Science.gov

Sample records for abandoned underground storage

  1. Detection of abandoned underground storage tanks in rights-of-way with ground-penetrating radar.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    Highway agencies need a simple, effective, nondestructive way to inspect certain properties in rights-of-way for the possible presence of abandoned underground storage tanks, without disturbing the ground, before actual construction begins. Overall, ...

  2. Abandoned underground storage tank location using fluxgate magnetic surveying: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Biersel, T. P.; Bristoll, B.C.; Taylor, R.W.; Rose, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1993, during the removal of a diesel and a gasoline underground storage tank at the municipal garage of the Village of Kohler, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, soil testing revealed environmental contamination at the site. A site investigation revealed the possibility of a second on-site source of petroleum contamination. Limited historical data and the present usage of structures within the suspected source area precluded the use of most invasive sampling methods and most geophysical techniques. A fluxgate magnetometer survey, followed by confirmatory excavation, was conducted at the site. The fluxgate magnetometer survey identified nine possible magnetic anomalies within the 18 ?? 25 m area. The subsequent excavation near the anomalies revealed the presence of five paired and two individual 2000 L underground storage tanks. The fluxgate magnetometer survey, although affected by the proximity of buildings, was able to detect the buried tanks within 3 m of the brick structures, using a 1.5 ?? 1.5 m sampling array.

  3. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  4. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Underground storage... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.213 Underground storage field... operate facilities for the remediation and maintenance of an existing underground storage facility...

  5. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Underground storage... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.213 Underground storage field... operate facilities for the remediation and maintenance of an existing underground storage facility...

  6. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  7. Siting of prison complex above abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the state of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. However, one masonry building was located within the potential drawmore » zone of mine works that still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was designed accordingly to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase 2 prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the phase 1 complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was undertaken to (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical database of subsidence events in the Illinois coal basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations. However, for others that could be affected potentially by future subsidence movement preliminary subsidence resistant designs were completed using the expected level of potential subsidence movement.« less

  8. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective actionmore » is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.« less

  9. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings. (a...

  10. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings. (a...

  11. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  13. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  14. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  15. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  16. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  17. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  18. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  19. 9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  20. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small quantities...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small quantities...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small quantities...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small quantities...

  4. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  5. Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75...

  7. Aliso Canyon facility is giant among gas storage projects. [Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Magruder, P.S.

    1975-11-01

    Alison Canyon, the largest and newest of the Southern California Gas Company's underground storage fields, has the capacity to provide nearly 50 percent of the company's firm peak day deliverability from systemwide storage. (LK)

  8. 76 FR 15971 - Liberty Gas Storage, LLC and LA Storage, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for Abandonment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Convenience and Necessity Take notice that on March 4, 2011, Liberty Gas Storage, LLC (Liberty) and LA Storage... Liberty to abandon by transfer certain facilities to LA Storage; (ii) a certificate of public convenience...

  9. 38. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of conduit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of conduit service junction - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  10. 36. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail showing elevator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail showing elevator, air ventilators and personnel entrance VIEW SOUTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  11. 37. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of personnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of personnel entrance VIEW NORTH - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  12. 40. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape hatch and decontamination shower VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  13. 42. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape hatch, elevator and air vent VIEW SOUTH - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  14. Inspecting Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    these grant guidelines implement the inspection provisions in Sections 9005(c)(1) and 9005(c)(2) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  15. Public Record About Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These grant guidelines implement the public record provision in Section 9002(d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  16. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  17. The siting of a prison complex above an abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the State of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. The original plan for construction consisted of one phase. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. Onemore » masonry building, however, was located within the potential draw zone of mine works which still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was accordingly designed to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase two prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the Phase I complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. The first stage of design was to minimize subsidence potential by positioning the exposure of significant structures to the subjacent mining assuming the mine map was sufficiently accurate. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was then undertaken to: (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future; and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical data base of subsidence events in the Illinois Coal Basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations.« less

  18. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  19. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  1. Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-PETROLEUM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally acknowledged that a small fraction of the total underground storage tank population is used to store chemicals. The detailed characteristics of these tanks, however, are not well understood. Additional information is required if competent decisions are to be made ...

  3. 12. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage, elevator and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage, elevator and ground-level launchers from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  4. 11. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage and elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage and elevator controls from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  5. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4460 Section 57.4460 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable...

  6. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems whe...

  7. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Underground storage testing and development. 157.215 Section 157.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... not exceed the amount specified in Table II as adjusted pursuant to § 157.208(d). These costs shall...

  8. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Underground storage testing and development. 157.215 Section 157.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... not exceed the amount specified in Table II as adjusted pursuant to § 157.208(d). These costs shall...

  9. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Underground storage testing and development. 157.215 Section 157.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... not exceed the amount specified in Table II as adjusted pursuant to § 157.208(d). These costs shall...

  10. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Underground storage testing and development. 157.215 Section 157.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... not exceed the amount specified in Table II as adjusted pursuant to § 157.208(d). These costs shall...

  11. Notification: Evaluation of EPA Efforts to Protect Tribal Communities From Risks Related to Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0013, March 8, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA’s work related to Underground Storage Tank and Leaking Underground Storage Tank programs in Indian country.

  12. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  13. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and locational information, status of LUST case, operating status of facility, inspection dates, and links to No Further Action letters for closed LUST cases. This database contains 1230 features, with 289 features having a LUST status of open, closed with no residual contamination, or closed with residual contamination.

  14. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    underground space as the above-mentioned companies.) These companies are anxious to market their experience and cite contacts with the U.S. Department of...expanding marketing efforts. Detailed descriptions 13. In the original plan for producing a generic study of the four storage media, it was decided to...Jollanssonr and Mr. Tuomlo SaarniI Manager, Market ing Energy Sector (Bibl: 14, 15, arid 16). 13 . Ekono Oy is one ol the four companies forming the

  15. U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage System, Linear underground system extending from North Road to Icarus Way, Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Groundwater-quality data associated with abandoned underground coal mine aquifers in West Virginia, 1973-2016: Compilation of existing data from multiple sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAdoo, Mitchell A.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2017-11-14

    This report describes a compilation of existing water-quality data associated with groundwater resources originating from abandoned underground coal mines in West Virginia. Data were compiled from multiple sources for the purpose of understanding the suitability of groundwater from abandoned underground coal mines for public supply, industrial, agricultural, and other uses. This compilation includes data collected for multiple individual studies conducted from July 13, 1973 through September 7, 2016. Analytical methods varied by the time period of data collection and requirements of the independent studies.This project identified 770 water-quality samples from 294 sites that could be attributed to abandoned underground coal mine aquifers originating from multiple coal seams in West Virginia.

  17. Underground gas storage in the Leyden lignite mine

    SciTech Connect

    Meddles, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Underground gas storage in the Leyden lignite mine by Public Service Co. of Colorado was preceded by careful studies of mine records with respect to geologic conditions and investigation of the gas-sealing potential of the rocks surrounding the cavern. The water level in shaft No. 3 in Sept. 1958 was about 100 ft above the coal seam at that point. Wells were drilled into the mine up-dip (east) of the structurally highest point that a mine shaft intersected the coal seams, and gas was injected into the mine, using the mine water as a seal. At least the up-dip partmore » of the mine was gas-tight, and tests were expanded to the rest of the mine, which also proved to be gas-tight. All that remained to complete the preparation of the mine for permanent gas storage was sealing of the old mine shafts.« less

  18. 30 CFR 75.1902 - Underground diesel fuel storage-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage-general... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1902 Underground diesel fuel storage—general requirements. (a) All diesel fuel must be stored...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1902 - Underground diesel fuel storage-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage-general... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1902 Underground diesel fuel storage—general requirements. (a) All diesel fuel must be stored...

  20. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  1. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  2. STATE-OF-THE-ART PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT FOR INTERNAL INSPECTION OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preventing leaks from underground storage tanks is of paramount importance in this decade as environmental resources are seriously threatened by the release of toxic substances and costs of reparation are exorbitant. Inspecting underground storage tanks is one action that helps p...

  3. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF ADSISTOR AND FIGARO GAS SENSORS USED FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK LEAK DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two different sensor technologies and their properties were analyzed. he nalysis simulated a leak which occurs from an underground storage tank. igaro gas sensors and the Adsistor gas sensor were tested in simulated underground storage tank nvironments using the Carnegie Mellon R...

  4. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-UST-2010-0651; FRL-9447-3] Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of underground storage tanks (USTs) can demonstrate compliance with the Federal compatibility...

  5. 76 FR 21299 - Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program: Public Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 [EPA-R10-UST-2011-0097; FRL-9296-1] Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program: Public Hearing Cancellation AGENCY... application for final approval of its Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program under Subtitle I of the Resource...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage...

  11. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  12. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; (3) Septic tanks; (4) Pipeline facilities (including gathering lines) regulated under; (i) The... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real property containing underground storage tanks... Property § 1955.57 Real property containing underground storage tanks. Within 30 days of acquisition of...

  13. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE APPLICABILITY OF CHEMICAL OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINANTS AT LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK (LUST) SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total number of confirmed releases from underground storage tanks is increasing rapidly. In addition, the treatment of contaminants in soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents complex technical challenges. Most of the remedial technologie...

  15. Shop fabricated corrosion-resistant underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, W.B.; Stellmach, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    Integral corrosion resistance has long been incorporated into shop fabricated steel underground storage tank design. Since 1969, an industry standard has been the sti-P{sub 3}{reg_sign} (P3) tank. However, the past decade has seen the development of several alternative corrosion resistant and secondary containment technologies. Fiberglass-coated steel composite tanks, and jacketed tanks utilizing various materials as a secondary wall, provide corrosion resistance without the cathodic protection monitoring requirements mandated by the EPA for single-wall P3 tanks. On the other hand, the P3 tank is the only tank technology commonly marketed today with an integral ability to verify its corrosion resistance overmore » the life of the tank. Many existing USTs remain to be replaced or upgraded with corrosion resistance (and other requirements) by the end of 1998. Steel tanks built and installed prior to the advent of pre-engineered, factory-supplied protection against corrosion can be retrofitted with cathodic protection or can be internally lined. Specific installation standards developed by the steel tank industry and the petroleum industry must be followed so as to assure the integrity of the various corrosion resistant technologies developed by the Steel Tank Institute. The technologies describes in this paper will ensure compliance with the corrosion protection requirements of new storage tanks.« less

  16. Evolution of Microbial “Streamer” Growths in an Acidic, Metal-Contaminated Stream Draining an Abandoned Underground Copper Mine

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Catherine M.; Rowe, Owen F.; Rocchetti, Laura; Coupland, Kris; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2013-01-01

    A nine year study was carried out on the evolution of macroscopic “acid streamer” growths in acidic, metal-rich mine water from the point of construction of a new channel to drain an abandoned underground copper mine. The new channel became rapidly colonized by acidophilic bacteria: two species of autotrophic iron-oxidizers (Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and “Ferrovum myxofaciens”) and a heterotrophic iron-oxidizer (a novel genus/species with the proposed name “Acidithrix ferrooxidans”). The same bacteria dominated the acid streamer communities for the entire nine year period, with the autotrophic species accounting for ~80% of the micro-organisms in the streamer growths (as determined by terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis). Biodiversity of the acid streamers became somewhat greater in time, and included species of heterotrophic acidophiles that reduce ferric iron (Acidiphilium, Acidobacterium, Acidocella and gammaproteobacterium WJ2) and other autotrophic iron-oxidizers (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans). The diversity of archaea in the acid streamers was far more limited; relatively few clones were obtained, all of which were very distantly related to known species of euryarchaeotes. Some differences were apparent between the acid streamer community and planktonic-phase bacteria. This study has provided unique insights into the evolution of an extremophilic microbial community, and identified several novel species of acidophilic prokaryotes. PMID:25371339

  17. State and Territorial Underground Storage Tank Regulations: Compliance Deadlines for Major Provisions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Review compliance deadlines for major provisions of the 2015 federal UST requirements, in the 15 states that have updated their state underground storage tank regulations to incorporate the revised requirements.

  18. 10. Site D57 & 58L, Underground Missile Storage Structure, Type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Site D-57 & 58-L, Underground Missile Storage Structure, Type B, Plans, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 13 December 1953 - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Launch Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  19. Investigation of Corrosion-Influencing Factors in Underground Storage Tanks with Diesel Service

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarized the research findings of an effort undertaken by EPA to understand possible causes and solutions to widespread reports of severe corrosion of metal components in underground storage tank systems storing diesel fuel since 2007.

  20. Federal Facilities Reports About Underground Storage Tank Compliance - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find links to reports from 24 federal agencies regarding the compliance status of underground storage tanks owned or operated by the federal agencies or located on land managed by the federal agencies.

  1. EVALUATION OF VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION METHODS USED IN UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spring and summer of 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluated the performance of 25 commercially available volumetric test methods for the detection of small leaks in underground storage tanks containing gasoline. Performance was estimated by...

  2. Technical Guide For Addressing Petroleum Vapor Intrusion At Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended for use at any site subject to petroleum contamination from underground storage tanks where vapor intrusion may be of potential concern. It is applicable to both residential and non-residential settings.

  3. Technical Guide for Addressing Petroleum Vapor Intrusion at Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Review technical information for personnel EPA and implementing agencies for investigating and assessing petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) at sites where petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) have been released from underground storage tanks (USTs).

  4. Secondary Containment for Underground Storage Tank Systems - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These grant guidelines implement the secondary containment provision in Section 9003(i)(1) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  5. Do more frequent inspections improve compliance? Evidence from underground storage tank facilities in Louisiana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This working paper examines the effect of increased inspection frequency occurring under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 on compliance with release detection and prevention requirements at underground storage tank facilities in Louisiana.

  6. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved andmore » treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  7. Geomechanical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Reactor Cool Down for Subsequent CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhosis, Vasilis; Yang, Dongmin; Kempka, Thomas; Sheng, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an efficient method for the conversion of conventionally unmineable coal resources into energy and feedstock. If the UCG process is combined with the subsequent storage of process CO2 in the former UCG reactors, a near-zero carbon emission energy source can be realised. This study aims to present the development of a computational model to simulate the cooling process of UCG reactors in abandonment to decrease the initial high temperature of more than 400 °C to a level where extensive CO2 volume expansion due to temperature changes can be significantly reduced during the time of CO2 injection. Furthermore, we predict the cool down temperature conditions with and without water flushing. A state of the art coupled thermal-mechanical model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS to predict the cavity growth and the resulting surface subsidence. In addition, the multi-physics computational software COMSOL was employed to simulate the cavity cool down process which is of uttermost relevance for CO2 storage in the former UCG reactors. For that purpose, we simulated fluid flow, thermal conduction as well as thermal convection processes between fluid (water and CO2) and solid represented by coal and surrounding rocks. Material properties for rocks and coal were obtained from extant literature sources and geomechanical testings which were carried out on samples derived from a prospective demonstration site in Bulgaria. The analysis of results showed that the numerical models developed allowed for the determination of the UCG reactor growth, roof spalling, surface subsidence and heat propagation during the UCG process and the subsequent CO2 storage. It is anticipated that the results of this study can support optimisation of the preparation procedure for CO2 storage in former UCG reactors. The proposed scheme was discussed so far, but not validated by a coupled numerical analysis and if proved to be applicable it could

  8. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  9. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  10. GEOLOGIC CARBON STORAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE RULES OF THE UNDERGROUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2), an emerging option for carbon management. Few studies have explored the regulatory needs of GS or compared these needs with regulations governing underground injection on the U.S. mainland. Our treatment...

  11. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... storage reservoir and within the buffer area; (4) A detailed description of present storage operations and..., provided the storage facility's certificated physical parameters—including total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided...

  12. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  13. Basic features of waste material storage in underground space in relation to geomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Konecny, P.

    1994-12-31

    It is logical to consider utilizing underground cavities for waste material disposal because, during mining, great volumes of rock materials are extracted, and underground hollow areas and communicating workings are created that can, in general, be utilized for waste disposal. Additionally, in many cases, underground waste disposal favorably supports mining process technology (for instance, application of power plant fly ash and preparation plant tailings as hardened backfill). However, it is necessary to give particular attention to the preparation, operation, and isolation of underground tip areas; errors and, in extreme cases, emergencies in underground tips are generally more difficult to dealmore » with than those in surface tips. A tip place constructed underground becomes part of the rock massif; therefore, all natural laws that rule the rock massif must be respected. Of course, such an approach requires knowledge of processes and natural regularities that will occur in rock strata where tip places have been constructed. Such knowledge is gained through familiarity with contemporary geomechanical science. The paper discusses basic geomechanical principles of underground waste disposal; geomechanical aspects of rock massif evaluation in view of waste material storage in mine workings; and plans for an experimental project for waste disposal in the Dul Ostrava underground mine.« less

  14. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  15. Drilling and abandonment preparation of CO₂ storage wells – Experience from the Ketzin pilot site

    DOE PAGES

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Martens, Sonja; Norden, Ben; ...

    2014-12-31

    At Ketzin, located west of Berlin, the GFZ German Centre for Geosciences is operating Europe's largest CO₂ research storage site. This pilot site has been developed since 2004 and is comprised of one combined injection/observation well and four monitoring wells. From June 2008 to August 2013, a total of 67 kilotons of CO₂ were safely injected into the sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in a depth between 630 to 650 m. The paper discusses the well designs and lessons learned in drilling engineering and operations. The abandonment phase started in Ketzin with the first plug cementation ofmore » the observation well Ktzi 202 shortly after shut-in of CO₂ injection. The experience with the first CO₂ well killing operation will be reviewed.« less

  16. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  1. HOW TO EFFECTIVELY RECOVER FREE PRODUCT AT LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES - A GUIDE FOR STATE REGULATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 315,000 releases from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) were reported by state and local environmental agencies as of March 19961. EPA's Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) anticipates that at least 100,000 additional releases will be confirmed in the next few ...

  2. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF VAPOR SENSORS USED AT UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a continuation of an investigation to quantify the operating characteristics of vapor sensor technologies used at underground storage tank (UST) sites. n the previous study (EPA/600/R-92/219) the sensitivity, selectivity, and response time to simulated UST environm...

  3. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-E

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the ...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; (3) Septic tanks; (4) Pipeline facilities (including gathering lines) regulated under; (i) The...) Storm water or wastewater collection systems; (7) Flow-through process tanks; (8) Liquid traps or... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; (3) Septic tanks; (4) Pipeline facilities (including gathering lines) regulated under; (i) The...) Storm water or wastewater collection systems; (7) Flow-through process tanks; (8) Liquid traps or... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; (3) Septic tanks; (4) Pipeline facilities (including gathering lines) regulated under; (i) The...) Storm water or wastewater collection systems; (7) Flow-through process tanks; (8) Liquid traps or... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; (3) Septic tanks; (4) Pipeline facilities (including gathering lines) regulated under; (i) The...) Storm water or wastewater collection systems; (7) Flow-through process tanks; (8) Liquid traps or... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks...

  8. Underground Storage Tanks on Indian Lands. Education Moderates an Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillger, Robert W.; Small, Matthew C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes problems related to old underground storage tanks (USTs) that may leak toxic contents, focusing on relevance for American Indian reservations. Discusses design, installation, and upgrading of UST systems; federal definitions and regulations; leak detection; legal responsibility; and education for public awareness. Includes Environmental…

  9. Instability risk analysis and risk assessment system establishment of underground storage caverns in bedded salt rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Wenjun; Zhao, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Stability is an important part of geotechnical engineering research. The operating experiences of underground storage caverns in salt rock all around the world show that the stability of the caverns is the key problem of safe operation. Currently, the combination of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are the mainly adopts method of reserve stability analysis. This paper introduces the concept of risk into the stability analysis of underground geotechnical structure, and studies the instability of underground storage cavern in salt rock from the perspective of risk analysis. Firstly, the definition and classification of cavern instability risk is proposed, and the damage mechanism is analyzed from the mechanical angle. Then the main stability evaluating indicators of cavern instability risk are proposed, and an evaluation method of cavern instability risk is put forward. Finally, the established cavern instability risk assessment system is applied to the analysis and prediction of cavern instability risk after 30 years of operation in a proposed storage cavern group in the Huai’an salt mine. This research can provide a useful theoretical base for the safe operation and management of underground storage caverns in salt rock.

  10. Blasting for abandoned-mine land reclamation (closure of individual subsidence features and erratic, undocumented underground coal-mine workings). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Thompson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The study has examined the feasibility of blasting for mitigating various abandoned mine land features on AML sites. The investigation included extensive field trial blasts at sites in North Dakota and Montana. A blasting technique was used that was based on spherical cratering concepts. At the Beulah, North Dakota site thirteen individual vertical openings (sinkholes) were blasted with the intent to fill the voids. The blasts were designed to displace material laterally into the void. Good success was had in filling the sinkholes. At the White site in Montana erratic underground rooms with no available documentation were collapsed. An aditmore » leading into the mine was also blasted. Both individual room blasting and area pattern blasting were studied. A total of eight blasts were fired on the one acre area. Exploration requirements and costs were found to be extensive.« less

  11. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  12. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. Themore » fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.« less

  14. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  15. STATE-OF-THE-ART PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT FOR INTERNAL INSPECTION AND UPGRADING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report supplements the previous State-of-the-Art Procedures and Equipment for Internal Inspection of Underground Storage Tanks published in 1991 by the EPA. The present report updates and provides descriptions of additional tank inspection technologies, specifically, noninva...

  16. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  17. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  18. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  19. Hydrodynamic code calculations of airblast for an explosive test in a shallow underground storage magazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Lynn W.; Schneider, Kenneth D.

    1990-07-01

    A large-sclae test of the detonation of 20,000 kilograms of high explosive inside a shallow underground tunnel/chamber complex, simulating an ammunition storage magazine, was carried out in August, 1988, at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. The test was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board; the Safety Services Organisation of the Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom; and the Norwegian Defence Construction Service. The overall objective of the test was to determine the hazardous effects (debris, airblast, and ground motion) produced in this configuration. Actual storage magazines have considerably more overburden and are expected to contain and accidental detonation. The test configuration, on the other hand, was expected to rupture, and to scatter a significant amount of rocks, dirt and debris. Among the observations and measurements made in this test was study of airblast propagation within the storage chamber, in the access tunnel, and outside, on the tunnel ramp, prior to overburden venting. The results of these observations are being used to evaluate and validate current quantity-distance standards for the underground storage of munitions near inabited structures. As part of the prediction effort for this test, to assist with transducer ranging in the access tunnel and with post-test interpretation of the results, S-CUBED was asked to perform two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamic code calculations of the explosive detonation and subsequent blastwave propagation in the interior chamber and access tunnel. This was accomplished using the S-CUBED Hydrodynamic Advanced Research Code (SHARC). In this paper, details of the calculations configuration will be presented. These will be compared to the actual as-built internal configuration of the tunnel/chamber complex. Results from the calculations, including contour plots and airblast waveforms, will be shown. The latter will be compared with experimental records

  20. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  1. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 for renewable energy storage for a test case in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Li, Qi; Nakaten, Natalie, Christine; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Integration and further development of the energy supply system in China is a major challenge for the years to come. Part of the strategy is the implementation of a low carbon energy system based on carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The innovative idea presented here is based on an extension of the power-to-gas-to-power (PGP) technology by establishing a closed carbon dioxide cycle [1]. Thereto, hydrogen generated from excess renewable energy is transformed into methane for combustion in a combined cycle gas power plant. To comply with the fluctuating energy demand, carbon dioxide produced during methane combustion and required for the methanation process as well as excess methane are temporarily stored in two underground reservoirs located close to each other [2]. Consequently, renewable energy generation units can be operated even if energy demand is below consumption, while stored energy can be fed into the grid as energy demand exceeds production [3]. We studied a show case for Xinjiang in China [4] to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain based on numerical computer simulations for the operation of the CO2 and CH4 storage reservoirs, and to ascertain the pressure regimes present in the storage formations during the injection and production phases of the annual cycle. [1] Streibel M., Nakaten N., Kempka T., Kühn M. (2013) Analysis of an integrated carbon cycle for storage of renewables. Energy Procedia 40, 202-211. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.024. [2] Kühn M., Streibel M., Nakaten N.C., Kempka T. (2014) Integrated Underground Gas Storage of CO2 and CH4 to Decarbonise the "Power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" Technology. Energy Procedia 59, 9-15. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.342 [3] Kühn M., Nakaten N.C., Streibel M., Kempka T. (2014) CO2 Geological Storage and Utilization for a Carbon Neutral "Power-to-gas-to-power" Cycle to Even Out Fluctuations of Renewable Energy Provision. Energy Procedia 63, 8044-8049. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014

  2. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service followingmore » deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.« less

  3. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  4. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  5. Development of in-structure design spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    In-structure response spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site are developed on the basis of recent soil-structure-interaction analyses. Recommended design spectra are provided for various locations on the tank dome.

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are Federal...

  7. Monitoring induced seismicity from underground gas storage: first steps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Priolo, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The supply of natural gas and its storage are focal points of the Italian politics of energy production and will have increasing importance in the coming years. About a dozen reservoirs are currently in use and fifteen are in development or awaiting approval. Some of these are found in the vicinity of geological structures that are seismically active. The assessment of seismic hazard (both for natural background and induced seismicity) for a geological gas storage facility has a number of unconventional aspects that must be recognized and traced in a clear, ordered way and using guidelines and rules that leave less room as possible for interpretation by the individual applicant / verification body. Similarly, for control and monitoring there are not clearly defined procedures or standard instrumentation, let alone tools for analysing and processing data. Finally, governmental organizations in charge of permission grants and operative control tend to have appropriate scientific knowledge only in certain areas and not in others (e.g. the seismic one), and the establishment of an independent multidisciplinary inspection body appears desirable. The project StoHaz (https://sites.google.com/site/s2stohaz/home) aims to initiate a series of actions to overcome these deficiencies and allow to define procedures and standards for the seismic hazard assessment and control of the activities of natural gas storage in underground reservoirs. OGS will take advantage of the experience gained with the design, installation and maintenance of the seismic network monitoring the Collalto reservoir, at the moment the only example in Italy of a public research institution monitoring independently the activities of a private gas storage company.

  8. Assessment of pore pressures and specific storage within sedimentary strata overlying underground mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, W.; David, K.; Barbour, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Realistic values of specific storage (Ss) for groundwater systems are important to determine the spatial extent and timing of c pore pressure changes when the groundwater system is stressed. However, numerical groundwater models of underground excavations typically assume constant literature values of Ss. One part of our research program utilised high frequency pore pressure data to evaluate variability and changes in Ss within sedimentary strata overlying a longwall coal mine. Pore pressure data from a vertical series of 6 vibrating wire piezometers (50 to 278 m depth) recording at hourly intervals were compared with barometric pressure data over a period of several years, including data before and during mining. The site was located near the centre of a longwall panel that extracted 3 m of coal at a depth of 330 m. The data was processed to calculate loading efficiency and Ss values by multi-method analyses of barometric and earth tide responses. In situ Ss results varied over one to two orders of magnitude and indicated that Ss changed before and after excavation of underlying coal seams. The vertical leakage of groundwater within the constrained zone ( 10 to 150 m depth) was found to be limited, although some degree of vertical hydraulic connectivity was observed. Depressurization was evident in the fractured zone directly overlying the coal seam, and Ss changes at 250 m depth indicated this confined aquifer may have become unconfined. Our results demonstrate that high frequency pore pressure data can provide realistic Ss values. In situ Ss values were an order of magnitude lower than Ss measured by geomechnical tests of cores, and were significantly different to textbook values set in most local groundwater models. The timing and extent of groundwater level drawdown predicted by models may therefore be underestimated. We have shown, for the first time, that variability of Ss can be significant, and that these changes can provide important insights into how

  9. Salinization of groundwater around underground LPG storage caverns, Korea : statistical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Chang, H.

    2001-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the reciprocal influence between groundwater flow and its salinization occurred in two underground cavern sites, using major ion chemistry, PCA for chemical analysis data, and cross-correlation for various hydraulic data. The study areas are two underground LPG storage facilities constructed in South Sea coast, Yosu, and West Sea coastal regions, Pyeongtaek, Korea. Considerably high concentration of major cations and anions of groundwaters at both sites showed brackish or saline water types. In Yosu site, some great chemical difference of groundwater samples between rainy and dry season was caused by temporal intrusion of high-saline water into propane and butane cavern zone, but not in Pyeongtaek site. Cl/Br ratios and δ 18O- δ D distribution for tracing of salinization source water in both sites revealed that two kind of saline water (seawater and halite-dissolved solution) could influence the groundwater salinization in Yosu site, whereas only seawater intrusion could affect the groundwater chemistry of the observation wells in Pyeongtaek site. PCA performed by 8 and 10 chemical ions as statistical variables in both sites showed that intensive intrusion of seawater through butane cavern was occurred at Yosu site while seawater-groundwater mixing was observed at some observation wells located in the marginal part of Pyeongtaek site. Cross-correlation results revealed that the positive relationship between hydraulic head and cavern operating pressure was far more conspicuous at propane cavern zone in both sites (65 ~90% of correlation coefficients). According to the cross-correlation results of Yosu site, small change of head could provoke massive influx of halite-dissolved solution from surface through vertically developed fracture networks. However in Pyeongtaek site, the pressure-sensitive observation wells are not completely consistent with seawater-mixed wells, and the hydraulic change of heads at these wells related to the

  10. The role of the underground for massive storage of energy: a preliminary glance of the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, Pascal; Gentier, Sylvie; Bader, Anne-Gaelle; Beccaletto, Laurent; Bellenfant, Gael

    2014-05-01

    The question of storing energy in France has become of primary importance since the launch of a road map from the government which places in pole position this topic among seven major milestones to be challenged in the context of the development of innovative technology in the country. The European objective to reach 20% of renewables in the energy market, from which a large part would come from wind and solar power generation, raises several issues regarding the capacity of the grid to manage the various intermittent energy sources in line with the variability of the public demand and offer. These uncertainties are highly influenced by unpredictable weather and economic fluctuations. To facilitate the large-scale integration of variable renewable electricity sources in grids, massive energy storage is needed. In that case, electric energy storage techniques involving the use of underground are often under consideration as they offer a large storage capacity volume with a adapted potential of confining and the space required for the implantation. Among the panel of massive storage technologies, one can find (i) the Underground Pumped Hydro-Storage (UPHS) which are an adaptation of classical Pumped Hydro Storage system often connected with dam constructions, (ii) the compressed air storage (CAES) and (iii) the hydrogen storage from conversion of electricity into H2 and O2 by electrolysis. UPHS concept is based on using the potential energy between two water reservoirs positioned at different heights. Favorable natural locations like mountainous areas or cliffs are spatially limited given the geography of the territory. This concept could be extended with the integration of one of these reservoirs in an underground cavities (specifically mined or reuse of preexisting mines) to increase opportunities on the national territory. Massive storage based on compression and relaxation of air (CAES) requires high volume and confining pressure around the storage that exists

  11. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: RCRA subtitle I. Underground storage tanks (40 cfr part 280). Updated as of July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This module explains the Underground Storage Tank Regulatory Program established in 1988, that includes technical requirements to prevent, protect, and clean up releases from Underground Storage Tanks (USTs), as well as financial responsibility requirements to guarantee that UST owners and operators have enough money set aside to clean up releases and compensate third parties. Describes the Universe of USTs and the technical and financial requirements that apply to them. Defines underground storage tank and provides criteria for determining which USTs are subject to regulation. Discusses deadlines for upgrading tanks and the closure and corrective action requirements.

  12. Implementation plan for underground waste storage tank surveillance and stabilization improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, G.T.; Maupin, V.D.; Mihalik, L.A.

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have addressed the need to upgrade the methods currently used for surveillance of underground waste storage tanks, particularly single-shell tanks (SST), which are susceptible to leaks and intrusions. Fifty tasks were proposed to enhance the existing surveillance program; however, prudent budget management dictates that only the tasks with the highest potential for success be selected and funded. This plan identifies fourteen inexpensive improvements that may be implemented in less than two years. Recent developments stress the need to complete interim stabilization of these tanks more quickly than now budgeted and to identify methods to salvage or eliminate themore » interstitial liquid left behind after saltwell jet-pumping. The plan calls for the use of available resources to remove saltwell liquid from SSTs as rapidly as possible rather than committing to new surveillance technologies that might not lead to near-term improvements. This plan describes the selection criteria and provides cost estimates and schedules for implementing the recommendations of the task forces. The proposed improvements result in completion of jet-pumping in FY 1994, two years ahead of the current FY 1996 milestone. While the accelerated plan requires more funding in the early years, the total cost will be the same as completing the work in FY 1996.« less

  13. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. Thismore » work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).« less

  14. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviewsmore » the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.« less

  15. Organically modified low-grade kaolin as a secondary containment material for underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jai-Young; Oh, Byung-Taek; Choi, Sang-Il

    2007-08-01

    Batch scale reactions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified low-grade kaolin for the treatment of petroleum contaminants. Low-grade kaolin, which has been unvalued as material in the mining process because of its low quality for commercial products, was modified with HDTMA (hexadecyl-trimethylammonium), and its efficiency was compared with that of HDTMA-modified bentonite, which is used as a secondary containment barrier for underground storage tanks. The sorption capacity and hydraulic conductivity of both the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin were investigated and showed distribution coefficients in the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene ranging between 45.7 and 583.7 and 57.0 and 525.1, respectively. The hydraulic conductivities were 2.53 x 10(-8) and 5.62 x 10(-8) cm/s for the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin, respectively. These results suggest that HDTMA-modified low-grade kaolin could be used as a hydraulic barrier against advection migration of petroleum contaminants. Simulation of the one-dimensional transport of benzene through a liner made of either one of the compounds was also performed. These results also showed that HDTMA-modified kaolin more effectively retards the transport of benzene.

  16. Hydrogen underground storage in siliciclastic reservoirs - intention and topics of the H2STORE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Ganzer, Leonhard; Henkel, Steven; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; De Lucia, Marco; Panfilov, Michel; Pilz, Peter; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Würdemann, Hilke; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    The transfer of energy supply from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation to renewable energy production sources is strongly reliant to the potential of storing high capacities of energy in a safe and reliable way in time spans of several months. One conceivable option can be the storage of hydrogen and (related) synthetic natural gas (SNG) production in appropriate underground structures, like salt caverns and pore space reservoirs. Successful storage of hydrogen in the form of town gas in salt caverns has been proven in several demonstration projects and can be considered as state of the art technology. However, salt structures have only limited importance for hydrogen storage due to only small cavern volumes and the limited occurrence of salt deposits suitable for flushing of cavern constructions. Thus, regarding potential high-volume storage sites, siliciclastic deposits like saline aquifers and depleted gas reservoirs are of increasing interest. Motivated by a project call and sponsored by the German government the H2STORE ("Hydrogen to Store") collaborative project will investigate the feasibility and the requirements for pore space storage of hydrogen. Thereby depleted gas reservoirs are a major concern of this study. This type of geological structure is chosen because of their well investigated geological settings and proved sealing capacities, which already enable a present (and future) use as natural (and synthetic) reservoir gas storages. Nonetheless hydrogen and hydrocarbon in porous media exhibit major differences in physico-chemical behaviour, essentially due to the high diffusivity and reactivity of hydrogen. The biotic and abiotic reactions of hydrogen with rocks and fluids will be necessary observed in siliciclastic sediments which consist of numerous inorganic and organic compounds and comprise original formation fluids. These features strongly control petrophysical behaviour (e.g. porosity, permeability) and therefore fluid (hydrogen

  17. Visualization of hydraulic connections using Borehole Array around LPG Underground Storage Cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimo, M.; Mashimo, H.; Maejima, T.; Aoki, K.

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to visualize the hydraulic connections within the fractured rock mass around the underground LPG storage caverns using array of water injection boreholes. By taking advantage that water injection boreholes are located so as to cover the storage caverns, a complete sketch of hydraulic conditions around the caverns, such as locations of water conducting fractures, hydraulic conductivity and groundwater pressure can be obtained. Applicability of the proposed techniques have been tested in an on-going construction project operated by JOGMEC, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, at Namikata, Western part of Japan. Three 26m x 30m x 485m caverns, located at 150 - 200 m below the ground surface in a granitic rock, are under construction. By systematically monitoring the pressure responses between the neighboring boreholes during drilling of total 387 boreholes around the two propane caverns, a spatial profile of the hydraulic connections and hydraulic conductivity around the caverns has been successfully obtained. Locations of localized depressurized zones created during an arch excavation have been detected by monitoring pressure in each borehole after stopping water supply to that borehole temporarily. Measurement has been conducted using each one of the 302 boreholes, one at a time. Observation shows that there is a clear correlation between total pressure drop and pressure gradient versus time curve on semi-logarithmic plot, dH/log10t, as expected by the numerical prediction. Regions where dH/log10t is larger than a certain criteria, determined by a numerical simulation for flow around a cavern in a rock with uniform hydraulic conductivity, have been evaluated as a depressurized zone caused by insufficient water supply, possibly due to existence of the high permeable zones. Separate pore pressure measurement around the caverns also supports this interpretation that a low pressure is prevailing near the borehole

  18. Mineral control of soil carbon storage with reforestation of abandoned pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Swanston, C. W.; Torn, M. S.; Burton, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    their maximum C storage capacity. This may explain their resiliency to land-use change and why we have observed no significant accumulation of soil C despite large increases in aboveground biomass with reforestation.

  19. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4160... noncombustible materials with equivalent fire protection characteristics. ...

  20. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  1. On thermal properties of hard rocks as a host environment of an underground thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, L.; Hladky, R.; Broz, M.; Novak, P.; Lachman, V.; Sosna, K.; Zaruba, J.; Metelkova, Z.; Najser, J.

    2013-12-01

    With increasing focus on environmentally friendly technologies waste heat recycling became an important issue. Under certain circumstances subsurface environment could be utilized to accommodate relatively large quantity of heat. Industrial waste heat produced during warm months can be stored in an underground thermal energy storage (UTES) and used when needed. It is however a complex task to set up a sustainable UTES for industrial scale. Number of parameters has to be studied and evaluated by means of thermohydromechanical and chemical coupling (THMC) before any UTES construction. Thermal characteristics of various rocks and its stability under thermal loading are amongst the most essential. In the Czech Republic study two complementary projects THMC processes during an UTES operation. The RESEN project (www.resen.cz) employs laboratory tests and experiments to characterise thermal properties of hard rocks in the Bohemian Massif. Aim of the project is to point out the most suitable rock environment in the Bohemian Massif for moderate to ultra-high temperature UTES construction (Sanyal, 2005). The VITA project (www.geology.cz/mokrsko) studies THM coupling in non-electrical temperature UTES using long term in-situ experiment. In both projects thermal properties of rocks were studied. Thermal conductivity and capacity were measured on rock samples. In addition an influence of increasing temperature and moisture content was considered. Ten hard rocks were investigated. The set included two sandstones, two ignibrites, a melaphyr, a syenite, two granites, a gneiss and a serpentinite. For each rock there were measured thermal conductivity and capacity of at least 54 dried samples. Subsequently, the samples were heated up to 380°C in 8 hours and left to cool down. Thermal characteristics were measured during the heating period and after the sample reached room temperature. Heating and cooling cycle was repeated 7 to 10 times to evaluate possible UTES-like degradation of

  2. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC. PMID:24729829

  3. The mechanism study between 3D Space-time deformation and injection or extraction of gas pressure change, the Hutubi Underground gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoqiang, W.; Li, J.; Daiqing, L.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    The surface deformation of underground gas reservoir with the change of injection pressure is an excellent opportunity to study the load response under the action of tectonic movement and controlled load. This paper mainly focuses on the elastic deformation of underground structure caused by the change of the pressure state of reservoir rock under the condition of the irregular change of pressure in the underground gas storage of Hutubi, the largest underground gas storage in Xinjiang, at the same time, it makes a fine study on the fault activities of reservoir and induced earthquakes along with the equilibrium instability caused by the reservoir. Based on the 34 deformation integrated observation points and 3 GPS continuous observation stations constructed in the underground gas storage area of Hutubi, using modern measurement techniques such as GPS observation, precise leveling survey, flow gravity observation and so on, combined with remote sensing technology such as InSAR, the 3d space-time sequence images of the surface of reservoir area under pressure change were obtained. Combined with gas well pressure, physical parameters and regional seismic geology and geophysical data, the numerical simulation and analysis of internal changes of reservoir were carried out by using elastic and viscoelastic model, the deformation mechanical relationship of reservoir was determined and the storage layer under controlled load was basically determined. This research is financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41474016, 41474051, 41474097)

  4. 76 FR 76684 - Idaho: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    .... Skyline, Suite B, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1 p.m. to 4 p.m.; and 6. IDEQ Lewiston... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 [EPA-R10-UST-2011-0896; FRL-9502-6] Idaho...). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The State of Idaho has applied for final approval of its Underground...

  5. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at building 310 underground storage tank area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil gas was assessed for contaminants in the building 310 underground storage tank area adjacent to the Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center at Ft. Gordon, Georgia, from October 2010 to September 2011. The assessment, which also included the detection of organic compounds in soil gas, provides environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. Soil-gas samplers were deployed below land surface at 37 locations in the building 310 underground storage tank area. Soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern near the storage tank area as well as downslope of the tank area in the direction of groundwater flow toward an unnamed tributary to Butler Creek. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 35 of the 37 soil-gas samplers at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes were detected above their detection levels in 8 of the 37 samplers. In addition, the combined masses of undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected at or above their method detection levels in 9 of the 37 samplers. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were chloroform, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethylene. In addition, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were detected below the method detection levels, but above the nondetection level.

  6. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    expanded to include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility

  7. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-02-08

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of themore » instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.« less

  8. Undetected Groundwater Contamination at Underground Storage Tank Sites by the Gasoline Lead Scavengers Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falta, R. W.

    2004-05-01

    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) is a synthetic organic chemical that was produced in large amounts for use as a leaded gasoline additive and pesticide. The chlorinated solvent 1,2-dichlorethane (1,2-DCA) is widely used in the chemical industry, and was also added to leaded gasoline. EDB and 1,2-DCA are classified as probable human carcinogens by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and EDB's use as a pesticide was suspended in 1984. The current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for EDB in drinking water is 0.05 ug/l, and the MCL for 1,2-DCA is 5 ug/l. EDB has proven to be both mobile and persistent in groundwater, and contamination of groundwater by EDB was documented in several states beginning in the early 1980s. The majority of this contamination is attributed to agricultural uses of EDB, however approximately 90 percent of the EDB produced was used as a leaded gasoline additive, and it was present in virtually all leaded gasoline sold in the US. 1,2-DCA is commonly found as a groundwater contaminant, and it is both mobile and persistent. Past site investigations and remediation efforts at underground storage tank sites contaminated by leaded gasoline have rarely addressed the potential for EDB or 1,2-DCA contamination. However, the concentrations of EDB and 1,2-DCA in leaded gasoline were high enough to produce groundwater concentrations of thousands of ug/l. For this reason, there is a substantial likelihood that undetected EDB and 1,2-DCA plumes above the MCL may exist at many sites where leaded gasoline leaked or spilled. An initial review of field data from underground storage tank sites in two states suggests that this problem is widespread.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... any buildup pressure before heat is applied. (2) Diesel fuel shall not be allowed to enter pipelines...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... any buildup pressure before heat is applied. (2) Diesel fuel shall not be allowed to enter pipelines...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... any buildup pressure before heat is applied. (2) Diesel fuel shall not be allowed to enter pipelines...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... any buildup pressure before heat is applied. (2) Diesel fuel shall not be allowed to enter pipelines...

  13. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  14. Underground storage of imported water in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, Richard M.

    1971-01-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass ground-water basin is divided into the Beaumont, Banning, Cabazon, San Timoteo, South Beaumont, Banning Bench, and Singleton storage units. The Beaumont storage unit, centrally located in the agency area, is the largest in volume of the storage units. Estimated long-term average annual precipitation in the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency drainage area is 332,000 acre-feet, and estimated average annual recoverable water is 24,000 acre-feet, less than 10 percent of the total precipitation. Estimated average annual surface outflow is 1,700 acre-feet, and estimated average annual ground-water recharge is 22,000 acre-feet. Projecting tack to probable steady-state conditions, of the 22.000 acre-feet of recharge, 16,003 acre-feet per year became subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley, 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, and 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon. After extensive development, estimated subsurface outflow from the area in 1967 was 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon, and 800 acre-feet into the fault systems south of the Banning storage unit, unwatered during construction of a tunnel. Subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley in 1967 is probably less than 50 percent of the steady-state flow. An anticipated 17,000 .acre-feet of water per year will be imported by 1980. Information developed in this study indicates it is technically feasible to store imported water in the eastern part of the Beaumont storage unit without causing waterlogging in the storage area and without losing any significant quantity of stored water.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (ABC) fire extinguishers that are listed or approved by a nationally recognized independent testing... (ABC) fire extinguishers that are listed or approved by a nationally recognized independent testing... storage; and (4) Maintained to prevent the accumulation of water. (c) Welding or cutting other than that...

  16. Study of blasting seismic effects of underground powerhouse of pumped storage project in granite condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Sheng; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Though the test of blasting vibration, the blasting seismic wave propagation laws in southern granite pumped storage power project are studied. Attenuation coefficient of seismic wave and factors coefficient are acquired by the method of least squares regression analysis according to Sadaovsky empirical formula, and the empirical formula of seismic wave is obtained. This paper mainly discusses on the test of blasting vibration and the procedure of calculation. Our practice might as well serve as a reference for similar projects to come.

  17. Railroad abandonment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-03-25

    Abandonment and discontinuance of railroad service is allowed by federal law which permits a carrier to end its obligation to provide common carrier service over a particular rail line. Although a number of specific reasons may be given for the aband...

  18. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    . However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

  19. First results of geodetic deformation monitoring after commencement of CO2 injection at the Aquistore underground CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craymer, M.; White, D.; Piraszewski, M.; Zhao, Y.; Henton, J.; Silliker, J.; Samsonov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, continuous GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS, InSAR and gravity monitoring. Five monitoring sites were installed in 2012 and another six in 2013, each including GPS and InSAR corner reflector monuments (some collocated on the same monument). The continuous GPS data from these stations have been processed on a daily basis in both baseline processing mode using the Bernese GPS Software and precise point positioning mode using CSRS-PPP. Gravity measurements at each site have also been performed in fall 2013, spring 2014 and fall 2015, and at two sites in fall 2014. InSAR measurements of deformation have been obtained for a 5 m footprint at each site as well as at the corner reflector point sources. Here we present the first results of this geodetic deformation monitoring after commencement of CO2 injection on April 14, 2015. The time series of these sites are examined, compared and analyzed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals, longer term trends, and any changes in motion and mass since CO2 injection.

  20. Issues associated with manipulator-based waste retrieval from Hanford underground storage tanks with a preliminary review of commercial concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-09-17

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is exploring commercial methods for retrieving waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in south central Washington state. WHC needs data on commercial retrieval systems equipment in order to make programmatic decisions for waste retrieval. Full system testing of retrieval processes is to be demonstrated in phases through September 1997 in support of programs aimed to Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) and at the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). One of the important parts of the integrated testing will be the deployment of retrieval tools using manipulator-based systems. WHC requires an assessment ofmore » a number of commercial deployment systems that have been identified by the ACTR program as good candidates to be included in an integrated testing effort. Included in this assessment should be an independent evaluation of manipulator tests performed to date, so that WHC can construct an integrated test based on these systems. The objectives of this document are to provide a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for a manipulator-based retrieval system; to evaluate manipulator-based concepts and testing performed to date by a number of commercial organizations; and to identify issues to be resolved through testing and/or analysis for each concept.« less

  1. Long-period Seismicity at the Napoleonville Salt Dome: Implications for Local Seismic Monitoring of Underground Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Nayak, A.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of a large sinkhole at the Napoleonville salt dome, Assumption Parish, Louisiana, in August 2012 was accompanied by a rich sequence of complex seismic events, including long-period (LP) events that were recorded 11 km away at Transportable Array station 544A in White Castle, Louisiana. The LP events have relatively little energy at short periods, which make them difficult to detect using standard high-frequency power detectors, and the majority of energy that reaches the station is peaked near 0.4 Hz. The analysis of the local records reveals that the onset of the 0.4 Hz signals coincides with the S-wave arrival, and therefore it may be a shaking induced resonance in a fluid filled cavern. We created a low-frequency (0.1-0.6 Hz) power detector (short-term average / long-term average) that operated on all three components of the broadband instrument, since considerable energy was detected on the horizontal components. The detections from the power detector were then used as templates in three-channel correlation detectors thereby increasing the number of detections by a little more than a factor of two to nearly 3000. The rate of LP events is approximately one event every other day at the beginning of recording in March 2011. Around 2 May 2012 the rate changes to approximately 7 events per day and then increases to 25 events per day at the beginning of July 2012. Finally, in the days leading up to the sinkhole formation there are approximately 200 LP events per day. The analysis of these events could aid in the development of local seismic monitoring methods for underground industrial storage caverns. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Current use of wild plants with edible underground storage organs in a rural population of Patagonia: between tradition and change.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydee

    2015-09-25

    Edible plants with underground storage organs (USOs) are neglected resources. We studied the local ecological knowledge edible plants with (USOs) in rural populations of North-Patagonia in order to establish how people are utilizing these plants. Some aspect of corpus-praxis-cosmos complex associated to the local ecological knowledge was documented and discussed. In addition, variation in this ecological knowledge due to age, gender, family structure, ethnic self-determination was also evaluated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 inhabitants in order to study the relationship between the current use of plants with USOs and the age, sex, family group composition and ethnic self-identification of interviewees. In addition, the Cultural Importance Index for each species was calculated. The current richness of known species in these populations is a total of 9 plants. Plants with USOs tend to be used more frequently as the age of the interviewee increases. Women and men showed no differences in the average richness of species cited. The interviewees who share their homes with other generations use these plants more frequently than those who live alone. Our results indicate that the interviewees who identified themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people use these plants more frequently. For the Mapuche people, wild plants have constituted material and symbolic resources of great importance in their historical subsistence. In addition, they are currently being redefined as elements which present a connection with ancestral practices, produce a strong relationship with the 'land', and become markers which identify the 'natural' (historical) ways of their people; these are key elements in the current political processes of identity revaluation. This research is valuable to stimulate cultural revival and health promotion programs in the communities with their own local, cultural food.

  3. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Ryu, Dong-Woo

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. Wemore » analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could

  4. Technical review of managed underground storage of water study of the upper Catherine Creek watershed, Union County, northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Because of water diversions during summer, flow in Catherine Creek, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon, is insufficient to sustain several aquatic species for which the stream is listed as critical habitat. A feasibility study for managed underground storage (MUS) in the upper Catherine Creek watershed in Union County, Oregon, was undertaken by Anderson Perry and Associates, Inc., to address the issue of low flows in summer. The results of the study were released as a report titled “Upper Catherine Creek Storage Feasibility Study for Grande Ronde Model Watershed,” which evaluated the possibility of diverting Catherine Creek streamflow during winter (when stream discharge is high), storing the water by infiltration or injection into an aquifer adjacent to the stream, and discharging the water back to the stream in summer to augment low flows. The method of MUS would be accomplished using either (1) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that allows for the injection of water that meets drinking-water-quality standards into an aquifer for later recovery and use, or (2) artificial recharge (AR) that involves the intentional addition of water diverted from another source to a groundwater reservoir. Concerns by resource managers that the actions taken to improve water availability for upper Catherine Creek be effective, cost-efficient, long-term, and based on sound analysis led the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to request that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent review and evaluation of the feasibility study. This report contains the results of that review. The primary objectives of the Anderson Perry and Associates study reviewed here included (1) identifying potentially fatal flaws with the concept of using AR and (or) ASR to augment the streamflow of Catherine Creek, (2) identifying potentially favorable locations for augmenting streamflow, (3) developing and evaluating alternatives for implementing AR and (or) ASR, and

  5. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. Themore » first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a

  6. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  7. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE... closer than 500 feet (measured horizontally) to any abandoned or active underground mine workings, except...

  8. 7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. 8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. Evaluating Fuel Leak and Aging Infrastructure at Red Hill, Hawaii, the Largest Underground Fuel Storage Facility in the United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how EPA Region 9, Hawaii’s Department of Health, U.S. Navy, and Defense Logistics Agency are working tprotect human health and the environment at the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  11. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  12. GIS Analysis of Available Data to Identify regions in the U.S. Where Shallow Ground Water Supplies are Particularly Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases to Biofuels from Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Science Inventory

    GIS analysis of available data to identify regions in the U.S. where shallow ground water supplies are particularly vulnerable to contamination by releases of biofuels from underground storage tanks. In this slide presentation, GIS was used to perform a simple numerical and ...

  13. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2014-01-01

    By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for

  14. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  15. Underground Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-09

    AVC‐VTN‐15‐G06 “Underground  Explosions”  By  Vitaly  V. Adushkin and Alexander...Language Book "UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS" Drs. Vitaly V. Adushkin and Alexander A. Spivak Dr. Anastasia Stroujkova and Professor Paul Richards Weston...SAQMMA13M2475 DOS/AVC/MNA UNLIMITED “Underground Explosions”, a Russian language book authored by Drs. Vitaly V. Adushkin and Alexander A. Spivak has been

  16. Numerical study on criteria for design and operation of water curtain system in underground oil storage cavern using site descriptive fracture networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jiwon; Yeo, In Wook

    2013-04-01

    Underground unlined caverns have been constructed in fractured rocks to stockpile oil and petroleum products, where they are hydraulically contained by natural groundwater pressure. However, for the case that natural groundwater pressure is not maintained at the required level, water curtain boreholes, through which water is injected, are often constructed above the cavern as engineering barrier to secure water pressure enough to overwhelm the operational pressure of the cavern. For secure containment of oil and petroleum products inside the cavern, it is essential to keep water pressure around the cavern higher than operational pressure of the cavern using either natural groundwater pressure or engineering barrier. In the Republic of Korea, a number of underground stockpile bases are being operated by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and private companies, most of which have water curtain system. The criterion that KNOC adopts for water curtain system design and operation such as the vertical distance from the cavern and operational injection rate is based on the Åberg hypothesis that the vertical hydraulic gradient should be larger than one. The criterion has been used for maintaining oil storage cavern without its thorough review. In this study, systematic numerical works have been done for reviewing the Åberg criterion. As groundwater predominantly takes places through fractures in underground caverns, discrete fracture modeling approach is essential for this study. Fracture data, obtained from boreholes drilled at the stage of site investigation at the Yeosu stockpile base in Korea, were statistically analyzed in terms of orientation and intensity, which were used to generate the site descriptive three dimensional fracture networks. Then, groundwater flow modeling has been carried out for the fracture networks. Constant head boundaries were applied along the circumference of the cavern and water curtain boreholes. Main flow channel and hydraulic

  17. Bioremediation of diesel contamination at an underground storage tank site: a spatial analysis of the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Albertarelli, Nicola; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Khoei, Nazaninalsadat Seyed; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on a real case of contamination due to the chronic leakage of diesel fuel from an underground tank at a dismissed service station. Speciation of the microbial community according to both lateral and vertical gradients from the origin of the contaminant release was analyzed by means of the PCR-DGGE technique. Moreover, the effects of a landfarming treatment on both the microbial community structure and the abatement of contamination were analyzed. The concentration of total petrol hydrocarbons (TPHs) decreased along the horizontal gradient (from 7042.2 ± 521.9 to 112.2 ± 24.3 mg kg(-1)), while increased downwards from the position of the tank (from 502.6 ± 43.7 to 4972.5 ± 275.3 mg kg(-1)). PCR-DGGE analyses and further statistical treatment of the data indicated a correlation between structure of the bacterial communities and amount of diesel fuel contamination. On the other hand, level of contamination, soil texture and depth were shown to affect the fungal community. Chloroflexi and Ascomycota were the most abundant microbes ascertained through culture-independent procedures. Landfarming promoted 91.6 % reduction of TPHs in 75 days. Furthermore, PCR-DGGE analyses evidenced that both bacterial and fungal communities of the treated soil were restored to the pristine conditions of uncontaminated topsoil. The present study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal communities were affected differently by soil factors such as level of hydrocarbon contamination as well as soil depth and texture. This report shows that a well-planned landfarming treatment can drive the restoration of the soil in terms of both abatement of the contaminants and resilience of the microbial community structure.

  18. Using underground gas storage to replace the swing capacity of the giant natural gas field of Groningen in the Netherlands. A reservoir performance feasibility study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez-Larre, Joaquim; Remmelts, Gijs; Breunese, Jaap; Van Gessel, Serge; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2017-04-01

    In this study we probe the ultimate potential Underground Gas Storage (UGS) capacity of the Netherlands by carrying out a detailed feasibility study on inflow performances of all available onshore natural gas reservoirs. The Netherlands is one of the largest natural gas producers in Western Europe. The current decline of its national production and looming production restrictions on its largest field of Groningen -owing to its induced seismicity- have recently made necessary to upgrade the two largest UGS of Norg and Grijpskerk. The joined working volume of these two UGS is expected to replace the swing capacity of the Groningen field to continue guaranteeing the security of supply of low calorific natural gas. The question is whether the current UGS configuration will provide the expected working storage capacity unrestricted by issues on reservoir performances and/or induced seismicity. This matter will be of paramount importance in the near future when production restrictions and/or the advance state of depletion of the Groningen field will turn the Netherlands into a net importer of high calorific natural gas. By then, the question will be whether the current UGS will still be economically attractive to continue operating, or if additional/alternative types of UGS will be needed?. Hence the characterization and ranking of the best potential reservoirs available today is of paramount importance for future UGS developments. We built an in-house automated module based on the application of the traditional inflow performance relationship analysis to screen the performances of 156 natural gas reservoirs in onshore Netherlands. Results enable identifying the 72 best candidates with an ultimate total working volume capacity of 122±30 billion Sm3. A detailed sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the reservoir properties or wellbore/tubing configurations on withdrawal performances and storage capacity. We validate our predictions by comparing them to

  19. Numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-mechanical performance of a lined rock cavern for underground compressed air energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that uses compressed air to store surplus electricity generated from low power consumption time for use at peak times. This paper presents a thermo-mechanical modeling for the thermodynamic and mechanical responses of a lined rock cavern used for CAES. The simulation was accomplished in COMSOL Multiphysics and comparisons of the numerical simulation and some analytical solutions validated the thermo-mechanical modeling. Air pressure and temperatures in the sealing layer and concrete lining exhibited a similar trend of ‘up-down-down-up’ in one cycle. Significant temperature fluctuation occurred only in the concrete lining and sealing layer, and no strong fluctuation was observed in the host rock. In the case of steel sealing, principal stresses in the sealing layer were larger than those in the concrete and host rock. The maximum compressive stresses of the three layers and the displacement on the cavern surface increased with the increase of cycle number. However, the maximum tensile stresses exhibited the opposite trend. Polymer sealing achieved a relatively larger air temperature and pressure compared with steel and air-tight concrete sealing. For concrete layer thicknesses of 0 and 0.1 m and an initial air pressure of 4.5 MPa, the maximum rock temperature could reach 135 °C and 123 °C respectively in a 30 day simulation.

  20. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  1. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  2. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  3. Assessment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination in the surficial sediments and ground water at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water and sediment contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons resulting from leaks and overfills was detected during tank removal activities at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, near Columbia, South Carolina. Investigations were initiated to assess the effect of contamination to the surficial aquifer at Sites 1062, 2438, and 2444. These investigations involved the installation of permanent monitoring wells and the collection and analysis of sediment and ground-water samples at the three sites. Water-level data were collected at all sites to determine hydraulic gradients and the direction of ground-water flow. In addition, aquifer tests were made at Site 1062 to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the surficial aquifer at that site. Sediment borings were made at the three sites to collect subsurface-sediment samples for lithologic description and laboratory analyses, and for the installation of ground-water monitoring wells. Laboratory analyses of sediment samples collected from boreholes at Site 1062 indicated elevated concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons at three locations. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Diesel Range Organics were detected at one borehole at a concentration of 388,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations in sediment from the site ranged from less than 350 to over 100,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total lead was detected at concentrations ranging from 2,900 to 5,900 micrograms per kilogram. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected at Site 2438 in one borehole at a trace concentration of 112 micrograms per kilogram of para- and meta-xylenes. No concentrations exceeding the detection limits were reported for petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples collected from Site 2444; however, total lead was detected in sediment samples from two boreholes, each at concentrations of 600 micrograms per kilogram. Ground-water samples were collected from each site for

  4. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf ofmore » Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.« less

  5. Constraints on temporal velocity variations associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia using earthquake and seismic ambient noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Arantza; Gaite, Beatriz; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During September 2013, the injection of the base gas in a depleted oil reservoir used as an underground natural gas storage (CASTOR) caused a sudden seismic activity increase in the eastern coast of Spain. As a result, a compact cluster of more than 550 earthquakes with magnitudes mbLg > 0.7 were located in the shallow offshore area of the Gulf of Valencia during two months. The strongest event, having a magnitude of Mw=4.2, was followed by two Mw=4.1 events the day after and took place once the gas injection activities had finished. Using the seismic data recorded by permanent stations at more than 25 km from the injection well, we applied coda wave interferometry to monitor changes in seismic velocity structure between similar earthquakes. Then we solved for a continuous function of velocity changes with time by combining observations from all the closely located earthquake sources. The rate of repeating events allowed measurements of relative velocity variations for about 30 days on a daily scale. To extend the analysis in time, we also processed the continuous data using the autocorrelation of band-pass filtered ambient seismic noise. A 10-day average was required to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the 0.2-0.5 Hz and 0.5-1 Hz frequency bands. We quantified the time lags between two traces in the frequency and time domains by means of the Moving Window Cross Spectral Analysis and a Dynamic Time Warping technique, respectively. Injection of fluids in geologic formations causes variations in seismic velocities associated to changes in fluid saturation, increase in pore pressure or opening or enlargement of cracks due to the injection process. Time delays associated with stress changes caused by moderate to large earthquakes have also been established. In this work, we found no velocity changes during the gas injection period nor on the occasion of the Mw 4.2 earthquake. The sensitivity of the method is dependent on the seismic network geometry and

  6. Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting abandoned oil and gas wells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Christian, Shanna; Celia, Michael A.; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Bill, Markus; Miller, Alana R.; Chen, Yuheng; Conrad, Mark E.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil/gas wells show that these wells can be a substantial source of methane to the atmosphere, particularly from a small proportion of high-emitting wells. However, identifying high emitters remains a challenge. We couple 163 well measurements of methane flow rates; ethane, propane, and n-butane concentrations; isotopes of methane; and noble gas concentrations from 88 wells in Pennsylvania with synthesized data from historical documents, field investigations, and state databases. Using our databases, we (i) improve estimates of the number of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania; (ii) characterize key attributes that accompany high emitters, including depth, type, plugging status, and coal area designation; and (iii) estimate attribute-specific and overall methane emissions from abandoned wells. High emitters are best predicted as unplugged gas wells and plugged/vented gas wells in coal areas and appear to be unrelated to the presence of underground natural gas storage areas or unconventional oil/gas production. Repeat measurements over 2 years show that flow rates of high emitters are sustained through time. Our attribute-based methane emission data and our comprehensive estimate of 470,000–750,000 abandoned wells in Pennsylvania result in estimated state-wide emissions of 0.04–0.07 Mt (1012 g) CH4 per year. This estimate represents 5–8% of annual anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. Our methodology combining new field measurements with data mining of previously unavailable well attributes and numbers of wells can be used to improve methane emission estimates and prioritize cost-effective mitigation strategies for Pennsylvania and beyond. PMID:27849603

  7. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  8. Reconnaissance investigations of potential ground-water and sediment contamination at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.F.; Nagle, Douglas D.; Rhodes, Liesl C.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations to provide initial qualitative delineation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, were made during March 1994. Ground-water and sediment samples were collected using direct-push technology and analyzed on-site with a gas chromatograph, which provided real-time, semi-quantitative data. In addition, ground-water and sediment samples were collected at selected sites for laboratory analyses to provide a confirmation of the on-site data. These analyses provided qualitative data on the lateral distri- bution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in ground-water samples from nine locations at Site 1062, suggesting the presence of a contaminant plume. Concentrations ranged from less than the minimum detection limit to 4,511 mg/L (micrograms per liter) for benzene, 15,594 mg/L for toluene, 16,501 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 19,391 mg/L for total xylenes. Concentrations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics ranged from 323 mg/L to 3,364 mg/L; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics were not detected. Three samples from this site were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes at a laboratory and results showed concentrations ranging from less than the minimum detection limit to 1,070 mg/L for benzene, 7,930 mg/L for toluene, 6,890 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 1,524 mg/L for total xylenes. Petroleum hydro- carbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one sample at Site 2438. A concentration of 131,000 micrograms per kilogram Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics was detected in sample number GP-2-4-13.5. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one ground-water sample from Site 2444. A concentration of 3,145 mg/L Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics was detected at sampling location GP-3-2.

  9. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additionalmore » information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 25-25-09, Spill H940825C (from UST 25-3101-1) • 25-25-14, Spill H940314E (from UST 25-3102-3) • 25-25-15, Spill H941020E (from UST 25-3152-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs

  10. Addendum 2 to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additionalmore » information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 12-25-08, Spill H950524F (from UST 12-B-1) • 12-25-10, Spill H950919A (from UST 12-COMM-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining these URs

  11. Manual for abandoned underground mine inventory and risk assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-10-01

    This report presents operational and safety findings and countermeasure recommendations from a comparative analysis of bicycle lanes (BLs) versus wide curb lanes (WCLs). The primary analysis was based on videotapes of almost 4,600 bicyclists in Santa...

  12. Report of investigation on underground limestone mines in the Ohio region. [Jonathan Mine, Alpha Portland Cement Mine, and Lewisburg Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Byerly, D.W.

    1976-06-01

    The following is a report of investigation on the geologic setting of several underground limestone mines in Ohio other than the PPG mine at Barberton, Ohio. Due to the element of available time, the writer is only able to deliver a brief synopsis of the geology of three sites visited. These three sites and the Barberton, Ohio site are the only underground limestone mines in Ohio to the best of the writer's knowledge. The sites visited include: (1) the Jonathan Mine located near Zanesville, Ohio, and currently operated by the Columbia Cement Corporation; (2) the abandoned Alpha Portland Cement Minemore » located near Ironton, Ohio; and (3) the Lewisburg Mine located at Lewisburg, Ohio, and currently being utilized as an underground storage facility. Other remaining possibilities where limestone is being mined underground are located in middle Ordovician strata near Carntown and Maysville, Kentucky. These are drift mines into a thick sequence of carbonates. The writer predicts, however, that these mines would have some problems with water due to the preponderance of carbonate rocks and the proximity of the mines to the Ohio River. None of the sites visited nor the sites in Kentucky have conditions comparable to the deep mine at Barberton, Ohio.« less

  13. Effects of underground mining and mine collapse on the hydrology of selected basins in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobba, William A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of underground mining and mine collapse on areal hydrology were determined at one site where the mined bed of coal lies above major streams and at two sites where the bed of coal lies below major streams. Subsidence cracks observed at land surface generally run parallel to predominant joint sets in the rocks. The mining and subsidence cracks increase hydraulic conductivity and interconnection of water-bearing rock units, which in turn cause increased infiltration of precipitation and surface water, decreased evapotranspiration, and higher base flows in some small streams. Water levels in observation wells in mined areas fluctuate as much as 100 ft annually. Both gaining and losing streams are found in mined areas. Mine pumpage and drainage can cause diversion of water underground from one basin to another. Areal and single-well aquifer tests indicated that near-surface rocks have higher transmissivity in a mine-subsided basin than in unmined basins. Increased infiltration and circulation through shallow subsurface rocks increase dissolved mineral loads in streams, as do treated and untreated contributions from mine pumpage and drainage. Abandoned and flooded underground mines make good reservoirs because of their increased transmissivity and storage. Subsidence cracks were not detectable by thermal imagery, but springs and seeps were detectable.

  14. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  15. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  16. Site-specific standard request for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility Buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks located at the Rust Garage Facility. These standards are justified based on conclusion derived from the exposure assessment that indicates there is no current or forseeable future human health risk associated with petroleum contaminants on the site, that current and future ecological risks would be generally limited to subsurface species and plant life with roots extending into the area, and that most of the impacted area at the site is covered by asphalt or concrete. The vertical and horizontal extent of soil and ground water contamination are limited tomore » immediate area of the Rust Garage Facility.« less

  17. Abandoned babies and absent policies.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Joanne; Sherr, Lorraine

    2009-12-01

    Although infant abandonment is a historical problem, we know remarkably little about the conditions or effects of abandonment to guide evidence driven policies. This paper briefly reviews the existing international evidence base with reference to potential mental health considerations before mapping current UK guidelines and procedures, and available incidence data. Limitations arising from these findings are discussed with reference to international practice, and interpreted in terms of future pathways for UK policy. A systematic approach was utilized to gather available data on policy information and statistics on abandoned babies in the UK. A review of the limited literature indicates that baby abandonment continues to occur, with potentially wide-ranging mental health ramifications for those involved. However, research into such consequences is lacking, and evidence with which to understand risk factors or motives for abandonment is scarce. International approaches to the issue remain controversial with outcomes unclear. Our systematic search identified that no specific UK policy relating to baby abandonment exists, either nationally or institutionally. This is compounded by a lack of accurate of UK abandonment statistics. Data that does exist is not comprehensive and sources are incompatible, resulting in an ambiguous picture of UK baby abandonment. Available literature indicates an absence of clear provision, policy and research on baby abandonment. Based on current understanding of maternal and child mental health issues likely to be involved in abandonment, existing UK strategy could be easily adapted to avoid the 'learning from scratch' approach. National policies on recording and handling of baby abandonments are urgently needed, and future efforts should be concentrated on establishing clear data collection frameworks to inform understanding, guide competent practice and enable successfully targeted interventions.

  18. Experimental investigations and geochemical modelling of site-specific fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions in underground storage of CO2/H2/CH4 mixtures: the H2STORE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Marco; Pilz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting the energy demand and environmental targets of many industrialized countries. Besides the long-term CO2 sequestration, energy can be chemically stored in form of CO2/CH4/H2 mixtures, for example resulting from excess wind energy. A precise estimation of the impact of such gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting environmental targets and the energy demand through storage in form of H2 or CH4, i.e. resulting from excess wind energy. Gas storage in salt caverns is nowadays a mature technology; in regions where favorable geologic structures such as salt diapires are not available, however, gas storage can only be implemented in porous media such as depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers. In such settings, a significant amount of in-situ gas components such as CO2, CH4 (and N2) will always be present, making the CO2/CH4/H2 system of particular interest. A precise estimation of the impact of their gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is therefore crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. In the framework of the collaborative research project H2STORE, the feasibility of industrial-scale gas storage in porous media in several potential siliciclastic depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers is being investigated by means of experiments and modelling on actual core materials from the evaluated sites. Among them are the Altmark depleted gas reservoir in Saxony-Anhalt and the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Brandenburg (Germany). Further sites are located in the Molasse basin in South Germany and Austria. In particular, two

  19. An analysis of the benefits of using underground tanks for the storage of stormwater runoff generated at Virginia Department of Transportation maintenance facilities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) collects millions of gallons of runoff at its nearly 300 salt storage : facilities each year, with some portion of this water being reused for the generation of salt brine. Storing this collected storm...

  20. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  1. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property on...

  2. Case histories in scientific and pseudo-scientific mass-media communication in energy/heat production from underground (geogas storage, geothermics, hydrocarbons), in the frame of Nimby Sindrome enhancement in Europe: the proposal of a new European Direct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of energy/heat production from underground, the paper considers some European case histories and the needs of a complex and motley stakeholders community, made by scientific-industry-institutions, involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, as Italy, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour. Successively, the paper recalls years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media, highlighting the positive and negative messages, in comparison to the true and objective experimental data gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoop. The authors retrace case histories of heuristic-participatory communication with the citizenship about the scientific results on challenges raised by certain technologies. The objective and rational communication is often impeded by local interests and by local journalism, which prefers to create sensationalist news more than scientific truths. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and with conflicting use of underground to produce energy (heat as gas storage, geothermical, unconventional gas exploitation, mining, etc…). Even the chain of renewables meets by now serious issues, exacerbated also by the need to start mining and drilling for the smart grids materials too (metals, rare Earths, etc..). A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity is discussed, starting from the Italian regulatory issue. The review efforts for a "paper" on both a newspaper or a blog could be more difficult than the review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest in a newspaper article or in a blog

  3. Strategic use of the underground for an energy mix plan, synergies among CO2 and CH4 Geological Storage and Geothermal Energy: Italian Energy review and Latium case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procesi, M.; Cantucci, B.; Buttinelli, M.; Armezzani, G.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2012-04-01

    Since the world-wide energy demand has been growing so much in the last years, it is necessary to develop a strategic mix-energy plan to supply low GHG (GreenHouseGas) emissions energy and solve the problem of CO2 emission increasing. A recent study published by European Commission shows that, if existing trends continue, by 2050 CO2 emissions will be unsustainably high: 900-1000 parts per million by volume. The European Commission in 2007 underline the necessity to elaborate, at European level, a Strategic Energy Technology Plan focused on non-carbon or reduced-carbon sources of energy, as renewable energies, CO2 capture and storage technologies, smart energy networks and energy efficiency and savings. Future scenarios for 2030 elaborated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) shows as a mix energy plan could reduce the global CO2 emissions from 27Gt to 23 Gt (about 15%). A strategic use of the underground in terms of: - development of CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) associated to fossil fuel combustion; - increase of CH4 geological storage sites; - use of renewable energies as geothermic for power generation; could open a new energy scenario, according to the climate models published by IPCC. Nowadays CCS market is mainly developed in USA and Canada, but still not much accounted in Europe. In Italy there aren't active CCS projects, even if potential areas have been already identified. Many CH4 storage sites are located in Northern America, while other are present in Europe and Italy, but the number of sites is limited despite the huge underground potentiality. In Italy the power generation from geothermal energy comes exclusively from Tuscany (Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal fields) despite the huge potentiality of other regions as Latium, Campania and Sicily (Central and South Italy). The energy deficit and the relevant CO2 emissions represent a common status for many Italian regions, especially for the Latium Region. This suggests that a

  4. Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and glacier melt on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. Glacierized and non-glacierized areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of glacier melt, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by glaciers, accounting for glacier melt is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.

  5. A national assessment of underground natural gas storage: identifying wells with designs likely vulnerable to a single-point-of-failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michanowicz, Drew R.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Rowland, Sebastian T.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Goho, Shaun A.; Bernstein, Aaron S.

    2017-05-01

    The leak of processed natural gas (PNG) from October 2015 to February 2016 from the Aliso Canyon storage facility, near Los Angeles, California, was the largest single accidental release of greenhouse gases in US history. The Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety and California regulators recently recommended operators phase out single-point-of-failure (SPF) well designs. Here, we develop a national dataset of UGS well activity in the continental US to assess regulatory data availability and uncertainty, and to assess the prevalence of certain well design deficiencies including single-point-of-failure designs. We identified 14 138 active UGS wells associated with 317 active UGS facilities in 29 states using regulatory and company data. State-level wellbore datasets contained numerous reporting inconsistencies that limited data concatenation. We identified 2715 active UGS wells across 160 facilities that, like the failed well at Aliso Canyon, predated the storage facility, and therefore were not originally designed for gas storage. The majority (88%) of these repurposed wells are located in OH, MI, PA, NY, and WV. Repurposed wells have a median age of 74 years, and the 2694 repurposed wells constructed prior to 1979 are particularly likely to exhibit design-related deficiencies. An estimated 210 active repurposed wells were constructed before 1917—before cement zonal isolation methods were utilized. These wells are located in OH, PA, NY, and WV and represent the highest priority related to potential design deficiencies that could lead to containment loss. This national baseline assessment identifies regulatory data uncertainties, highlights a potentially widespread vulnerability of the natural gas supply chain, and can aid in prioritization and oversight for high-risk wells and facilities.

  6. 77 FR 31841 - Notice of Applications for Authorization To Abandon Facilities and Services and To Acquire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... To Abandon Facilities and Services and To Acquire Facilities by Merger Steuben Gas Storage Company... Field Storage Facilities (Adrian Field) which Steuben operates pursuant to certificates of public... authorization to charge market based rates following its acquisition of the Adrian Field Storage Facility. The...

  7. Care of the abandoned child.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, M

    1991-01-01

    Care of abandoned children in India is discussed in terms of reasons for abandonment, the physical condition of the children, and legal categories. The options available currently are the cottage system, sponsorship programs, foster care, or adoption. Child-care and rehabilitation that may be necessary is specified as is the importance of maintaining records. The gaps in child-care are exposed. The role of nongovernmental organization (NGOs) and new legislation in closing the gaps is presented. Abandonment is usually a direct result of poverty, but it can also be caused by mental or physical handicaps or illegitimacy. The numbers of abandoned children may reach 2 million. 40-60% of abandoned infants die during monsoons and summers. The legal categories are privately abandoned, children on remand, or court-committed children. The cottage system emphasizes deinstitutionalization, but there remains a great demand for care. Sponsorship aims to strengthen the family unit to prevent abandonment. Foster care provides an alternative family substitute, but is known only theoretically. Childcare may involve instant hospitalization, care is an institution, or foster care with a suitable family. Nursery care requires discipline in hygiene, sanitation, maintenance of individual medical records, and a general cheerful atmosphere. Records are important for the child in later life and for adoption. Rehabilitation is a sociolegal process which must be done properly or it can jeopardize a child's future security. Despite the Supreme Court guidelines of 1984, there is no uniform system of adoption practices, and the child's interests are overlooked when adoptions are promoted. NGOs play an important role in making social welfare programs work. However their efforts are of limited help without government support and legislation. There is a lack of proper legislation which is outside the control of political and religious interests; e.g., Hindu law only permits adoption of one child of

  8. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jing-Ying; Liao, Huei-Hung; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2010-12-01

    Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are "foreground-mask sampling" to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and "selective tracking" to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  9. Underground laboratories in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  10. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw; Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  11. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Maps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Map of the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims generally located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89 in the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  12. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets related to Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, ain the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  13. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  14. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  15. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  16. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  17. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series...

  18. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  19. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  20. Changes in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen following Land Abandonment of Farmland on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lei; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Sweeney, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN). However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grassland sites were established on farmland abandoned for 1, 7, 13, 20, and 30 years. Top soil OC and TN were higher in older grassland, especially in the 0–5 cm soil depths; deeper soil OC and TN was lower in younger grasslands (<20 yr), and higher in older grasslands (30 yr). Soil OC and N storage (0–100 cm) was significantly lower in the younger grasslands (<20 yr), had increased in the older grasslands (30 yr), and at 30 years SOC had increased to pre-abandonment levels. For a thirty year period following abandonment the soil C/N value remained at 10. Our results indicate that soil C and TN were significantly and positively correlated, indicating that studies on the storage of soil OC and TN needs to focus on deeper soil and not be restricted to the uppermost (0–30 cm) soil levels. PMID:23940793

  1. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  2. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  3. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-06-09

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  4. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  5. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  6. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  7. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  8. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  9. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  10. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  11. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  12. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor...

  13. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Patent and Trademark Office. Express abandonment of the application may not be recognized by the Office...

  14. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  15. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used... Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not...

  16. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used... Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not...

  17. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used... Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not...

  18. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coveragemore » of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.« less

  19. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  20. Waterproofing Underground Concrete Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    include Rubberized Asphalt with 42 Polyethylene Cover, Vulcanized Rubbers such as EPDM , Butyl, and Neoprene, Thermoplastics such as PVC, CPE, HDPE, and...welding. However., PVC sheets tend to shrink excessively and become brittle with increasing age . The rubber sheets that are used most often in...underground concrete structures are Butyl rubber and Ethylene. Propylene Diene Monomer ( EPDM ). The adhesives with which they must be sealed are not quite as

  1. Location and stability analysis of the Michigamme Underground Mine for the US-41 re-alignment in Marquette County, Michigan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-01

    A proposed realignment of US-41 near Michigamme, Michigan will be located over an abandoned underground iron ore : mine. The mine, known as the Michigamme Mine, was started in 1872 and closed in 1901. Initial mining operations : were started in seven...

  2. Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the progress of EPA's cleanup of abandoned uranium mines on Navajo and Hopi lands and in other areas of Arizona and New Mexico, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  3. Wetland mitigation in abandoned gravel pits.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to provide on-site mitigation for wetland impacts due to road construction in : northeastern Minnesota counties that retain greater than 80 percent of their pre-settlement wetlands. Abandoned : gravel pits are on...

  4. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration as a Closure Option for Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sutapa; Dey, Kaushik

    2018-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, 1998, was signed by member countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a minimum acceptable level. India agreed to Kyoto Protocol since 2002 and started its research on GHG mitigation. Few researchers have carried out research work on CO2 sequestration in different rock formations. However, CO2 sequestration in abandoned mines has yet not drawn its attention largely. In the past few years or decades, a significant amount of research and development has been done on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, since it is a possible solution for assuring less emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from power plants and some other major industrial plants. CCS mainly involves three steps: (a) capture and compression of CO2 from source (power plants and industrial areas), (b) transportation of captured CO2 to the storage mine and (c) injecting CO2 into underground mine. CO2 is stored at an underground mine mainly in three forms: (1) adsorbed in the coals left as pillars of the mine, (2) absorbed in water through a chemical process and (3) filled in void with compressed CO2. Adsorption isotherm is a graph developed between the amounts of adsorbate adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent and the pressure at constant temperature. Various types of adsorption isotherms are available, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and BET theory. Indian coal is different in origin from most of the international coal deposits and thus demands isotherm experiments of the same to arrive at the right adsorption isotherm. To carry out these experiments, adsorption isotherm set up is fabricated in the laboratory with a capacity to measure the adsorbed volume up to a pressure level of 100 bar. The coal samples are collected from the pillars and walls of the underground coal seam using a portable drill machine. The adsorption isotherm experiments have been carried out for the samples taken from a mine. From the adsorption isotherm experiments, Langmuir Equation is found to be

  5. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  6. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... pipeline facility or each abandoned onshore pipeline facility that crosses over, under or through a...

  7. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned onshore pipeline facility that crosses over, under or through a commercially navigable waterway, the last...

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are locatedmore » in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262

  9. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground shops... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...

  10. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senarath, Chamaka; Caspar Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CASPAR mainly focuses on Stellar Nucleosynthesis, its impact on the production of heavy elements and study the strength of stellar neutron sources that propels the s-process, 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg. Currently, implementation of a 1MV fully refurbished Van de Graaff accelerator that can provide a high intensity Î+/- beam, is being done at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). The accelerator is built among a collaboration of South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, University of Notre Dame and Colorado School of Mines. It is understood that cosmic ray neutron background radiation hampers experimental Nucleosynthesis studies, hence the need to go underground in search for a neutron free environment, to study these reactions at low energies is evident. The first beam was produced in the middle of summer 2017. The entire accelerator will be run before the end of this year. A detailed overview of goals of CASPAR will be presented. NFS Grant-1615197.

  11. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  12. A Case for Underground Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made…

  13. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102 Section 57.6102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground §...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102 Section 57.6102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground §...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102 Section 57.6102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground §...

  16. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficiency evaluation of agricultural underground dam in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, W.; Song, S. H.; Yong, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in severe droughts in a rice-planting season (i.e., April to June) in South Korea since 2012. Therefore, all time high-amount water resources in rice-farming seasons (i.e., April to October) were required against natural crises like droughts. The underground dam, which is able to increase groundwater amounts in the alluvium aquifer, has been considered to be an alternative for securing more groundwater resources. In this study, irrigation efficiencies of five pre-existing agricultural underground dams in South Korea were evaluated during the drought periods. A total amount of groundwater storage capacities in alluvial aquifers of these five ones were estimated approximate 15 × 107 m3: above 4 × 106 m3 for two underground dams (Ian, Namsong), 2 3 × 106 m3, for 2 dams (Oksung, Wooil), below 2 × 106 m3 for 1 dam (Gocheon), respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for three underground dams (Ian, Namsong, Gocheon), supplied in rice-farming season are 8.5 × 105 m3/year, 8.3 × 105 m3/year, 6.3 × 105 m3/year, respectively. The total demand of agricultural water in these underground dams is 2.0 × 106 m3/year, 1.9 × 106 m3/year, 2.2 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for whole of rice-farming area in South Korea is 4.3 × 108 m3/year whereas total demand of agricultural water is 9.4 × 109 m3/year. Groundwater were pumped from the radial collector wells located in the upstream from the underground dams. Oksung underground dam, one representative underground dam located in Chungnam province in South Korea, irrigated approximate 3 × 105 m3 during a dried rice-planting season (between April to June) in 2017. It was three times more than usual (9 × 104 m3). Groundwater levels during the same period maintained above 5.55 m, which was slightly lower than usual (6.00 m). Results of Oksung underground dam demonstrated that underground dams in South Korea were effectively operated against

  18. 30 CFR 57.6800 - Storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage facilities. 57.6800 Section 57.6800...-Surface and Underground § 57.6800 Storage facilities. When repair work which could produce a spark or flame is to be performed on a storage facility— (a) The explosive material shall be moved to another...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6800 - Storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage facilities. 57.6800 Section 57.6800...-Surface and Underground § 57.6800 Storage facilities. When repair work which could produce a spark or flame is to be performed on a storage facility— (a) The explosive material shall be moved to another...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6800 - Storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage facilities. 57.6800 Section 57.6800...-Surface and Underground § 57.6800 Storage facilities. When repair work which could produce a spark or flame is to be performed on a storage facility— (a) The explosive material shall be moved to another...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6800 - Storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage facilities. 57.6800 Section 57.6800...-Surface and Underground § 57.6800 Storage facilities. When repair work which could produce a spark or flame is to be performed on a storage facility— (a) The explosive material shall be moved to another...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6800 - Storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage facilities. 57.6800 Section 57.6800...-Surface and Underground § 57.6800 Storage facilities. When repair work which could produce a spark or flame is to be performed on a storage facility— (a) The explosive material shall be moved to another...

  3. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  4. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  5. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  6. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  7. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  8. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  9. 27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478...

  10. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  11. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  12. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  13. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  14. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape or...

  15. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  16. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  17. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  18. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138 Section 1.138 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Time for Reply by...

  19. Magnetic surveys for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Abandoned and unrecorded wells may act as conduits for the contamination of groundwater supplies by oil field brines and other pollutants. The casings of abandoned wells eventually develop leaks, which, if not properly plugged, can allow pollutants to reach freshwater aquifers that supply drinking water. Sources of pollutants include brine ponds, landfill sites, agricultural activities, industrial activities, illegal disposal sites, or accidental spills. The problem is particularly acute in regions where there are old petroleum fields or where water wells have been extensively used for agricultural irrigation. Even urban areas can contain wells that were abandoned and concealed during development. Carefully designed ground magnetic or aeromagnetic surveys can be used to locate abandoned wells by mapping the magnetic disturbances or "anomalies" produced by their steel well casings. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) can, at the request of other Federal, State, or local agencies, conduct, process, and interpret such surveys, or it can aid in the design and monitoring of contracts for such surveys.

  20. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned Wells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inv...

  1. 78 FR 77445 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 6, 2013, Tres Palacios Gas Storage... working gas storage capacity in its salt cavern natural gas storage facility located in Matagorda, Colorado, and Wharton Counties, Texas. Tres Palacios states that the proposed abandonment of storage...

  2. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. The Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, Eugenio

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years have passed since, thanks to Antonino Zichichi, the project for the largest underground laboratory in the world was conceived and brought to the attention of Italian authorities. The Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN have become a scientific reality of worldwide pre-eminence, in an expanding area of research where elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology overlap. I briefly present here the main scientific challenges of underground laboratories and the activity and future perspectives of the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory.

  4. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of § 75.1107...

  5. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of § 75.1107...

  6. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of § 75.1107...

  7. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of § 75.1107...

  8. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  9. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicants § 2.66 Revival of abandoned applications. (a) The applicant may file a petition to revive an... for filing a petition to revive an application abandoned because the applicant did not timely respond... proposed response. (c) The requirements for filing a petition to revive an application abandoned because...

  10. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  11. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  12. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  13. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...

  14. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...

  15. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  17. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  4. 32 CFR 1618.1 - Abandonment of rights or privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of rights or privileges. 1618.1... NOTICE TO REGISTRANTS § 1618.1 Abandonment of rights or privileges. If a registrant fails to claim and exercise any right or privilege within the required time, he shall be deemed to have abandoned the right or...

  5. 18 CFR 157.214 - Increase in storage capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increase in storage... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.214 Increase in storage capacity. (a) Prior notice... maximum volume of natural gas authorized to be stored in a storage field to the extent that geological...

  6. 18 CFR 157.214 - Increase in storage capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in storage... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.214 Increase in storage capacity. (a) Prior notice... maximum volume of natural gas authorized to be stored in a storage field to the extent that geological...

  7. 18 CFR 157.214 - Increase in storage capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Increase in storage... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.214 Increase in storage capacity. (a) Prior notice... maximum volume of natural gas authorized to be stored in a storage field to the extent that geological...

  8. 18 CFR 157.214 - Increase in storage capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in storage... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.214 Increase in storage capacity. (a) Prior notice... maximum volume of natural gas authorized to be stored in a storage field to the extent that geological...

  9. 18 CFR 157.214 - Increase in storage capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in storage... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.214 Increase in storage capacity. (a) Prior notice... maximum volume of natural gas authorized to be stored in a storage field to the extent that geological...

  10. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  11. Resource targets for advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J. H.; Whipple, D. W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems are identified. A comprehensive examination of conventional and unconventional coals with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry was made. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions of subregions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  12. Site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the rust garage facility buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID No. 0-010117

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This document represents a Site-specific Standard Request for underground storage tanks (USTs) 1219-U,1222-U and 2082-U previously located at former Building 9754-1, and tank 2086-U previously located at Building 9720-15, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tanks previously contained petroleum products. For the purposes of this report, the two building sites will be regarded as a single UST site and will be referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The current land use associated with the Y-12 Plant is light industrial and the operational period of the plant is projected to be at least 30 years. Thus, potential futuremore » residential exposures are not expected to occur for at least 30 years. Based on the degradation coefficient for benzene (the only carcinogenic petroleum constituent detected in soils or groundwater at the Rust Garage Facility), it is expected that the benzene and other contaminants at the site will likely be reduced prior to expiration of the 30-year plant operational period. As the original sources of petroleum contamination have been removed, and the area of petroleum contamination is limited, a site-specific standard is therefore being requested for the Rust Garage Facility.« less

  13. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  14. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo; Bemmerer, Daniel; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. We review the main results obtained by LUNA during the past 20 years and discuss their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino, the Sun, and the universe itself. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics toward the study both of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are outlined.

  15. Getting cold feet?: Why health care mergers are abandoned.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anne-Fleur; Postma, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence and sizeable consequences of merger abandonment in other sectors, there is no thorough understanding of merger abandonment in health care. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of determinants of health care merger abandonment. On the basis of the literature on merger abandonment, we formulated a framework on potential determinants of health care merger abandonment. We then constructed a survey that was sent to 70% of all executives of Dutch health care organizations (response rate = 35%, n = 291). We provide descriptive overviews of open, multiple-response, and multiple-choice questions on merger abandonment and use chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests to test whether abandoned and completed merger processes differ. About 62% of the respondents were involved in at least one merger process during the period of 2005-2012. Thirty-eight percent of these respondents reported that their last merger case ended prematurely (n = 53). The most frequently mentioned determinants of merger abandonment are changing insights on the desirability and feasibility during merger processes, incompatibilities between executives, and insufficient support for the merger from internal stakeholders. We did not find significant relationships between merger abandonment and executives' previous merger experience, degree of organizational diversification, health care sector, size differences, or other organizational differences. Our findings partially confirm results from previous studies, especially with regard to the importance of changing insights and incompatibilities between the involved executives in merger abandonment. We also find that pressure from internal stakeholders, particularly nonexecutive directors, and distrust, fear, and animosity play an important role in merger abandonment. To minimize the organizational and societal costs of abandoned mergers, we advise executives who engage in mergers to construct backup plans with

  16. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  17. Wellbore Completion Systems Containment Breach Solution Experiments at a Large Scale Underground Research Laboratory : Sealant placement & scale-up from Lab to Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, H.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation seeks to develop sealant technology that can restore containment to completed wells that suffer CO2 gas leakages currently untreatable using conventional technologies. Experimentation is performed at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (MT-URL) located in NW Switzerland. The laboratory affords investigators an intermediate-scale test site that bridges the gap between the laboratory bench and full field-scale conditions. Project focus is the development of CO2 leakage remediation capability using sealant technology. The experimental concept includes design and installation of a field scale completion package designed to mimic well systems heating-cooling conditions that may result in the development of micro-annuli detachments between the casing-cement-formation boundaries (Figure 1). Of particular interest is to test novel sealants that can be injected in to relatively narrow micro-annuli flow-paths of less than 120 microns aperture. Per a special report on CO2 storage submitted to the IPCC[1], active injection wells, along with inactive wells that have been abandoned, are identified as one of the most probable sources of leakage pathways for CO2 escape to the surface. Origins of pressure leakage common to injection well and completions architecture often occur due to tensile cracking from temperature cycles, micro-annulus by casing contraction (differential casing to cement sheath movement) and cement sheath channel development. This discussion summarizes the experiment capability and sealant testing results. The experiment concludes with overcoring of the entire mock-completion test site to assess sealant performance in 2018. [1] IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (September 2005), section 5.7.2 Processes and pathways for release of CO2 from geological storage sites, page 244

  18. Structural considerations for underground nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sarne, Y.

    The advantages and disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants are briefly reviewed. The impact of underground contruction on plant layout and structural design are discussed. Schedules and costs for construction are compared with those for conventional plants.

  19. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  20. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  1. Unique Approach to Hydraulic Characterization at an Underground Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. L.; Wang, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Sanford Underground Laboratory is the interim lab for the future federally funded DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab). The Sanford Lab took over the abandoned Homestake mine in Lead, SD. Over three hundred miles of drift, extending 8,000 feet below the surface, are now being used to house experiments in disciplines including physics, geology, and biology. The lab is situated in Precambrian metamorphic rocks intersected by Tertiary dike swarms. Three relevant geologic units are defined within the Precambrian rock system; all of which are interpreted to be metamorphosed igneous and sedimentary deposits. The Sanford Lab provides a unique environment to study several aspects of hydrogeology and hydrology; including geochemistry, hydraulic systems in fractured aquifers, and fluvial activity within mine workings. Aquifer characteristics housing the mine workings’ is important to define for future and present research at the underground lab. Outlined here is a unique approach to defining the matrix porosity within the fractured aquifer system. The Homestake mine was abandoned and the pump system keeping the mine dry was turned off in 2003. Over the course of the next five years the water level rose 3470 feet. Oxidation of iron from the water left a red staining on the submerged rocks. Hydrological observations are conducted on different levels throughout the Homestake facility as the water levels are lowered. Isolated air pockets and long stretches of unstained areas along the roof of drifts have been observed, together with less frequent occurrences of seepages. These observations are documented to supplement hydrological monitoring and testing with sensors. The sizes and widths of the trapped air pockets are indications of low permeability values and can be used to estimate the degree of heterogeneity along drifts. It is noted that sections of long stretches of trapped air have more delayed drainages, consistent with low effective permeability

  2. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines. 72.630 Section 72.630 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall...

  3. Fuel Storage Tanks at FAA Facilities: Order 1050.15A

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-30

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has over 4,000 fuel storage tanks (FST) in its : inventory. Most of these FSTs are underground storage tanks (UST) that contain fuel for : emergency backup generators providing secondary power to air navigati...

  4. Fuel storage tanks at FAA facilities : Order 1050.15A : executive summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-30

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has over 4,000 fuel storage tanks (FST) in its inventory. Most of these FSTs are underground storage tanks (UST) that contain fuel for emergency backup generators providing secondary power to air navigational...

  5. Detection of abandoned mines/caves using airborne LWIR hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Roettiger, Kurt A.

    2012-09-01

    The detection of underground structures, both natural and man-made, continues to be an important requirement in both the military/intelligence and civil communities. There are estimates that as many as 70,000 abandoned mines/caves exist across the nation. These mines represent significant hazards to public health and safety, and they are of concern to Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. NASA is interested in the detection of caves on Mars and the Moon in anticipation of future manned space missions. And, the military/ intelligence community is interested in detecting caves, mines, and other underground structures that may be used to conceal the production of weapons of mass destruction or to harbor insurgents or other persons of interest by the terrorists. Locating these mines/caves scattered over millions of square miles is an enormous task, and limited resources necessitate the development of an efficient and effective broad area search strategy using remote sensing technologies. This paper describes an internally-funded research project of The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to assess the feasibility of using airborne hyperspectral data to detect abandoned cave/mine entrances in a broad-area search application. In this research, we have demonstrated the potential utility of using thermal contrast between the cave/mine entrance and the ambient environment as a discriminatory signature. We have also demonstrated the use of a water vapor absorption line at12.55 μm and a quartz absorption feature at 9.25 μm as discriminatory signatures. Further work is required to assess the broader applicability of these signatures.

  6. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they requiredmore » that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.« less

  7. The USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative: Protecting and restoring the environment near abandoned mine lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is part of a larger strategy of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to clean up Federal lands contaminated by abandoned mines.Thousands of abandond hard-rock metal mines (such as gold, copper, lead, and zinc) have left a dual legacy across the Western United States. They reflect the historic development of the west, yet at the same time represent a possible threat to human health and local ecosystems.Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) are areas adjacent to or affected by abandoned mines. AML's often contain unmined mineral deposits, mine dumps (the ore and rock removed to get to the ore deposits), and tailings (the material left over from the ore processing) that contaminate the surrounding watershed and ecosystem. For example, streams near AML's can contain metals and (or) be so acidic that fish and aquatic insects cannot live in them.Many of these abandoned hard-rock mines are located on or adjacent to public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, and U.S. Forest Service. These federal land management agencies and the USGS are committed to mitigating the adverse effects that AML's can have on water quality and stream habitats.The USGS AML Initiative began in 1997 and will continue through 2001 in two pilot watersheds - the Boulder River basin in southwestern Montana and the upper Animas River basin in southwestern Colorado. The USGS is providing a wide range of scientific expertise to help land managers minimize and, where possible, eliminate the adverse environmental effects of AML's. USGS ecologists, geologists, water quality experts, hydrologists, geochemists, and mapping and digital data collection experts are collaborating to provide the scientific knowledge needed for an effective cleanup of AML's.

  8. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others.

  9. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  10. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material... instructions and the date-plant-shift code are maintained with the product. Storage—Surface Only ...

  11. 75 FR 17707 - Arlington Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Filing March 30, 2010. Take notice that on March 24, 2010, Arlington Storage Company, LLC (ASC), Two Brush Creek Boulevard, Kansas City, Missouri 64112, filed an application... existing underground natural gas storage facility located in Schuyler County, New York known as the Seneca...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material... instructions and the date-plant-shift code are maintained with the product. Storage—Surface Only ...

  13. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill.... Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used...

  14. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill.... Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used...

  15. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill.... Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used...

  16. A method for estimating the probability of lightning causing a methane ignition in an underground mine

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, H.K.; Novak, T.

    2008-03-15

    During the past decade, several methane/air explosions in abandoned or sealed areas of underground coal mines have been attributed to lightning. Previously published work by the authors showed, through computer simulations, that currents from lightning could propagate down steel-cased boreholes and ignite explosive methane/air mixtures. The presented work expands on the model and describes a methodology based on IEEE Standard 1410-2004 to estimate the probability of an ignition. The methodology provides a means to better estimate the likelihood that an ignition could occur underground and, more importantly, allows the calculation of what-if scenarios to investigate the effectiveness of engineering controlsmore » to reduce the hazard. The computer software used for calculating fields and potentials is also verified by comparing computed results with an independently developed theoretical model of electromagnetic field propagation through a conductive medium.« less

  17. Causes, outcome and prevention of abandonment in retinoblastoma in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Archana; Moulik, Nirmalya Roy; Mishra, Ravi Krishna; Kumar, Dipak

    2013-05-01

    The high-cure rates of 90% in retinoblastoma are not replicated in developing countries due to late presentation and poor compliance to treatment. The present study takes a closer look at causes of abandonment of therapy and effectiveness of counselling in reducing abandonment. A retrospective study of children with retinoblastoma registered at our centre from March 2008 through August 2011. Fifty (49.50%) of 101 children registered for treatment abandoned therapy. Abandonment rates were significantly higher in rural as compared to urban children (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in rate of abandonment between stages or laterality of disease and other socio-demographic factors. Telephone calls were more effective than letters in tracing patients (31.2% vs. 2.4%). Major reasons cited behind abandonment were financial problems (30%) and unwillingness to enucleate (20%). Of the 12 children who returned and were retreated 6 (50%) died of progressive disease. Nineteen (73%) of those who did not return died at home. Abandonment rates steadily declined from 71.42% in 2008 to 16.66% in 2011 (P = 0.01) due to effective pre-abandonment counselling by a support team under the National Retinoblastoma Registry of India from 2009. Abandonment rates for children with retinoblastoma continue to be unacceptably high. Rural background, financial constraints and hesitancy to enucleate were important causes behind abandonment. Outcome of patients who abandoned treatment was uniformly dismal. Inclusion of support team and intensified initial counselling helped in improving compliance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy W

    2013-02-01

    A leading idea about how disturbances and other environmental fluctuations affect species diversity is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). The IDH states that diversity of competing species is, or should be expected to be, maximized at intermediate frequencies and/or intensities of disturbance or environmental change. I argue that the IDH has been refuted on both empirical and theoretical grounds, and so should be abandoned. Empirical studies only rarely find the predicted humped diversity-disturbance relationship. Theoretically, the three major mechanisms thought to produce humped diversity-disturbance relationships are logically invalid and do not actually predict what they are thought to predict. Disturbances and other environmental fluctuations can affect diversity, but for different reasons than are commonly recognized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  20. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in themore » earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.« less

  1. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study onmore » abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most

  2. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  3. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  4. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  5. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food... may at any time abandon his right to manufacture all or any part of the quota by filing with the Drug... to manufacture. The Administrator may, in his discretion, allocate the amount among the other...

  7. 32 CFR 635.31 - Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. 635.31 Section 635.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.31 Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. This is...

  8. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  9. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  10. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  11. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or which...

  12. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  13. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be withdrawn...

  14. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and the...

  15. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2018-05-07

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  16. Geologic Storage of CO2: Leakage Pathways and Environmental Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A.; Bachu, S.

    2002-05-01

    Geologic storage of CO2 appears to be an attractive option for carbon mitigation because it offers sufficient capacity to solve the problem, and it can be implemented with existing technology. Among the list of options for storage sites, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers are two major categories. While injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs offers immediate possibilities, especially in the context of enhanced oil recovery, it appears that deep saline aquifers provide the extensive capacity necessary to solve the problem over the decade to century time scale. Capacity and technology argue favorably for this option, but remaining obstacles to implementation include capture technologies, overall economic considerations, and potential environmental consequences of the injection. Of these, the environmental questions may be most difficult to solve. Experience from CO2 floods for enhanced oil recovery and from CO2 and acid gas disposal operations indicates that geological storage of CO2 is safe over the short term for comparatively small amounts of CO2. However, there is no experience to date regarding the long-term fate and safety of the large volumes of CO2 that must be injected to significantly reduce atmospheric emissions. In order to make proper evaluation of environmental risks, the full range of possible environmental consequences must be considered. Most of these environmental concerns involve migration and leakage of CO2 into shallow portions of the subsurface and eventually into the atmosphere. In shallow subsurface zones, elevated levels of carbon dioxide can cause pH changes, leading to possible mobilization of ground-water contaminants including metals. In the unsaturated zone, vegetation can be adversely affected, as can other ecosystem components. At the land surface, elevated levels of CO2 can lead to asphyxiation in humans and other animals. And finally, in the atmosphere, CO2 that leaks from underground diminishes the effectiveness

  17. Fire Protection for Munitions in Underground Storage Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    ESFR ) K-25, 165 F (74 C) sprinkler heads, manufactured by Tyco, to provide a discharge density of 0.6 gpm/ft2 (24.4 lpm/m2). The system consisted of...extinguish the fire before adjacent stacks were impacted. Results showed that ESFR K-25 pendant sprinkler heads will operate and inhibit fire spread

  18. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., well logs, quantitative porosity and permeability data, and any other relevant data for both the.../withdrawal wells and observation wells; and the lengths of open-hole sections of existing and proposed injection/withdrawal wells; (3) Isobaric maps (data from the end of each injection and withdrawal cycle) for...

  19. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., well logs, quantitative porosity and permeability data, and any other relevant data for both the.../withdrawal wells and observation wells; and the lengths of open-hole sections of existing and proposed injection/withdrawal wells; (3) Isobaric maps (data from the end of each injection and withdrawal cycle) for...

  20. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7..., construct and operate natural gas pipeline and compression facilities, including injection, withdrawal, and... the gas bubble. This map need not be filed if there is no material change from the map previously...

  1. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-21

    endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Department of Defense. Page Intentionally Left Blank REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 03-21-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Cost & Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To...c. THIS PAGE U U 91 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 478-405-8301 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

  2. Underground Gas Storage Facility Safety Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Roberts, Pat [R-KS

    2013-04-18

    Senate - 04/18/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Underground Gas Storage Facility Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Roberts, Pat [R-KS

    2011-11-30

    Senate - 11/30/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entiremore » vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no

  5. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  6. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges. PMID:28400744

  7. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun H; Christopoulos, George I; Kwok, Kian W; Roberts, Adam C; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  8. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C; Arora, Ramandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Treatment abandonment (TxA) is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC). However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data. Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists), nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted. 602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%), practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83%) in general or children's hospitals (79%). Results suggested, 23,854 (15%) of 155,088 children <15 years old newly diagnosed with cancer annually in the countries analyzed, abandon therapy. Importantly, 83% of new childhood cancer cases and 99% of TxA were attributable to LMC. The annual number of cases of TxA expected in LMC worldwide (26,166) was nearly equivalent to the annual number of cancer cases in children <15 years expected in HIC (26,368). Approximately two thirds of LMC had median TxA ≥ 6%, but TxA ≥ 6% was reported in high- (9%), upper-middle- (41%), lower-middle- (80%), and low-income countries (90%, p<0.001). Most LMC centers reporting TxA > 6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥ 6% (p<0.001). Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC. Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally), confirm the suspected high burden of TxA in LMC, and

  9. Longevity of acid discharges from underground mines located above the regional water table.

    PubMed

    Demchak, J; Skousen, J; McDonald, L M

    2004-01-01

    The duration of acid mine drainage flowing out of underground mines is important in the design of watershed restoration and abandoned mine land reclamation projects. Past studies have reported that acid water flows from underground mines for hundreds of years with little change, while others state that poor drainage quality may last only 20 to 40 years. More than 150 above-drainage (those not flooded after abandonment) underground mine discharges from Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal seams were located and sampled during 1968 in northern West Virginia, and we revisited 44 of those sites in 1999-2000 and measured water flow, pH, acidity, Fe, sulfate, and conductivity. We found no significant difference in flows between 1968 and 1999-2000. Therefore, we felt the water quality data could be compared and the data represented real changes in pollutant concentrations. There were significant water quality differences between year and coal seam, but no effect of disturbance. While pH was not significantly improved, average total acidity declined 79% between 1968 and 1999-2000 in Pittsburgh mines (from 66.8 to 14 mmol H+ L(-1)) and 56% in Upper Freeport mines (from 23.8 to 10.4 mmol H+ L(-1)). Iron decreased an average of about 80% across all sites (from an average of 400 to 72 mg L(-1)), while sulfate decreased between 50 and 75%. Pittsburgh seam discharge water was much worse in 1968 than Upper Freeport seam water. Twenty of our 44 sites had water quality information in 1980, which served as a midpoint to assess the slope of the decline in acidity and metal concentrations. Five of 20 sites (25%) showed an apparent exponential rate of decline in acidity and iron, while 10 of 20 sites (50%) showed a more linear decline. Drainage from five Upper Freeport sites increased in acidity and iron. While it is clear that surface mines and below-drainage underground mines improve in discharge quality relatively rapidly (20-40 years), above-drainage underground mines are not as

  10. Third symposium on underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  11. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  12. An underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hampel, V.E.

    1988-05-17

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast- acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor. 5 figs.

  13. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working flud in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor.

  14. Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, W.H.

    1971-02-02

    A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

  15. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. Working with Communities on Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the EPA's work to inform and include communities in the cleanup of abandoned mines, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  17. Economic impacts of railroad abandonment on rural Kansas communities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-07-01

    Increasing railroad abandonment and other changes in the Kansas grain transportation system have led to increased trucking of grain. Further losses of shortline railroads would have negative effects on rural Kansas communities, including increased ro...

  18. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of...

  19. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of...

  20. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has become...

  1. Aedes aegypti breeding site in an underground rainwater reservoir: a warning

    PubMed Central

    Bermudi, Patricia Marques Moralejo; Kowalski, Fernanda; Menzato, Marcela Mori; Ferreira, Millene da Cruz; dos Passos, Willian Brendo Silva; Oku, Vivian Janine Ambriola; Kumow, Aline; Lucio, Taís Vargas Freire Martins; Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe the discovery of Aedes aegypti underground breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood of São Paulo, SP, during an entomological survey program performed in 2016. Even with intense surveillance and vector control, large numbers of mosquitoes were present in this area. A detailed investigation allowed for the detection of Ae. aegypti in an underground reservoir used for rainwater storage. After the implementation of protection screens in the accesses, the presence of the vector was no longer detected. In this study, we discuss the frequent use of this type of reservoir structure and its risk for mosquito production. PMID:29236877

  2. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done on...

  3. US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports

    Science.gov Websites

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Your Reporting Day Senior Executive Service Special Programs U.S. UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR TEST HISTORY

  4. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  5. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  6. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Harling, Guy; Lima Neto, Antonio S; Sousa, Geziel S; Machado, Marcia M T; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-05-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil), the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT). These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%), a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not. Low socioeconomic status areas have higher tuberculosis

  7. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  8. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  9. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  10. Locomotive track detection for underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  11. "The Giver" and "Shade's Children": Future Views of Child Abandonment and Murder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons for child abandonment and murder and how it relates to abandonment in traditional literature. Considers new views of child abandonment and murder (focusing not on overcoming their abandonment, but changing and restructuring their entire society) presented in "The Giver" and "Shade's Children." Discusses the…

  12. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the number... days after receiving bills for plugging and abandonment activities, the Regional Administrator will... abandonment activities, the Regional Administrator will determine whether the plugging and abandonment...

  13. Surface and subsurface microgravity data in the vicinity of Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Koth, Karl R.; Carruth, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Absolute gravity data were collected at 32 stations in the vicinity of the Sanford Underground Research Facility from 2007 through 2014 for the purpose of monitoring groundwater storage change during dewatering of the former Homestake gold mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, the largest and deepest underground mine in North America. Eight underground stations are at depths from 300 feet below land surface to 4,850 feet below land surface. Surface stations were located using Global Positioning System observations, and subsurface stations were located on the basis of maps constructed from survey measurements made while the mine was in operation. Gravity varies widely at many stations; however, no consistent temporal trends are present across all stations during the 7-year period of data collection.

  14. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  15. COKE STORAGE HOPPER LOCATED OUTSIDE THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COKE STORAGE HOPPER LOCATED OUTSIDE THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY SHOWING LOADING DEVICE THAT USED A SKIP CAR TO FILL THE HOPPER FROM UNDERGROUND GRAVITY-FED STORAGE AREAS FROM INCOMING RAILROAD CARS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Numerical analysis of instability processes in underground cavities and of the related effects at the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic caves may represent a potential hazard for the built-up environment, due to the occurrence of underground instability processes, that may propagate upward and eventually reach the ground surface, thus inducing the occurrence of sinkholes. Especially when the caves are at shallow depth, the effects at the ground surface may result extremely severe. In the Apulia region of southern Italy, there are many sites where underground quarrying developed in the past, due to presence at a certain depth of rock of good quality for building purposes. Development of underground quarries, rather than open pit mines, was also favoured by the preservation of the terrains on the ground surface for agricultural practices. The Pliocene-Pleistocene calcarenite (a typical soft rock) was therefore quarried underground, by digging extensive networks of galleries in those levels within the local geological succession most suitable for the quarrying activity. With time, these underground activities have progressively been abandoned, and later on many quarries were used for other purposes, including illegal discharge of solid and liquid wastes. Many Apulian towns are nowadays located just above these caves, due to urban expansion in the last decades and loss of memory of the presence of the underground quarries. Thus, a serious risk exists for civil society, which should not be left uninvestigated. The present contribution deals with the analysis of the main factors at the origin of the instability processes described, also including those causing weathering of the soft rock wihich induces gradual decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the rock mass. Aimed at exploring the evolution with time of the stability conditions within the cavities, numerical analysis have been implemented by using finite element methods with respect to ideal situations which are representative of typical case studies in Apulia. Both the effects of local instability processes

  17. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  18. Assessing the acoustical climate of underground stations.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Designing a proper acoustical environment--indispensable to speech recognition--in long enclosures is difficult. Although there is some literature on the acoustical conditions in underground stations, there is still little information about methods that make estimation of correct reverberation conditions possible. This paper discusses the assessment of the reverberation conditions of underground stations. A comparison of the measurements of reverberation time in Warsaw's underground stations with calculated data proves there are divergences between measured and calculated early decay time values, especially for long source-receiver distances. Rapid speech transmission index values for measured stations are also presented.

  19. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  20. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  1. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  2. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  3. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  4. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    PubMed

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  5. System for remote control of underground device

    DOEpatents

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  6. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  7. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  8. Risk Factors For Abandonment of Wilms Tumor Therapy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Libes, Jaime; Oruko, Oliver; Abdallah, Fatmah; Githanga, Jessie; Ndung’u, James; Musimbi, Joyce; Njuguna, Festus; Patel, Kirtika; White, John; Axt, Jason R.; O’Neill, James A.; Shrubsole, Martha; Li, Ming; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival from Wilms tumor (WT) in sub-Saharan Africa remains dismal as a result of on-therapy mortality and treatment abandonment. Review of patients diagnosed from 2008–2011 in our Kenyan Wilms Tumor Registry showed a loss to follow up (LTFU) rate approaching 50 percent. The purpose of this study was to trace those LTFU, estimate the survival rate, and identify risk factors for treatment abandonment. Procedure We administered a comprehensive survey to parents of patients with WT at the two largest referral hospitals in Kenya to identify barriers to care. We also telephoned families who had abandoned care to determine vital status and identify risk factors for treatment abandonment. Results Of 136 registered patients, 77 were confirmed dead (56.7%), 38 remained alive (27.9%), and the vital status of 21 patients remains unknown (15.4%). After contacting 33 of the patients who either abandoned curative treatment (n=34) or did not attend off-therapy visits (n=20), the best estimate of 2-year overall survival of patients with WT in Kenya approaches 36%. Sixty-three percent of parents misunderstood treatment plans and 55% encountered financial barriers. When asked how to increase comfort with the child’s treatment, 27% of parents volunteered improving inefficient services and 26% volunteered reducing drug-unavailability. Conclusions Treatment abandonment remains a significant problem contributing to increased mortality from WT in developing countries. This multi-center survey identified the barriers to treatment completion from the parental perspective to be lack of education about WT and treatment, financial constraints, need for quality improvement, and drug-unavailability. PMID:25382257

  9. Natural Gas Storage in the United States in 2001: A Current Assessment and Near-Term Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the large decline of underground natural gas storage inventories during the 2000-2001 heating season and the concern that the nation might run out of working gas in storage prior to the close of the heating season on March 31, 2001. This analysis also looks at the current profile and capabilities of the U.S. natural gas underground storage sector.

  10. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized by...

  11. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized by...

  12. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall be...

  13. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall be...

  14. Soil changes after hay meadow abandonment in southwestern Wisconsin.

    Treesearch

    M. Dean Knighton

    1977-01-01

    Soil properties were monitored in early spring and late fall for 3 years following hay meadow abandonment. Bulk density decreased, organic carbon increased, total porosity increased in the large pore fraction, and infiltration rate increased 100%. Earthworm activity was considered to be primarily responsible for the improvement.

  15. Abandoned rail corridors in Texas : a policy and infrastructure evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-01

    The use of existing and abandoned railroad rights-of-way has been a proven method of acquiring linear : corridors for the construction of roadways since the formation of the Texas Highway Department. Either : paralleling existing rail lines or re-usi...

  16. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 942... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment period and... amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation Plan under the Surface Mining Control and...

  17. The global potential of bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B; Genova, Robert C; Field, Christopher B

    2008-08-01

    Converting forest lands into bioenergy agriculture could accelerate climate change by emitting carbon stored in forests, while converting food agriculture lands into bioenergy agriculture could threaten food security. Both problems are potentially avoided by using abandoned agriculture lands for bioenergy agriculture. Here we show the global potential for bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands to be less than 8% of current primary energy demand, based on historical land use data, satellite-derived land cover data, and global ecosystem modeling. The estimated global area of abandoned agriculture is 385-472 million hectares, or 66-110% of the areas reported in previous preliminary assessments. The area-weighted mean production of above-ground biomass is 4.3 tons ha(-1) y(-1), in contrast to estimates of up to 10 tons ha(-1) y(-1) in previous assessments. The energy content of potential biomass grown on 100% of abandoned agriculture lands is less than 10% of primary energy demand for most nations in North America, Europe, and Asia, but it represents many times the energy demand in some African nations where grasslands are relatively productive and current energy demand is low.

  18. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ..., dangerous impoundments, abandoned structures/equipment, open mine portals, and open mine shafts and refuse..., policy, procedural, and organizational changes that have occurred since 1984. DATES: Effective Date... procedures to manage their financial management, equipment, and procurement systems. OMB Circular A-102 was...

  1. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  2. Why We Should Abandon the Idea of the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieves, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the idea of the learning organization should be abandoned on the grounds that it was an imaginative idea that has now run its course. The paper seeks to explore the roots of the definition and provoke debate about the wisdom of retaining the concept. The argument is a challenge to readers to…

  3. Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

    1993-01-22

    This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

  4. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW Review...

  5. 42 CFR 476.150 - Abandoned complaints and reopening rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandoned complaints and reopening rights. 476.150 Section 476.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review...

  6. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  8. Predicting Abandonment of School-Wide Behavior Support Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Rhonda N. T.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Ghemraoui, Adam; Bloom, Jerry; Johnson, Nanci W.; Phillips, Danielle; Richter, Mary F.; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictors of abandonment of evidence-based practices through descriptive analyses of extant state-level training data, fidelity of implementation data, and nationally reported school demographic data across 915 schools in 3 states implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). Schools…

  9. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL...

  10. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL...

  11. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL...

  12. View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been removed (note the steel frame structure that supported the traveling crane); looking south - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  13. PRECONSTRUCTION IMAGE OF THE MTR SITE. ABANDONED IRRIGATION CANAL (FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRE-CONSTRUCTION IMAGE OF THE MTR SITE. ABANDONED IRRIGATION CANAL (FROM EARLY 1900s) ILLUSTRATES FLATNESS OF MTR/TRA TERRAIN. FEATURE ON HORIZON IN LEFT OF VIEW IS EXPLORATORY WATER DRILLING EQUIPMENT. CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 136. Unknown Photographer, 12/5/1949 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning arrester houses on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  15. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and...

  16. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and...

  17. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and...

  18. Technical Feasibility of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Utilizing a Porous Rock Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Michael; Booth, Robert; Fairchild, James

    Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) conducted a project to explore the viability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology. CAES uses low-cost, off-peak electricity to compress air into a storage system in an underground space such as a rock formation or salt cavern. When electricity is needed, the air is withdrawn and used to drive a generator for electricity production.

  19. Technical Feasibility of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Utilizing a Porous Rock Reservoir (Appendix)

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Michael

    Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) conducted a project to explore the viability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology. CAES uses low-cost, off-peak electricity to compress air into a storage system in an underground space such as a rock formation or salt cavern. When electricity is needed, the air is withdrawn and used to drive a generator for electricity production.

  20. Spatial patterns in carbon storage in a lake states' landscape

    Treesearch

    J. C. Bell; D. F. Grigal; P. C. Bates; C. A. Butler

    1996-01-01

    We estimated total organic carbon storage (C -- kg m-2) in biomass, forest floor, and soil for a gently undulating glacial outwash landscape in east-central Minnesota (45° 25'N, 93° 10'W). Abandoned agricultural tracts are common, and nearly 40 percent of the area is wet mineral or organic soil. Quantitative models...

  1. 7 CFR 97.22 - Revival of an application abandoned for failure to reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations in this part, may be revived as a pending application within 3 months of such abandonment, upon a.... A request to revive an abandoned application shall be accompanied by a written statement showing the...

  2. 41 CFR 109-45.902-2 - Abandonment or destruction without notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or... destruction without public notice of personal property. The OPMO shall review and coordinate on the findings. ...

  3. 78 FR 65040 - Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Linn County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Abandonments to abandon an approximately 0.49-mile line of railroad extending between milepost 230.24 and... assessment (EA) on October 23, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room...

  4. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  5. Public outreach at the Soudan Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, Richard

    2016-04-01

    There are many facets to the outreach program at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, currently host to the MINOS neutrino oscillation experiment and the Cryogenic Dark Matter experiment, plus a number of smaller experiments in the Low Background Counting Facility. The main focus is on twice daily public tours, operated in coordination with the Soudan Underground State Park and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, who also operate undergound tours of the historical iron mining area. Another important component is the undergraduate interns and high school teachers who lead the tours. They also participate in the operation and/or analysis of the experiments hosted at the mine.

  6. Suicide on the London Underground System.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; O'Donnell, I; Tranah, T

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an increase in the numbers of people jumping/falling in front of trains on the London Underground system. Case-fatality rates have fallen from 70% in the 1950s to 55% today. The proportion certified as suicide has fallen while the proportions certified as accidents or open verdicts have risen. There is unusual clustering of events at some stations which are adjacent to psychiatric units. The hypothesis that ease of access to London Underground stations may sometimes be a determinant of suicide is investigated.

  7. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned Mine...

  8. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise... Provisions § 19.9 General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise. (a) Acceptance of merchandise. The... storing. General order, abandoned, and seized goods and articles shall be recorded and stored in the...

  9. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise... Provisions § 19.9 General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise. (a) Acceptance of merchandise. The... storing. General order, abandoned, and seized goods and articles shall be recorded and stored in the...

  10. 75 FR 65047 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pulaski County, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 33 (Sub-No. 289X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pulaski County, AR Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 4...

  11. 30 CFR 938.20 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land... PENNSYLVANIA § 938.20 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Pennsylvania Abandoned... are available at the following locations: (a) Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources...

  12. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 33 (Sub-No. 293X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a line...

  13. 76 FR 78974 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Fond Du Lac County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 303 (Sub-No. 38X)] Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Fond Du Lac County, WI Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) \\1\\ filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon...

  14. 77 FR 35751 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Manitowoc County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 303 (Sub-No. 39X)] Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Manitowoc County, WI Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 6...

  15. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or more...

  16. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for... rescue gear (slings, baskets, stretchers) and vessel's line-throwing apparatus. (b) An abandon-ship drill...

  17. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for... rescue gear (slings, baskets, stretchers) and vessel's line-throwing apparatus. (b) An abandon-ship drill...

  18. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for... rescue gear (slings, baskets, stretchers) and vessel's line-throwing apparatus. (b) An abandon-ship drill...

  19. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned Mine...

  20. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned Mine...

  1. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned Mine...

  2. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned Mine...

  3. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 290 (Sub-No. 339X)] Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gaston County, NC Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.5 miles of rail...

  4. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  5. Using stable isotopes (δD, δ18O, δ34S and 87Sr/86Sr) to identify sources of water in abandoned mines in the Fengfeng coal mining district, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shen; Wang, Guangcai; Shi, Zheming; Xu, Qingyu; Guo, Yuying; Ma, Luan; Sheng, Yizhi

    2018-05-01

    With depleted coal resources or deteriorating mining geological conditions, some coal mines have been abandoned in the Fengfeng mining district, China. Water that accumulates in an abandoned underground mine (goaf water) may be a hazard to neighboring mines and impact the groundwater environment. Groundwater samples at three abandoned mines (Yi, Er and Quantou mines) in the Fengfeng mining district and the underlying Ordovician limestone aquifer were collected to characterize their chemical and isotopic compositions and identify the sources of the mine water. The water was HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg type in Er mine and the auxiliary shaft of Yi mine, and HCO3·SO4-Na type in the main shaft of Quantou mine. The isotopic compositions (δD and δ18O) of water in the three abandoned mines were close to that of Ordovician limestone groundwater. Faults in the abandoned mines were developmental, possibly facilitating inflows of groundwater from the underlying Ordovician limestone aquifers into the coal mines. Although the Sr2+ concentrations differed considerably, the ratios of Sr2+/Ca2+ and 87Sr/86Sr and the 34S content of SO4 2- were similar for all three mine waters and Ordovician limestone groundwater, indicating that a close hydraulic connection may exist. Geochemical and isotopic indicators suggest that (1) the mine waters may originate mainly from the Ordovician limestone groundwater inflows, and (2) the upward hydraulic gradient in the limestone aquifer may prevent its contamination by the overlying abandoned mine water. The results of this study could be useful for water resources management in this area and other similar mining areas.

  6. Modelling of percolation rate of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration rate of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical model describing changes in the infiltration rate variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for modelling were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the model developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils.

  7. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-12-09

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  8. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-16

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  9. MEASUREMENT OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION MAINS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of measurements of methane emissions from underground distribution mains and services. In the program, leakage from underground distribution systems is estimated by combining leak measurements with historical leak record data and the length of undergroun...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire. ...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire. ...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  16. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  17. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  18. Preventing suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R V; Poyner, B

    1994-02-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the possibility of preventing suicide on the London Underground. Four groups of potentially valuable measures were identified with the objectives of: (i) reducing public access to the tracks; (ii) improving surveillance by station staff; (iii) facilitating emergency stops; and (iv) reducing injury. These strategies are discussed.

  19. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  20. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Air monitoring; (2) Ventilation; (3) Illumination; (4) Communications; (5) Flood control; (6... communications for coordination of activities with other employers whose operations at the jobsite affect or may affect the safety of employees underground. (f) Communications. (1) When natural unassisted voice...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Air monitoring; (2) Ventilation; (3) Illumination; (4) Communications; (5) Flood control; (6... communications for coordination of activities with other employers whose operations at the jobsite affect or may affect the safety of employees underground. (f) Communications. (1) When natural unassisted voice...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Air monitoring; (2) Ventilation; (3) Illumination; (4) Communications; (5) Flood control; (6... communications for coordination of activities with other employers whose operations at the jobsite affect or may affect the safety of employees underground. (f) Communications. (1) When natural unassisted voice...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Air monitoring; (2) Ventilation; (3) Illumination; (4) Communications; (5) Flood control; (6... communications for coordination of activities with other employers whose operations at the jobsite affect or may affect the safety of employees underground. (f) Communications. (1) When natural unassisted voice...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Air monitoring; (2) Ventilation; (3) Illumination; (4) Communications; (5) Flood control; (6... communications for coordination of activities with other employers whose operations at the jobsite affect or may affect the safety of employees underground. (f) Communications. (1) When natural unassisted voice...

  5. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  6. Large Scale Underground Detectors in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanevas, S. K.

    2006-07-01

    The physics potential and the complementarity of the large scale underground European detectors: Water Cherenkov (MEMPHYS), Liquid Argon TPC (GLACIER) and Liquid Scintillator (LENA) is presented with emphasis on the major physics opportunities, namely proton decay, supernova detection and neutrino parameter determination using accelerator beams.

  7. Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-07-06

    Most ground water used for drinking occurs near the earth's surface and is easily contaminated. Of major concern is the potential contamination of underground sources of drinking water by any of the hundreds of thousands of subsurface wastewater disposal injection wells nationwide.

  8. TEST OF FRENCH UNDERGROUND PERSONNEL SHELTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The objective of this project was to investigate the predicted behavior of French underground personnel shelters, equipment, and instrumentation...structures designed by French engineers were tested: one cast-in- place rectangular structure, one precase circular shelter, two entranceways at...precast rings for the circular structure, and instrumentation were shipped from France and incorporated in the shelters. Preshot and postshot

  9. The Social Organization of the Computer Underground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    colleagues, with only small groups approaching peer relationships. 14 . SUBJECT TERMS HACK, Computer Underground 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16. PRICE CODE 17...between individuals involved in a common activity (pp. 13- 14 ). Assessing the degree and manner in which the...criminalized over the past several years . Hackers, and the "danger" that they present in our computer dependent

  10. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  11. Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.

  12. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  13. Underground physics and the barometric pumping effect observed for thermal neutron flux underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenkin, Yu. V.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Sulakov, V. P.; Shchegolev, O. B.

    2017-05-01

    It is known that neutron background is a major problem for low-background experiments carrying out underground, such as dark matter search, double-beta decay searches and other experiments known as Underground Physics. We present here some results obtained with the en-detector of 0.75 m2, which is running for more than 4 years underground at a depth of 25 m water equivalent in Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University. Some spontaneous increases in thermal neutron flux up to a factor of 3 were observed in delayed anti-correlation with barometric pressure. The phenomenon can be explained by the radon barometric pumping effect resulting in similar effect in neutron flux being produced in (α, n)-reactions by alpha-decays of radon and its daughters in surrounding rock. This is the first demonstration of the barometric pumping effect observed in thermal neutron flux underground.

  14. The Remediation of Abandoned Iron Ore Mine Subsidence in Rockaway Township, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Gartenberg, Gary; Poff, Gregory

    2010-06-30

    This report represents the twenty-seventh and Final Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this last reporting period ending June 30, 2010 and a summary of the work accomplished since the agreement inception in 1997. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperator's Agreement between the United States Government - Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperator's Agreement is for the Department ofmore » Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, surface monitoring continued after completion of construction in September 2003. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. In March 2007, a seventh collapse occurred over a portion of the White Meadow Mine in a public roadway at the intersection of Iowa and Erie Avenues in Rockaway Township. After test drilling, this portion of the mine was remediated by drilling and grouting the stopes.« less

  15. Detection of underground voids in Ohio by use of geophysical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, Jens; Sheets, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geophysical methods are generally classified as electrical, potential field, and seismic methods. Each method type relies on contrasts of physical properties in the subsurface. Forward models based on the physical properties of air- and water-filled voids within common geologic materials indicate that several geophysical methods are technically feasible for detection of subsurface voids in Ohio, but ease of use and interpretation varies widely between the methods. Ground-penetrating radar is the most rapid and cost-effective method for collection of subsurface data in areas associated with voids under roadways. Electrical resistivity, gravity, or seismic reflection methods have applications for direct delineation of voids, but data-collection and analytical procedures are more time consuming. Electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, or magnetic methods may be useful in locating areas where conductive material, such as rail lines, are present in abandoned underground coal mines. Other electrical methods include spontaneous potential and very low frequency (VLF); these latter two methods are considered unlikely candidates for locating underground voids in Ohio. Results of ground-penetrating radar surveys at three highway sites indicate that subsurface penetration varies widely with geologic material type and amount of cultural interference. Two highway sites were chosen over abandoned underground coal mines in eastern Ohio. A third site in western Ohio was chosen in an area known to be underlain by naturally occurring voids in lime stone. Ground-penetrating radar surveys at Interstate 470, in Belmont County, Ohio, indicate subsurface penetration of less than 15 feet over a mined coal seam that was known to vary in depth from 0 to 40 feet. Although no direct observations of voids were made, anomalous areas that may be related to collapse structures above voids were indicated. Cultural interference dominated the radar records at Interstate 70, Guernsey County, Ohio

  16. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted or... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted or... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted or... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted or... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  20. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance grounded systems shall be equipped with metallic shields around each power conductor with one or more...