. Quality of groundwater was determined by chemical analysis of samples from wells at four of the five sites and elsewhere in the township. Groundwater in the lower aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-magothy aquifer system in Logan Township and surrounding areas is dominated by sodium and chloride ions and is slightly saline. Calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in the upper and middle aquifers; the concentration of dissolved solids is low. Concentrations of iron and manganese in the groundwater range from 6 to 73,000 microgm/L, and from 33 to 1,100 microgm/L. Concentrations of organic carbon range from 0.60 to 4.2 mg/L. Areas of high apparent conductivity were detected east of the waste oil lagoon at the Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc. site. Inorganic groundwater contamination at the site is characterized by concentrations of cadmium and lead that exceed Federal and State primary drinking water regulations. Groundwater at the Chemical Leaman site also is characterized by elevated concentrations of organic nitrogen, and concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, and Hg that exceed Federal primary drinking water regulations. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 339 to 3,530 mg/L at the Monsanto Site and typically are much higher than background levels, but the cause is unclear. 86 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, Laura E.; Cotter, Ed

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that collectively

  13. Phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential of plants grown in the vicinity of heavy metal-contaminated soils: a case study at an industrial town site.

    PubMed

    Lorestani, B; Yousefi, N; Cheraghi, M; Farmany, A

    2013-12-01

    With the development of urbanization and industrialization, soils have become increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, nonintrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements, can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. In this research, two processes of phytoremediation (phytoextraction and phytostabilization) were surveyed in some plant species around an industrial town in the Hamedan Province in the central-western part of Iran. To this purpose, shoots and roots of the seven plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measuring Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations using ICP-AES and then calculating the biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters for each element. The obtained results showed that among the collected plants, Salsola soda is the most effective species for phytoextraction and phytostabilization and Cirsium arvense has the potential for phytostabilization of the measured heavy metals.

  14. Abandoning nature: swimming pools and clean, healthy recreation in Hamilton, Ontario, c. 1930s-1950s.

    PubMed

    Bouchier, Nancy B; Cruikshank, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Municipal swimming pools arose as a technological fix for an urban public health and recreation crisis in Hamilton when its bay became a polluted sink for residential and industrial wastes. Until World War II, city leaders and medical authorities believed that they could identify, delineate, and construct safe natural swimming areas along the bay's shore, supplemented by a few public artificial swimming pools. After the war, the pollution situation worsened. For those who couldn't travel to cleaner lakeshores elsewhere, local authorities created swimming pools, thus abandoning the natural waters of the bay to the "constructive power of the profit motive".

  15. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  16. Use of ground-water tracers to evaluate the hydraulic connection between Key Cave and the proposed industrial site near Florence, Alabama, 2000 and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, Robert E.; Taylor, Charles J.; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to attract new industries and jobs, the city of Florence, Alabama has proposed development of an industrial park southwest of the city. Carbonate rock under-lines the area and sinkholes, springs, caves, and sinking streams are common. Key Cave, located about 5 miles southwest of the proposed park, is the only know habitat for the Alabama Cavefish (Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni). The Alabama Cavefish is a Federally designated Endangered Species, and Key Cave has been designated as Critical Habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the city of Florence and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assist in determining if a hydraulic connection exists between the proposed industrial park and Key Cave. Dye tracing methods were used in the investigation to determine if a hydraulic connection exists. Dye tracing is a technique that involves labeling a discrete quantity of ground water with a fluorescent dye so that its flow in the subsurface can be tracked to a ground-water discharge point. Monitoring for dyes involved the use of passive dye detectors placed in springs, wells, caves and surface streams. During the passage of ground water containing fluorescent dye, the dye is absorbed and concentrated on the detectors. Spectrofluorometric analyses of the detectors determines the presence or absence of dye. Dye injected in well I-1 on January 10, 2001, was recovered from site 67, Cypress Creek at General John Coffee Highway (State Highway 20) on January 17, 2001. No dye was recovered from site 68, Cypress Creek at Waterloo Road (County Road 14), indicating an east-southeast flow path from well I-1 to Cypress Creek. No positive dye recovery was made from dye injected in well I-2 on January 10, 2001. Water samples collected from the well February 1 and 15, 2001, showed little movement into the ground-water system. Dye injected in well I-3 on January 10, 2001, was recovered at two sites in Key Cave and at other locations. This test indicates a hydraulic

  17. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  18. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Community Involvement Plan: Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Factsheets related to the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region, generally located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, and are in the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters.

  20. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  1. 67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to Lake Trapps. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  3. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WINGWALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WINGWALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD ABANDONED WATERPUMP FACILITY FOR A SUGAR PROCESSING PLANT SOUTH OF THE BRIDGE. - Winnebago River Bridge, Spanning Winnebago River at U.S. Highway 65, Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, IA

  4. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pH<7), hydrolisis and metal leaching, precipitation of oxides and sulphates. The restoration of these sites, therefore, is a primary objective, in order to reduce/eliminate the risk associated to the contamination sources of past activities, and the consequent environmental and human health hazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could

  5. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  6. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  7. The abandoned ice sheet base at Camp Century, Greenland, in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, William; Machguth, Horst; MacFerrin, Mike; Colgan, Jeff D.; As, Dirk; MacGregor, Joseph A.

    2016-08-01

    In 1959 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built Camp Century beneath the surface of the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet. There they studied the feasibility of deploying ballistic missiles within the ice sheet. The base and its wastes were abandoned with minimal decommissioning in 1967, under the assumption they would be preserved for eternity by perpetually accumulating snowfall. Here we show that a transition in ice sheet surface mass balance at Camp Century from net accumulation to net ablation is plausible within the next 75 years, under a business-as-usual anthropogenic emissions scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5). Net ablation would guarantee the eventual remobilization of physical, chemical, biological, and radiological wastes abandoned at the site. While Camp Century and four other contemporaneous ice sheet bases were legally established under a Danish-U.S. treaty, the potential remobilization of their abandoned wastes, previously regarded as sequestered, represents an entirely new pathway of political dispute resulting from climate change.

  8. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  9. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. A science-based, watershed strategy to support effective remediation of abandoned mine lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Nimick, David A.; Von Guerard, Paul; Church, Stanley E.; Frazier, Ann G.; Gray, John R.; Lipin, Bruce R.; Marsh, Sherman P.; Woodward, Daniel F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Finger, Susan E.; Ischinger, Lee S.; Fordham, John C.; Power, Martha S.; Bunch, Christine M.; Jones, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative will develop a strategy for gathering and communicating the scientific information needed to formulate effective and cost-efficient remediation of abandoned mine lands. A watershed approach will identify, characterize, and remediate contaminated sites that have the most profound effect on water and ecosystem quality within a watershed. The Initiative will be conducted during 1997 through 2001 in two pilot watersheds, the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in Montana. Initiative efforts are being coordinated with the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, and other stakeholders which are using the resulting scientific information to design and implement remediation activities. The Initiative has the following eight objective-oriented components: estimate background (pre-mining) conditions; define baseline (current) conditions; identify target sites (major contaminant sources); characterize target sites and processes affecting contaminant dispersal; characterize ecosystem health and controlling processes at target sites; develop remediation goals and monitoring network; provide an integrated, quality-assured and accessible data network; and document lessons learned for future applications of the watershed approach.

  11. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  12. Assessment of microbial quality of fish processing industrial effluent in bar-mouth at Bhidia landing site, Veraval, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, G K; Visnuvinayagam, S; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Renuka, V; Remya, S; Vanik, Deesha

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of fish processing industries effluent at Bhidia bar-mouth, Veraval, Gujarat during April, 2012 to March 2013. The total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, E. coli count (EC), Staphylococcus aureus and Fecal Streptococcal count in effluent ranged from 3.0 x 10(-1) to 6.8 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(1) to 2.9 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 5 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 4 x 102 and 0.3 x 10(1) to 0. 1 x 10(4) cfu.(-1)respectively. Significantly higher load of TEC, E. coli, S.aureus, Fecal Streptococci, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms were higher during summer whereas, TVBC was higher in the month of Sept.-Oct. Furthermore, the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were found to be higher with 1400+ /100 ml MPN value throughout the year of the study, except in the month of August. Overall occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal streptococci were 41.67%, 25.00% and 66.67% respectively during this period. The antibiogram of the isolated E. coli isolates show that almost 50% were resistant to Cefazidime/Clavulanic acid (CAC), Amoxyclav (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIF) and Ampicillin (AMP). The present study indicated that the effluent of fish processing industry was heavily contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal Streptococci which confirmed improper treatment of fish processing effluent. Moreover, the precedence of antibiotic resistant E. coli may pose threat to public health safety.

  13. Comparative PM10-PM2.5 source contribution study at rural, urban and industrial sites during PM episodes in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, María-Mar; Alarcón, Marta; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, C R

    2004-07-26

    In this study a set of 340 PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected throughout 16 months at rural, an urban kerbside and an industrial background site (affected by the emissions from the ceramic manufacture and other activities) were interpreted. On the regional scale, the main PM10 sources were mineral dust (mainly Al2O3, Fe, Ti, Sr, CaCO3, Mg, Mn and K), emissions derived from power generation (SO4=, V, Zn and Ni), vehicle exhausts (organic and elemental carbon, NO3- and trace elements) and marine aerosol (Na, Cl and Mg). The latter was not identified in PM2.5. At the industrial site, additional PM10 sources were identified (tile covering in the ceramic production, petrochemical emissions and bio-mass burning from a large orange tree cultivation area). The contribution of each PM source to PM10 and PM2.5 levels experiences significant variations depending on the type of PM episode (Local-urban mainly in autumn-winter, regional mainly in summer, African or Atlantic episode), which are discussed in this study. The results show that it would be very difficult to meet the EU limit values for PM10 established for 2010. The annual mean PM levels are 22.0 microg PM10/m3 at the rural and 49.5 microg PM10/m3 and 33.9 microg PM2.5/m3 at the urban site. The natural contribution in this region, estimated at 6 microg/m3 of natural mineral dust (resulting from the African events and natural resuspension) and 2 microg/m3 of marine aerosol, accounts for 40% of the 2010 EU annual limit value (20 microg PM10/m3). Mineral dust concentrations at the urban and industrial sites are higher than those at the rural site because of the urban road dust and the ceramic-production contributions, respectively. At the urban site, the vehicle exhaust contribution (17 microg/m3) alone is very close to the 2010 EU PM10 limit value. At the rural site, the African dust is the main contributor to PM10 levels during the highest daily mean PM10 events (100th-97th percentile range). At the urban site, the

  14. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  15. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  16. Effect of land abandonment on soil organic carbon fractions along a precipitation gradient in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Trigalet, Sylvain; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Land abandonment has been the main land use change in rural European Mediterranean areas over the last decades. The secondary succession process following land abandonment is strongly affected by precipitation, which in consequence determines the parallel change of soil organic carbon (SOC) and other soil properties. SOC is usually assumed to increase due to the intensification of plant residues inputs to soil, above as well below ground. However, SOC is composed of different fractions with contrasting resistance to decomposition that can have different responses to land abandonment. The objectives of this study are: i) to determine the net effect of land abandonment on the different soil organic carbon fractions; ii) to assess the relation between vegetation evolution and SOC fractions; iii) to establish the conditions with the greater potential to store stable SOC along a precipitation gradient. Three field sites with contrasting annual precipitation (GAU: 1080.5 mm yr-1- ALM: 650 mm yr-1- GER: 350 mm yr-1) were selected. On each site Fields abandoned in different periods, as verified on aerial photographs taken in 1956, 1977, 1984, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2009, were selected using a chronosequence approach. The fractionation protocol implemented was based on the separation of different soil particle sizes, which are associated to SOC pools with different degree of stability. Samples of the first 10 cm of soil were added to a sodium-hexametaphosphate (HMP) solution (40 g L-1) and shaken horizontally for 1h (150 r.p.m.). The soil solution was then sieved consecutively through two meshes of 250 µm and 50 µm, obtaining the following fractions: i) >250 µm (coarse fraction), it contains coarse particles (coarse sand) and plant residues (particulate organic matter, POM), easily decomposable, that constitute the more labile SOC pool; ii) 50 - 250 µm (mid fraction), it contains fine sand, fine POM easily decomposable and stable microaggregates, that contains SOC

  17. School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s Investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tinney, Veronica A.; Denton, Jerad M.; Sciallo-Tyler, Lucy; Paulson, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the 17 April 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries, and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades kindergarten–12, a nursing care facility, and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries. Objectives: The goal of this commentary is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous chemicals, and highlight the need for additional regulations to prevent future siting of schools near these facilities. Discussion: We summarize the findings of the CSB’s investigation related to the damaged school buildings and the lack of regulation surrounding the siting of schools near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Conclusions: In light of the current lack of federal authority for oversight of land use near educational institutions, state and local governments should take a proactive role in promulgating state regulations that prohibit the siting of public receptors, such as buildings occupied by children, near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Citation: Tinney VA, Denton JM, Sciallo-Tyler L, Paulson JA. 2016. School siting near industrial chemical facilities: findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion. Environ Health Perspect 124:1493–1496; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP132 PMID:27483496

  18. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  19. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  20. Risk-Based Radionuclide Derived Concentration Guideline Levels For An Industrial Worker Exposed To Concrete-Slab End States At The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    GERALD, JANNIK

    2005-04-25

    Dose and risk assessments are an integral part of decommissioning activities. Most human health risk assessments are performed for a reasonable maximum exposure to an individual with assumed intake and exposure parameters that depend on the end state of the decommissioning activities and the likely future use of the site. Regardless of how the potentially exposed individual is defined, the subsequent calculated human health risk is not a measurable quantity. To demonstrate compliance with risk-based acceptance or cleanliness criteria, facility-specific risk assessments usually are performed after final-verification sampling and analysis. Alternatively, conservative, a priori, guideline concentrations for residual contaminants can be calculated and rapidly compared to the subsequently measured contaminant concentrations to demonstrate compliance. In response to the request for accelerated cleanup at U.S. Department of Energy facilities, the Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs. When appropriate, these conservative DCGLs will be used at SRS in lieu of facility-specific risk assessments to further accelerate the decommissioning process. This paper discusses and describes the methods and scenario-specific parameters used to estimate the risk-based DCGLs for the SRS decommissioning end state.

  1. Environmental assessment on industrial cogeneration demonstration plant at the Riegel Textile Mill site, Ware Shoals, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The paper examines the potential environmental, health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts of the proposed industrial cogeneration demonstration plant at the Riegel Textile Corporation's mill in Ware Shoals, South Carolina. The proposal involves installing and demonstrating cogeneration of process steam and electricity by topping process steam. Section I discusses the need and purpose for the proposal. Section II discusses alternatives including the proposed action. Alternatives including the proposed cogeneration system discussed are no action; replacement of one existing boiler, omitting cogeneration; system alternatives (cogeneration bottoming cycles, alternative cogeneration topping cycles. Section III provides past and present data on those aspects of the local environment which could be affected by the proposed actions. Items discussed are topography and climatology, geology and oils; air quality; water resources and quality; ecological resources; land use plans and policies; socioeconomic setting; health and safety; utilities and services; energy resources; cultural resources and aesthetics and details on these items are presented in Section IV. A summary of impacts associated with, impact of alternatives to, and mitigating measures to the proposed action are also presented in Section IV. Discussions on unavoidable adverse environmental effects; irreversible and irretrievable commitment of resources; relationship of land use plans, policies, and controls; and relationship between short-term use of environment and maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity conclude Section IV. (MCW)

  2. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    PubMed

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  3. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    PubMed

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  4. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  5. Plant pathogens but not antagonists change in soil fungal communities across a land abandonment gradient in a Mediterranean landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosso, L.; Lacatena, F.; Varlese, R.; Nocerino, S.; Cristinzio, G.; Russo, D.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether the presence and abundance of plant pathogens and antagonists change in soil fungal communities along a land abandonment gradient. The study was carried out in the Cilento area (Southern Italy) at a site with three different habitats found along a land abandonment gradient: agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. For all microbiological substrates the colony forming units were about 3.1 × 106 g-1 soil for agricultural land and about 1.1 × 106 g-1 soil for Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. We found the following genera in all habitats: Cladosporium, Mortierella, Penicillium and Trichoderma. In agricultural land, the significantly most abundant fungus genera were Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon and Nectria; in Mediterranean shrubland, Rhizopus and Trichoderma; and in woodland, Bionectria, Mortierella, Cladosporium, Diplodia, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma. We found a total of 8, 8 and 9 species of fungal antagonist, and 16, 6 and 6 species of fungal plant pathogens in agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland respectively. Fungal plant pathogens decreased significantly over a land abandonment gradient, while we no found significant differences among fungal antagonists in the three habitats. We conclude that a decrease in the number of fungal pathogen species occurs when formerly cultivated areas are abandoned. On the other hand, fungal antagonists seem not to be affected by this process.

  6. Principal determinants of species and functional diversity of carabid beetle assemblages during succession at post-industrial sites.

    PubMed

    Sipos, J; Hodecek, J; Kuras, T; Dolny, A

    2017-01-31

    Although ecological succession is one of the principal focuses of recent restoration ecology research, it is still unclear which factors drive this process and positively influence species richness and functional diversity. In this study we sought to elucidate how species traits and functional diversity change during forest succession, and to identify important factors that determine the species in the observed assemblages. We analyzed species richness and functional diversity of ground beetle assemblages in relation to succession on post-industrial localities after habitat deterioration caused by spoil deposition. We selected ground beetles as they are known to be sensitive to landscape changes (with a large range of responses), and their taxonomy and ecology are generally well-known. Ground beetles were sampled on the spoil heaps during the last 30 years when spontaneous succession occurred. To calculate functional diversity, we used traits related to habitat and trophic niche, i.e. food specialization, wing morphology, trophic level, and bio-indication value. Ground beetle species were found to be distributed non-randomly in the assemblages in the late phase of succession. Ordination analyses revealed that the ground beetle assemblage was significantly associated with the proportion of forested area. Environmental heterogeneity generated assemblages that contained over-dispersed species traits. Our findings indicated that environmental conditions at late successional stages supported less mobile carnivorous species. Overall, we conclude that the decline in species richness and functional diversity in the middle of the studied succession gradient indicated that the assemblages of open habitats had been replaced by species typical of forest ecosystems.

  7. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  8. A method for the assessment of site-specific economic impacts of commercial and industrial biomass energy facilities. A handbook and computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    A handbook on ``A Method for the Assessment of Site-specific Econoomic Impacts of Industrial and Commercial Biomass Energy Facilities`` has been prepared by Resource Systems Group Inc. under contract to the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP). The handbook includes a user-friendly Lotus 123 spreadsheet which calculates the economic impacts of biomass energy facilities. The analysis uses a hybrid approach, combining direct site-specific data provided by the user, with indirect impact multipliers from the US Forest Service IMPLAN input/output model for each state. Direct economic impacts are determined primarily from site-specific data and indirect impacts are determined from the IMPLAN multipliers. The economic impacts are given in terms of income, employment, and state and federal taxes generated directly by the specific facility and by the indirect economic activity associated with each project. A worksheet is provided which guides the user in identifying and entering the appropriate financial data on the plant to be evaluated. The WLAN multipliers for each state are included in a database within the program. The multipliers are applied automatically after the user has entered the site-specific data and the state in which the facility is located. Output from the analysis includes a summary of direct and indirect income, employment and taxes. Case studies of large and small wood energy facilities and an ethanol plant are provided as examples to demonstrate the method. Although the handbook and program are intended for use by those with no previous experience in economic impact analysis, suggestions are given for the more experienced user who may wish to modify the analysis techniques.

  9. Mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM2.5 at an industrial site in Kingston, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boman, Johan; Gaita, Samuel M.

    2015-11-01

    An estimated three million premature deaths yearly can be attributed to ambient particulate pollution, a majority of them in low and middle income countries. The rapid increase in the vehicle fleet in urban areas of the Caribbean countries have experienced contributes to the bad urban air quality. In this study aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than, or equal to, 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected over 24 h at a site along Spanish Town Road, one of the main commuter roads in Kingston, Jamaica. The study was aimed at determining the mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM2.5 in Kingston. Although lead in the gasoline was phased out in the year 2000, up to 5000 ppm of sulfur is still allowed in the diesel, leading to an extensive secondary particle formation. PM2.5 samples were collected using a Mini-vol sampler between 12 December 2013 and 21 March 2014 and analyzed for trace elements using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility at Lund University, Sweden. Concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. Elemental concentrations showed a high temporal variation and the average PM2.5 concentration (44 μg m-3) is higher than the air quality standards that apply in the European Union (25 μg m-3) and in the USA (12 μg m-3). From this we can conclude that the air quality in the area is severely influenced by PM2.5 pollution and that there is a need to develop plans for improving the air quality in Kingston city.

  10. Analyzing SO2 concentrations and wind directions during a short monitoring campaign at a site far from the industrial pole of La Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ratto, Gustavo; Videla, Fabian; Maronna, Ricardo

    2009-02-01

    This article presents and discusses SO2 air quality concentrations (ppbv) together with wind velocities and directions measurements carried out between September 1st and December 21st 2005 at a site located 8.5 km away from the Industrial Pole of La Plata area. As the city and its surroundings have no official monitoring network, the current work enlarges the air quality information available from the zone and sets some initial considerations to the future siting of monitoring stations. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using techniques of tests for outliers and trends, dissimilarity measures and robust regression. In relation to SO2 concentrations, low values were found during this short campaign considering daily averages (with a maximum of 8.5 ppbv) and hourly averages (with a maximum of 25.9 ppbv); World Health Organization guidelines were never surpassed. Nevertheless, a strong dependence between wind directions carrying air pollutants from the Industrial Pole and hourly concentration peaks were found. Due to low monthly SO2 concentrations and because a decreasing time trend was found, the authors propose, as an example, the implementation of an alternative discontinuous method to the continuous analyzer used in the current campaign. Our results state that sampling every 7 days at 13:00-13:59 hours (local time) would be enough to get representative values of the air quality. As a general remark it is possible to highlight that longer and systematic studies should be encouraged to confirm the seasonal wind pattern and to evaluate the air quality.

  11. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  12. Geophysical Survey of an Abandoned Cemetery in Amite County, Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A Ground Penetrating Radar survey was conducted as part of a forensic investigation of an abandoned cemetery in Amite County, Mississippi. Oral histories from local residents suggest the existence of a cemetery with headstones in the early 20th century. However, the headstones were removed circa 1930 so that the area could be plowed for farming. The exact number of burials and age of burials is not known. Amite county was organized in 1809 and early settlers were of English descent from Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. In addition, the study area contains several Indian mounds of unknown age that were partially leveled circa 1930 for farming. The local community is interested in preserving the site, which is now in a proposed highway expansion zone, to document the history of the area. Objectives were to determine the number and locations of graves and to define the GPR characteristics that might distinguish 19th or early 20th century burials in caskets from burials in simple (or no) enclosures or Indian artifacts. A 50 m by 25 m section was selected for the GPR survey which comprised parallel east-west profiles at a 0.5 m spacing. Profiles were collected with a Sensors and Software cart-mounted bistatic unit with 200 MHz antenna and a 0.5 m antenna separation. Soils in the study area are well drained silty loams and subsurface image quality is very good. Estimated velocity for time to depth conversion is 0.07 m/ns. Records were 90 ns in length which corresponds to a depth of approximately 3.15 m. Most graves are longitudinally oriented north-south. Therefore the GPR profiles define grave width. Graves in non-migrated GPR sections are parabolic reflections. The size and shape of these reflections distinguish them from other sources (debris or roots). Many of the parabolic reflections partially overlap which is also observed in modern cemeteries with closely spaced burials. Power lines in the area produced significant noise but the parabolic curves

  13. Inter-comparison of source apportionment of PM10 using PMF and CMB in three sites nearby an industrial area in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesari, Daniela; Donateo, Antonio; Conte, Marianna; Contini, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    Receptor models (RMs), based on chemical composition of particulate matter (PM), such as Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), represent useful tools for determining the impact of PM sources to air quality. This information is useful, especially in areas influenced by anthropogenic activities, to plan mitigation strategies for environmental management. Recent inter-comparison of source apportionment (SA) results showed that one of the difficulties in the comparison of estimated source contributions is the compatibility of the sources, i.e. the chemical profiles of factor/sources used in receptor models. This suggests that SA based on integration of several RMs could give more stable and reliable solutions with respect to a single model. The aim of this work was to perform inter-comparison of PMF (using PMF3.0 and PMF5.0 codes) and CMB outputs, focusing on both source chemical profiles and estimates of source contributions. The dataset included 347 daily PM10 samples collected in three sites in central Italy located near industrial emissions. Samples were chemically analysed for the concentrations of 21 chemical species (NH4+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+, K+, Mg2 +, SO42 -, NO3-, Cl-, Si, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, EC, and OC) used as input of RMs. The approach identified 9 factor/sources: marine, traffic, resuspended dust, biomass burning, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate, crustal, coal combustion power plant and harbour-industrial. Results showed that the application of constraints in PMF5.0 improved interpretability of profiles and comparability of estimated source contributions with stoichiometric calculations. The inter-comparison of PMF and CMB gave significant differences for secondary nitrate, biomass burning, and harbour-industrial sources, due to non-compatibility of these source profiles that have local specificities. When these site-dependent specificities were taken into account, optimising the input source profiles of

  14. Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.; Babendreier, J.; Cherry, D.

    1999-07-01

    As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site.

  15. Detection of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. Drinking Water Linked to Industrial Sites, Military Fire Training Areas, and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water contamination with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) poses risks to the developmental, immune, metabolic, and endocrine health of consumers. We present a spatial analysis of 2013–2015 national drinking water PFAS concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) program. The number of industrial sites that manufacture or use these compounds, the number of military fire training areas, and the number of wastewater treatment plants are all significant predictors of PFAS detection frequencies and concentrations in public water supplies. Among samples with detectable PFAS levels, each additional military site within a watershed’s eight-digit hydrologic unit is associated with a 20% increase in PFHxS, a 10% increase in both PFHpA and PFOA, and a 35% increase in PFOS. The number of civilian airports with personnel trained in the use of aqueous film-forming foams is significantly associated with the detection of PFASs above the minimal reporting level. We find drinking water supplies for 6 million U.S. residents exceed US EPA’s lifetime health advisory (70 ng/L) for PFOS and PFOA. Lower analytical reporting limits and additional sampling of smaller utilities serving <10000 individuals and private wells would greatly assist in further identifying PFAS contamination sources. PMID:27752509

  16. Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in industrial site soils: a case study of urban renewal in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenrui; Wang, Rusong; Zhou, Chuanbin; Li, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A field survey was conducted in a contaminated industrial site of southern Beijing, China to investigate the contents and distribution of the organochlorine pesticides (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT) in the profiles of soil, and a health risk assessment was carried out with CalTOX multimedia exposure model. Results showed that mean concentrations of total hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers (DDXs) in soils were in the range of 13.20-148.71 mg/kg, and 3.02-67.43 mg/kg, respectively. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) content peaked in the surface and declined in soil profile with depth. The amounts of HCHs in three profiles of soil were larger than DDXs. Composition analysis indicated that there was a trend of degradation of OCPs in the site, but the mean of HCHs and DDXs concentration were over the state warning standard limit (HCHs, 0.50 mg/kg; DDXs, 0.50 mg/kg). According to current land use development, health risk assessment with CalTOX and Monte Carlo analysis showed that health risks mainly came from two exposure pathways: dermal uptake and inhalation, and the total risk values all exceeded the general acceptable health risk value (10-6). The sensitivity analysis indicated that five parameters significantly contributed to total risk.

  17. Detection of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. Drinking Water Linked to Industrial Sites, Military Fire Training Areas, and Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xindi C; Andrews, David Q; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Bruton, Thomas A; Schaider, Laurel A; Grandjean, Philippe; Lohmann, Rainer; Carignan, Courtney C; Blum, Arlene; Balan, Simona A; Higgins, Christopher P; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-10-11

    Drinking water contamination with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) poses risks to the developmental, immune, metabolic, and endocrine health of consumers. We present a spatial analysis of 2013-2015 national drinking water PFAS concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) program. The number of industrial sites that manufacture or use these compounds, the number of military fire training areas, and the number of wastewater treatment plants are all significant predictors of PFAS detection frequencies and concentrations in public water supplies. Among samples with detectable PFAS levels, each additional military site within a watershed's eight-digit hydrologic unit is associated with a 20% increase in PFHxS, a 10% increase in both PFHpA and PFOA, and a 35% increase in PFOS. The number of civilian airports with personnel trained in the use of aqueous film-forming foams is significantly associated with the detection of PFASs above the minimal reporting level. We find drinking water supplies for 6 million U.S. residents exceed US EPA's lifetime health advisory (70 ng/L) for PFOS and PFOA. Lower analytical reporting limits and additional sampling of smaller utilities serving <10000 individuals and private wells would greatly assist in further identifying PFAS contamination sources.

  18. Trace metal and metalloid contamination levels in soils and in two native plant species of a former industrial site: evaluation of the phytostabilization potential.

    PubMed

    Testiati, Eti; Parinet, Julien; Massiani, Catherine; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Rabier, Jacques; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Lenoble, Véronique; Masotti, Véronique; Prudent, Pascale

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at identifying the extent and type of contamination of a former lead smelting site in the area of Marseille, France, dating from the industrial revolution, and to evaluate environmental hazards and opportunities for phytoremediation, a promising sustainable technology. Amongst the native plants growing in this semiarid shrub ecosystem, two perennials Globularia alypum L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were selected. Twenty-one soil/plant couples were collected and seventeen additional soil samples were added to better characterize the soil pollution of the area. A multi-contamination by Pb, As, Sb, Zn, Cu was demonstrated, with huge variations within the contamination levels. The soils highest concentrations were encountered along the horizontal chimney and on the slag heaps area. However, both sites differed from each other. The former was characterized by the highest Pb, As and Sb concentrations that could reach 130, 7.0 and 9.0gkg(-1) respectively, the latter, by high Cu, Fe, Mn, S concentrations, even if it was also heavily contaminated by Pb and Zn. G. alypum and R. officinalis were shown to be metal-tolerant and to accumulate trace metals and As. Due to the low bioconcentration and translocation factors determined, both species may not be used for phytoextraction, but seem to be good candidates for phytostabilization.

  19. Proposed Holistic Strategy for the Closure of F-Area, A Large Nuclear Industrial Complex at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    SHEDROW, CB

    2004-02-10

    F-Area is a large nuclear complex located near the center of the Department of Energy's (DOEs) Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The present closure strategy for F-Area is based on established SRS protocol for a site-specific, graded approach to deactivation and decommissioning. Uncontaminated facilities will be closed under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Facilities requiring removal or in-situ disposition of residual chemical and/or radiological inventories will be decommissioned under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The F-Area Tank Farm, which is permitted under the Clean Water Act, will be closed in accordance with an industrial wastewater closure plan. F-Area closure will also involve the near- and long-term remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater resources. The proposed holistic F-Area closure strategy would enhance the existing project-specific SRS closure protocol by incorporating a comprehensive area-wide groundwater modeling tool, or Composite Analysis. The use of this methodology would allow for the assessment of the relative impacts of individual projects, as well as the cumulative effect of all F-Area closure actions, on area groundwater resources. Other critical elements of the proposed strategy include (i) the consistent use of site-specific Risk Assessments (RAs) and Performance Assessments (PAs), (ii) the closer integration of selected soil and groundwater closure projects and near-term D and D projects, and (iii) the creation of an Area Core Team (ACT) consisting of DOE and selected regulator decision-makers to direct area D and D and environmental restoration activities. This holistic approach would facilitate the effective targeting of agency resources on high priority projects whose closure would have the greatest impact on achieving the desired area-wide risk-based end-state and accelerate delisting of F-Area from the National Priority List (NPL).

  20. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  1. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-10

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

  2. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  3. 90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning arrester houses on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  4. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property... access the contents. Storing property in a manner that wildlife can access contents is prohibited. (4..., or both. (d) In the event unattended property interferes with the safe and orderly management of...

  5. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property... access the contents. Storing property in a manner that wildlife can access contents is prohibited. (4..., or both. (d) In the event unattended property interferes with the safe and orderly management of...

  6. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applications. 2.66 Section 2.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... date of issuance of the notice of abandonment; or (2) Within two months of actual knowledge of the... with firsthand knowledge of the facts, that the delay in filing the response on or before the due...

  7. Predicting Abandonment of School-Wide Behavior Support Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Rhonda N. T.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Ghemraoui, Adam; Bloom, Jerry; Johnson, Nanci W.; Phillips, Danielle; Richter, Mary F.; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictors of abandonment of evidence-based practices through descriptive analyses of extant state-level training data, fidelity of implementation data, and nationally reported school demographic data across 915 schools in 3 states implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). Schools…

  8. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System (NPMS) in accordance with the NPMS “Standards for Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operator... in accordance with applicable laws. Refer to the NPMS Standards for details in preparing your data... abandoned in accordance with all applicable laws. (b) [Reserved] [Amdt. 195-69, 65 FR 54444, Sept. 8,...

  9. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. Deradicalization or Disengagement : A Framework for Encouraging Jihad Abandonment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    included law enforcement, the military, and intelligence services. Only recently have soft power elements been brought to bear to encourage jihad...intelligence services. Only recently have soft power elements been brought to bear to encourage jihad abandonment. Several nations implement a variety of de

  12. The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen's Bureau), which was established by the Congress on March 3, 1865, to assist former slaves in acquiring land, securing employment, legalizing marriages, and pursuing education. After the bureau's abolition through an act of Congress approved on June 10, 1872,…

  13. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO...

  14. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  16. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  17. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  18. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  19. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  20. Why We Should Abandon the Idea of the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieves, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the idea of the learning organization should be abandoned on the grounds that it was an imaginative idea that has now run its course. The paper seeks to explore the roots of the definition and provoke debate about the wisdom of retaining the concept. The argument is a challenge to readers to…

  1. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO...

  2. 7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. NOTE CANTILEVERED DECKING. SOUTH FORK OF EEL RIVER AT LEFT. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

    1994-10-12

    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

  4. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  5. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  6. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  7. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been removed (note the steel frame structure that supported the traveling crane); looking south - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  9. A field trail for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, and the US Bureau of Mines (USBM), Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program. An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/ft[sup 3]. A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal. Applicable new concrete technologies relating to a 100-yr design life were utilized to assure future integrity of the shaft seal. Waterproofing methods were included in the shaft seal design to provide protection from ambient moisture and corrosive mine waters and to increase the long-term durability of the shaft seal. All construction methods used in the field trial are fully adaptable for the mine-reclamation contractor. The USBM research objectives were to develop a broad generic design that will be widely applicable to other adit-sealing and shaft-sealing problems throughout the mining industry.

  10. Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H.

    2008-07-01

    About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

  11. Mercury in vegetation and soils at abandoned mercury mines in southwestern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, E.A.; Gray, J.E.; Theodorakos, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    We chemically analysed vegetation (willow and alder) and soil samples collected at three abandoned mercury (Hg) mines and at background sites in southwestern Alaska and compared Hg concentrations, speciation and distribution. Total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were higher in vegetation and soil samples from all the mine sites compared to samples from the background sites, but there was no correlation between total-Hg concentrations in vegetation and total-Hg concentrations in soil or between total-Hg and MeHg concentrations. However, the percent MeHg of the total Hg was higher in samples from the background sites compared to samples from the mine sites and is higher in vegetation samples than in corresponding soil samples. The percent MeHg is an order of magnitude higher in the willow samples than in corresponding alder or soil samples. The percent of divalent Hg [Hg(II)] is highest in soil samples from the retort and background areas. The higher percent MeHg in vegetation and soil in samples from background sites may be explained by the higher proportions of reactive Hg species, such as Hg(II), at these sites compared to the surface mined and tailings areas where most of the Hg is in the elemental and cinnabar (HgS) forms. Dissolved gaseous Hg species are more readily accumulated in vegetation and are more readily methylated than solid phases like HgS and liquid Hg.

  12. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  13. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and nitrogen following agricultural abandonment in a karst region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dejun; Wen, Li; Yang, Liqiong; Luo, Pan; Xiao, Kongcao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Wei; He, Xunyang; Chen, Hongsong; Wang, Kelin

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural abandonment is regarded as a major driver of soil organic carbon (C) dynamics, but the mechanisms underlying the direction and magnitude of soil C dynamics following agricultural abandonment are poorly understood. Here dynamics of soil C and N contents during postagricultural succession were investigated in areas underlain by dolomite or limestone by using a space-for-time substitution approach in a karst region, southwest China. One hundred twenty-five sites from cropland, grassland, shrubland, and secondary forest were selected to represent different succession stages. Overall, soil C and N contents were greater (P < 0.05) over limestone than over dolomite mainly due to significantly greater contents of soil C and N in the cropland and grassland underlain by limestone. Both soil C and N contents were lowest in the cropland while highest in the forest. Further analysis indicated that the patterns of soil C and N dynamics differed between the two lithology types. Soil C and N contents increased significantly from cropland to forest over dolomite, while varied insignificantly among succession stages over limestone. Exchangeable calcium explained most of soil C and N variance. We proposed that higher dissolution rate of limestone could replenish the lost calcium so that the calcium levels, and in turn soil C and N contents, were stable from the cropland to the forest. Nevertheless, due to relatively low dissolution rate for dolomite, the calcium level was depleted in the cropland. Following agricultural abandonment, calcium level recovered due to decreased loss, which in turn resulted in recovery of soil C and N.

  14. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  15. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers' social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother's negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  16. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  17. 76 FR 51470 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In Oswego County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Abandonments to abandon 2 formerly connected rail lines in CSXT's Northern Region, Albany Division, Fulton... Road 57, and the end of the track between Ontario and Erie Streets; and (2) 5,938 feet between...

  18. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  19. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  20. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  1. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  2. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  3. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  4. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  5. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  6. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  7. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  8. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  9. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  10. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  11. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  12. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  13. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned... and Abandoned Merchandise Vesting in Government § 127.41 Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. (a) Vesting of title in Government. At the end of the 6-month period noted in § 127.11 of...

  14. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185... overboard drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient drills and give sufficient... necessitate abandoning ship or the recovery of persons who have fallen overboard. (b) Each abandon ship...

  15. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  16. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OHIO § 935.20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land...

  17. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OHIO § 935.20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land...

  18. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  19. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  20. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  1. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  2. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  3. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  4. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  5. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  6. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells. 226.28...) Prior to permanent abandonment of any well, the oil lessee or the gas lessee, as the case may be,...

  7. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  8. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  9. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  10. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  11. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  12. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  13. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  14. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  15. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  16. Differentiating current and past PCB and PCDD/F sources: The role of a large contaminated soil site in an industrialized city area.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, Antonio; Terzaghi, Elisa; Raspa, Giuseppe; Borin, Sara; Mapelli, Francesca; Chouaia, Bessem; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Morosini, Cristiana; Colombo, Andrea; Fattore, Elena; Davoli, Enrico; Armiraglio, Stefano; Sale, Vanna M; Anelli, Simone; Nastasio, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Cities and contaminated areas can be primary or secondary sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and other chemicals, into air and soil and can influence the regional level of some of these pollutants. In a contaminated site, the evaluation of such emissions can be crucial in the choice of the remediation technology to be adopted. In the city of Brescia (Northern Italy), more than 100 ha of agricultural areas were contaminated with PCBs, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, originating from the activities of a former PCB factory. In order to evaluate the current emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the contaminated site, in a location where other current sources are present, we compared measured and predicted air concentrations, resulting from chemical volatilization from soils as well as fingerprints of Brescia soils and of soils contaminated by specific sources. The results confirm that the contaminated area is still a current and important secondary source of PCBs to the air, and to a lesser extent of PCDFs (especially the more volatile), but not for PCDDs. PCBs in soils have fingerprints similar to highly chlorinated mixtures, indicating contamination by these mixtures and/or a long weathering process. PCB 209 is also present at important levels. PCDD fingerprints in soil cannot be related to current emission sources, while PCDFs are compatible to industrial and municipal waste incineration, although weathering and/or natural attenuation may have played a role in modifying such soil fingerprints. Finally, we combined chemical and microbiological analyses to provide an integrated approach to evaluate soil fingerprints and their variation in a wider perspective, which accounts for the mutual effects between contamination and soil microbiota, a pivotal hint for addressing in situ bioremediation activities.

  17. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  18. FISCAL YEAR 1997 WELL INSTALLATION, PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT, AND REDEVELOPMENT SUMMARY REPORT Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION

    1997-09-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1997 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. No new groundwater monitoring wells were installed during FY 1997. However, 13 temporary piezometers were installed around the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) in the Y-12 Plant. An additional 36 temporary piezometers, also reported in this document, were installed in FY 1996 and, subsequently, assigned GW-series identification. A total of 21 monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1997. Three existing monitoring wells underwent redevelopment during FY 1997. All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures in the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988), the {ital Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document} (EPA 19?6), and {ital Guidelines for Installation of Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 Plant} (Geraghty & Miller 1985). All wells were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991). Health and safety monitoring and field screening of drilling returns and development waters were conducted in accordance with approved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) guidelines.

  19. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine.

    PubMed

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Navarro, Andrés; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-07-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters, the quantification of metal concentrations, and the application of aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity bioassays. Chemical analysis of soil samples revealed concentrations of Hg, As, Ba, Pb, Sb, and Zn above international intervention values. Results from terrestrial tests showed detrimental effects in all studied organisms (Eisenia foetida, Folsomia candida, and different plant species) and revealed the avoidance response of earthworms as the most sensitive endpoint. Surprisingly, the most toxic samples were not the ones with higher metal contents but the ones presenting higher electrical conductivity. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio were in accordance with terrestrial tests, confirming the need to couple environmental chemistry with ecotoxicological tools for the proper assessment of metal-contaminated sites. In view of the results, a remediative intervention of the studied area is recommended.

  20. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TONWSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Gartenberg

    2003-02-01

    This report represents the tenth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, engineering continued during this reporting period toward development of the Construction Plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.