Science.gov

Sample records for abandoned underground storage

  1. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  2. Detection of abandoned underground storage tanks in rights-of-way with ground-penetrating radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clemena, G.G.; French, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    Highway agencies need a simple, effective, nondestructive way to inspect certain properties in rights-of-way for the possible presence of abandoned underground storage tanks, without disturbing the ground, before actual construction begins. Overall, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) fills this need better than other nondestructive methods. The report explains why GPR was chosen over the other nondestructive methods available, discusses the principal of GPR, describes the basic radar equipment needed and the general procedures involved in conducting such inspections, and provides examples of the type of radar data such inspections produce.

  3. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  4. Abandoned underground storage tank location using fluxgate magnetic surveying: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Biersel, T. P.; Bristoll, B.C.; Taylor, R.W.; Rose, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1993, during the removal of a diesel and a gasoline underground storage tank at the municipal garage of the Village of Kohler, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, soil testing revealed environmental contamination at the site. A site investigation revealed the possibility of a second on-site source of petroleum contamination. Limited historical data and the present usage of structures within the suspected source area precluded the use of most invasive sampling methods and most geophysical techniques. A fluxgate magnetometer survey, followed by confirmatory excavation, was conducted at the site. The fluxgate magnetometer survey identified nine possible magnetic anomalies within the 18 ?? 25 m area. The subsequent excavation near the anomalies revealed the presence of five paired and two individual 2000 L underground storage tanks. The fluxgate magnetometer survey, although affected by the proximity of buildings, was able to detect the buried tanks within 3 m of the brick structures, using a 1.5 ?? 1.5 m sampling array.

  5. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  6. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  7. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  8. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    The problems associated with leaking underground storage tanks are discussed. An estimated 10-30% of the 3.5 million or more underground tanks now used to store petroleum products and other liquids may be leaking their contents to the surrounding environment. The EPA is initiating a national field survey of tanks used for the storing of engine fuels. The first phase of the survey will cover a representative sample of 1050 facilities and approximately 2800 tanks. EPA will analyze the questionnaires and then select a sub-sample of about 500 tanks to examine leakage problems in more detail. In the absence of specific groundwater protection legislation or regulation, EPA is planning to use the Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate underground tanks.

  9. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McLearn, M.E.; Miller, M.J.; Kostecki, P.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Presio, L.M.; Suyama, W.; Kucharski, W.A.

    1988-04-01

    Remedial options for leaking underground storage tanks were investigated in a joint project of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Underground Storage Tank Committee of the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group. Both existing and emerging technologies were examined. Thirteen remedial techniques were identified and initially characterized as in situ or non-in situ. In situ methods include volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation or containment. Non-in situ techniques include land treatment, thermal treatment, asphalt incorporation, solidification and stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, and excavation. Soil and groundwater remediation problems have many site-specific consideration which must be considered in choosing an appropriate remedial option; these include cleanup goals, site and contaminant characteristics, cost, exposures pathways, and others. Appropriate remedial techniques are chosen by assessing technical, implementational, environmental and economic consideration of each available option to achieve the desired cleanup goal at the specified site.

  10. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  11. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  12. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  13. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.F.

    1998-12-31

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  14. CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

  15. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  16. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  17. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  18. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  19. LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS IN NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of Nevada. This database was developed and is maintained by the Nevada Department of Environmental Quality (NDEP), Bureau of Corrective Actions. Each point represents a tank where a leak event has occurred. ...

  20. 9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  1. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  2. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1984 annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-06-01

    Underground Energy Storage (UES) Program activities during the period from April 1984 through March 1985 are briefly described. Primary activities in seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involved field testing of high-temperature (>100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) at St. Paul, laboratory studies of geochemical issues associated with high-temperatures ATES, monitoring of chill ATES facilities in Tuscaloosa, and STES linked with solar energy collection. The scope of international activities in STES is briefly discussed.

  3. Underground storage tanks: The environmental health role

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, S. )

    1994-04-01

    Petroleum contamination of shallow aquifers resulting from antiquated underground petroleum storage systems has had a significant economical, as well as environmental impact on the nation's urban and rural communities. The cost for assessment and clean-up of a service station petroleum leak in Caliente, Nevada (population: 1,111) may go as high as $3 million. Whereas in a more urban area such as Las Vegas, Nevada, 317 petroleum clean-up operations of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have been initiated in a three-year period between October 1990 and October 1993. The leaking UST problem, brought to national attention during the late 1970s and early 1980s, has had such an impact that the EPA has enlisted state and local environmental and health agencies to take an important lead role to find, mitigate, and prevent petroleum leaks into the unseen subsurface environment. The 1990s will witness a national amelioration of shallow aquifers.

  4. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, P.B. ); Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  5. Remedial technologies for leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry owns and operates many underground and aboveground storage tanks as well as other facilities for using, storing, or transferring petroleum products, primarily motor and heating fuels. The prevention, detection, and correction of leakage of these products from underground storage tanks (UST) has gained high priority in the utility industry and within the regulatory agencies. The 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA) require the US EPA to develop new Federal regulations for reducing and controlling environmental damage from underground storage tank leakage. This report presents a summary description and evaluation of 13 remedial methods for soil and groundwater cleanup: in situ technologies - volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation/containment; and non-in situ technologies - land treatment, thermal treatment, asphalt incorporation, solidification/stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, excavation. The information in this report is organized in terms of four major considerations in evaluating the relative feasibility of each method: technical feasibility, implementation feasibility, environmental feasibility, and economic feasibility.

  6. Underground storage of hydrocarbons in Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T.R.; Manocha, J.

    1995-09-01

    The underground storage of natural gas and liquified petroleum products in geological formations is a provincially significant industry in Ontario with economic, environmental, and safety benefits for the companies and residents of Ontario. There are 21 active natural gas storage pools in Ontario, with a total working storage capacity of approximately 203 bcf (5.76 billion cubic metres). Most of these pools utilize former natural gas-producing Guelph Formation pinnacle reefs. In addition there are seventy-one solution-mined salt caverns utilized for storage capacity of 24 million barrels (3.9 million cubic metres). These caverns are constructed within salt strata of the Salina A-2 Unit and the B Unit. The steadily increasing demand for natural gas in Ontario creates a continuing need for additional storage capacity. Most of the known gas-producing pinnacle reefs in Ontario have already been converted to storage. The potential value of storage rights is a major incentive for continued exploration for undiscovered reefs in this mature play. There are numerous depleted or nearly depleted natural gas reservoirs of other types with potential for use as storage pools. There is also potential for use of solution-mined caverns for natural gas storage in Ontario.

  7. Diffuse soil degassing from abandoned underground coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D.; Ruiz, V.

    2003-04-01

    Southeastern Ohio has been extensively coal mined. The coal in this region and associated rocks are high in sulfur and generate acid mine drainage when exposed to air and water. Poor water quality in rivers and streams is a common problem in this region. Water recharge to the underground coal mines occurs preferentially throughout subsidence features in areas where the overburden is thinner than around 60 feet, usually close to river and streams. Gases released from the coal beds such as methane and carbon dioxide, as well as radon generated in the rocks can diffuse throughout the overlying rocks and soils and discharge to the atmosphere. The soils of an area covering around 151 km2 close to the town of Corning, Ohio, were investigated. Around half of the study area has been coal mined. Soil gas samples were taking every 600 to 1000 m using a sonde and extracting the gas with a syringe. Samples were also extracted with a vacuum pump and analyzed for radon in a Pylon AB-5 Radiation Detector. Soil gas samples were analyzed in a Arizona Mercury Analyzer. Additional samples were stored in vaccutainers and analyzed in a gas chromatograph to determine the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and methane. Our results indicate that gas concentrations are significantly higher in regions of thin overburden compared to regions of thick overburden and non-mined areas. These results suggest that gases are diffusing throughout fractures and subsidence features of the rocks overlying the exploited coal seams and are discharged more easily to the atmosphere when the overburden is thinner.

  8. Underground pumped storage scheme in the Bukit Timah granite of Singapore

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.H.

    1996-10-01

    Pumped storage is an energy storage method that involves the pumping of water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during off-peak period using low cost power and releasing of the water from the upper reservoir to produce electricity during peak load period. Because of the very small and relatively flat land area of Singapore, a conventional surface pumped storage plant is not feasible. A pumped storage plant can be constructed here by siting the upper reservoir in one of the many abandoned granite quarries and by placing the lower reservoir and the powerhouse underground in the Bukit Timah granite, which is sound, massive and impervious. The capital costs for a pumped storage plant could be the same as those of an oil-fired plant of a comparable size. When the very high cost of land in Singapore is taken into account, an underground pumped storage scheme for peaking purposes becomes attractive. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  11. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  15. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  17. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-22

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous §...

  19. Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

  20. Legal briefs: leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, H.N.

    1987-04-01

    This is an appeal from the final determination of the New Jersey Spill Compensation Fund denying the Township of South Orange Village's claims for damages arising from the contamination of its water supply as a result of the discharge of gasoline caused by leaking underground storage tanks. The Fund decided that the Township's claims were facially ineligible because they were not timely filed under N.J.S.A. 58:10-23.11k and because the damages were caused by discharges which occurred prior to April 1, 1977, the effective date of the Spill Compensation and Control Act, (N.J.S.A. 58:10-23.11 et seq.).

  1. Underground storage tank corrective action technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, R.

    1987-01-01

    The document contains information on corrective action technologies for releases from underground storage tanks (UST). It probes general background information on UST construction techniques, leak detection methods, and failure mechanisms. It also addresses transport pathways of released substances, techniques for evaluating the extent of a release, factors influencing risk to human health and the environment, techniques for selecting initial corrective-action response technologies, and detailed technical profiles of corrective action technologies. Emphasis is on corrective actions associated with releases from gasoline and petroleum USTs.

  2. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  3. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Lender Liability § 280.230 Operating an... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than the... who can be held responsible for compliance with applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 280...

  4. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Lender Liability § 280.230 Operating an... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than the... who can be held responsible for compliance with applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 280...

  5. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Lender Liability § 280.230 Operating an... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than the... who can be held responsible for compliance with applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 280...

  6. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Lender Liability § 280.230 Operating an... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than the... who can be held responsible for compliance with applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 280...

  7. Underground-Energy-Storage Program, 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1983-06-01

    Two principal underground energy storage technologies are discussed--Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). The Underground Energy Storage Program objectives, approach, structure, and milestones are described, and technical activities and progress in the STES and CAES areas are summarized. STES activities include aquifer thermal energy storage technology studies and STES technology assessment and development. CAES activities include reservoir stability studies and second-generation concepts studies. (LEW)

  8. Legislation pertaining to underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Goth, W. )

    1994-04-01

    Statutory authority in California for cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater to protect water quality is the Porter Cologne Water Quality Control Act (Water Code 1967). Two state laws regulating underground hazardous material storage tanks, passed in late 1983 and effective on January 1, 1984, were AB-2013 (Cortese) and AB-1362 (Sher). Both require specific actions by the tank owners. AB-2013 requires all tank owners to register them with the state Water Resources Control Board (SWCB) and to pay a registration fee. AB-1362, Health and Safety Code Section 25280 et seq., requires tank owners to obtain a Permit to Operate, pay a fee to the local agency, and to install a leak detection system on all existing tanks. New tanks installation requires a Permit to install and provide provide secondary containment for the tank and piping. For tank closures, a permit must be obtained from the local agency to clean out the tank, remove it from the ground, and collect samples from beneath the tank for evidence of contamination. In 1988, state law AB-853 appropriated state funds to be combined with federal EPA money to allow SWRCB to initiate rapid cleanups of leaks from underground tank sites by contracting with local agencies to oversee assessment and cleanup of underground tank releases. Locally, in Ventura County, there are more than 400 leaking underground tank sites in which petroleum products have entered the groundwater. To date, no public water supplies have been contaminated; however, action in necessary to prevent any future contamination to our water supply. Over 250 leaking tank sites have completed cleanup.

  9. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  10. Stabilization of Underground Solvent Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, T.R.

    2003-08-15

    The Old Solvent Tanks (OST), located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are comprised of 22 underground storage tanks that were used to store spent radioactive solvent and aqueous wastes generated from the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process. The OSTs were installed at various dates between 1955 and 1968 and used to store the spent solvents until 1974. The spent solvents stored in the OSTs were transferred out from 1976 through 1981 leaving only residual liquids and sludges that could not be pumped out.Final remediation goals include an overlying infiltration control system. If the tanks were to structurally fail, they would collapse causing potential for onsite worker exposure and release of tank contents to the environment. Therefore, as an interim action, methods for stabilizing the tanks were evaluated. This paper will discuss the systems designed to perform and monitor the grouting operation, the grouting process, and the radiological controls and wastes associated with grouting the Old Solvent Tanks.

  11. Polymer containment barriers for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Colombo, P.

    1994-12-31

    Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been involved in several tasks to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced polymer materials for use in subsurface barriers throughout the DOE complex. Binders investigated as barrier composites include polyester styrenes, vinylester styrenes, high molecular weight acrylics, sulfur polymer cement, polyacrylic acids, bitumen and a furfuryl alcohol based furan polymer. Aggregates include: recycled glass, stone, sand, and natural soils (from Hanford). A series of performance tests were used to determine the performance characteristics of polymer composites. This paper details a substrate of this characterization pertaining to subsurface barriers for containing underground storage tanks with emphasis on the DOE`s Hanford site. Testing includes measuring permeability to water, wet-dry cycling, chemical resistivity to ground water, acid, base, and nitrate brine, resistance to irradiation, and measuring compressive strengths. Polymer grouts having a wide range of viscosities have been demonstrated to have desirable qualities for a subterranean barrier. The goal of soil mortar permeabilities of 1 x 10{sup -10} m/s and {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} aggregate composites of 1 x 10{sup -11} m/s was met. Performance values indicate polymers exist that can meet the requirements for containment barriers for USTs throughout the DOE complex. Proper choice of binder and aggregate followed by the appropriate site specific compatibility testing will result in a durable, high strength, low permeability barrier.

  12. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  13. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  14. The siting of a prison complex above an abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the State of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. The original plan for construction consisted of one phase. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. One masonry building, however, was located within the potential draw zone of mine works which still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was accordingly designed to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase two prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the Phase I complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. The first stage of design was to minimize subsidence potential by positioning the exposure of significant structures to the subjacent mining assuming the mine map was sufficiently accurate. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was then undertaken to: (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future; and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical data base of subsidence events in the Illinois Coal Basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations.

  15. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events. PMID:23702378

  16. 40. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail of escape hatch and decontamination shower VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  17. OVERVIEW OF EPA RESEARCH ON UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK LEAK DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research for leak detection at underground storage tank systems (USTs) is being carried out at two Offices of Research and Development (ORD) laboratories within EPA's organization. he Edison, New Jersey lab -- the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory -- focuses its attention on ...

  18. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, K.K.; Trevits, M.A. . Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography.

  19. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. It was concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site, even with the proposed savings from marketable material, amount to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. It was concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time.

  20. Educational program on potential impacts of regulated underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, E.W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper defines a brief (three to four hours) and effective method of educating future environmental professionals, concerned citizens of the community, or local government officials about the long term residual contamination potential posed by underground storage tank sites (UST`s). The format will be designed so that the student will have a clear understanding of the function and capabilities of UST systems, the required monitoring and maintenance, and the extensive commitments necessary to remediate a contaminated site. Subject material covered will include regulation overview, system design and installation, current remediation technologies and future trends. The curriculum will be presented in lecture/workshop format, and will feature color photographs, sites studies and relevant maps. Hypothetical statistical and chemical analytical results will be supplied for interpretation. The student will synthesize, in participatory work groups, the information using some of the various types of UST evaluation systems and formats currently in use by the individual states. This approach exposes the student to participatory group planning and decision making. This type of learning experience would be of significant value because UST`s have left an indelible mark on many street corners across the country. A variety of factors, such as population shifts from urban to suburban areas, governmental regulations, and overhead costs, caused many business owners to want to close their existing UST sites and sell the property. With these closed or abandoned sites comes the potential for soil and groundwater contamination due to petroleum product spillage, or leaking UST`s still under the surface of the site. The goal of this comprehensive approach is to enable the student to make informed judgements as to both the current and long term risks of UST systems. As an additional benefit these individuals will gain a better understanding about their local environment.

  1. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  2. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  5. Early warning indicators for challenges in underground coal storage.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Juha; Auerkari, Pertti; Holmström, Stefan; Vela, Iris

    2014-12-01

    Early warning or leading indicators are discussed for unexpected incidences in case of large-scale underground coal storage at a power plant. The experience is compared with above-ground stockpiles for which established procedures are available but where access for prevention and mitigation are much easier. It is suggested that while the explicit organization, procedures, and the general safety systems aim to provide the targeted levels of performance for the storage, representing new technology without much precedence elsewhere in the world, the extensive experience and tacit knowledge from above-ground open and closed storage systems can help to prepare for and to prevent unwanted incidents in the underground storage. This kind of experience has been also found useful for developing the leading or early warning indicators for underground storage. Examples are given on observed autoignition and freezing of coal in the storage silos, and on occupational hazards. Selection of the leading indicators needs to consider the specific features of the unique underground facility. PMID:25196594

  6. Approach to evaluating leak detection methods in underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.; Broscious, J.; Niaki, S.

    1986-10-01

    The detection and evaluation of leaks in underground storage tanks require a detailed knowledge of conditions both within the tank and in the nearby surroundings. The test apparatus, as constructed, enables data regarding these environmental conditions to be readily obtained and incorporated in a carefully structured test program that minimizes the amount of costly full-scale testing that would otherwise be required to evaluate volumetric leak detection methods for underground storage tanks. In addition, sufficient flexibility has been designed into the apparatus to enable additional evaluations of non-volumetric test methods to be conducted, and different types of tanks and products to be tested in a cost-effective manner.

  7. 11. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage and elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage and elevator controls from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  8. 12. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage, elevator and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage, elevator and ground-level launchers from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-PETROLEUM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally acknowledged that a small fraction of the total underground storage tank population is used to store chemicals. The detailed characteristics of these tanks, however, are not well understood. Additional information is required if competent decisions are to be made ...

  10. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  11. Health and safety training for underground storage tank inspectors. Student`s guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    This document is a training manual which provides information to educate inspectors and others who work around underground storage tanks about potential health and safety hazards associated with underground storage tanks.

  12. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1985 annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, J.R.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1986-08-01

    Primary activities in seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involved field testing of high-temperature (> 100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) at St. Paul, monitoring of the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and limited numerical modeling efforts. The first long-cycle test at the University of Minnesota field test facility was completed. It consisted of approximately 59 days of heated water injection, 64 days of storage, and 58 days of heated water recovery. Chemistry of the recovered water was close to what was expected. Limited experimentation was done to characterize physical and chemical processes at the ATES test facility. A chill ATES monitoring project, initiated at the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama campus, continued during the reporting period. Numerical modeling efforts were continued at a minimum level to support field studies. The chill ATES facility at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center was simulated with the Unconfined Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (UCATES) model to examine the effect of different injection/recovery patterns on the system's thermal performance.

  13. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2

  15. Automated in-situ inspection systems for underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Chris C.; Whittaker, Warren C.

    1993-12-01

    The Army-has 20,000 underground fuel storage tanks (UST's) that must be brought into compliance with the new federal regulations by 1998. To be compliant, a tank must be closed, upgraded or replaced. This report covers the investigative research for the development of a robotic system capable of performing an in situ ultrasonic thickness inspection on the interior of a fueled UST. The robotic system is designed to meet the criteria outlined in the Draft Standard for the Robotic inspection of Underground Storage Tanks developed for the EPA. This robotic inspection will allow the Army to make an informed decision on the appropriate action to be taken for a given tank. The robotic system offers a cost effective way to monitor a tank when compared with the existing manual technology that produces the same results. The robotic technology also moves the human out of the UST which eliminates the human liability factor in the hazardous environment.

  16. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water underground, treatment of water if released to surface streams, and the effect on the hydrologic... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS...

  17. Engineering management of Underground Storage Tank upgrades and installations

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, P.B.

    1994-07-01

    Remediation of Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) is estimated to cost more than $41 billion in the United States. As of May 1992, 1.5 million Underground Storage Tanks were registered in USA. By September 1992, 184,000 confirmed releases (leaks) were reported in USA. Due to such a vast impact on the environment due to leaking USTS, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published final UST regulations in the Federal Register on September 23,1988 (40CFR Part 280) which affected almost every commercial underground storage tank (UST). In a rush to comply with UST regulations, it is important that sufficient attention has been paid to engineering aspects of the work. Due to wide array of UST leak prevention and detection products available, selection of appropriate instrumentation can be time consuming. Most states have taken federal government standards on USTs and incorporated them as state regulations with their state specific modifications depending on their local geological conditions and environmental priorities. However, it is important to find out that state`s UST program has been approved by USEPA. This paper consists of discussion of issues based on the author`s UST project related experience from current and previous employment. Following are the major UST related regulatory topics discussed in this paper: Specifications;Hiring a contractor; Piping Selection and Installation; UST Selection and Installation; Leak Detection System Environmental Sampling.

  18. Underground storage tank owners face 1998 compliance deadline

    SciTech Connect

    Pruzan, T.

    1993-03-01

    Registered owners of underground storage tanks in the United States have less than five years to achieve compliance with new federal regulations. Of the 1.6 million registered tanks in the nited States, nearly all contain petroleum; only 23,500 contain hazardous materials, according to the Federal Underground Storage Tank Office of Communications. Minneapolis-based Environmental Information Ltd.'s recent report The Underground Storage Tank Market: Its current status and future challenges says only 10% of the estimated 440,000 leaking-UST sites in the United States are now clean. Only eight states have cleaned up more than half of their known leaking USTs. The Environmental Protection Agency has slated 1998 as the deadline for replacement of USTs that do not leak but fall short of the corrosion-resistance requirements, which specify that tanks be made of synthetic or cathodic materials. EPA also demands, under penalty of fines, that all unprotected, single-wall steel tanks must be replaced by 1998.

  19. Inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.D.; Zahn, T.

    1997-07-01

    This paper, augmented by color slides and handouts, will examine the inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials. Specific items to be presented include: the successful implementation of this type of storage configuration at Argonne National Laboratory - West; facility design concepts with security as a primary consideration; physical barriers achieved by container design; detection, assessment, and monitoring capabilities; and {open_quotes}self protection{close_quotes} strategies. This is a report on the security features of such a facility. The technical operational aspects of the facility are beyond the scope of this paper.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  4. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  5. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... water underground, treatment of water if released to surface streams, and the effect on the hydrologic... hydrologic monitoring....

  6. Excluded USTs. RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Underground tanks that contain either petroleum or hazardous substances are subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservations and Recovery Act (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA)], establish standards for installation, operation, release detection, corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA to implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. Certain USTs have been excluded from the Federal UST regulations. These excluded USTs have been determined by either Congress or EPA to pose an insignificant risk to human health and the environment. By excluding these USTs from regulation, EPA is focusing resources on the USTs that pose substantially greater risk to human health and the environment. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/004/0191, June 1992), that describes the UST procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substance USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011). This Information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to excluded USTs. It is part of a series of information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  7. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  8. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  9. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  10. U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage System, Linear underground system extending from North Road to Icarus Way, Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years.

  12. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  13. Bat-compatible closures of abandoned underground mines in national park system units

    SciTech Connect

    Burghardt, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Because bat habitat is threatened by increased urban development, deforestation, and exploitation of caves, abandoned mines have become critical to the survival of numerous bat species. To date, the National Park Service has placed 71 bat-compatible closures in 11 parks. Habitat surveys for bats and other species are an integral part of the abandoned mine inventory process. When surveys outside mines slated for closure reveal potential habitat, qualified wildlife biologists accompanied by experienced abandoned mine safety personnel conduct internal surveys. Several internal surveys are often useful to determine various species using a mine for different purposes through the seasons of the year. Once the determination is made that a mine slated for closure merits habitat preservation, gates are designed to suit the specific needs of resident species. Construction takes place in a season when the mine is uninhabited, or at a time and in a manner that will cause the least disturbance. The National Park Service and Bat Conservation International recently developed an interpretive warning sign which attempts to prevent vandalism of bat gates by educating the public on the potential hazards inside the mine, the value of bats in ecosystems, and the importance of bat conservation efforts. These signs are available through Bat Conservation International.

  14. Underground storage tanks soft waste dislodging and conveyance

    SciTech Connect

    Wellner, A.F.

    1993-10-01

    Currently 140 million liters (37 million gallons) of waste are stored in the single shell underground storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford. The wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s testing program for soft waste dislodging and conveyance technology. This program was initialized to investigate methods of dislodging and conveying soft waste. The main focus was on using air jets, water jets, and/or mechanical blades to dislodge the waste and air conveyance to convey the dislodged waste. These waste dislodging and conveyance technologies would be used in conjunction with a manipulator based retrieval system.

  15. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  16. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks.

  17. Development of a low-cost cableless geophone and its application in a micro-seismic survey at an abandoned underground coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H. Felix

    2015-04-01

    Due to the urbanization in China, some building construction sites are planned on areas above abandoned underground mines, which pose a concern for the stability of these sites and a critical need for the use of reliable site investigations. The array-based surface wave method has the potential for conducting large-scale field surveys at areas above underground mines. However, the dense deployment of conventional geophones requires heavy digital cables. On the other hand, the bulky and expensive standard stand-alone seismometers limit the number of stations for the array-based surface wave measurements. Therefore, this study developed a low-cost cableless geophone system for the array-based surface wave survey. A field case study using this novel cableless geophone system was conducted at an abandoned underground mine site in China to validate its functionality.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1902 - Underground diesel fuel storage-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage-general... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1902 Underground diesel fuel storage—general requirements. (a) All diesel fuel must be...

  19. Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The DOE complex currently has 332 underground storage tanks (USTs) that have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production. Very little of the over 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste has been treated and disposed of in final form. Two waste storage tank design types are prevalent across the DOE complex: single-shell wall and double-shell wall designs. They are made of stainless steel, concrete, and concrete with carbon steel liners, and their capacities vary from 5000 gallons (19 m{sup 3}) to 10{sup 6} gallons (3785 m{sup 3}). The tanks have an overburden layer of soil ranging from a few feet to tens of feet. Responding to the need for remediation of tank waste, driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements (FFCAs) at all participating sites, the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program was created by the US DOE Office of Technology Development in February 1991. Its mission is to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat to concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to the public and the regulators. The UST-ID has focused on five DOE locations: the Hanford Site, which is the host site, in Richland, Washington; the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in Savannah River, South Carolina.

  20. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  1. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  2. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to...) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, combustible liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to...) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, combustible liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to...) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, combustible liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to...) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, combustible liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to...) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, combustible liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real property containing underground storage tanks..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.57 Real property containing underground storage tanks. Within 30 days of acquisition...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.57 Real property containing underground storage tanks. Within 30 days of acquisition...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.57 Real property containing underground storage tanks. Within 30 days of acquisition...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.57 Real property containing underground storage tanks. Within 30 days of acquisition...

  11. STATE-OF-THE-ART PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT FOR INTERNAL INSPECTION OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preventing leaks from underground storage tanks is of paramount importance in this decade as environmental resources arc seriously threatened by the release of toxic substances and costs of reparation are exorbitant. nspecting underground storage tanks is one action that helps pr...

  12. STATE-OF-THE-ART PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT FOR INTERNAL INSPECTION OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preventing leaks from underground storage tanks is of paramount importance in this decade as environmental resources are seriously threatened by the release of toxic substances and costs of reparation are exorbitant. Inspecting underground storage tanks is one action that helps p...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) I Appendix I to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification...

  14. HOTS; Underground heating oil tanks hold as many liabilities as other underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, R. )

    1989-03-01

    This paper reports on the liabilities associated with underground storage tanks (USTs) that are a growing concern. Tank owners worry that they will have or worse, will inherit financial or legal burdens resulting from leaking tanks. Indeed, it appropriate precautions are not taken, the consequences can be devastating. In 1984, after too many tank-related horror stories surfaced, Congress began to act on this dilemma. Seemingly innocuous steel vessels buried throughout the land were recognized as a serious threat to human health and safety as groundwater supplied were jeopardized. In response, Congress passed Subtitle 1 as an amendment to RCRA. Last September, EPA issued regulations required by Congress under the law. States choosing to precede the new federal regulations established UST programs on their own, and began to register tanks and implement integrity-testing schedules.

  15. Leakage potential of underground storage tanks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piskin, K.; Dharmavaram, S.; Donahue, B.A.; Mathews, A.P.

    1991-06-01

    Underground storage tanks (USTs) are used to store motor fuel and other hazardous substances throughout the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimates there are more than 1.4 million tanks in the country, of which the Army owns some 15,000. Almost 35 percent of them may be leaking. Owners of tanks with capacities greater than 1100 gallons were required to notify the USEPA by May 1986. This information was used to locate and evaluate underground tanks containing petroleum or other hazardous substances. In September 1988, the USEPA published final rules for UST management that cover the technical requirements pertaining to design, installation, testing, and monitoring, as well as clean-up following leaks. The objective of this report is to detail development of the Leak Potential Index (LPI) and present results of an LPI analysis of the Army's UST data bases. The information compiled in this report was obtained by analyzing USEPA data to profile the construction material, capacity, age, and contents of USTs on Army installations.

  16. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In geological underground utilisation, operating and abandoned wells have been identified as a main potential leakage pathways for reservoir fluids. In the scope of the well abandonment procedure currently carried out at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Germany, a hydro-mechanical model was built to carry out a coupled analysis of the integrity in the entire wellbore system. The main aim of the present study was to assess the impacts of stress changes associated with CO2 injection as well as the cement backfill undertaken in the scope of well abandonment. A numerical model comprising cement sheaths, steel casings, tubing, multiple packers and wellbore annuli was implemented to enable a detailed representation of the entire wellbore system. The numerical model grid has a horizontal discretisation of 5 m x 5 m to focus on near wellbore effects, whereby element sizes increase with increasing distance from the wellbore. Vertical grid discretisation uses a tartan grid type over the entire model thickness of 1,500 m to ensure a sufficient discretisation of all wellbore system elements as well as of the reservoir unit. The total number of elements amounts to 210,672. Mechanical model parameters were taken from geological, drilling, logging and laboratory test data based on Ketzin pilot site-specific information as well as related literature (Kempka et al., 2014). The coupled calculations were performed using an elasto-plastic constitutive law, whereby an initial simulation run ensured a static mechanical equilibrium to represent the initial state before the start of CO2 injection. Thereto, gravitational load of the overburden rocks and pore pressure distribution following available well logs were integrated for initial model parameterisation including a normal faulting stress regime defined by a horizontal to vertical total stress ratio of 0.85. A correction accounting for the temperature and pressure dependent CO2 density was carried out in advance of each

  17. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  18. Integrated environmental quality monitoring around an underground methane storage station.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Linda; Vignudelli, Marco; Bartolucci, Fabrizio; Salvatorelli, Fiorenzo; Di Michele, Cesare; Tavano, Nicola; Rossi, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The study reports an integrated environmental quality monitoring of a 100 km2 area in central Italy mostly occupied by an underground station of methane storage, working since 1982. The nitrogen oxides, ozone and isoprene concentration detached with a network monitoring of passive filters were compared with the results of lichens biomonitoring. Data from the two monitorings were in accordance: there was an inversely correlation between lichen biodiversity index (IBL) and NOx (-0.96) and ozone (-0.80), and a positive correlation between IBL and isoprene (0.67). IBL indicated that the area ranged between medium naturalness and medium alteration status, values fully compatible with the medium-high level of eutrophication, caused by intensive agriculture. Only two areas were in high alteration status, due to their proximity to glass factories and to a quarries area. Despite almost thirty years of activity, the environment quality of the area around the station did not show signs of declining. PMID:25828802

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE APPLICABILITY OF CHEMICAL OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINANTS AT LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK (LUST) SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total number of confirmed releases from underground storage tanks is increasing rapidly. In addition, the treatment of contaminants in soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents complex technical challenges. Most of the remedial technologie...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE APPLICABILITY OF CHEMICAL OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINANTS AT LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK (LUST) SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total number of confirmed releases from underground storage tanks is increasing rapidly. n addition, the treatment of contaminants in soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents complex technical challenges. ost of the remedial technologies ...

  1. Using virtual objects to aid underground storage tank teleoperation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.; Davies, B.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm by which obstructions and surface features in an underground storage tank can be modeled and used to generate virtual barrier function for a real-time telerobotic system, which provides an aid to the operator for both real-time obstacle avoidance and for surface tracking. The algorithm requires that the slave`s tool and every object in the waste storage tank be decomposed into convex polyhedral primitives, with the waste surface modeled by triangular prisms. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert`s polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results using a PUMA 560 and a simulated waste surface validate the approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate smooth, realistic pseudo forces for the teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware.

  2. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission.

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? 102-80.40 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? Federal agencies have the following...

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? 102-80.40 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? Federal agencies have the following...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? 102-80.40 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? Federal agencies have the following...

  6. Passive vapor monitoring of underground storage tanks for leak detection.

    PubMed

    Weber, D; Schwille, F

    1991-02-01

    Passive vapor monitoring of underground storage tanks (USTs) containing volatile hydrocarbons at locations external to the tank (an external system) is touted as a fast and effective method of leak detection. However, major gaps remain in our knowledge of the physical processes that relate a measured vapor concentration to the leak rate, thus making network design according to a quantitative design criterion nearly impossible, and differentiation between surface spills and a leaking UST requires certain levels of sophistication in the leak detection system and in the analysis that are not usually available. Heavier-than-air vapors from the constituents of stored hydrocarbons could result in a density-driven convective propagation component that complicates the design of leak detection systems, and finally, detection times are highly sensitive to concentration detection threshold levels set by the system. The use of inadequate systems and analyses can lead to either wasted efforts or excessive subsurface contamination. This paper discusses the physical processes involved, explores the above aspects of external passive vapor leak detection design, and suggests some alternatives as they pertain to gasoline service stations. PMID:24241886

  7. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations,...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. 75.1903 Section 75.1903 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment...

  9. CLUST; A non-disruptive secondary containment technology for underground storage tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, T.P.; Roberge, M.F. )

    1987-01-01

    To reduce the adverse effects of gasoline or hazardous waste leakage from underground storage tanks, a non-disruptive, secondary containment technology for containing leaking underground storage tanks (CLUST) is being developed. The CLUST process involves the selective emplacement of an impermeable polymeric barrier in the soil/gravel fill which surrounds underground storage tanks. The process can also be used to emplace an impermeable barrier below aboveground storage tanks which are either leaking or have a high potential for leaking. CLUST formulations, based on the experimental results to-date are presented. They show excellent compatibility with kerosene and a good compatibility with a variety of organic solvents. These formulations will thus be very useful in containing leaking underground storage tanks which contain gasoline, solvents, or other petroleum related products. Laboratory testing indicates that the performance of the CLUST barrier materials is an order of magnitude better in a simulated underground storage tank setting than in the bulk phase compatibility tests. The developed technique will allow the construction of secondary containment facilities without disrupting existing underground tank farms and their piping infrastructure. CLUST is intended to prevent and mitigate sudden releases and/or resulting environmental impacts from high hazard/high risk'' chemical and petroleum storage situations. Criteria for usage for the test barrier formulations are presented.

  10. Geomechanical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Reactor Cool Down for Subsequent CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhosis, Vasilis; Yang, Dongmin; Kempka, Thomas; Sheng, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an efficient method for the conversion of conventionally unmineable coal resources into energy and feedstock. If the UCG process is combined with the subsequent storage of process CO2 in the former UCG reactors, a near-zero carbon emission energy source can be realised. This study aims to present the development of a computational model to simulate the cooling process of UCG reactors in abandonment to decrease the initial high temperature of more than 400 °C to a level where extensive CO2 volume expansion due to temperature changes can be significantly reduced during the time of CO2 injection. Furthermore, we predict the cool down temperature conditions with and without water flushing. A state of the art coupled thermal-mechanical model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS to predict the cavity growth and the resulting surface subsidence. In addition, the multi-physics computational software COMSOL was employed to simulate the cavity cool down process which is of uttermost relevance for CO2 storage in the former UCG reactors. For that purpose, we simulated fluid flow, thermal conduction as well as thermal convection processes between fluid (water and CO2) and solid represented by coal and surrounding rocks. Material properties for rocks and coal were obtained from extant literature sources and geomechanical testings which were carried out on samples derived from a prospective demonstration site in Bulgaria. The analysis of results showed that the numerical models developed allowed for the determination of the UCG reactor growth, roof spalling, surface subsidence and heat propagation during the UCG process and the subsequent CO2 storage. It is anticipated that the results of this study can support optimisation of the preparation procedure for CO2 storage in former UCG reactors. The proposed scheme was discussed so far, but not validated by a coupled numerical analysis and if proved to be applicable it could

  11. 10. Site D57 & 58L, Underground Missile Storage Structure, Type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Site D-57 & 58-L, Underground Missile Storage Structure, Type B, Plans, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 13 December 1953 - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Launch Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  12. 48. Quincy, MA, BO37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Quincy, MA, BO-37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, interior detail of water and hydraulic pumps VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  13. LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS: REMEDIATION WITH EMPHASIS ON IN SITU BIORESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current literature indicates that in situ biorestoration has great potential for remediation of aquifers contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks. In situ aquifer restoration involves the enhancement of the indigenous microflora to degrade subsurface pollutants. The ...

  14. Cathodic protection of underground storage tanks using continuous polymeric cable anode systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, D.P.; Mussall, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated several compliance deadlines for owners of underground storage tanks. These regulations include installation of vapor recovery systems, inventory control systems, tank tightness testing, overfill and overspill protection, and installation of cathodic protection systems, et al. This paper will focus on the installation of cathodic protection systems, the installation of which the EPA has mandated be complete prior to the end of 1998 for underground storage tanks.

  15. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas...

  16. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  17. Drilling and abandonment preparation of CO₂ storage wells – Experience from the Ketzin pilot site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Martens, Sonja; Norden, Ben; Henninges, Jan; Freifeld, Barry M.

    2014-12-31

    At Ketzin, located west of Berlin, the GFZ German Centre for Geosciences is operating Europe's largest CO₂ research storage site. This pilot site has been developed since 2004 and is comprised of one combined injection/observation well and four monitoring wells. From June 2008 to August 2013, a total of 67 kilotons of CO₂ were safely injected into the sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in a depth between 630 to 650 m. The paper discusses the well designs and lessons learned in drilling engineering and operations. The abandonment phase started in Ketzin with the first plug cementation ofmore » the observation well Ktzi 202 shortly after shut-in of CO₂ injection. The experience with the first CO₂ well killing operation will be reviewed.« less

  18. Drilling and abandonment preparation of CO₂ storage wells – Experience from the Ketzin pilot site

    SciTech Connect

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Martens, Sonja; Norden, Ben; Henninges, Jan; Freifeld, Barry M.

    2014-12-31

    At Ketzin, located west of Berlin, the GFZ German Centre for Geosciences is operating Europe's largest CO₂ research storage site. This pilot site has been developed since 2004 and is comprised of one combined injection/observation well and four monitoring wells. From June 2008 to August 2013, a total of 67 kilotons of CO₂ were safely injected into the sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in a depth between 630 to 650 m. The paper discusses the well designs and lessons learned in drilling engineering and operations. The abandonment phase started in Ketzin with the first plug cementation of the observation well Ktzi 202 shortly after shut-in of CO₂ injection. The experience with the first CO₂ well killing operation will be reviewed.

  19. Soil analysis and underground storage tank assessment (evaluation of soil contamination)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives the theoretical foundation, applicable background information, and practical guidance to the detection of exterior and interior corrosion of underground steel fuel storage tanks. The corrosion of underground fuel tanks is affected by many variables such as: conductivity, chemical compositions, compaction and pH of the soil; yearly precipitation; deterioration of the coating by physical, lightning, and biological activity; stray currents; galvanic coupling with other buried metallic structures. Corrosion may lead to leakage of the fluids contained in the underground fuel storage tank and/or its associated piping.

  20. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  1. Response surfaces for CO2 leakage from geologic storage along abandoned wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Carey, J. W.; Pawar, R. J.; Stauffer, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic reservoirs that have previously been drilled for oil and gas exploration is under investigation worldwide as an option for reducing the amount of anthropogenic carbon introduced to the atmosphere. Reservoirs that have already been tapped for hydrocarbon production have several benefits over development of new sites: they tend to be geologically well-understood, with existing wellbore data to help further characterize the local geologic framework; are known to be conducive to trapping buoyant or pressurized fluids; may have infrastructure in place; and are likely to be already impacted ecologically as compared to pristine sites. One downside to using depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is the potential for CO2 leakage along pre-existing wellbores that were either not designed for CO2 sequestration or have been improperly plugged and abandoned. The primary goal of this study is to develop estimates of possible wellbore leakage rates of CO2 from storage reservoirs to the surface and/or into overlaying aquifers, as a function of wellbore properties and the surrounding geologic framework. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of multiphase flow along wellbores across a wide range of geologic and wellbore parameters. Several wellbore scenarios were studied, including a simple wellbore between the CO2 storage reservoir and the surface; a wellbore intersecting a saline aquifer ("thief zone"); and a wellbore intersecting both a thief zone and a freshwater aquifer. The Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE) software was used to analyze results and produce response surfaces for the estimation of wellbore flow rate as a function of the primary factors that influence leakage. These results will be used to develop abstractions for leakage rates to be incorporated in performance assessments of geologic CO2 storage, which will help

  2. Structural analysis of ORNL underground gunite waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.; Chung, T.C.

    1995-11-08

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) and the South Tank Farm (STF) located at ORNL contains 8 underground waste storage tanks which were built around 1943. The tanks were used to collect and store the liquid portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at ORNL, but are no longer part of the active Low Level Liquid Waste system of the Laboratory. The tanks were constructed of gunite. The six STF tanks are 50 ft in diameter, and have a 12 ft sidewall, and an arched dome rising another 6.25 ft. The sidewall are 6 in. thick and have an additional 1.5 in. gunite liner on the inside. There is a thickened ring at the wall-dome juncture. The dome consists of two 5 in. layers of gunite. The two tanks in the NTF are similar, but smaller, having a 25 ft diameter, no inner liner, and a dome thickness of 3.5 in. Both sets of tanks have welded wire mesh and vertical rebars in the walls, welded wire mesh in the domes, and horizontal reinforcing hoop bars pre-tensioned to 35 to 40 ksi stress in the walls and thickened ring. The eight tanks are entirely buried under a 6 ft layer of soil cover. The present condition of the tanks is not accurately known, since access to them is extremely limited. In order to evaluate the structural capability of the tanks, a finite element analysis of each size tank was performed. Both static and seismic loads were considered. Three sludge levels, empty, half-full, and full were evaluated. In the STF analysis, the effects of wall deterioration and group spacing were evaluated. These analyses found that the weakest element in the tanks is the steel resisting the circumferential (or hoop) forces in the dome ring, a fact verified separately by an independent reviewer. However, the hoop steel has an adequate demand/capacity ratio. Buckling of the dome and the tank walls is not a concern.

  3. Leak potential index model for use in priority ranking of underground storage tanks at formerly used defense sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, L.D.

    1998-03-01

    Abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) that have not been properly closed at formerlC used defense sites (FUDS) may present potential leaking problems, spilling their hazardous contents into nearby soils, groundwater, and well water. The leaking USTs are potential sources of contaminants generally classified as containerized hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste (CON/HTRW). CON/IITRW includes petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), and radioactive waste products. The risk to the environment and population associated with the leaking USTs depends not only on the source, but on the migration pathway factor (MPF) (i.e., the ability of the medium of transport such as soil or water-to effectively transport the contaminants to the receptor) and finally on the relative vulnerability of the potential receptor. Thus, the assessment of the relative risk begins with the calculation of the potential of the UST to leak. A method of predicting the risk of leakage of these USTs is therefore desirable. presently, however, leak prediction index (LPI) models (which are used to predict the age at which a UST will leak or the probability of a UST leak at any given age) require soil data that are not readily available, or not easily and economically obtained by LPI.model users. The Warren Rogers leak prediction model was developed circa 1981, and has been used for USTs and incorporated into leak prediction models for other types of underground steel structures.

  4. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  5. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume I. Progress summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume I summarizes the activities and notable progress toward program objectives in both Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Major changes in program emphasis and structure are also documented.

  6. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  7. Summary report for the tank tightness testing of underground storage tanks, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Between August 14, 1989, and August 26, 1989, 16 underground storage tanks were tank tightness tested for leaks as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory tank management program. This report summarizes the results of these tank tightness tests, the modifications and repairs made to the tank systems, fuel transfer records, and any problems that affected the tank testing schedule. Of the 16 underground storage tanks tested, five failed the tank tightness test. Attempts were made to repair the tanks that failed the tank tightness test. Of those tanks, two were tested three times (one passed and one failed), and three were tested twice (two passed and one failed). The five failed tanks were removed and will be replaced with tanks that meet the Environmental Protection Agency regulations of underground storage tanks. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Light duty utility remote manipulator for underground storage tank inspection and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, P.W.; Carteret, B.

    1995-12-31

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remote manipulator system which is being designed and fabricated to perform surveillance and characterization activities in support of the remediation of underground storage tanks at the Hanford site as well as other DOE sites. The LDUA is a mechanical manipulator which utilizes an advanced control system to safely and reliably deploy a series of sensors to characterize underground storage tanks. The electrical components of the in tank system are radiation hardened and the mechanical components are designed to operate in the corrosive environment which exists in the tanks. The use of this system will allow the US Department of Energy to sample and characterize the waste material in the tanks prior to the initiation of waste retrieval operations. In addition to its use for inspecting and characterizing underground storage tanks, the system has the potential to be used in other environments where accessibility is limited and where high radiation levels exist.

  9. Spacing effects on seismic responses of underground waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, an investigation is performed for determination of the effects of spacing on seismic response of grouped underground tank structures. The study is carried out using a 2-D Finite Element Method, and the key mechanisms for transmitting structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) effects are identified. A parametric analysis is performed to quantify the SSSI effects. Results of the study are presented.

  10. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in had rock. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Farquhar, O.C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air storage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site in Maryland were completed recently by EPRI, DOE, and the Potomac Electric Power Company. The present report deals with the geotechnical aspects of these storage systems from a generic viewpoint. Because both technologies are virtually new to the electric utility industry, information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered in the report. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design. Review of the documentary evidence in rock mechanics and related fields indicates that construction can meet reasonable time and cost schedules and that operation of the underground openings should be on a maintenance-free, near-permanent basis.

  11. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of... containers or storage tanks shall be— (1) Capable of withstanding working pressures and stresses and... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of... containers or storage tanks shall be— (1) Capable of withstanding working pressures and stresses and... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent...

  13. HOW TO EFFECTIVELY RECOVER FREE PRODUCT AT LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES - A GUIDE FOR STATE REGULATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 315,000 releases from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) were reported by state and local environmental agencies as of March 19961. EPA's Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) anticipates that at least 100,000 additional releases will be confirmed in the next few ...

  14. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  15. Numerical prediction of rock mass damage due to accidental explosions in an underground ammunition storage chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengqing; Hao, Hong

    2006-03-01

    Accidental detonations in an underground ammunition storage chamber inside a rock mass may cause severe damage to the rock mass around the chamber, adjacent tunnels and chambers, ground surface, and in the worst case cause sympathetic detonation of explosives in adjacent storage chambers. To prevent such damage, underground ammunition storage chambers are often situated at minimum depth below the ground surface, and spaced at minimum distance from each other, so that damage, should it occur, is limited to the accidental chamber. Different codes and regulations for ammunition storage chambers specify minimum embedment depth and separation distance for underground ammunition storage chambers. They are usually given in terms of the rock mass properties and the weight of explosive stored in chambers. Some empirical formulae, usually based on the peak particle velocity of the stress wave or the maximum strain of the rock mass, are also available to estimate the damage zones in the rock mass from an explosion. All these empirical methods do not include the effects of explosion details, such as the loading density, chamber geometry and explosive distribution. In this paper, a previously calibrated numerical model is used to estimate the damage zones in a granite mass resulting from an accidental explosion in an underground ammunition storage chamber. Effects of various explosion conditions on rock mass damage are investigated. On the basis of the numerical results, some empirical formulae are derived to predict damage zones around the explosion chamber, as well as safe embedment depth of the storage chamber and safe separation distance between adjacent chambers. The numerical results are also compared with available empirical formulae and code specifications. It should be noted that the characteristics of stress wave propagation around an ammunition storage chamber has been published in a preceding paper (Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 5:57 90, 2001.

  16. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  17. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  18. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  19. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  20. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  1. 46. Quincy, MA, BO37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Quincy, MA, BO-37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, interior view of elevator system with overhead doors in open position and hydraulic shaft in left foreground VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  2. EVALUATION OF VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION METHODS USED IN UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This reports documents a research program which evaluated the performance of 25 commercially available volumetric test methods for the detection of small leaks in underground gasoline storage tanks. he evaluations were performed at the U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laborato...

  3. FURY: ROBOTIC IN-SITU INSPECTION/CONDITION ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 280-281) required all underground storage tanks (USTs) containing petroleum products to be brought into compliance to prevent environmental contamination through leakage. Replacing all older USTs can, in some cases, be prohibitively expensi...

  4. 76 FR 71707 - Revising Underground Storage Tank Regulations-Revisions to Existing Requirements and New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...EPA is proposing to make certain revisions to the 1988 underground storage tank (UST) technical, financial responsibility, and state program approval regulations. These changes establish federal requirements that are similar to key portions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005; they also update certain 1988 UST regulations. Proposed changes include: Adding secondary containment requirements for......

  5. RCRA corrective action for underground storage tanks -- Subtitle C for Subtitle I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance to DOE and DOE contractor personnel responsible for planning and implementation of corrective measures addressing cleanup of releases of hazardous materials or regulated substances from underground storage tanks regulated under RCRA Subtitle C or Subtitle I.

  6. Underground storage tanks; New regulations mandate stringent leak testing for USTs

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    In late 1988, EPA adopted new regulations for underground storage tanks. EPA focused its efforts on USTs and their associated piping, because the Agency estimated that more than a million are installed nationwide. EPA believes many USTs are leaking, often resulting in contamination, and expensive cleanups and lawsuits. This paper discusses new EPAUST regulations.

  7. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS IN UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PIPELINES CONTAINING GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A common method of detecting a small leak in a pressurized underground Storage tank pipeline system containing petroleum is to monitor the pressure in the line. eak is declared if the pressure drops below a specified threshold pressure. mall changes in the temperature of the prod...

  8. Lenders get break in EPA final rule on underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, N.

    1996-03-01

    EPA has issued a final rule that limits the liability of financial institutions and others that lead money based on properties with underground storage tanks (USTs). This article describes the reasoning behind the rule and the highpoints of the actual rule itself.

  9. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real property containing underground storage tanks. 1955.57 Section 1955.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  10. Underground Storage Tanks on Indian Lands. Education Moderates an Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillger, Robert W.; Small, Matthew C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes problems related to old underground storage tanks (USTs) that may leak toxic contents, focusing on relevance for American Indian reservations. Discusses design, installation, and upgrading of UST systems; federal definitions and regulations; leak detection; legal responsibility; and education for public awareness. Includes Environmental…

  11. Site Assessment Report for the 241-A-701 Underground StorageTanks

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Smith.

    1998-12-16

    This report documents the site conditions, sampling results, and final conclusions regarding the permanent closure and site assessment of the 241-A-701 Underground Storage Tanks (UST), located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The 241-A-701 USTs were originally used to supply fuel for a diesel-powered generator located in the 241-A-701 Building.

  12. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  13. LEAK PREVENTION IN UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS: A STATE-OF-THE-ART SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objectives of this study were to examine the structural design and operational practices associated with underground storage tank (UST) systems in the context of preventing leaks from such systems and identify areas for further research and development to advance the ...

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots'' from the concrete vault, and the drilling

  15. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  16. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  17. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  18. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  19. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate.

  20. BIOVENTING TO TREAT FUEL SPILLS FROM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioventilation is a procedure to cleanse soil gas of volatile hydrocarbons originating from storage tank leaks. he rate of vapor degradation is a controlling parameter in the design of a bioventing system. aboratory microcosm procedure using sandy soil from an aviation gasoline s...

  1. Underground and earth sheltered food storage: historical, geographic, and economic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkel, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Storage structures now used for bulk grain and beans have been derived from a combination of scientific experiments and tradition. Recent generations of US farmers have grown up with the understanding that grain is best stored in round metal bins or wooden cribs aboveground. It is generally thought that natural wind movements in the crib structures and forced air flow from aeration fans in metal bins will keep grain and beans safe, i.e., free of moisture accumulation and the resulting insect and fungal growth, and protected from germination, all of which deteriorate the commodity. North American farmers further believe that the low temperature of northern winters combined with careful use of aerating fans will keep the grain dry or beans safe (less than 14% moisture content) for years of storage. Traditional forms of grain and bean storage in other parts of the world have evolved differently. With the exception of North America, the people of every continent in the world have developed underground structures for long-term storage of food. A review of the varieties of underground structures that have evolved throughout the world, and research related to underground storage of grain and beans is presented.

  2. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.; Yu, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. The fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.

  3. Failure Monitoring and Leakage Detection for Underground Storage of Compressed Air Energy in Lined Rock Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Dohyun; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Park, Eui-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns (LRCs) provides a promising solution for storing energy on a large scale. One of the essential issues facing underground CAES implementation is the risk of air leakage from the storage caverns. Compressed air may leak through an initial defect in the inner containment liner, such as imperfect welds and construction joints, or through structurally damaged points of the liner during CAES operation for repeated compression and decompression cycles. Detection of the air leakage and identification of the leakage location around the underground storage cavern are required. In this study, we analyzed the displacement (or strain) monitoring method to detect the mechanical failure of liners that provides major pathways of air leakage using a previously developed numerical technique simulating the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical behavior of underground CAES in LRCs. We analyzed the use of pressure monitoring to detect air leakage and characterize the leakage location. From the simulation results, we demonstrated that tangential strain monitoring at the inner face of sealing liners could enable one to detect failure. We also demonstrated that the use of the cross-correlation method between pressure history data measured at various sensors could identify the air leak location. These results may help in the overall design of a monitoring and alarm system for the successful implementation and operation of CAES in LRCs.

  4. Sequential Evaluation of QNDE Devices for Underground Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlin, Y. H.

    2003-03-01

    Data showing that QNDE devices for tightness testing of storage tanks require periodic precision checks under maximum reproduction of the field conditions. The measurement error was larger than the accuracy prescribed by standards, and much larger than that claimed by the manufacturer. In the paper, the algorithm based on the sequential approach for such tests, and the probability distributions of the number of measurements up to a positive/negative serviceability decision -are substantiated.

  5. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  6. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  7. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

  8. Monitoring underground gas storage for seismic risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Francesco Luigi; Picotti, Vincenzo; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Temporary gas storage facilities play a fundamental role in the design of energy supply. The evaluation and recognition of induced seismicity, geodetic displacements and wellbores damages are their main associated risks that should be minimized for a safe management of these facilities, especially in densely populated areas. Injection and withdrawal of gas into/from a porous reservoir generally lead reservoir rocks to deform. Rock deformation is due to variations of the state of stress of rocks, both in the reservoir and the surrounding: subsidence, wellbore damages and induced or activated seismicity are primary consequences of these variations. In this paper we present a case study on induced deformation by an exploited gas reservoir, converted to temporary natural gas storage since 1994, in North-Eastern Italy. The reservoir, composed by 2 independent carbonatic sandstone intervals, approximately 10 meters thick, and 1400 meters deep, has been exploited since 1983, recording a pressure drop of about 16 MPa. The inversion of gas pressure and volume data, together with a 26 year ground displacement dataset monitoring, allow us to define reservoir deformations, modelled by a semi-analytical method based on an equivalent Eshelby's inclusion problem, able to account for mechanical differences between reservoir and surrounding rocks. Stress field changes, and displacement fields around the reservoir and on the ground mainly represent the results of this modelling. A Coulomb Failure Stress analysis, performed by FEA, was applied to define and evaluate the influence of magnitude and shape of stress field changes on rock stability, highlighting rock volumes that mainly suffer stress changes eventually leading to induced/activated earthquakes. The microseismic monitoring provides then the control on failures and their location. The methodology here used provide a solid base for induced or activated seismicity risk assessment: it provides an easy tool to quantify magnitude

  9. Financial-responsibility provisions for underground-storage tanks in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.S.; Conn, W.D.; Geyer, L.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under the provisions of recent federal and state legislation, the owners and operators of underground storage tanks containing petroleum products are required to maintain evidence of financial responsibility. The requirements as they presently stand, different ways of meeting them, and associated issues are examined. The regulated community is described as well as proposed financial responsibility regulations under RCRA Title 1, their relevance to the situation in Virginia and to any state regulatory initiatives, and a suggested set of criteria for judging these initiatives. The next section describes allowable financial responsibility assurance mechanisms, and reviews the advantages and disadvantages associated with each. A critique follows of financial responsibility legislation recently enacted in Virginia. Conclusions and recommendations are intended to assist state decision makers in designing and implementing an effective set of financial responsibility regulations for underground storage tanks.

  10. Large underground radioactive waste storage tanks successfully cleaned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.L.; Johnson, M.; Mims, C.; Powell, J.; Hoesen, D. van

    1998-05-01

    Waste retrieval operations were successfully completed in two large underground radioactive waste storage tanks in 1997. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gunite Tanks Team worked cooperatively during two 10-week waste removal campaigns and removed approximately 58,300 gallons of waste from the tanks. About 100 gallons of a sludge and liquid heel remain in each of the 42,500 gallon tanks. These tanks are 25 ft. in diameter and 11 ft. deep, and are located in the North Tank Farm in the center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Less than 2% of the radioactive contaminants remain in the tanks, proving the effectiveness of the Radioactive Tank Cleaning System, and accomplishing the first field-scale cleaning of contaminated underground storage tanks with a robotic system in the DOE complex.

  11. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon storage potential in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Baumann, M.; Radeloff, V. C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Hostert, P.

    2010-12-01

    Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is the former Eastern Bloc, where land use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, resulting in widespread farmland abandonment and forest regrowth. The aim of this study was to examine how land use trends altered net carbon fluxes in Western Ukraine (57,000 km2) for the communist (1945-1991) and the post-communist period (1991-2007), and to assess the regions’ future carbon sequestration potential. Forest disturbance and farmland abandonment between 1988 to 2007 was estimated from Landsat imagery in former study. Historical land use change rates were obtained from forest inventories to reconstruct forest trends back to the mid-1800s. Using a carbon book-keeping model, we quantified net carbon fluxes from land use change and assessed potential future carbon fluxes for a range of reforestation and logging scenarios. Our results suggest that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion in the second half of the 20th century turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite heavy logging during Soviet times. The current land-use related sink strength is about 1.5 Tg of carbon per year. Sequestration potential on abandoned farmland is enormous, even when assuming that only a minor fraction of the currently abandoned land will revert to forests. Beyond our study area, farmland abandonment has been widespread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the regions’ industrial carbon emissions may be offset by reforesting farmland.

  12. Gasoline and vapor exposures in service station and leaking underground storage tank scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Guldberg, P.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to gasoline and gasoline vapors from service station operations and leaking underground storage tanks is a major health concern. Six scenarios for human exposure were examined, based primarily on measured air and water concentrations of total hydrocarbons, benzene, xylenes, and toluene. Calculated mean and upper limit lifetime exposures provide a tool for assisting public health officials in assessing and managing gasoline-related health risks.

  13. Gasoline and vapor exposures in service station and leaking underground storage tank scenarios.

    PubMed

    Guldberg, P H

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to gasoline and gasoline vapors from service station operations and leaking underground storage tanks is a major health concern. Six scenarios for human exposure were examined, based primarily on measured air and water concentrations of total hydrocarbons, benzene, xylenes, and toluene. Calculated mean and upper limit lifetime exposures provide a tool for assisting public health officials in assessing and managing gasoline-related health risks. PMID:1504635

  14. Underground storage of natural gas by interstate pipeline companies for 1979 and Winter 1979--1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the underground storage of natural gas for the calendar year 1979 by pipeline companies subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Data are based on: FPC Form 2 (Form 2) annual reports of 31 interstate pipeline companies; certificates filed with FERC; and FPC Form 8 (Form 8) semi-monthly reports (November 1, 1979 through March 31, 1980) of 32 pipeline companies and 5 independent producers. 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG`s Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report`s recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  16. Steel-stiffened filament-wound double-wall fiberglass composite underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kaempen, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes how a double wall filament wound glass fiber reinforced plastic underground storage tank (UST) can be stiffened by a non-removable steel frame mandrel that remains within the tank. A specific design is exhibited to show how a nonmetallic filament-wound UST can be made to have sufficient stiffness to resist, with negligible deflection, a hundred ton load of water and backfill while the tank bottom is unsupported for 66% of its width and as much as 80% of its length. The steel-stiffened double wall UST described in this paper consists of two independent concentric nonmetallic composite pressure vessels, separated by an annular space that has a bottom sump that can be monitored to provide warning of a leaking tank. This paper summarizes the extensive physical and chemical resistance tests conducted by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. to qualify the nonmetallic underground storage tank at meeting the performance requirements outlined in Class 16 of the UL Standard for safety Subject 1316, which is believed to be the highest standard ever developed for the safe long term underground storage of flammable liquids. Some details relating to the cost and performance characteristics of the steel-stiffened nonmetallic composite tank are presented.

  17. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs). Letter report on FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks.

  18. STATE-OF-THE-ART PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT FOR INTERNAL INSPECTION AND UPGRADING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report supplements the previous State-of-the-Art Procedures and Equipment for Internal Inspection of Underground Storage Tanks published in 1991 by the EPA. The present report updates and provides descriptions of additional tank inspection technologies, specifically, noninva...

  19. Evaluation of Seawater Intrusion Potential into a Coastal Underground Oil Storage Cavern in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Lim, J.; Moon, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Underground oil storage caverns have been operated in Korea since 1990s, and the facility at Yeosu, south coast of Korea, is one of the largest underground oil storage facilities in Korea. Hydrologic and water quality monitoring of the facility has been performed to find out whether the facility maintains secure containment condition and long-term stability. Recently, seawater intrusion into the base of the storage cavern was suspected based on the long-term monitoring of water levels and chemical analyses of seepage water pumped out from cavern bottom. The sudden decrease of water pressure during the construction of storage tunnel seems to cause the inland movement of saline water. In this study, numerical analysis was performed to estimate the potential of seawater intrusion into underground oil storage cavern using a three dimensional groundwater simulation model, FEFLOW (Diersch, 2005). The geometry of the cavern and water curtain was represented by using the implemented functions. The groundwater flow field and seawater intrusion in response to construction activity was also estimated. The simulation results were validated by comparing EC and salinity of seepage water monitoring data. Sensitivity analyses on hydraulic conductivity and water pressure from the water curtain or injection well were also conducted. Relatively high groundwater level was observed at this site due to the low hydraulic conductivity of base rock and high altitude of the mountains. Therefore, the amount of intruded seawater does not seem to be significant. However, apparent decrease of water level was observed along the main fracture zone and seawater could be intruded along these paths. Simulation results show that the seawater intrusion to the cavern is mainly controlled by the fracture zone, which would be the main channel of groundwater movement. The injection of fresh water to the injection wells along the coast may retard the intrusion of seawater.

  20. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  1. Petroleum USTs: RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, R.

    1994-01-01

    Underground tanks that contain petroleum or hazardous substances may be subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by EPA under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 (HSWA)], establish standards for installation, operation, release detection, corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA to implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/0041/0191, June 1992), that describes the UST procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substance USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 USC 2011). This information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to petroleum USTs. It is part of a series of information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  2. Hazardous substance USTs: RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    DiCerbo, J.

    1993-05-01

    Underground tanks that contain petroleum or hazardous substances may be subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous an Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA)], established standards for installation, operation, release detection corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA t Implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/004/0191, June 1992) that describes the UST procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substance USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 195 (42 U.S.C. 2011). This Information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to hazardous substance USTs. It is a part of a series of Information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  3. Excluded USTs: RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    DiCerbo, J.

    1993-05-01

    Underground tanks that contain either petroleum or hazardous substances are subject to the Federal Underground Storage (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA)], establish standards for installation, operation, release detection, corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA to implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. Certain USTs have been excluded from the Federal UST regulations. These excluded USTs have been determined by either Congress or EPA to pose an insignificant risk to human health and the environment. By excluding these USTs from regulation, EPA is focusing resources on the USTs that pose substantially greater risk to human health and the environment. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/004/0191, June 1992), that describes the US procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substances USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011). This information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to excluded USTs. It is part of a series of information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  4. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  5. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  6. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A., III; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  7. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

  8. Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Building 9201-1 Site is located within the south central portion of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; it was previously the location of a 560-gallon gasoline underground storage tank, which was excavated and removed after being suspected of leaking in 1988. This document presents potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring which was conducted as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation. The document is divided into: introductory information, results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells, and vapor monitoring data from subsurface utilities at the site.

  9. Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Building 9204-2 is located within the central portion of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; it was previously the location of a gasoline underground storage tank used to fuel an emergency generator at the building. The tank was first suspected of leaking in 1988 and was excavated that year. Petroleum contamination of groundwater above applicable Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation closure action levels was identified. This document presents potentiometric, grounwater quality, and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring. It is divided into introductory information, water level measurement and sampling of monitoring wells, and vapor monitoring in subsurface utilities at the site.

  10. Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document presents potentiometric, groundwater quality,a nd vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 0134-U at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Building 9204-2 Site. The monitoring was conducted as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation. Results are given of the second semiannual site status monitoring performed in March 1996. Site ranking was also performed using the March 1996 groundwater data. The site was the location of a gasoline UST used to fuel an emergency generator at Building 9204-2; the tank was excavated and removed from the site.

  11. The past and future of cathodic protection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Corrosion protection for underground storage tanks (USTs) has become a vital national consideration since the establishment of new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules. Compliance with these rules is required by the end of 1998. Approximately 700,000 buried steel tanks in the United States are likely candidates for cathodic protection (CP) to meet regulatory compliance. This review of CP and other corrosion control measures used on USTs will help tank owners and corrosion control professionals make plans to meet the EPA deadline before the last-minute rush begins.

  12. Assessment of high-head turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, S. W.; Frigo, A. A.; Blomquist, C. A.

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS) plants equipped with advanced reversible pump turbines for operating heads from 500 to 1500 m are discussed in terms of cost efficiency. It is found that the use of advanced machinery shifts the minimum UPHS plant cost to the head range 1200-1500 m. The interactive effects of pump-turbine efficiencies and charge/discharge ratios are examined. It is shown that under certain conditions, a pump-turbine option with a higher charge-discharge ratio at the expense of somewhat lower operating efficiency may be desirable.

  13. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  14. 76 FR 15971 - Liberty Gas Storage, LLC and LA Storage, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for Abandonment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage, LLC and LA Storage, LLC; Notice of Joint... Regulatory Commission (Commission) a joint application under section 7 for (i) Authorization from the.... Questions regarding the joint application may be directed to William Rapp, Counsel for Liberty and...

  15. Underground storage of natural gas by interstate pipeline companies for 1978 and winter 1978-1979. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, T.A.

    1980-01-22

    Underground storage of natural gas by pipeline companies subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Regulatory Commission (FERC) are given for the most recent calendar year and of the most recent winter heating season. Annual data are based on FERC Form 2, annual reports of 32 companies, and winter data are from FERC Form 8, semi-monthly reports of 32 pipeline companies and 5 independent producers. Covered for the two most recent years are the underground gas storage, deliverability, and peak day use for pipeline companies; the estimated cost of storing gas underground; comparisons of fixed cost with operating and maintenance expenses for storing gas, and of the capacity used and the cost of storing gas; and gas injections and withdrawals. Data for the most recent winter heating season (November through March) include gas storage balance; the natural gas in underground storage (injections and withdrawals), in reservoirs, and in storage owned by reporting companies; comparisons of total gas withdrawn from storage, and of net withdrawals from storage. Data are shown by company and by geographic region (Eastern, Midwestern, Southern, and Western). Gas data are reported in thousand cubic feet, with some percentage comparisons. The preface and the narratives at the beginning of each of the four sub-sections explain methodologies and definitions, and highlight statistics. 10 figures, 12 tables.

  16. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume II. Technical summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume II presents the amplified technical summaries of individual tasks and projects conducted during this reporting period. The activities of the authors reporting herein were actually broader in scope than may be reflected by the mini-reports. Readers wishing additional information on specific topics are invited to contact individual authors. The work described here represents one segment of a continuing effort to encourage development and implementation of advanced energy storage technology. The results and progress reported here rely on earlier studies and will, in turn, provide a basis for continued efforts to develop the STES and CAES technologies.

  17. Closure of underground storage tanks at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site - looking beyond the obvious

    SciTech Connect

    Madel, R.E.; Gappa, R.M.; Anderson, M.A.; Warbington, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RIFETS) is in the process of replacing and closing 22 Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) currently in use for fuel storage. The tank closures are in response to Federal and State Regulations requiring tank upgrades or replacement by December 22, 1998 to meet new requirements for leak detection and spill prevention. This paper presents the basis for determining the most cost effective program for closing the USTs. Presented herein is general information relevant to closure alternatives as well as evaluation criteria that can be used to assess the various alternatives. A decision tree for choosing among tank closure alternatives using the evaluation criteria is then discussed. Finally, a summary of the results of the decision process for each of the 22 tank sites is presented. The closure alternatives, the evaluation criteria, and the decision trees are non-site specific which enables the decision process that is presented in this paper to be used at other similar sites.

  18. Hydrodynamic code calculations of airblast for an explosive test in a shallow underground storage magazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Lynn W.; Schneider, Kenneth D.

    1990-07-01

    A large-sclae test of the detonation of 20,000 kilograms of high explosive inside a shallow underground tunnel/chamber complex, simulating an ammunition storage magazine, was carried out in August, 1988, at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. The test was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board; the Safety Services Organisation of the Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom; and the Norwegian Defence Construction Service. The overall objective of the test was to determine the hazardous effects (debris, airblast, and ground motion) produced in this configuration. Actual storage magazines have considerably more overburden and are expected to contain and accidental detonation. The test configuration, on the other hand, was expected to rupture, and to scatter a significant amount of rocks, dirt and debris. Among the observations and measurements made in this test was study of airblast propagation within the storage chamber, in the access tunnel, and outside, on the tunnel ramp, prior to overburden venting. The results of these observations are being used to evaluate and validate current quantity-distance standards for the underground storage of munitions near inabited structures. As part of the prediction effort for this test, to assist with transducer ranging in the access tunnel and with post-test interpretation of the results, S-CUBED was asked to perform two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamic code calculations of the explosive detonation and subsequent blastwave propagation in the interior chamber and access tunnel. This was accomplished using the S-CUBED Hydrodynamic Advanced Research Code (SHARC). In this paper, details of the calculations configuration will be presented. These will be compared to the actual as-built internal configuration of the tunnel/chamber complex. Results from the calculations, including contour plots and airblast waveforms, will be shown. The latter will be compared with experimental records

  19. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  20. Method of disposing of earth contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehl, P.A.

    1993-08-17

    A process is described for disposing of earth contaminated with petroleum products from a leaking underground storage tank wherein the earth contains a significant amount of material comprised primarily of a mixture of one part Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and two to three parts SiO[sub 2], the process comprising: digging up a leaking underground storage tank and the surrounding contaminated earth; separating the excavated earth into a Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]+SiO[sub 2] material and a non-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] + SiO[sub 2] material; mixing the Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] + SiO[sub 2] material and other cement precursor raw materials together to form a mixture, and grinding the mixture to form a feed mix; introducing the feed mix into a rotary cement kiln causing any remaining petroleum product contained therein to be volatilized and burned within the kiln as cement clinker is being produced; and grinding the cement clinker together to form cement which is free of petroleum product.

  1. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  2. Can environmental insurance succeed where other strategies fail? The case of underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haitao; Pfaff, Alex; Kunreuther, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Private risk reduction will be socially efficient only when firms are liable for all the damage that they cause. We find that environmental insurance can achieve social efficiency even when two traditional policy instruments--ex post fines and risk management mandates with ex ante fines--do not. Inefficiency occurs with ex post fines, when small firms declare bankruptcy and escape their liabilities, limiting the incentives from this policy tool. Firms ignore mandates to implement efficient risk management because regulatory agencies do not have sufficient resources to monitor every firm. The evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's and states' underground storage tank programs suggests that mandating environmental insurance can address inefficiency due to small firms declaring bankruptcy. Comparing insurance mandates to risk management mandates, the burden on a regulator is lower if all it has to do is to confirm that the firm has insurance rather than that the firm has actually, and effectively, implemented required management practices. For underground storage tanks, we show that insurance lowered toxic releases. PMID:20807380

  3. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  4. Dynamic simulation of an underground gas storage injection-production network .

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanbi; Liu, Enbin; Xian, Weiwei; Wang, Di; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-07-01

    Underground gas storage is a well-known strategic practice to seasonal peak shaving and emergency facility. The changing operation conditions of injection-production network directly affects the reliability of downstream gas supply of the city. In the present study, a model of injection-production network on the basis of field data analysis and research was established. By comparing the actual node pressure and simulation results, the reliability of model was verified. Based on the volume of underground gas storage and downstream gas consumption, the best seasonal peak-shaving schedule of the whole year was set. According to dynamic analysis of network, 20% increase in downstream demand could be fulfilled. Besides, the study also analyzed the well pressure and flow rate changes after shutdown of gas well, which is most likely to fail, and concludes that the best rescue time should be within 4 hr after gas supply interruption. The results would help in making decisions about the operation of injection-production network, which have important significance in the environmental protection. PMID:26387354

  5. Multi-disciplinary monitoring of the Hutubi underground natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Underground natural Gas Storage (UGS) can balance the gas demand and supply through injecting gas into or withdraw gas from the subsurface rock formation. UGS has been wildly established all over the world to face the complicated international energy system. In 2013, the Hutubi underground natural gas storage was put into production, which was one of the largest UGS in China. In the Hutubi UGS, the pressurized natural gas is injected into and extracted from an obsolete gas reservoir during summer and winter time, respectively. The repeatable in and out going high pressure gas may change the stress state and material properties of the underground rock formation, which may in turn cause surface deformation and alter the seismic hazard in this region. To understand the physical process of the periodic loading and unloading, we established a multi-disciplinary monitoring system composed of a geodetic network, a seismic network, and an active source monitoring system. The position and level of 13 spots around and above the UGS area are measured every three to six months with Global Position System (GPS) and short base-line leveling. More than 30 portable broad band three component seismic stations were deployed in study area to continuously monitor the background and possible triggered seismicity. These seismic stations together with a 12000 in3 airgun source, are also used to monitor the seismic velocity change associated with the gas injection and extraction. Preliminary results indicate that seismic velocity change correlates well with the injection pressure; seismicity decays with the lapse time after the startup of Hutubi UGS; small but detectable surface deformation associated with the gas activities is observed.

  6. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  7. Biodegradation of cis-1,2-Dichloroethene in Simulated Underground Thermal Energy Storage Systems.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhuobiao; van Gaans, Pauline; Smit, Martijn; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2015-11-17

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) use has showed a sharp rise in numbers in the last decades, with aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) most widely used. In many urban areas with contaminated aquifers, there exists a desire for sustainable heating and cooling with UTES and a need for remediation. We investigated the potential synergy between UTES and bioremediation with batch experiments to simulate the effects of changing temperature and liquid exchange that occur in ATES systems, and of only temperature change occurring in BTES systems on cis-DCE reductive dechlorination. Compared to the natural situation (NS) at a constant temperature of 10 °C, both UTES systems with 25/5 °C for warm and cold well performed significantly better in cis-DCE (cis-1,2-dichloroethene) removal. The overall removal efficiency under mimicked ATES and BTES conditions were respectively 13 and 8.6 times higher than in NS. Inoculation with Dehalococcoides revealed that their initial presence is a determining factor for the dechlorination process. Temperature was the dominating factor when Dehalococcoides abundance was sufficient. Stimulated biodegradation was shown to be most effective in the mimicked ATES warm well because of the combined effect of suitable temperature, sustaining biomass growth, and regular cis-DCE supply. PMID:26503690

  8. Underground natural gas storage in the United States 1979 - 1980 heating year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Total gas in storage in the nation's active underground natural gas storage reservoirs as of March 31, 1980, the end of the 1979-1980 heating year, was reported at 5,129 billion cubic feet. Of this total, approximately 69.1 percent was base, or cushion, gas and 30.9 percent was working gas. Working gas totaled 1,586 billion cubic feet, approximately 28.2 percent above that available at the beginning of the heating year. The nation's 383 active storage reservoirs were operated by 77 companies. Total reservoir capacity was reported at 7,287 billion cubic feet, approximately 51.4 percent, or 3,744 billion cubic feet of which was working gas capacity. Approximately 67.9 percent of this working gas capacity was in 228 reservoirs operated by 30 interstate pipeline companies, 29.1 percent was in 142 reservoirs operated by 42 intrastate companies, and 3.1 percent was in 13 reservoirs operated by 5 independent producers.

  9. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Methodology for assessment of contamination of the unsaturated zone by leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiano, F.A.; Miller, C.T.; Roche, A.C.; Wallingford, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    Three methods of measuring contamination of the partially saturated zone by leaking underground fuel tanks were investigated. Two of the methods relied upon obtaining a soil core from the field. These differed in the method of extraction: (1) by nitrogen purge of the entire core, followed by adsorption-solvent extraction and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, and (2) by sonication of a small sub-sample from the core, followed by solvent extraction and GC analysis. The third method focused on saturation zone. This required use of a driveable ground probe (DGP) and activated carbon trap, followed by solvent extraction and GC analysis. The soil core procedures required construction of a sampling tube that proved successful in the system upon return to the laboratory. Recoveries approaching 100% were achieved in the nitrogen purge procedure by: heating the soil core to 100 C; trapping water exiting the soil core prior to the adsorption step; and using activated carbon instead of Tenax as the adsorbent. Vapor phase measurements provided a convenient way to map the extent of contamination from a leaking underground gasoline storage tank at the Camp Lejeune site. Concentrations of target compounds ranged from 10,000 micrograms/L (ug/L) to < 10 ug/L of vapor phase. The highest concentrations were found above the non-aqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). However, the method was able to show that contamination exists well beyond the NAPL, although the concentrations drop off precipitously. 36 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  12. Leaking underground storage tanks: Remediation with emphasis on in situ biorestoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. M.; Lee, M. D.; Bedient, P. B.; Borden, R. C.; Canter, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    The current literature indicates that in situ biorestoration has great potential for remediation of aquifers contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks. In situ aquifer restoration involves the enhancement of the indigenous microflora to degrade subsurface pollutants. The presence of indigenous microorganisms that can degrade subsurface contaminants has been demonstrated. Enriching for microorganisms with special metabolic capabilities has been demonstrated in the laboratory and may be promising for in situ biorestoration schemes. Mathematical models of biorestoration have been developed to stimulate progress of the cleanup and provide information on the kinetics of the process. This report emphasizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of in situ biorestoration techniques available for remediation of contaminated ground water.

  13. Leak prevention in underground storage tanks: A state-of-the-art survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadharan, A. C.; Narayanan, T. V.; Raghavan, R.; Amoruso, G.

    1987-05-01

    The overall objectives were to examine the structural design and operational practices associated with underground storage tank (UST) systems in the context of preventing leaks from such systems and identify areas for further research and development to advance the technology. Recommendations derived include: establishing a nations data base to provide information on failure rates and mechanisms and their correlation to design, engineering, installation, and operation practices and corrective actions; assessing the effectiveness of cathodic protection methods, their interaction with the environment, and the performance of retrofitting existing USTs; developing compatibility protocols for the selection of appropriate materials of construction and long-term protection; and developing methods to assess the life expectancy of both new and existing systems and to extend their useful life.

  14. Detection of diesel fuel leakage from underground storage tank using time domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Daniel A.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established regulations concerning the construction and maintenance of an underground storage tank (UST) system. These regulations also define the means and methods required to detect potential leaks. Leak detection methods defined as "other methods" can be used if specific requirements are achieved. We find in our study time domain reflectometry (TDR) can be used to detect leaks from an UST. The magnitudes of reflections measured by the TDR technique are used to calculate electrical properties of the soil. We find the introduction of diesel fuel, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), into the soil alters the physical and chemical properties of the soil and subsequently the electrical properties. We demonstrate the measured variance of electrical properties can be correlated to the changes of diesel fuel concentration. We find diesel fuel can be detected and changes of concentration can be measured using TDR.

  15. Application of passive dosimetry for detection of leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    DeGiano, F.A.; Leith, D.; Elliott, D.W.; Pate, B.; Napfel, C.M.

    1992-06-01

    Several modifications to conventional uses of passive dosimetry in industrial hygiene were explored to make the method attractive for both long-term monitoring of underground storage tanks and short-term site assessments of ground water contamination. Methods for both vapor and aqueous phase measurements were of interest. In addition, a colorimetric method was tried to eliminate the need for return of the dosimeter to the laboratory for chemical analysis. The results suggest that passive dosimetry can be a useful qualitative tool for the mapping of the sub-surface of a contaminated area. It is recommended that the dosimeter be used for short-term site-assessments, rather than long-term compliance monitoring applications. A more extensive comparison with other methods of leak detection than was possible in the research may be needed before convincing the private sector to develop a product based on commercial use of these prototype dosimetry devices.

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Flammable Gases in Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the field measurements for a screening of flammable gases in the vapor space of the inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) currently assigned to the River Protection Project (RPP). If a measurement exceeds 25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. This SAP also specifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for grab sampling. Technical bases for the sampling objectives are provided in the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (Dukelow et al 1995). The screening data will be used to determine if additional data are needed to support closure of a flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities.

  17. Corrective action baseline report for underground storage tank 2331-U Building 9201-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide baseline geochemical and hydrogeologic data relative to corrective action for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Progress in support of the Building 9201-1 Site has included monitoring well installation and baseline groundwater sampling and analysis. This document represents the baseline report for corrective action at the Building 9201-1 site and is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site, including the regulatory initiative, site description, and progress to date. Section 2 includes the summary of additional monitoring well installation activities and the results of baseline groundwater sampling. Section 3 presents the baseline hydrogeology and planned zone of influence for groundwater remediation.

  18. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L.; Zollars, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  19. Comparison of analytical model to simulation of diffusion plume from underground CO2 storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, K.; Patzek, T.W.; Silin, D.

    2008-12-01

    An exact solution exists for the advection-dispersion equation when the wind profile is modeled with a power-law dependence on height. This analytical solution is compared here to a numerical simulation of the coupled air-ground system for a leaking underground CO{sub 2} storage. The two methods produced similar results far from the boundaries, but the boundary conditions had a strong effect; the simulation imposed boundary conditions at the edge of a finite domain while the analytic solution imposes them at infinity. The reverse seepage from air to ground was shown in the simulation to be very small, and the sharp contrast between time scales suggests that air and ground can be modeled separately, with gas emissions from the ground model used as inputs to the air model.

  20. A Profile and Management of the US Army's underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmavaram, Seshasayi; Piskin, Kemal; Hoctor, Theresa J.; Donahue, Bernard A.

    1989-05-01

    The US Army owns more than 10,000 underground storage tanks (USTs), many of which are old and may be leaking. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 required tank owners to collect and report data on them by May 1986. In order to manage the large amounts of information on its USTs, the Army developed a microcomputer-based data base system. The data base system is user friendly and allows the user to store, organize, and manipulate the UST data. A leak potential index (LPI) was also developed and calculated for each of the Army's USTs. The LPI is used to prioritize USTs so that those with higher LPIs can be monitored closely. A characteristic profile of Army USTs according to construction material, capacity, age, content, and LPI is presented in this paper.

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are...

  2. Development of in-structure design spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    In-structure response spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site are developed on the basis of recent soil-structure-interaction analyses. Recommended design spectra are provided for various locations on the tank dome.

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are...

  4. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  5. Monitoring induced seismicity from underground gas storage: first steps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Priolo, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The supply of natural gas and its storage are focal points of the Italian politics of energy production and will have increasing importance in the coming years. About a dozen reservoirs are currently in use and fifteen are in development or awaiting approval. Some of these are found in the vicinity of geological structures that are seismically active. The assessment of seismic hazard (both for natural background and induced seismicity) for a geological gas storage facility has a number of unconventional aspects that must be recognized and traced in a clear, ordered way and using guidelines and rules that leave less room as possible for interpretation by the individual applicant / verification body. Similarly, for control and monitoring there are not clearly defined procedures or standard instrumentation, let alone tools for analysing and processing data. Finally, governmental organizations in charge of permission grants and operative control tend to have appropriate scientific knowledge only in certain areas and not in others (e.g. the seismic one), and the establishment of an independent multidisciplinary inspection body appears desirable. The project StoHaz (https://sites.google.com/site/s2stohaz/home) aims to initiate a series of actions to overcome these deficiencies and allow to define procedures and standards for the seismic hazard assessment and control of the activities of natural gas storage in underground reservoirs. OGS will take advantage of the experience gained with the design, installation and maintenance of the seismic network monitoring the Collalto reservoir, at the moment the only example in Italy of a public research institution monitoring independently the activities of a private gas storage company.

  6. Environmental and economic impact of underground storage tanks in the United States and territories

    SciTech Connect

    Helvey, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    The existing population of Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) in the United States is enormous. The three major problems relating to (USTs) which must be addresses by communities and UST owners are: (1) the large number of aged USTs in the United States without adequate leak protection, (2) the risks associated with UST management and (3) the rising costs of UST remediation and regulation requirements. The consequences of using USTs for storage of liquid fuels and chemicals are addresses in this paper. The discussion involves such parameters as age, material, product, corrosion, location and quantity. All of these parameters have a direct influence on the environmental and economic impact of USTs in the United States. It Will be seen that while age, material and corrosion play a major role in the number of leaking USTs; product, location and quantity are major factors associated with the impacts of those leaks. This paper discusses the number of existing USTs and the percentage of those that are leaking. It also presents the costs associated with the remediation of those leaks and the separate costs of replacing or updating old USTs to meet the new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations.

  7. Possibility of experimental validation of criticality safety methodology in support of underground fuel storage efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, M.N.; Briggs, J.B.

    1997-10-01

    Critical systems which might be formed in geologic repositories as a result of long-term degradation of the storage media, leaching of plutonium from the storage media, and the redistribution of low concentrations of plutonium into underground sand layers or lenses can be characterized by positive reactivity feedback. Formation of such a systems can not be excluded when considering the burial of high enriched uranium or plutonium contaminated wastes or spent nuclear fuels. Although the probability of formation of a critical systems under such conditions is very low, the reliable prediction of neutron multiplication properties appears to be of great interest from a criticality safety view point. At the present time, all estimations of criticality are based only on evaluated neutron data because critical experiments are not available for large systems containing small quantities plutonium distributed throughout a typically encountered matrix material such as silicon dioxide. The possibility of providing such an experiment using the large Russian critical assemblies, BFS-1 or BFS-2, is considered. It is shown that critical systems containing small amounts of hydrogenous material (polyethylene) with positive reactivity feedback can by modeled in the BFS Facility.

  8. Stress evaluation of the primary tank of a double-shell underground storage tank facility

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, M.B.; Stine, M.D.; Farnworth, S.K.

    1994-12-01

    A facility called the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) is being designed at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site. The MWTF is expected to be completed in 1998 and will consist of six underground double-shell waste storage tanks and associated systems. These tanks will provide safe and environmentally acceptable storage capacity to handle waste generated during single-shell and double-shell tank safety mitigation and remediation activities. This paper summarizes the analysis and qualification of the primary tank structure of the MWTF, as performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford during the latter phase of Title 1 (Preliminary) design. Both computer finite element analysis (FEA) and hand calculations methods based on the so-called Tank Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) Guidelines were used to perform the analysis and evaluation. Based on the evaluations summarized in this paper, it is concluded that the primary tank structure of the MWTF satisfies the project design requirements. In addition, the hand calculations performed using the methodologies provided in the TSEP Guidelines demonstrate that, except for slosh height, the capacities exceed the demand. The design accounts for the adverse effect of the excessive slosh height demand, i.e., inadequate freeboard, by increasing the hydrodynamic wall and roof pressures appropriately, and designing the tank for such increased pressures.

  9. Sharing Experiences on Underground Storage and Disposal in the Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; West, Julia; Bruno, Jordi

    2011-03-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage: Can Anything Be Learned From 35 Years Experience in Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes?; Meiringen, Switzerland, 26-29 October 2010 ; Safely sequestering by-products that are hazardous to the environment deep underground is an objective shared by different energy generation systems. There are analogies between different applications in many aspects of their science, technology, strategy, and implementation. However, bringing specialists together to discuss common issues has proved more difficult than people might think. This is nowhere truer than in the separate fields of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and geological disposal of radioactive wastes (RWD), where years of caution have either kept practitioners apart or led to an effective partitioning of their work. To many specialists, especially those in the hydrocarbons industry, which will be a key player in commercial CCS, there is no benefit perceived in relating what is seen as a benign technology that is to be deployed for the global good to a technology associated with a nuclear industry that has had an unremittingly rough ride for most of the past 25 years.

  10. Cryograb: A Novel Approach to the Retrieval of Waste from Underground Storage Tanks - 13501

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Luke; Baker, Stephen; Bowen, Bob; Mallick, Pramod; Smith, Gary; King, Bill; Judd, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is investigating the use of cryogenic technology for the recovery of nuclear waste. Cryograb, freezing the waste on a 'cryo-head' and then retrieves it as a single mass which can then be treated or stabilized as necessary. The technology has a number of benefits over other retrieval approaches in that it minimizes sludge disturbance thereby reducing effluent arising and it can be used to de-water, and thereby reduce the volume of waste. The technology has been successfully deployed for a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear waste recovery operations. The application of Cryograb for the recovery of waste from US underground storage tanks is being explored through a US DOE International Technology Transfer and Demonstration programme. A sample deployment being considered involves the recovery of residual mounds of sludge material from waste storage tanks at Savannah River. Operational constraints and success criteria were agreed prior to the completion of a process down selection exercise which specified the preferred configuration of the cryo-head and supporting plant. Subsequent process modeling identified retrieval rates and temperature gradients through the waste and tank infrastructure. The work, which has been delivered in partnership with US DOE, SRNL, NuVision Engineering and Frigeo AB has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the approach (to TRL 2) and has resulted in the allocation of additional funding from DOE to take the programme to bench and cold pilot-scale trials. (authors)

  11. Mineral control of soil carbon storage with reforestation of abandoned pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Swanston, C. W.; Torn, M. S.; Burton, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    their maximum C storage capacity. This may explain their resiliency to land-use change and why we have observed no significant accumulation of soil C despite large increases in aboveground biomass with reforestation.

  12. Underground storage tank subsurface site investigation report: Former UST, building 1608 site. Investigation report, October-November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This Subsurface Site Investigation (S SI) Report presents the results of investigation activities conducted at the 151st Air Refueling Wing (ARW), Utah Air National Guard (ANG) Base, Salt Lake City, Utah, On 3 September 1993, a 30-year old, 2,000-gallon underground storage tank (UST) (state leaking UST identifier - Facility ID Number 4001640, Release Site EIMB) was removed, along with the associated piping. The tank was used for jet fuel (JP-4) storage at the Aerospace Ground Equipment Facility. The results of the investigation indicated petroleum contamination existed in site soils at levels exceeding the Utah Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) site Level II Recommended Cleanup Levels (RCLs) for soil and state MCLs for groundwater contamination.

  13. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  14. Nevada test site underground storage tank number 12-13-1: Nevada division of emergency management case number H931130E corrective action unit 450. Closure report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The project site was identified as an abandoned Underground Storage Tank (UST) to be closed under the Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Program during Fiscal Year 1993. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that before permanent closure is completed an assessment of the site must take place. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requires assessment and corrective actions for a petroleum substance in the soil which exceeds 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Subsequent to the tank removal, a hydrocarbon release was identified at the site. The release was reported to the NDEP by DOE/NV on November 30, 1993. Nevada Division of Environmental Management (NDEM) Case Number H931130E was assigned. This final closure report documents the assessment and corrective actions taken for the hydrocarbon release identified at the site. The Notification of Closure, EPA Form 7530-1 dated March 22, 1994, is provided in Appendix A. A 45-day report documenting the notification for a hydrocarbon release was submitted to NDEP on April 6, 1994.

  15. Closure report: Nevada Test Site Underground Storage Tank (UST) number 25-3123-1: Nevada Division of Emergency Management case number H940825D corrective action unit 450

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document has been prepared as a final closure report documenting the assessment and corrective actions taken for the petroleum hydrocarbon release associated with underground storage tank (UST) UST25-3123-1. UST25-3123-1 was located at Area 25 within the Nevada Test Site. The UST was identified as abandoned to be closed under the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Division Program during Fiscal Year 1994. The scope of work for closure of the UST included evaluating site conditions and closing the tank in accordance with all applicable regulations. Site evaluation analytic results of a soil sample collected below the tank showed a diesel concentration of 120 mg/kg at a depth of 3 meters. During remedial excavation, approximately 3.8 cubic meters of hydrocarbon impacted soil was removed. Laboratory analysis of the soil sample collected from the excavation bottom confirms that total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations greater than 100 mg/kg are no longer present. Therefore, it is requested that the site be closed without further action. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The role of the underground for massive storage of energy: a preliminary glance of the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, Pascal; Gentier, Sylvie; Bader, Anne-Gaelle; Beccaletto, Laurent; Bellenfant, Gael

    2014-05-01

    The question of storing energy in France has become of primary importance since the launch of a road map from the government which places in pole position this topic among seven major milestones to be challenged in the context of the development of innovative technology in the country. The European objective to reach 20% of renewables in the energy market, from which a large part would come from wind and solar power generation, raises several issues regarding the capacity of the grid to manage the various intermittent energy sources in line with the variability of the public demand and offer. These uncertainties are highly influenced by unpredictable weather and economic fluctuations. To facilitate the large-scale integration of variable renewable electricity sources in grids, massive energy storage is needed. In that case, electric energy storage techniques involving the use of underground are often under consideration as they offer a large storage capacity volume with a adapted potential of confining and the space required for the implantation. Among the panel of massive storage technologies, one can find (i) the Underground Pumped Hydro-Storage (UPHS) which are an adaptation of classical Pumped Hydro Storage system often connected with dam constructions, (ii) the compressed air storage (CAES) and (iii) the hydrogen storage from conversion of electricity into H2 and O2 by electrolysis. UPHS concept is based on using the potential energy between two water reservoirs positioned at different heights. Favorable natural locations like mountainous areas or cliffs are spatially limited given the geography of the territory. This concept could be extended with the integration of one of these reservoirs in an underground cavities (specifically mined or reuse of preexisting mines) to increase opportunities on the national territory. Massive storage based on compression and relaxation of air (CAES) requires high volume and confining pressure around the storage that exists

  17. An innovative approach saves groundwater supplies from leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Silbermann, P.T.; DeNatale, D.R.; Hajo, N.

    1996-12-31

    In 1991, officials of the Town of Natick, Massachusetts learned that its groundwater supplies were threatened by leaking underground residential fuel storage tanks buried in the yards of hundreds of homes, many of which were located in close proximity to the Town`s water supply wells. The problem heightened when banks stopped approving mortgages or equity loans on homes with underground tanks. The estimated cost to remove the tanks and remediate contaminated soil was $2 million. In order to protect its water supply and preserve its residential property tax base, Natick launched an innovative municipal program to finance and manage the removal of tanks and contaminated soil. As a result of quick and unprecedented community/consultant action, a response plan was developed and technical solutions implemented which involved: Aquifer/Groundwater Protection; GIS Mapping; and Hazardous Waste Site Remediation. The Town engaged Whitman & Howard, Inc. of Wellesley, Massachusetts as engineers to plan, design and oversee tank removals and soil remediation and to administer a $1 million innovative program HUD grant which was used to subsidize the 5 program and cap each homeowner`s cost at $5,000. 320 tanks were removed; 45 % were leaking and required action to remove and remediate contaminated soils. The prototype program provided a number of technical lessons and work products applicable to communities facing a similar problem: (1) Current technology review of alternatives for remediation of petroleum contaminated soils; (2) Geographic Information System (GIS) matrices & mapping protocols; (3) Immediate Response Action Plan to meet new DEP regulations; (4) Innovative approach to project financing; (5) Development of relationships among tank type and age; soils; presence of groundwater; and extent of leakage and soil contamination; and (6) Indicators identified to characterize contamination including: headspace, TPH, odor, soil type, and soil staining.

  18. Salinization of groundwater around underground LPG storage caverns, Korea : statistical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Chang, H.

    2001-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the reciprocal influence between groundwater flow and its salinization occurred in two underground cavern sites, using major ion chemistry, PCA for chemical analysis data, and cross-correlation for various hydraulic data. The study areas are two underground LPG storage facilities constructed in South Sea coast, Yosu, and West Sea coastal regions, Pyeongtaek, Korea. Considerably high concentration of major cations and anions of groundwaters at both sites showed brackish or saline water types. In Yosu site, some great chemical difference of groundwater samples between rainy and dry season was caused by temporal intrusion of high-saline water into propane and butane cavern zone, but not in Pyeongtaek site. Cl/Br ratios and δ 18O- δ D distribution for tracing of salinization source water in both sites revealed that two kind of saline water (seawater and halite-dissolved solution) could influence the groundwater salinization in Yosu site, whereas only seawater intrusion could affect the groundwater chemistry of the observation wells in Pyeongtaek site. PCA performed by 8 and 10 chemical ions as statistical variables in both sites showed that intensive intrusion of seawater through butane cavern was occurred at Yosu site while seawater-groundwater mixing was observed at some observation wells located in the marginal part of Pyeongtaek site. Cross-correlation results revealed that the positive relationship between hydraulic head and cavern operating pressure was far more conspicuous at propane cavern zone in both sites (65 ~90% of correlation coefficients). According to the cross-correlation results of Yosu site, small change of head could provoke massive influx of halite-dissolved solution from surface through vertically developed fracture networks. However in Pyeongtaek site, the pressure-sensitive observation wells are not completely consistent with seawater-mixed wells, and the hydraulic change of heads at these wells related to the

  19. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: RCRA subtitle I. Underground storage tanks (40 cfr part 280). Updated as of July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This module explains the Underground Storage Tank Regulatory Program established in 1988, that includes technical requirements to prevent, protect, and clean up releases from Underground Storage Tanks (USTs), as well as financial responsibility requirements to guarantee that UST owners and operators have enough money set aside to clean up releases and compensate third parties. Describes the Universe of USTs and the technical and financial requirements that apply to them. Defines underground storage tank and provides criteria for determining which USTs are subject to regulation. Discusses deadlines for upgrading tanks and the closure and corrective action requirements.

  20. Hydrogen underground storage in siliciclastic reservoirs - intention and topics of the H2STORE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Ganzer, Leonhard; Henkel, Steven; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; De Lucia, Marco; Panfilov, Michel; Pilz, Peter; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Würdemann, Hilke; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    The transfer of energy supply from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation to renewable energy production sources is strongly reliant to the potential of storing high capacities of energy in a safe and reliable way in time spans of several months. One conceivable option can be the storage of hydrogen and (related) synthetic natural gas (SNG) production in appropriate underground structures, like salt caverns and pore space reservoirs. Successful storage of hydrogen in the form of town gas in salt caverns has been proven in several demonstration projects and can be considered as state of the art technology. However, salt structures have only limited importance for hydrogen storage due to only small cavern volumes and the limited occurrence of salt deposits suitable for flushing of cavern constructions. Thus, regarding potential high-volume storage sites, siliciclastic deposits like saline aquifers and depleted gas reservoirs are of increasing interest. Motivated by a project call and sponsored by the German government the H2STORE ("Hydrogen to Store") collaborative project will investigate the feasibility and the requirements for pore space storage of hydrogen. Thereby depleted gas reservoirs are a major concern of this study. This type of geological structure is chosen because of their well investigated geological settings and proved sealing capacities, which already enable a present (and future) use as natural (and synthetic) reservoir gas storages. Nonetheless hydrogen and hydrocarbon in porous media exhibit major differences in physico-chemical behaviour, essentially due to the high diffusivity and reactivity of hydrogen. The biotic and abiotic reactions of hydrogen with rocks and fluids will be necessary observed in siliciclastic sediments which consist of numerous inorganic and organic compounds and comprise original formation fluids. These features strongly control petrophysical behaviour (e.g. porosity, permeability) and therefore fluid (hydrogen

  1. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  2. Comprehensive monitoring report for underground storage tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for comprehensive monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Comprehensive monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved May 23, 1994). Site Status Monitoring will be conducted semiannually. Groundwater samples were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons for gasoline range organics, and for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. This document is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of sampling of monitoring wells GW-193, GW-657, GW-707, GW-708, GW-808, GW-809, and GW-810. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site. Groundwater samples were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons for gasoline range organics, and for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes.

  3. Comprehensive monitoring report for underground storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality, and vapor monitoring data required for Comprehensive Monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 0134-U at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Building 9204-2 Site. Comprehensive monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved March 9, 1995). Site Status Monitoring will be conducted semiannually. Comprehensive monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. In addition, soil and groundwater sampling results that were used to support site ranking are included as part of this report. This document is organized into four sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of water level measurements and sampling of monitoring wells GW-204, GW-656, GW-805, GW-806, and GW-807. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted subsurface utilities present at the site. Section 4 presents the results of soil sampling perform in support of site ranking.

  4. Site status monitoring report for underground storage tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Site status monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved May 23, 1994). This document presents the results of the second semiannual site status monitoring that was performed in May 1995. Site status monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. This document is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells GW-193, GW-657, GW-707, GW-708, GW-808, GW-809, and GW-810. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site.

  5. Site status monitoring report for underground storage tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Site status monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved May 23, 1994). This document presents the results of the first semiannual site status monitoring that was performed in December 1994. Site status monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. This document is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells GW-193, GW-657, GW-707, GW-708, GW-808, GW-809, and GW-810. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site.

  6. Waste separations and pretreatment technology development in the Underground Storage Tank--Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The principal objective of the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program is the demonstration and continued development of technologies suitable for the remediation of USTs. The most promising new technologies are selected for demonstration, testing, and evaluation. The objective is the eventual transfer of new technologies as a system to full-scale remediation at US Department of Energy (DOE) complexes and sites in the private sector. Technologies under development in the UST-ID Program are targeted toward use in remediation actions at the following five DOE participant sites: Hanford, Fernald, Idaho, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Combined, these participant sites have more than 300 USTs containing more than 100 m gal of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste. This paper focuses on the Waste Separations and Pretreatment area of the UST-ID, summarizing the currently funded technology development projects. In this area, several ``compact processing units`` (CPUs) are being developed to effect near-term demonstration and deployment of promising processes in actual tank environments. The CPU design and development approach is summarized. A number of programmatic issues are discussed, including onsite and offsite transportation of potentially contaminated processing systems, containment design criteria, including applicable codes and standards, and operation and maintenance of such systems in a developmental testing environment.

  7. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale.

  8. Site status monitoring report for underground storage tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Site status monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved May 23, 1994). This document presents the results of the fifth semiannual site status monitoring that was performed in October 1996f. Site status monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. This document is organized into three sections with two Appendices. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells GW-193, GW-657, GW-707, GW-708, GW-808, GW-809, and GW-810. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site. Appendix A contains the original analytical laboratory results for environmental and quality control samples.

  9. Organically modified low-grade kaolin as a secondary containment material for underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jai-Young; Oh, Byung-Taek; Choi, Sang-Il

    2007-08-01

    Batch scale reactions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified low-grade kaolin for the treatment of petroleum contaminants. Low-grade kaolin, which has been unvalued as material in the mining process because of its low quality for commercial products, was modified with HDTMA (hexadecyl-trimethylammonium), and its efficiency was compared with that of HDTMA-modified bentonite, which is used as a secondary containment barrier for underground storage tanks. The sorption capacity and hydraulic conductivity of both the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin were investigated and showed distribution coefficients in the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene ranging between 45.7 and 583.7 and 57.0 and 525.1, respectively. The hydraulic conductivities were 2.53 x 10(-8) and 5.62 x 10(-8) cm/s for the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin, respectively. These results suggest that HDTMA-modified low-grade kaolin could be used as a hydraulic barrier against advection migration of petroleum contaminants. Simulation of the one-dimensional transport of benzene through a liner made of either one of the compounds was also performed. These results also showed that HDTMA-modified kaolin more effectively retards the transport of benzene. PMID:17505892

  10. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    PubMed Central

    Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO2. The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts. PMID:20680263

  11. Ondergrondse pomp accumulatie centrale in nederland: vooronderzoek (Pumped Storage hydroelectric plants with underground reservoirs in the Netherlands: preliminary report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The use of a pumped storage hydroelectric plant based on water power in the rural electricity net makes it possible to realize performance improvements and fuel savings in the existing plants. Because for an installation with above- and below-ground reservoirs which are controlled on the surface only a few locations are suitable in the Netherlands (gradient from 50 - 150 meters), in such a technique the reservoirs should be made as large as possible. In a design suitable for the Netherlands an underground pump hydroelectric storage plant (OPAC) should be possible by constructing a reservoir at a considerable depth underground. Such a plant could be built with a capacity from 500 to 1,200 MW in order to provide adequate support for the daily peak demands of the other electric power plants, whereby then it could be realized that expensive peak power could be produced cheaply.

  12. Underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35 excavated soil field sample plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.G.

    1994-09-07

    This plan outlines the process that will be used to collect samples from soil excavated during removal of underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35. The samples will be analyzed to determine if gasoline and diesel fuel are present in the soil at levels above action levels specified by the Washington State Department of Ecology. On April 15, 1992, the underground storage tanks were removed and soil samples were collected at each former tank location and from around the associated piping. Soil was excavated from the site until field instrumentation indicated that the former tank sites were clean in the judgment of the field team leader. Field monitoring consisted of using an organic vapor monitor to survey soil shaken in a plastic bag. Monitoring indicated that petroleum contamination ranged from 40 to 800 ppm.

  13. Sampling and analysis plan for site assessment during the closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Gitt, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    The Tank Management Program is responsible for closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks throughout the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed that complies with EPA regulations and with INEL Tank Removal Procedures for sampling activities associated with site assessment during these closure or replacement activities. The SAP will ensure that all data are valid, and it also will function as a Quality Assurance Project Plan. 18 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Study and analysis of leaking underground-storage-tank remediation techniques incorporated in states in EPA Region 6. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.

    1990-05-23

    The intent of the research project was initially to determine the effectiveness of groundwater remediation techniques utilized within EPA Region VI for the cleanup of leaking underground storage tanks (LUST). The paper concluded that effectiveness of groundwater remediation is primarily dependent on the choice of remediation parameters rather than the type of technique used. Furthermore, the choice of remediation parameters depends on the value of hydrogeologic parameters that characterize the site and are determined during the initial site assessment.

  15. Visualization of hydraulic connections using Borehole Array around LPG Underground Storage Cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimo, M.; Mashimo, H.; Maejima, T.; Aoki, K.

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to visualize the hydraulic connections within the fractured rock mass around the underground LPG storage caverns using array of water injection boreholes. By taking advantage that water injection boreholes are located so as to cover the storage caverns, a complete sketch of hydraulic conditions around the caverns, such as locations of water conducting fractures, hydraulic conductivity and groundwater pressure can be obtained. Applicability of the proposed techniques have been tested in an on-going construction project operated by JOGMEC, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, at Namikata, Western part of Japan. Three 26m x 30m x 485m caverns, located at 150 - 200 m below the ground surface in a granitic rock, are under construction. By systematically monitoring the pressure responses between the neighboring boreholes during drilling of total 387 boreholes around the two propane caverns, a spatial profile of the hydraulic connections and hydraulic conductivity around the caverns has been successfully obtained. Locations of localized depressurized zones created during an arch excavation have been detected by monitoring pressure in each borehole after stopping water supply to that borehole temporarily. Measurement has been conducted using each one of the 302 boreholes, one at a time. Observation shows that there is a clear correlation between total pressure drop and pressure gradient versus time curve on semi-logarithmic plot, dH/log10t, as expected by the numerical prediction. Regions where dH/log10t is larger than a certain criteria, determined by a numerical simulation for flow around a cavern in a rock with uniform hydraulic conductivity, have been evaluated as a depressurized zone caused by insufficient water supply, possibly due to existence of the high permeable zones. Separate pore pressure measurement around the caverns also supports this interpretation that a low pressure is prevailing near the borehole

  16. Geochemical evolution of a fractured zone in the cap rock of an underground carbon storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vialle, S.; Druhan, J. L.; Maher, K.

    2013-12-01

    Assessment and management of environmental risks associated with underground storage of CO2 in geological systems is essential for the commercial deployment of this technology. A major risk is leakage of the CO2 from its storage reservoir, through wellbores, and along faults and fractures in the cap rock. The geochemical reactions likely to take place as CO2 leaks through a damage zone and their impact on cap rock integrity still need to be better understood and quantified. Should CO2 leakage occur, geochemical reactions would govern the environmental impact on shallow groundwater aquifers and could provide an indication of the leak prior to surface-based monitoring techniques. We used the reactive transport code TOUGH2/TOUGHREACT to model a leakage scenario through a fractured cap rock. Since geochemical reactions will strongly depend upon the local hydrodynamics of the CO2 leak, the first step of the study is to provide an appropriate physical representation of fluid flow through the system. Typically, for a low porosity rock formation, a fault/damaged zone system is composed of a core of low permeability and a damage zone with second-order fractures whose density decreases with distance from the fault core. Permeability is thus increased along the fault plane and laterally decreases down to the permeability value of the undamaged cap rock. Appropriate scaling relationships (e.g., and analytical expression of for permeability as a function of fracture aperture and fracture density), effective physical parameters as well as constitutive relationships are carefully chosen to model the fractured system, treated as an equivalent porous medium. The cap rock is initially saturated with brine (salinity of 0.15 in mass fraction) and due to overpressure in the lower storage reservoir, CO2 migrates through the damage zone. Geochemical reactions involve both salt precipitation due to the partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases as well as well reactions

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

  18. [Root biomass and underground C and N storage of primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved climax forest in Changbai Mountains at its different succession stages].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyun; Luo, Tianxiang; Wu, Songtao

    2005-07-01

    With more than 200 years old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved climax forest and its two 20 and 80 years old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountains as test objects, this paper studied their root biomass and underground C and N storage. The results showed that with forest succession, the root biomass of 20 years old, 80 years old, and climax forests was 2.437, 2.742 and 4.114 kg x m(-2), respectively. The root C storage was 1.113, 1.323 and 2.023 kg x m(-2), soil C storage was 11.911, 11.943 and 12.587 kg x m(-2), and underground C storage was 13.024, 13.266 and 14.610 kg x m(-2), respectively, while the root N storage was 0.035, 0.032 and 0.038 kg x m(-2), soil N storage was 1.207, 1.222 and 0.915 kg x m(-2), and underground N storage was 1.243, 1.254 and 0.955 kg x m(-2), respectively, which indicated that along with forest succession, forest underground became a potential "carbon sink", whereas underground N storage did not change obviously. PMID:16252851

  19. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  20. Status report for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks at Hanford Site 200 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.B.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this status report is to summarize updated data and information from the FY 1994 strategy plan that is associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs). Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations. Sixty-three IMUSTs have been Identified and placed on the official IMUST list. All the tanks are associated with past Hanford Site operations. Of the 63 tanks., 19 are catch tanks, 20 are vault tanks, 3 are neutralization tanks, 8 are settling tanks, 2 are solvent makeup tanks used to store hexone, 2 are flush tanks, 3 are decontamination tanks, 1 is a diverter station, 1 is a receiver tank, 1 is an experimental tank, and 3 are waste handling tanks. It is important to proactively deal with the risks Imposed by these 63 tanks, and at the same time not jeopardize the existing commitments and schedules for mitigating and resolving identified safety issues related to the 177 SSTs and DSTS. Access controls and signs have been placed on all but the three official IMUSTs added most recently. An accelerated effort to identify authorization documents and perform unreviewed safety question (USQ) screening has been completed. According to a set of criteria consistent with the safety screening data quality objective (DQO) process, 6 IMUSTs are ranked high related to the hydrogen generation potential safety Issue, 1 is ranked high related to the ferrocyanide potential safety issue, 6 are ranked high related to the flammability potential safety issue, and 25 are ranked high related to the vapor emissions potential safety issue.

  1. Gasoline leaking from underground storage tanks: impact on drinking water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Page, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    Of the 1.4 million underground storage tanks (USTs) now in use for storing gasoline, it is estimated that 10-35% are leaking or fail to pass a tightness test. In order to assess the potential for pollution of drinking water due to gasoline leaking from USTs, it is necessary to understand the complex composition of gasoline, the movement of individual gasoline components through the soil matrix to the water table and their transport via groundwater movement to receptor wells. The primary factors that contribute to the environmental movement of gasoline components are water solubility, soil-sorption, biodegradation, and rainfall. Gasoline is a complex mixture of at least 150 hydrocarbons with about 60-70% paraffins and 25-30% aromatics. Of these, the aromatics are of greatest concern due to their water solubility and resistance to biodegradation. Benzene, toluene, and xylenes are of particular concern. Another chemical of concern is methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE), a hydrocarbon now being added in large quantities in many brands as an octane-enhancer. MTBE has been found in many wells as the first chemical arriving at receptor wells following a gasoline leak or spill. Models are available for predicting concentrations at receptor wells; however, site specific input, e.g., soil type, biodegradation, and rainfall, are necessary for the meaningful and reliable application of the models. Movement of chemicals through the environment is a slow process; often it may take several years for a chemical to move from a leaking tank to the nearest receptor well.

  2. Norg underground gas storage - an integrated 3-D geological and geophysical reservoir modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Smith, S. ); Huis, R.; Copper, J.; Whyte, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Netherlands have an extensive gas distribution infrastructure supplying 80 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] per annum to the domestic and European market. The capacity requirement exceeds 600 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, of which 430 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d is provided by the giant Groningen gas field. The Groningen field will soon reach a pressure at which this capacity can no longer be met without considerable investments. It will also become difficult to maintain the market gas quality, because of the increasing supply from small fields with widely varying gas qualities. Underground Gas Storage (UGS) will satisfy both capacity and gas-quality requirements. This UGS must eventually store 4.5 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] with injection/production capacities of 36/80-100 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, making it one of the largest UGS projects in the world. These extremely high-capacity requirements demand both high-matrix permeability and good understanding of vertical and lateral reservoir continuity. Matrix permeability is predictable due to the close relationship with the lithofacies defined within the primary Rotliegende depositional model. Minor faults, identified on three-dimensional (3-D) seismic attribute maps, represent potential transmissibility impairment zones, compartmentalizing the reservoir. This was initially suggested by core fracture studies and confirmed by a subsequent field shut-in and pressure buildup test. Lithofacies and seismic structural data are integrated within a computerized reservoir geological modeling system known as [open quotes]Monarch[close quotes] to provide a highly detailed 3-D permeability model that is then tranformed into a model for dynamic reservoir simulation. The results confirm the required working volume for the UGS operation and provide a basis for the initial field development planning.

  3. Numerical evaluation of the groundwater drainage system for underground storage caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eui Seob; Chae, Byung Gon

    2015-04-01

    A novel concept storing cryogenic liquefied natural gas in a hard rock lined cavern has been developed and tested for several years as an alternative. In this concept, groundwater in rock mass around cavern has to be fully drained until the early stage of construction and operation to avoid possible adverse effect of groundwater near cavern. And then rock mass should be re-saturated to form an ice ring, which is the zone around cavern including ice instead of water in several joints within the frozen rock mass. The drainage system is composed of the drainage tunnel excavated beneath the cavern and drain holes drilled on rock surface of the drainage tunnel. In order to de-saturate sufficiently rock mass around the cavern, the position and horizontal spacing of drain holes should be designed efficiently. In this paper, a series of numerical study results related to the drainage system of the full-scale cavern are presented. The rock type in the study area consists mainly of banded gneiss and mica schist. Gneiss is in slightly weathered state and contains a little joint and fractures. Schist contains several well-developed schistosities that mainly stand vertically, so that vertical joints are better developed than the horizontals in the area. Lugeon tests revealed that upper aquifer and bedrock are divided in the depth of 40-50m under the surface. Groundwater level was observed in twenty monitoring wells and interpolated in the whole area. Numerical study using Visual Modflow and Seep/W has been performed to evaluate the efficiency of drainage system for underground liquefied natural gas storage cavern in two hypothetically designed layouts and determine the design parameters. In Modflow analysis, groundwater flow change in an unconfined aquifer was simulated during excavation of cavern and operation of drainage system. In Seep/W analysis, amount of seepage and drainage was also estimated in a representative vertical section of each cavern. From the results

  4. Development of a tank test method for a national survey of underground storage tanks (revised draft). Final report, June 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, H.K.; Flora, J.D.; Haile, C.L.; Gabriel, M.J.; Maresca, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks have become a matter of national concern. Materials leaking from underground tanks can pose a risk of groundwater contamination and in the case of flammable materials, a risk of fire or explosion. The United States Congress, in recognition of this problem, mandated the Environmental Protection Agency to develop regulations for underground storage tanks containing motor fuels. As a part of the regulatory process, EPA was mandated to conduct a national survey of underground-fuels-storage tanks. The objectives of the project were to evaluate and select a suitable method for testing the tanks, quantify the performance of the recommended method, and develop a standard operating procedure for tank testing for the national survey. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary evaluation of existing tank-test methods by literature review and field observation.

  5. Fate and transport of petroleum released from leaking underground-storage tanks in areas of karst topography. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, E.

    1988-01-01

    This study determines the transport and ultimate fate of petroleum products within a region of karst geomorphology. The paper entails a complete literature review, including references that pertain to contaminant transport within karst aquifers and the remediation of hydrocarbon spills. Rapid dispersal of contaminants within cavernous karstic terrain demands prevention as the only solution, in addition to the recommended technological advances for optimal cleanup of leaking underground storage tanks. Because numerous and widespread service stations have hydrocarbon storage tanks, the contamination problem is considered a nonpoint source of pollution. Stricter standards must be imposed for regulating underground storage tanks that overly karst. Preventative measures to improve inventory control, leak detection, and upgraded tank specifications (rather than corrective actions) are necessary to protect the quality of drinking water provided by carbonate aquifers. Arkansas, louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas (the five states forming U.S. EPA Region VI) constitute the designated study area. With the exception of Louisiana, each state within the region has considerably large, karst aquifers.

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2000-07-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved.

  7. Implementation plan for Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 280 and 281; Final rules for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stupka, R.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the schedules and methods required to comply with the newly promulgated Underground Storage Tank (UST) Regulations Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 280 and 281. These rules were promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on September 23, 1988, and became effective December 22, 1988. These regulations are required by Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. Their purpose is to protect the groundwater supplies of the United States in the following ways: Closing old tanks; detecting and remediating tank leaks and spills; establishing stringent standards for new tanks; and upgrade of existing tanks to new-tank standards. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  9. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  10. Vitrification of underground storage tanks: Technology development, regulatory issues, and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tixier, J.S.; Corathers, L.A.; Anderson, L.D.

    1992-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV), developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), is a thermal treatment process for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste sites. The process has been broadly patented both domestically and abroad. Since the inception of ISV in 1980, developmental activities have been focused on applications to contaminated soils, and more recently the potential for application to buried wastes and underground structures (tanks). Research performed to date on the more advanced ISV applications (i.e., application to buried wastes and underground tanks) shows that significant technical and economic potential exists for using ISV to treat buried wastes and underground structures containing radionuclides and/or hazardous constituents. Present ISV applications are directed to the treatment of contaminated soils; the likelihood of using ISV to treat underground tanks depends on the resolution of significant technical and institutional issues related to this advanced application. This paper describes the ISV process and summarizes the technical progress of underground tank vitrification (UTV), discusses pertinent regulatory issues facing the use of UTV, and presents the potential cost of UTV relative to other remedial action alternatives.

  11. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC. PMID:24729829

  12. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, Lashanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2013-10-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC. PMID:24729829

  13. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report. Volume 1, Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study`s products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge.

  14. Improving the location of induced earthquakes associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, Beatriz; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Blanch, Estefania

    2016-05-01

    On September 2013, increased seismic activity was recorded near the CASTOR offshore underground gas storage (UGS), in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain). According to the reports by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), more than 550 events occurred during two months, the strongest having a magnitude of Mw = 4.2 which took place two weeks after the gas injection stopped. The low magnitude of the events (with only 17 earthquakes having mbLg greater than 3), the lack of nearby stations, and the inhomogeneous station distribution made the location problem a great challenge. Here we present improved locations for a subset of 161 well recorded events from the earthquake sequence using a probabilistic nonlinear earthquake location method. A new 3-D shear-wave velocity model is also estimated in this work from surface-wave ambient noise tomography. To further improve the locations, waveform cross-correlations are computed at each station for every event pair and new locations are obtained from an inverted set of adjusted travel time picks. The resulting hypocentral solutions show a tighter clustering with respect to the initial locations and they are distributed in a NW-SE direction. Most of the earthquakes are located near the injection well at depths of about 6 km. Our results indicate that the observed seismicity is closely associated with the injection activities at the CASTOR underground gas storage and may have resulted from the reactivation of pre-existing unmapped faults, located a few kilometers below the reservoir.

  15. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall...

  19. On thermal properties of hard rocks as a host environment of an underground thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, L.; Hladky, R.; Broz, M.; Novak, P.; Lachman, V.; Sosna, K.; Zaruba, J.; Metelkova, Z.; Najser, J.

    2013-12-01

    With increasing focus on environmentally friendly technologies waste heat recycling became an important issue. Under certain circumstances subsurface environment could be utilized to accommodate relatively large quantity of heat. Industrial waste heat produced during warm months can be stored in an underground thermal energy storage (UTES) and used when needed. It is however a complex task to set up a sustainable UTES for industrial scale. Number of parameters has to be studied and evaluated by means of thermohydromechanical and chemical coupling (THMC) before any UTES construction. Thermal characteristics of various rocks and its stability under thermal loading are amongst the most essential. In the Czech Republic study two complementary projects THMC processes during an UTES operation. The RESEN project (www.resen.cz) employs laboratory tests and experiments to characterise thermal properties of hard rocks in the Bohemian Massif. Aim of the project is to point out the most suitable rock environment in the Bohemian Massif for moderate to ultra-high temperature UTES construction (Sanyal, 2005). The VITA project (www.geology.cz/mokrsko) studies THM coupling in non-electrical temperature UTES using long term in-situ experiment. In both projects thermal properties of rocks were studied. Thermal conductivity and capacity were measured on rock samples. In addition an influence of increasing temperature and moisture content was considered. Ten hard rocks were investigated. The set included two sandstones, two ignibrites, a melaphyr, a syenite, two granites, a gneiss and a serpentinite. For each rock there were measured thermal conductivity and capacity of at least 54 dried samples. Subsequently, the samples were heated up to 380°C in 8 hours and left to cool down. Thermal characteristics were measured during the heating period and after the sample reached room temperature. Heating and cooling cycle was repeated 7 to 10 times to evaluate possible UTES-like degradation of

  20. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The development of the design approaches used to determine the plant and overall layout for a underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh is discussed. Key factors were the selection of the high head pump-turbine equipment and the geotechnical considerations relevant to the underground cavern designs. The comparison of pump-turbine alternatives is described leading to the selection for detailed study of both a single-step configurations, using multistage reversible pump-turbines, and a two-step configuration, with single-stage reversible pump-turbines.

  2. Request for closure, underground storage tank 2130-U: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the activities and analytical data related to the removal of underground storage tank (UST) 2130-U, previously located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Removal of this tank was conducted in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulation 1200-1-15 (1992). A completed copy of the State of Tennessee, Division of Underground Storage Tanks, Permanent Closure Report Form is included as Appendix A of this document Based on the information and data presented herein, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant requests permanent closure for the tank 2130-U site.

  3. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at building 310 underground storage tank area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil gas was assessed for contaminants in the building 310 underground storage tank area adjacent to the Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center at Ft. Gordon, Georgia, from October 2010 to September 2011. The assessment, which also included the detection of organic compounds in soil gas, provides environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. Soil-gas samplers were deployed below land surface at 37 locations in the building 310 underground storage tank area. Soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern near the storage tank area as well as downslope of the tank area in the direction of groundwater flow toward an unnamed tributary to Butler Creek. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 35 of the 37 soil-gas samplers at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes were detected above their detection levels in 8 of the 37 samplers. In addition, the combined masses of undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected at or above their method detection levels in 9 of the 37 samplers. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were chloroform, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethylene. In addition, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were detected below the method detection levels, but above the nondetection level.

  4. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  5. Longterm solar heat storage in an underground water cistern retrofitted with thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, W. L.

    1980-10-01

    The performance of the cistern was tested by measuring storage and surrounding soil temperatures over extended periods of time as heat was added from a solar collector (summer, fall, and winter) or environmental coolness was added (via cold air blown into the cistern) in winter. From these measurements, storage time-constants of the order of 6 months were inferred and verified.

  6. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James; Pawel, Steven J

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  7. Preliminary studies of tunnel interface response modeling using test data from underground storage facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bartel, Lewis Clark

    2010-11-01

    In attempting to detect and map out underground facilities, whether they be large-scale hardened deeply-buried targets (HDBT's) or small-scale tunnels for clandestine border or perimeter crossing, seismic imaging using reflections from the tunnel interface has been seen as one of the better ways to both detect and delineate tunnels from the surface. The large seismic impedance contrast at the tunnel/rock boundary should provide a strong, distinguishable seismic response, but in practice, such strong indicators are often lacking. One explanation for the lack of a good seismic reflection at such a strong contrast boundary is that the damage caused by the tunneling itself creates a zone of altered seismic properties that significantly changes the nature of this boundary. This report examines existing geomechanical data that define the extent of an excavation damage zone around underground tunnels, and the potential impact on rock properties such as P-wave and S-wave velocities. The data presented from this report are associated with sites used for the development of underground repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste; these sites have been excavated in volcanic tuff (Yucca Mountain) and granite (HRL in Sweden, URL in Canada). Using the data from Yucca Mountain, a numerical simulation effort was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the damage zone on seismic responses. Calculations were performed using the parallelized version of the time-domain finitedifference seismic wave propagation code developed in the Geophysics Department at Sandia National Laboratories. From these numerical simulations, the damage zone does not have a significant effect upon the tunnel response, either for a purely elastic case or an anelastic case. However, what was discovered is that the largest responses are not true reflections, but rather reradiated Stoneley waves generated as the air/earth interface of the tunnel. Because of this, data processed in the usual way may not

  8. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-02-08

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of the instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.

  9. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of the instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.

  10. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-02-08

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of themore » instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.« less

  11. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L.

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Undetected Groundwater Contamination at Underground Storage Tank Sites by the Gasoline Lead Scavengers Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falta, R. W.

    2004-05-01

    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) is a synthetic organic chemical that was produced in large amounts for use as a leaded gasoline additive and pesticide. The chlorinated solvent 1,2-dichlorethane (1,2-DCA) is widely used in the chemical industry, and was also added to leaded gasoline. EDB and 1,2-DCA are classified as probable human carcinogens by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and EDB's use as a pesticide was suspended in 1984. The current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for EDB in drinking water is 0.05 ug/l, and the MCL for 1,2-DCA is 5 ug/l. EDB has proven to be both mobile and persistent in groundwater, and contamination of groundwater by EDB was documented in several states beginning in the early 1980s. The majority of this contamination is attributed to agricultural uses of EDB, however approximately 90 percent of the EDB produced was used as a leaded gasoline additive, and it was present in virtually all leaded gasoline sold in the US. 1,2-DCA is commonly found as a groundwater contaminant, and it is both mobile and persistent. Past site investigations and remediation efforts at underground storage tank sites contaminated by leaded gasoline have rarely addressed the potential for EDB or 1,2-DCA contamination. However, the concentrations of EDB and 1,2-DCA in leaded gasoline were high enough to produce groundwater concentrations of thousands of ug/l. For this reason, there is a substantial likelihood that undetected EDB and 1,2-DCA plumes above the MCL may exist at many sites where leaded gasoline leaked or spilled. An initial review of field data from underground storage tank sites in two states suggests that this problem is widespread.

  13. Novel, low-vibration excavation techniques for underground radioactive waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kogelmann, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    In order to meet the construction specifications of the challenging Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, novel, low-vibration tunneling and shaft sinking techniques must be applied. Conventional roadheaders, even with reduced cutting speed, cannot be employed due to the high strength and widely varying physical properties of the rock formations. The Multi Tool Miner (MTM) concept utilizes both an impact hammer, for efficient hard rock mining, and a cutter head, tooled with drag-bits (picks), to profile tunnel walls down to the sound, undisturbed rock, in order to meet the 10,000-year stability requirement for underground structures. As the operational requirements and rock conditions at the Yucca Mountain site are not suitable for wide, transverse {open_quotes}ripper{close_quotes} cutting drums, a small diameter, in-line, {open_quotes}milling auger{close_quotes} cutter head was developed. The synergetic combination of high-production hammer excavation and precise milling will facilitate the construction of stable, long-life underground structures within the budget limitations mandated by Congress.

  14. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  15. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  16. UPDATE/ADDITIONS TO CURRENT OUST PUBLICATION: "HOW TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES: A GUIDE FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN REVIEWERS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance manual is comprised of several chapters, each of which describes in detail alternative cleanup technologies for underground storage tank sites. Each chapter provides diagrams and tables to aide in determining whether a particular technology may be applicable for cl...

  17. Volumetric leak detection system for underground storage tanks and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Mastandrea, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes an apparatus for detecting and measuring leaks from underground tanks having a fill pipe at an upper end thereof and having other pipes connected thereto, and containing a liquid that extends up into the fill pipe. It comprises: a test pipe, a test instrumentation assembly of elements contained in the test pipe, a multiconductor electronic cable assembly with cables connected to the elements of the test instrumentation assembly, a computer-controlled data acquisition unit connected to the cable assembly, a digital computer connected to an controlling the data acquisition unit and having timing means, a memory, and an output, an integral plotter and a printer connected to the output, hydrometer means for measuring the specific gravity of the tank liquid and for passing the measured value to the data acquisition unit, and inclinometer means for measuring the inclination angle of the tank fill pipe and for passing the value of that angle to the data acquisition unit.

  18. PEGASUS, a European research project on the effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-12-31

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and possible gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular in the 4th five year R and D program on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste (1990--1994), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called PEGASUS, Project on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities for radioactive waste, about 20 organizations and research institutes from 7 European countries are involved. The project covers both experimental and theoretical studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations as clay, salt and granite. In this paper an overview is given of the various studies undertaken in the project as well as some first results presented.

  19. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  2. Evaluating the effects of the number of caverns on the performance of underground oil storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional finite element calculations were performed to investigate the effect field size, in terms of the number of caverns, on the performance of SPR oil storage caverns leached in domal salt (interms of surface subsidence, storage losses, and cavern integrity). The calculations were performed for cavern fields containing 1, 7, 19, and an infinite number of caverns. The magnitude and volume of subsidence was significantly affected by increasing the number of caverns (nearly an order of magnitude increase was predicted for each increase in field size), while the extent of subsidence (approximately 2000 m fromthe center of the field) and storage loss were not. Furthermore, the percentage of storage loss volume manifested as surface subsidence increased as the cavern field was enlarged. This was attributed to elasticvolumetric dilatation of overlying strata. The multiple cavern calculations demonstrate that storage losses are greater for caverns farther from the center of the caverns field. Based on an accumulated strain stability criteria, the larger cavern fields are predicted to have a shorter life. This criteria also indicates that caverns on the periphery of a field may show signs of instability before the inner caverns. The West Hackberry site (containing 22 caverns) subsidence data closely agrees with the 19 cavern model subsidence predictions, providing confidence in the calculations. Even a 19 cavern field, substantially large by SPR standards, does not approach the behavior predicted by infinite cavern models (which are frequently used because they are economical). This demonstrates that 3D modeling is required to accurately investigate the performance of a multi-cavern array. Although based on a typical SPR cavern design, the results of this study describe mechanics common to all multi-cavern fields and should, in general, be useful tocavern engineers and architects.

  3. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  4. The low cost of geological assessment for underground CO2 storage: Policy and economic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Dooley, J; Held, H; Edenhofer, O

    2005-01-31

    The costs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS) in geologic formations is estimated to be $6-75/t CO{sub 2}. In the absence of a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or some other significant incentive for CCS deployment, this cost effectively limits CCS technology deployment to small niche markets and stymies the potential for further technological development through learning-by-doing until these disincentives for the free venting of CO{sub 2} are in place. By far, the largest current fraction of these costs is capture (including compression and dehydration), commonly estimated at $25-60/t CO{sub 2} for power plant applications followed by CO{sub 2} transport and storage, estimated at $0-15/t CO{sub 2}. Of the storage costs, only a small fraction of the cost will go to accurate geological characterization. These one-time costs are probably on the order of $0.1/t CO{sub 2} or less as these costs are spread out over the many millions of tons likely to be injected into a field over many decades. Geologic assessments include information central to capacity prediction, risk estimation for the target intervals, and development facilities engineering. Since assessment costs are roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than capture costs, and assessment products carry other tangible societal benefits such as improved accuracy in fossil fuel and ground water reserves estimates, government or joint private/public funding of major assessment initiatives should underpin early policy choices regarding CO{sub 2} storage deployment and should serve as a point of entry for policy makers and regulators. Early assessment is also likely to improve the knowledge base upon which the first commercial CCS deployments will rest.d

  5. The low cost of geological assessment for underground CO2 storage: Policy and economic implication

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S. J.; Dooley, James J.; Held, Herman; Ottmar, Edenhofer

    2006-08-31

    The costs for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) in geologic formations is estimated to be $6–75/t CO2. In the absence of a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or some other significant incentive for CCS deployment, this cost effectively limits CCS technology deployment to small niche markets and stymies the potential for further technological development through learning by doing until these disincentives for the free venting of CO2 are in place. By far, the largest current fraction of these costs is capture (including compression and dehydration), commonly estimated at $25–60/t CO2 for power plant applications, followed byCO2 transport and storage, estimated at $0–15/tCO2.Of the storage costs, only a small fraction of the cost will go to accurate geological characterization. These one time costs are probably on the order of $0.1/t CO2 or less as these costs are spread out over the many millions of tons likely to be injected into a field over many decades. Geologic assessments include information central to capacity prediction, risk estimation for the target intervals and development facilities engineering. Since assessment costs are roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than capture costs, and assessment products carry other tangible societal benefits, such as improved accuracy in fossil fuel and ground water reserves estimates, government or joint private–public funding of major assessment initiatives should underpin early policy choices regarding CO2 storage deployment and should serve as a point of entry for policy makers and regulators. Early assessment is also likely to improve the knowledge base upon which the first commercial CCS deployments will rest.

  6. Semi-analytical model of brine leakage through an abandoned plugged well to determine the Area of Review for CO2 geological storages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reveillere, A. R.; Rohmer, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Deep saline aquifers are currently considered for CO2 storage in different places of the world. Many of these aquifers are located in sedimentary basins that have experienced a past oil and gas prospection and / or production, which has left a quantity of wells with sometimes undetermined plugging history. Despite a careful site selection, a remaining risk of leakage outside the storage reservoir cannot be excluded, and potential leakage pathways have to be reviewed. Existing semi-analytical models can estimate the leakage flow rate of brine, possibly followed by CO2, from the storage aquifer to an overlying one (cf. publications by Nordbotten and co-authors, 2004-2009). These models use a time discretization, but do not use any spatial grid. They are consequently very computationally efficient but require considering homogeneous horizontal aquifer models with uniform properties. In addition, several authors have proposed a definition of the "Area of Review" of CO2 storage sites as the area where the pressure changes due to the injection can drive the reservoir brine up to a shallower aquifer. This approach relies on a static equilibrium of the denser brine replacing a lighter one, which implies supposing that the wellbore does not present any cement plug or any element that can slow down the leakage. In the present study, we combine these two approaches by developing a semi-analytical model able to consider the dynamic brine flow from the storage reservoir to an overlying aquifer through a vertical conduit. That leak is composed of an open wellbore and a porous column, whose characteristics are representative of degraded cements of an abandoned well. During the leakage, the saline brine coming from the storage reservoir progressively fills in the leak and replaces the original fluid, which was less saline and therefore less dense. The model computes the transient leakage rate, the progressive filling of the leak and several pressures variations. For a given

  7. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    . However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

  8. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite{trademark} that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE`s waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  9. Three-dimensional seasonal deformations induced by underground gas storage. Monitoring by PSI and modeling by FE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Lovison, A.; Janna, C.; Ferretti, A.

    2012-04-01

    Land subsidence and uplift due to the production/injection of fluids from/into the subsurface have been widely observed worldwide over the last decades and occur for a variety of purposes such as groundwater pumping, aquifer system recharge, gas/oil field development, enhanced oil recovery, geologic CO2 sequestration, underground gas storage and waste disposal. The need for a reliable prediction of these processes has led to a continuous improvement of the numerical tools employed in poromechanics. However, although sophisticated poro-visco-plastic 3D codes have been developed, the lack of accurate measurements of the ground surface displacements has rarely allowed an accurate calibration of the geomechanical models. Recently, advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry data, obtained by combining ascending and descending RADARSAT-1 images acquired from 2003 to 2008 above gas storage fields located in the sedimentary basin of the Po river plain, Italy, provide reliable measurement of seasonal vertical ups and downs as well as horizontal displacements to and from the injection/withdrawal wells. Combination of the land surface movements together with an accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geology made available by three-dimensional seismic surveys and long-time records of fluid pore pressure within the 1000-1500 m deep reservoirs has allowed for the development of an accurate 3D transversally isotropic poromechanical finite-element model which satisfactorily reproduces the seasonal deformation due to gas injection/removal. An accurate calibration of the finite element model to the interferometry data is performed by combining metamodeling techniques such as Kriging and global optimization strategies specifically designed for handling uncertain measurements. Furthermore, it is also possible to estimate the functional dependence of physically relevant quantities, e.g., the maximum vertical seasonal displacement, with respect to operational parameters (e

  10. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  11. Site status monitoring report and Site Ranking Form for underground storage tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Site status monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved May 23, 1994). This document presents the results of the fourth semiannual site status monitoring that was performed in April 1996. Site status monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. This document is organized into three sections with two Appendices. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells GW-193, GW-657, GW-707, GW-708, GW-808, GW-809, and GW-810. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site. Appendix A contains the original analytical laboratory results for environmental and quality control samples.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-05-05

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks (USTs), which is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  13. Issues associated with manipulator-based waste retrieval from Hanford underground storage tanks with a preliminary review of commercial concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-09-17

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is exploring commercial methods for retrieving waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in south central Washington state. WHC needs data on commercial retrieval systems equipment in order to make programmatic decisions for waste retrieval. Full system testing of retrieval processes is to be demonstrated in phases through September 1997 in support of programs aimed to Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) and at the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). One of the important parts of the integrated testing will be the deployment of retrieval tools using manipulator-based systems. WHC requires an assessment of a number of commercial deployment systems that have been identified by the ACTR program as good candidates to be included in an integrated testing effort. Included in this assessment should be an independent evaluation of manipulator tests performed to date, so that WHC can construct an integrated test based on these systems. The objectives of this document are to provide a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for a manipulator-based retrieval system; to evaluate manipulator-based concepts and testing performed to date by a number of commercial organizations; and to identify issues to be resolved through testing and/or analysis for each concept.

  14. A sequential checklist for the assessment of natural attenuation of dissolved petroleum contaminant plumes from leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    De Rose, N.

    1995-12-31

    Estimates of the number of leaking underground storage tanks (UST) are measured in the hundreds of thousands in the United States alone. The discussion in this article largely pertains to the lighter motor fuels which contain aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons. These include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). The occurrence of dissolved BTEX groundwater contaminant plumes is most commonly associated with leaking gasoline USTs. However, their association with other petroleum products is not uncommon. this article and checklist provide guidance for completing UST assessments, which can support the decision-making process presented in the ASTM Emergency Standard Guide. Following the checklist will measure that the initial site assessment results in an accurate and functional characterization of the details and subtleties of the UST Source Impact Zone. This includes evaluating the UST area to identify release pathways for residual contamination in soil and groundwater. Based on the results obtained from the Source Impact Zone Evaluation, natural attenuation can be assessed for its applicability and performance.

  15. Pretreatment process testing of Hanford tank waste for the US Department of Energy`s Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.O.; Colton, N.G.; Bloom, G.R.; Barney, G.S.; Colby, S.A.; Cowan, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    Work conducted for the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration supports technology demonstration for tank remediation operations at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Several technical areas within the demonstration are being investigated by the Waste Pretreatment Technology Development task to support final treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste. The experimental work includes waste characterizations; dissolution, leaching and extraction tests; bulk salt separations by freeze crystallization; and radiochemical separations with extraction chromatography resins. Chemical species and particle size data provide background information for interpreting waste leaching and dissolution data. Tie major crystalline phases in one single-shell tank (SST) waste are sodium nitrate and bismuth phosphate, while the major phases in another SST waste are boehmite, gibbsite, and sodium nitrate. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method of particle size analysis shows that many of the sub-micron particles in the two SST wastes appear to be aggregates of smaller, spheroidal particles. In turn, leaching, dissolution, and extraction studies, performed with tank wastes, provide fundamental information needed to evaluate existing pretreatment technologies. Preliminary results from the dissolution of one SST waste indicate that 2M nitric acid may effectively leach enough transuranic material that the sludge could be disposed of as low level waste.

  16. Pretreatment process testing of Hanford tank waste for the US Department of Energy's Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.O.; Colton, N.G. ); Bloom, G.R.; Barney, G.S.; Colby, S.A.; Cowan, R.G. )

    1992-04-01

    Work conducted for the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration supports technology demonstration for tank remediation operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Several technical areas within the demonstration are being investigated by the Waste Pretreatment Technology Development task to support final treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste. The experimental work includes waste characterizations; dissolution, leaching and extraction tests; bulk salt separations by freeze crystallization; and radiochemical separations with extraction chromatography resins. Chemical species and particle size data provide background information for interpreting waste leaching and dissolution data. Tie major crystalline phases in one single-shell tank (SST) waste are sodium nitrate and bismuth phosphate, while the major phases in another SST waste are boehmite, gibbsite, and sodium nitrate. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method of particle size analysis shows that many of the sub-micron particles in the two SST wastes appear to be aggregates of smaller, spheroidal particles. In turn, leaching, dissolution, and extraction studies, performed with tank wastes, provide fundamental information needed to evaluate existing pretreatment technologies. Preliminary results from the dissolution of one SST waste indicate that 2M nitric acid may effectively leach enough transuranic material that the sludge could be disposed of as low level waste.

  17. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1994-03-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ``Aging`` processes.

  18. LOCATION OF ABANDONED WELLS WITH GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abandoned wells are sometimes an important element in the contamination of fresh underground water supplies. If a well is not properly plugged and the casing is leaky, it may serve as a conduit for brines or other pollutants to reach a fresh water aquifer. This study was made to ...

  19. State-of-the-art procedures and equipment for internal inspection of underground storage tanks. Report for March 1989-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, S.E.; Mraz, P.J.; Miller, J.M.; Mazza, J.J.; Borst, M.

    1991-01-01

    Preventing leaks from underground storage tanks is of paramount importance in this decade as environmental resources are seriously threatened by the release of toxic substances and costs of reparation are exorbitant. Inspecting underground storage tanks is one action that helps prevent and correct potential tank failures that could result in such release. The study identifies and characterizes the types of internal practices (current, emerging, and outmoded) to conduct internal inspections of underground storage tanks. EPA sponsored this survey of state-of-the-art internal inspection methods as an initial compilation of this important information, for dissemination to the regulated community. The document addresses those methods pertaining to tanks; description of the inspections performed on ancillary equipment (pipes, vents, etc.) of UST systems is not within the scope of the report. The report is the result of an effort to examine the various tools and techniques used for conducting internal inspections. The study documents the significant factors evaluated during an inspection. It examines the application of each inspection method by identifying the objectives of the technique, its procedural steps, the necessary equipment and instrumentation, the considerations for use in the field.

  20. International Conference on Underground Pumped Hydro and Compressed Air Energy Storage, San Francisco, CA, September 20-22, 1982, Collection of Technical Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-08-01

    Topics discussed include an assessment of the market potential of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, turbocompressor considerations in CAES plants, subsurface geological considerations in siting an underground pumped hydro (UPH) project, and the preliminary assessment of waste heat recovery system for CAES plants. Also considered are CAES caverns design for leakage, simulation of the champagne effect in CAES plants, design of wells and piping for an aquifer CAES plant, various aspects of the Huntor CAES facility, low-pressure CAES, subsurface instrumentation plan for the Pittsfield CAES field test facility, and the feasibility of UPH storage in the Netherlands.

  1. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 to ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--543

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-01

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--543

  2. Long-period Seismicity at the Napoleonville Salt Dome: Implications for Local Seismic Monitoring of Underground Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Nayak, A.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of a large sinkhole at the Napoleonville salt dome, Assumption Parish, Louisiana, in August 2012 was accompanied by a rich sequence of complex seismic events, including long-period (LP) events that were recorded 11 km away at Transportable Array station 544A in White Castle, Louisiana. The LP events have relatively little energy at short periods, which make them difficult to detect using standard high-frequency power detectors, and the majority of energy that reaches the station is peaked near 0.4 Hz. The analysis of the local records reveals that the onset of the 0.4 Hz signals coincides with the S-wave arrival, and therefore it may be a shaking induced resonance in a fluid filled cavern. We created a low-frequency (0.1-0.6 Hz) power detector (short-term average / long-term average) that operated on all three components of the broadband instrument, since considerable energy was detected on the horizontal components. The detections from the power detector were then used as templates in three-channel correlation detectors thereby increasing the number of detections by a little more than a factor of two to nearly 3000. The rate of LP events is approximately one event every other day at the beginning of recording in March 2011. Around 2 May 2012 the rate changes to approximately 7 events per day and then increases to 25 events per day at the beginning of July 2012. Finally, in the days leading up to the sinkhole formation there are approximately 200 LP events per day. The analysis of these events could aid in the development of local seismic monitoring methods for underground industrial storage caverns. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Preliminary design study of Underground Pumped Hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH, Appendix D: Power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine power plant arrangements for a single stage reversible pump turbine two step underground pumped hydro (UPH) installation and for a multi-stage reversible pump turbine single step (MSRPT) UPH installation. Arrangements consist of: the underground powerhouses; transformer galleries; associated mechanical and electrical equipment; the administration and control building; hoist head frames; the access; draft tube and bus tunnels; and the switchyard. Primary considerations including the number and size of pump turbine and motor generator units, starting methods, transformers, high voltage connections, geotechnical and construction aspects and safety were studied. A feasibility analysis to minimize costs was conducted. The study led to the selection of suitable equipment and layouts for the powerhouses, transformer galleries, and associated facilities. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  4. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site.

  5. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  6. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste

  7. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 11: Plant design. UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The plant design for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and energy storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal heat of 5000 ft. is presented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single-stage reversible pump-turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. The surface facilities and upper reservoir, shafts and hoists, penstocks and hydraulic tunnels, powerhouses, and intermediate and lower reservoirs are described. Details of the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump-turbine and motor-generator units, are given. The development of the site is outlined together with the construction methods and schedule. The cost estimates and a cost-risk analysis are presented. Plant operation, including unit operation, two-step operation, plant efficiency, and availability, is outlined.

  9. Assessment of the applicability of chemical oxidation technologies for the treatment of contaminants at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.T.

    1993-01-20

    The total number of confirmed releases from underground storage tanks is increasing rapidly. In addition, the treatment of contaminants in soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents complex technical challenges. Most of the remedial technologies being used involve the separation of contaminants from soil or groundwater. The destruction or disposal of these separated contaminants is a tedious and expensive task. Furthermore, most of the in-situ remediation technologies are only effective for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and only certain semi-volatiles from the vadose zone. Recently, new treatment methodologies have been investigated. Processes involving chemical oxidation have the potential to treat all types of organic contaminants in both vadose and saturated zones either in-situ or following excavation or, under certain conditions, to detoxify the hazardous materials that may be present in the off-gases that result from the use of vapor extraction or thermal desorption technologies. The oxidative processes can entail complete mineralization, transformation of complex substances into simple compounds, or conversion of hazardous materials to more water-soluble compounds that are typically less toxic and amenable to biodegradation.

  10. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 2: Project design criteria: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    The design criteria for an underground pumped hydroelectric (JPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal head of 5000 ft are documented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single stage reversible pump turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. Overall design criteria including operating requirements, civil/structural criteria, geotechnical criteria, mechanical criteria and electrical criteria are detailed. Specific requirements are given for the upper reservoir, intake/outlet structure, penstock and draft tubes, powerhouses, transformer galleries, intermediate reservoir, lower reservoir, shafts and hoists, switchyard and surface buildings. The requirements for the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump turbine and motor generator units, are referred to. Electrical design criteria are given to meet the requirements of two power houses located underground at different depths, but these criteria may not necessarily reflect PEPCO's current engineering practice. The criteria refer to a specific site and take into account the site investigation results. The design criteria given were used as the basis for the plant design.

  11. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  12. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  13. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  14. Life cycle assessment of conversion processes for the large-scale underground storage of electricity from renewables in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias Pérez, Alfonso; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    This study estimates the total storage capacity for renewable energies in European salt caverns up to the year 2030 in order to deal with the fluctuation of renewable energies. The round-trip efficiencies and the CO2 equivalent direct emissions of the different storage process stages are taken into account. These are transmission, electricity to gas conversion, storage and re-electrification from gas to electricity, of three different energy carriers, namely compressed air, hydrogen and renewable methane.

  15. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  16. Preliminary design studies of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 10: Environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Results of preliminary environmental assessments for a proposed UPH or CAES demonstration facility are presented. Included are characterizations of the existing environment of the sunshine site in Montgomery County, Maryland, and assessments of environmental impacts and public safety concerns. Elements of the existing environment which are considered sensitive are described. Environmental impacts are identified, rated, and described for both alternative demonstration facilities. Public safety concerns for both alternative demonstration facilities are also identified and discussed. These include, for both UPH and CAES, underground cavern collapse and surface subsidence, explosives, site security, icing, upper reservoir failure, and mechanical failure of plant equipment. In addition, fuel handling and the champagne effect are addressed for CAES.

  17. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  18. 7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  19. 8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  20. Evaluation of the Coupling of a Full-Dimensional Multiphase Model with a Vertical Equilibrium Model for the Simulation of Underground Gas Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, B.; Helmig, R.; Flemisch, B.; Guo, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling underground gas storage requires simulations on a large domain over the whole time of plant operation and beyond, including local features such as fault zones and a representation of the transient saline front. The boundary conditions and resulting pressure reversal are affected by external fluctuations in energy demand and supply (e.g. power to gas) over a wide range of time scales. In addition, often a large number of simulation runs need to be conducted to quantify parameter uncertainty (e.g. Monte Carlo simulation). Within acceptable computational time this cannot be achieved by full three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent models due to limited computational resources. In contrast to that, less computational resources are required by numerous simplified mathematical models. One class of these models is based on the assumption of vertical equilibrium. However, this assumption may be invalid in the area around the well during injection and extraction of gas and at the tip of the plume and in general only holds after a certain timescale in the rest of the domain. In addition, simplified models do not provide the accuracy desired for some parts of interest in the domain, like fault zones, the displacement front or geological heterogeneity especially around the injection zone. The individual benefits of simplified models such as a vertically integrated model and more complex and thus more accurate models such as a full-dimensional multiphase model are combined by coupling both model types in one domain. The boundary between the models is adapted during the simulation to capture transient processes. Stability, applicability and efficiency of the coupled model for different injection scenarios and domain features will be analyzed and discussed. Physically/mathematically motivated coupling criteria to govern the movement of the boundaries between the models will be presented and compared. It will be shown how the coupled model maintains a high degree of

  1. An Analytical Solution for Mechanical Responses Induced by Temperature and Air Pressure in a Lined Rock Cavern for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Du, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Ping-Yang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical responses induced by temperature and air pressure significantly affect the stability and durability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a lined rock cavern. An analytical solution for evaluating such responses is, thus, proposed in this paper. The lined cavern of interest consists of three layers, namely, a sealing layer, a concrete lining and the host rock. Governing equations for cavern temperature and air pressure, which involve heat transfer between the air and surrounding layers, are established first. Then, Laplace transform and superposition principle are applied to obtain the temperature around the lined cavern and the air pressure during the operational period. Afterwards, a thermo-elastic axisymmetrical model is used to analytically determine the stress and displacement variations induced by temperature and air pressure. The developments of temperature, displacement and stress during a typical operational cycle are discussed on the basis of the proposed approach. The approach is subsequently verified with a coupled compressed air and thermo-mechanical numerical simulation and by a previous study on temperature. Finally, the influence of temperature on total stress and displacement and the impact of the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. This paper shows that the temperature sharply fluctuates only on the sealing layer and the concrete lining. The resulting tensile hoop stresses on the sealing layer and concrete lining are considerably large in comparison with the initial air pressure. Moreover, temperature has a non-negligible effect on the lined cavern for underground compressed air storage. Meanwhile, temperature has a greater effect on hoop and longitudinal stress than on radial stress and displacement. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient affects the cavern stress to a higher degree than the displacement.

  2. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  3. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2014-01-01

    By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for

  4. Collaborations in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    2011-04-01

    There are programs between underground physics labs into other studies. The Gran Sasso with large halls and dedicated tunnels in Italy and the Canfranc with newly completed space in Spain have geodynamic experiments (A. Bettini communication, 2011). The Low Noise Underground Lab (LSBB of Rustrel-pays d'Apt) converted a former French missiles launching command center to house a SQUID shielded electromagnetically above 10 Hz for global ionosphere and earthquake observations (G. Waysand et al. 2010). The China JingPing Lab has new physics room and tunnels excavated under 2.5 km overburden with rock mechanic changes evaluated (X. Feng, 2011). These are examples associated with tunnels through mountain ranges. In North America, we have Canada's SNO in an active mine with new space and the U.S. effort for reentry into the abandoned Homestake mine levels for physics and bio-geo-engineering studies. We also have underground research labs dedicated to nuclear waste research in Sweden, Switzerland, France, Germany, and candidate sites in Japan and China. All these underground labs are engaging in international collaborations to develop inter-disciplinary studies. The linkage/networking with International Physics is pursued.

  5. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  6. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  8. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  12. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  16. Assessment of Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of a Granite Rock Mass for a Pilot Underground Crude Oil Storage Facility in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhechao; Li, Shucai; Qiao, Liping

    2015-11-01

    The hydro-mechanical behavior of a pilot underground crude oil storage facility in a granite host rock in China was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Characterization of hydro-mechanical behavior of the rock mass was performed using laboratory test, field monitoring, back analysis of field measurements and permeability tests. FEM numerical analyses were used to assess the hydro-mechanical behavior of the granite to study several design and construction issues. The containment properties of the storage facility were investigated without and with the water curtain system. Results showed that the stored oil would leak into rock mass if a water curtain system is not provided, whereas the containment property of the facility will be maintained when a water curtain system is in place. On the influence of cavern excavation sequence, it was indicated that the excavation of the caverns from left to right is a better choice than right to left for the containment property of the facility. On the influence of permeable condition, it was found that the extent of plastic zones, horizontal convergence and crown settlement under permeable condition are lower than those under impermeable condition due to the different stress paths in the rock mass experienced during excavation.

  17. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  18. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  19. Numerical study on criteria for design and operation of water curtain system in underground oil storage cavern using site descriptive fracture networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jiwon; Yeo, In Wook

    2013-04-01

    Underground unlined caverns have been constructed in fractured rocks to stockpile oil and petroleum products, where they are hydraulically contained by natural groundwater pressure. However, for the case that natural groundwater pressure is not maintained at the required level, water curtain boreholes, through which water is injected, are often constructed above the cavern as engineering barrier to secure water pressure enough to overwhelm the operational pressure of the cavern. For secure containment of oil and petroleum products inside the cavern, it is essential to keep water pressure around the cavern higher than operational pressure of the cavern using either natural groundwater pressure or engineering barrier. In the Republic of Korea, a number of underground stockpile bases are being operated by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and private companies, most of which have water curtain system. The criterion that KNOC adopts for water curtain system design and operation such as the vertical distance from the cavern and operational injection rate is based on the Åberg hypothesis that the vertical hydraulic gradient should be larger than one. The criterion has been used for maintaining oil storage cavern without its thorough review. In this study, systematic numerical works have been done for reviewing the Åberg criterion. As groundwater predominantly takes places through fractures in underground caverns, discrete fracture modeling approach is essential for this study. Fracture data, obtained from boreholes drilled at the stage of site investigation at the Yeosu stockpile base in Korea, were statistically analyzed in terms of orientation and intensity, which were used to generate the site descriptive three dimensional fracture networks. Then, groundwater flow modeling has been carried out for the fracture networks. Constant head boundaries were applied along the circumference of the cavern and water curtain boreholes. Main flow channel and hydraulic

  20. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  1. Functional Response of a Near-Surface Soil Microbial Community to a Simulated Underground CO2 Storage Leak

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Sergio E.; Holben, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of leaks from geologic carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, is key to developing effective strategies for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions management and mitigation of potential negative effects. Here, we provide the first report on the potential effects of leaks from carbon capture and storage sites on microbial functional groups in surface and near-surface soils. Using a simulated subsurface CO2 storage leak scenario, we demonstrate how CO2 flow upward through the soil column altered both the abundance (DNA) and activity (mRNA) of microbial functional groups mediating carbon and nitrogen transformations. These microbial responses were found to be seasonally dependent and correlated to shifts in atmospheric conditions. While both DNA and mRNA levels were affected by elevated CO2, they did not react equally, suggesting two separate mechanisms for soil microbial community response to high CO2 levels. The results did not always agree with previous studies on elevated atmospheric (rather than subsurface) CO2 using FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) systems, suggesting that microbial community response to CO2 seepage from the subsurface might differ from its response to atmospheric CO2 increases. PMID:24303067

  2. Functional response of a near-surface soil microbial community to a simulated underground CO2 storage leak.

    PubMed

    Morales, Sergio E; Holben, William E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of leaks from geologic carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, is key to developing effective strategies for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions management and mitigation of potential negative effects. Here, we provide the first report on the potential effects of leaks from carbon capture and storage sites on microbial functional groups in surface and near-surface soils. Using a simulated subsurface CO2 storage leak scenario, we demonstrate how CO2 flow upward through the soil column altered both the abundance (DNA) and activity (mRNA) of microbial functional groups mediating carbon and nitrogen transformations. These microbial responses were found to be seasonally dependent and correlated to shifts in atmospheric conditions. While both DNA and mRNA levels were affected by elevated CO2, they did not react equally, suggesting two separate mechanisms for soil microbial community response to high CO2 levels. The results did not always agree with previous studies on elevated atmospheric (rather than subsurface) CO2 using FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) systems, suggesting that microbial community response to CO2 seepage from the subsurface might differ from its response to atmospheric CO2 increases. PMID:24303067

  3. Characterization of Solids in Residual Wastes from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Heald, Steve M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2007-10-01

    Solid phase physical and chemical characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes from several single-shell underground waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Because these wastes are highly-radioactive dispersible powders and are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or co-precipitated within oxide phases, their detailed characterization offers an extraordinary technical challenge. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) are the two principal methods used to characterize solid phases and their contaminant associations in these wastes. Depending on the specific tank, numerous solids (such as čejkaite; Na2U2O7; clarkeite; gibbsite; boehmite; dawsonite; cancrinite; Fe oxides such as hematite, goethite, and maghemite; rhodochrosite; lindbergite; whewellite; nitratine; and several amorphous phases) have been identified in residual wastes studied to date. Because many contaminants of concern are heavy elements, SEM analysis using the backscattered electron (BSE) signal has proved invaluable in distinguishing phases containing elements, such as U and Hg, within the complex assemblage of particles that make up each waste. XRD, SEM/EDS, and synchrotron-based methods provide different, but complimentary characterization data about the morphologies, crystallinity, particle sizes, surface coatings, and compositions of phases in the wastes. The impact of these techniques is magnified when each is used in an iterative fashion to help interpret the results from the other analysis methods and identify additional, more focused analyses.

  4. Bioremediation of diesel contamination at an underground storage tank site: a spatial analysis of the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Albertarelli, Nicola; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Khoei, Nazaninalsadat Seyed; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on a real case of contamination due to the chronic leakage of diesel fuel from an underground tank at a dismissed service station. Speciation of the microbial community according to both lateral and vertical gradients from the origin of the contaminant release was analyzed by means of the PCR-DGGE technique. Moreover, the effects of a landfarming treatment on both the microbial community structure and the abatement of contamination were analyzed. The concentration of total petrol hydrocarbons (TPHs) decreased along the horizontal gradient (from 7042.2 ± 521.9 to 112.2 ± 24.3 mg kg(-1)), while increased downwards from the position of the tank (from 502.6 ± 43.7 to 4972.5 ± 275.3 mg kg(-1)). PCR-DGGE analyses and further statistical treatment of the data indicated a correlation between structure of the bacterial communities and amount of diesel fuel contamination. On the other hand, level of contamination, soil texture and depth were shown to affect the fungal community. Chloroflexi and Ascomycota were the most abundant microbes ascertained through culture-independent procedures. Landfarming promoted 91.6 % reduction of TPHs in 75 days. Furthermore, PCR-DGGE analyses evidenced that both bacterial and fungal communities of the treated soil were restored to the pristine conditions of uncontaminated topsoil. The present study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal communities were affected differently by soil factors such as level of hydrocarbon contamination as well as soil depth and texture. This report shows that a well-planned landfarming treatment can drive the restoration of the soil in terms of both abatement of the contaminants and resilience of the microbial community structure. PMID:26712621

  5. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  6. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 233}U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  7. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, and [sup 233]U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  8. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 25-3101-1, 25-3102-3, and 25-3152-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 25 at Buildings 3101, 3102, and 3152. The characterization was completed to support administrative closure of the sites. Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of hydrocarbon impact. Clean closure had been previously attempted at each of these sites using backhoe equipment without success due to adjacent structures, buried utilities, or depth restrictions associated with each site. Although the depth and extent of hydrocarbon impact was determined to be too extensive for clean closure, it was verified through drilling that the sites should be closed through an administrative closure. The Nevada Administrative Code ``A Through K`` evaluation completed for each site supports that there is no significant risk to human health or the environment from the impacted soils remaining at each site.

  9. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  10. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  11. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  12. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  13. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT HANFORD SITE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.; HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2003-08-28

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generate ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as diluents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semivolatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Issue Resolution. Appendices A through L provide supporting information. This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event.

  14. Synthesis of research and development in mechanical energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadi, G. M.

    1980-05-01

    Techniques for underground energy storage are described. These techniques include underground pumped hydro storage, second generation compressed air energy storage, and seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage. An economic assessment for each of the techniques is presented.

  15. Assessment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination in the surficial sediments and ground water at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water and sediment contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons resulting from leaks and overfills was detected during tank removal activities at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, near Columbia, South Carolina. Investigations were initiated to assess the effect of contamination to the surficial aquifer at Sites 1062, 2438, and 2444. These investigations involved the installation of permanent monitoring wells and the collection and analysis of sediment and ground-water samples at the three sites. Water-level data were collected at all sites to determine hydraulic gradients and the direction of ground-water flow. In addition, aquifer tests were made at Site 1062 to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the surficial aquifer at that site. Sediment borings were made at the three sites to collect subsurface-sediment samples for lithologic description and laboratory analyses, and for the installation of ground-water monitoring wells. Laboratory analyses of sediment samples collected from boreholes at Site 1062 indicated elevated concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons at three locations. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Diesel Range Organics were detected at one borehole at a concentration of 388,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations in sediment from the site ranged from less than 350 to over 100,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total lead was detected at concentrations ranging from 2,900 to 5,900 micrograms per kilogram. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected at Site 2438 in one borehole at a trace concentration of 112 micrograms per kilogram of para- and meta-xylenes. No concentrations exceeding the detection limits were reported for petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples collected from Site 2444; however, total lead was detected in sediment samples from two boreholes, each at concentrations of 600 micrograms per kilogram. Ground-water samples were collected from each site for

  16. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-04-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  17. Constraints on temporal velocity variations associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia using earthquake and seismic ambient noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Arantza; Gaite, Beatriz; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During September 2013, the injection of the base gas in a depleted oil reservoir used as an underground natural gas storage (CASTOR) caused a sudden seismic activity increase in the eastern coast of Spain. As a result, a compact cluster of more than 550 earthquakes with magnitudes mbLg > 0.7 were located in the shallow offshore area of the Gulf of Valencia during two months. The strongest event, having a magnitude of Mw=4.2, was followed by two Mw=4.1 events the day after and took place once the gas injection activities had finished. Using the seismic data recorded by permanent stations at more than 25 km from the injection well, we applied coda wave interferometry to monitor changes in seismic velocity structure between similar earthquakes. Then we solved for a continuous function of velocity changes with time by combining observations from all the closely located earthquake sources. The rate of repeating events allowed measurements of relative velocity variations for about 30 days on a daily scale. To extend the analysis in time, we also processed the continuous data using the autocorrelation of band-pass filtered ambient seismic noise. A 10-day average was required to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the 0.2-0.5 Hz and 0.5-1 Hz frequency bands. We quantified the time lags between two traces in the frequency and time domains by means of the Moving Window Cross Spectral Analysis and a Dynamic Time Warping technique, respectively. Injection of fluids in geologic formations causes variations in seismic velocities associated to changes in fluid saturation, increase in pore pressure or opening or enlargement of cracks due to the injection process. Time delays associated with stress changes caused by moderate to large earthquakes have also been established. In this work, we found no velocity changes during the gas injection period nor on the occasion of the Mw 4.2 earthquake. The sensitivity of the method is dependent on the seismic network geometry and

  18. Overview of geologic storage of natural gas with an emphasis on assessing the feasibility of storing hydrogen.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Anna Snider

    2009-09-01

    In many regions across the nation geologic formations are currently being used to store natural gas underground. Storage options are dictated by the regional geology and the operational need. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in understanding theses various geologic storage options, the advantages and disadvantages, in the hopes of developing an underground facility for the storage of hydrogen as a low cost storage option, as part of the hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Currently, depleted gas/oil reservoirs, aquifers, and salt caverns are the three main types of underground natural gas storage in use today. The other storage options available currently and in the near future, such as abandoned coal mines, lined hard rock caverns, and refrigerated mined caverns, will become more popular as the demand for natural gas storage grows, especially in regions were depleted reservoirs, aquifers, and salt deposits are not available. The storage of hydrogen within the same type of facilities, currently used for natural gas, may add new operational challenges to the existing cavern storage industry, such as the loss of hydrogen through chemical reactions and the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement. Currently there are only three locations worldwide, two of which are in the United States, which store hydrogen. All three sites store hydrogen within salt caverns.

  19. Underground tank leak detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Niaki, Shahzad; Broscious, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in leaks from underground gasoline storage tanks has had a significant adverse environmental impact on the US. Current estimates from government and industry sources are that between 1.5 to 3.5 million underground storage tanks exist in the nation. Estimates of the number of leaking tanks range from 75,000 to 100,000; and 350,000 others may develop leaks within the next five years. The 1983 National Petroleum News Factbook Issue forecasts the existence of approximately 140,000 gasoline service stations in the US at the end of 1983. New York State estimates that 19% of its 83,000 active underground gasoline tanks are now leaking. Maine estimates that 25% of its 1,600 retail gasoline underground tanks are leaking approximately 11 million gallons yearly. In Michigan 39% of ground water contamination incidents are attributed to storage tanks. One of the primary causes of tank leakage is corrosion of the storage tanks. Product loss from leaking tanks may cause an adverse effect on the environment, endanger lives, reduce income, and require the expenditure of millions of dollars for cleanup. To prevent or reduce the adverse effects of gasoline leakage, an accurate method must be used to determine whether or not an underground tank is leaking.

  20. Reconnaissance investigations of potential ground-water and sediment contamination at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.F.; Nagle, Douglas D.; Rhodes, Liesl C.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations to provide initial qualitative delineation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, were made during March 1994. Ground-water and sediment samples were collected using direct-push technology and analyzed on-site with a gas chromatograph, which provided real-time, semi-quantitative data. In addition, ground-water and sediment samples were collected at selected sites for laboratory analyses to provide a confirmation of the on-site data. These analyses provided qualitative data on the lateral distri- bution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in ground-water samples from nine locations at Site 1062, suggesting the presence of a contaminant plume. Concentrations ranged from less than the minimum detection limit to 4,511 mg/L (micrograms per liter) for benzene, 15,594 mg/L for toluene, 16,501 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 19,391 mg/L for total xylenes. Concentrations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics ranged from 323 mg/L to 3,364 mg/L; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics were not detected. Three samples from this site were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes at a laboratory and results showed concentrations ranging from less than the minimum detection limit to 1,070 mg/L for benzene, 7,930 mg/L for toluene, 6,890 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 1,524 mg/L for total xylenes. Petroleum hydro- carbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one sample at Site 2438. A concentration of 131,000 micrograms per kilogram Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics was detected in sample number GP-2-4-13.5. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one ground-water sample from Site 2444. A concentration of 3,145 mg/L Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics was detected at sampling location GP-3-2.

  1. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 25-25-09, Spill H940825C (from UST 25-3101-1) • 25-25-14, Spill H940314E (from UST 25-3102-3) • 25-25-15, Spill H941020E (from UST 25-3152-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs

  2. Addendum 2 to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 12-25-08, Spill H950524F (from UST 12-B-1) • 12-25-10, Spill H950919A (from UST 12-COMM-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining these URs will be

  3. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  4. Site-specific standard request for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility Buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks located at the Rust Garage Facility. These standards are justified based on conclusion derived from the exposure assessment that indicates there is no current or forseeable future human health risk associated with petroleum contaminants on the site, that current and future ecological risks would be generally limited to subsurface species and plant life with roots extending into the area, and that most of the impacted area at the site is covered by asphalt or concrete. The vertical and horizontal extent of soil and ground water contamination are limited to immediate area of the Rust Garage Facility.

  5. 75 FR 48325 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ...: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Docket Center, Underground Storage Tanks Docket, Mail Code... Agency, EPA Docket Center, Underground Storage Tanks Docket, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington...://www.epa.gov/dockets . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Hal White, Office of Underground Storage...

  6. State-of-the-art techniques for backfilling abandoned mine voids. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Abandoned underground mine openings are susceptible to collapse because of the mining methods used, the character of the overburden, and the typically large wide entries with minimal roof support. The final effect of the collapse of the underground workings is surface subsidence. To reduce the probability of subsidence, methods to backfill the mine void with various types of materials have been developed. The paper describes the available technologies for subsidence abatement and discusses their operation and application.

  7. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  8. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  9. Potential underground risks associated with CAES.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Broome, Scott Thomas; Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-10-01

    CAES in geologic media has been proposed to help 'firm' renewable energy sources (wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy was available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive renewable energy time periods. Such a storage media may experience hourly (perhaps small) pressure swings. Salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES, but not in a mode where renewable energy sources are supported. Reservoirs, both depleted natural gas and aquifers represent other potential underground storage vessels for CAES, however, neither has yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for CAES.

  10. Effects of underground mining and mine collapse on the hydrology of selected basins in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobba, William A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of underground mining and mine collapse on areal hydrology were determined at one site where the mined bed of coal lies above major streams and at two sites where the bed of coal lies below major streams. Subsidence cracks observed at land surface generally run parallel to predominant joint sets in the rocks. The mining and subsidence cracks increase hydraulic conductivity and interconnection of water-bearing rock units, which in turn cause increased infiltration of precipitation and surface water, decreased evapotranspiration, and higher base flows in some small streams. Water levels in observation wells in mined areas fluctuate as much as 100 ft annually. Both gaining and losing streams are found in mined areas. Mine pumpage and drainage can cause diversion of water underground from one basin to another. Areal and single-well aquifer tests indicated that near-surface rocks have higher transmissivity in a mine-subsided basin than in unmined basins. Increased infiltration and circulation through shallow subsurface rocks increase dissolved mineral loads in streams, as do treated and untreated contributions from mine pumpage and drainage. Abandoned and flooded underground mines make good reservoirs because of their increased transmissivity and storage. Subsidence cracks were not detectable by thermal imagery, but springs and seeps were detectable.

  11. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China --- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenqi Hu; Hehe Gu

    1995-09-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. Since the Chinese government enacted a reclamation stipulation in 1989, many abandoned mining subsidence lands were produced before 1989. Therefore, reclamation of abandoned subsidence lands has become the focus of research activities in our country. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands --- some parts of the abandoned lands were wetland or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation.

  12. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells §...

  13. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  14. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF... SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall be abandoned on the sites. Property abandoned in violation of the regulations in this part may be...

  15. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  16. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  17. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  18. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  19. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  20. Comprehensive monitoring report for underground storage tanks 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U, and 2075-U at the East End Fuel Station, Buildings 9754 and 9754-2, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide hydrogeologic, geochemical, and vapor monitoring data required for comprehensive monitoring of underground storage tanks (UST) 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U, and 2075-U at the East End Fuel Station. Comprehensive monitoring was conducted at the site in May 1996 at the direction of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and notice of deficiencies in the Site-specific Standard Request. This document is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including regulatory initiative and a description of the site. Section 2 includes the results of water level measurement and sampling of monitoring wells at the site. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site. Appendix A contains the original analytical laboratory results for environmental and quality control samples collected during comprehensive monitoring.

  1. Experimental investigations and geochemical modelling of site-specific fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions in underground storage of CO2/H2/CH4 mixtures: the H2STORE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Marco; Pilz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting the energy demand and environmental targets of many industrialized countries. Besides the long-term CO2 sequestration, energy can be chemically stored in form of CO2/CH4/H2 mixtures, for example resulting from excess wind energy. A precise estimation of the impact of such gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting environmental targets and the energy demand through storage in form of H2 or CH4, i.e. resulting from excess wind energy. Gas storage in salt caverns is nowadays a mature technology; in regions where favorable geologic structures such as salt diapires are not available, however, gas storage can only be implemented in porous media such as depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers. In such settings, a significant amount of in-situ gas components such as CO2, CH4 (and N2) will always be present, making the CO2/CH4/H2 system of particular interest. A precise estimation of the impact of their gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is therefore crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. In the framework of the collaborative research project H2STORE, the feasibility of industrial-scale gas storage in porous media in several potential siliciclastic depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers is being investigated by means of experiments and modelling on actual core materials from the evaluated sites. Among them are the Altmark depleted gas reservoir in Saxony-Anhalt and the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Brandenburg (Germany). Further sites are located in the Molasse basin in South Germany and Austria. In particular, two

  2. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  3. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... have liquid tight welded seams; (4) Not leak; and (5) For stationary tanks in permanent underground... for stationary tanks in permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities and self-closing caps...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... have liquid tight welded seams; (4) Not leak; and (5) For stationary tanks in permanent underground... for stationary tanks in permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities and self-closing caps...

  6. Commentary on Baddeley and Larsen (2007). The phonological store abandoned.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dylan M; Hughes, Robert W; Macken, William J

    2007-04-01

    Baddeley and Larsen (2007) argue that a number of key findings reported by Jones, Macken, and Nicholls (2004) and Jones, Hughes, and Macken (2006) pointing to shortcomings of the phonological store construct arise from the store being abandoned with long lists. In our rejoinder we point out that Baddeley and Larsen use a procedure in which retrieval from the supposed phonological storage would not--according to their own theory--have been possible, and we present theoretical, empirical, and logical problems with their "store abandonment" argument and highlight a number of difficulties associated with the interpretation of suffix and prefix effects. We conclude that our data are still problematic for the phonological store construct and suggest that a reformulation of short-term memory theory needs to embody (or indeed focus exclusively upon) perceptual and effector systems rather than bespoke storage modules. PMID:17455060

  7. Strategic use of the underground for an energy mix plan, synergies among CO2 and CH4 Geological Storage and Geothermal Energy: Italian Energy review and Latium case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procesi, M.; Cantucci, B.; Buttinelli, M.; Armezzani, G.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2012-04-01

    Since the world-wide energy demand has been growing so much in the last years, it is necessary to develop a strategic mix-energy plan to supply low GHG (GreenHouseGas) emissions energy and solve the problem of CO2 emission increasing. A recent study published by European Commission shows that, if existing trends continue, by 2050 CO2 emissions will be unsustainably high: 900-1000 parts per million by volume. The European Commission in 2007 underline the necessity to elaborate, at European level, a Strategic Energy Technology Plan focused on non-carbon or reduced-carbon sources of energy, as renewable energies, CO2 capture and storage technologies, smart energy networks and energy efficiency and savings. Future scenarios for 2030 elaborated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) shows as a mix energy plan could reduce the global CO2 emissions from 27Gt to 23 Gt (about 15%). A strategic use of the underground in terms of: - development of CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) associated to fossil fuel combustion; - increase of CH4 geological storage sites; - use of renewable energies as geothermic for power generation; could open a new energy scenario, according to the climate models published by IPCC. Nowadays CCS market is mainly developed in USA and Canada, but still not much accounted in Europe. In Italy there aren't active CCS projects, even if potential areas have been already identified. Many CH4 storage sites are located in Northern America, while other are present in Europe and Italy, but the number of sites is limited despite the huge underground potentiality. In Italy the power generation from geothermal energy comes exclusively from Tuscany (Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal fields) despite the huge potentiality of other regions as Latium, Campania and Sicily (Central and South Italy). The energy deficit and the relevant CO2 emissions represent a common status for many Italian regions, especially for the Latium Region. This suggests that a

  8. Case histories in scientific and pseudo-scientific mass-media communication in energy/heat production from underground (geogas storage, geothermics, hydrocarbons), in the frame of Nimby Sindrome enhancement in Europe: the proposal of a new European Direct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of energy/heat production from underground, the paper considers some European case histories and the needs of a complex and motley stakeholders community, made by scientific-industry-institutions, involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, as Italy, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour. Successively, the paper recalls years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media, highlighting the positive and negative messages, in comparison to the true and objective experimental data gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoop. The authors retrace case histories of heuristic-participatory communication with the citizenship about the scientific results on challenges raised by certain technologies. The objective and rational communication is often impeded by local interests and by local journalism, which prefers to create sensationalist news more than scientific truths. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and with conflicting use of underground to produce energy (heat as gas storage, geothermical, unconventional gas exploitation, mining, etc…). Even the chain of renewables meets by now serious issues, exacerbated also by the need to start mining and drilling for the smart grids materials too (metals, rare Earths, etc..). A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity is discussed, starting from the Italian regulatory issue. The review efforts for a "paper" on both a newspaper or a blog could be more difficult than the review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest in a newspaper article or in a blog

  9. 77 FR 31841 - Notice of Applications for Authorization To Abandon Facilities and Services and To Acquire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Applications for Authorization To Abandon Facilities and Services and To Acquire Facilities by Merger Steuben Gas Storage Company Docket No. CP12-465-000. Arlington Gas Storage Company, LLC........ Docket...

  10. [Eco-restoration of abandoned farmland in the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujiang; Xiao, Jinyu; Nan, Zhibiao

    2002-08-01

    The vegetation on abandoned farmland was succeeded from Agriophyllum arenarium community to Lespedeza davurica community under cutting conditions. More plant species was recruited at the initial stage of restoration. The new plant species established earlier were annual Agriophyllum arenarium and perennial Pennisetum flaccidum which could be the dominant species or sub-dominant species. The perennial Artemisia capillaris established in early-middle stage could be the sub-dominant species, and leguminous plants appeared in late-middle stage could only be the associated species. The aboveground biomass of annual species reduced by 8.8% annually, while the perennial species increased with the similar rate. The aboveground biomass of leguminous species increased continuously. As the restoration proceeded, more underground biomass was distributed in upper soil layer. In 1-7 years of restoration of abandoned land, the clay and silt in 0-30 cm soil profile reduced, while grit increased, but the inverse trend occurred after 7 years. The water content in 0-100 cm soil profile increased continuously, especially during middle stage. Total and available nitrogen in 0-100 cm soil profile reduced in early stage, but increased in late stage. Total and available phosphorus and organic carbon in soil profile reduced continuously under cutting conditions. For the restoration of abandoned farmland to the current stable community, it would take 8-9 years for dominant population, 9-11 years for vegetative community and 11-12 years for soil system. PMID:12418248

  11. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  12. Characterization of the Near-Field Transport and Dispersion of Vapors Released from the Headspaces of Hanford Site Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.

    2004-07-30

    A parametric air dispersion analysis has been conducted to define the range of tank vapor concentrations from the Hanford Site underground tanks that can potentially occur in the worker breathing zones from active and passive releases from the waste tanks. The potential influences of tank farm specific release characteristics, ambient meteorological conditions, local farm surface roughness, and topographical influences are considered. The parametric approach allows consideration of the full range venting configurations and potential vapor concentration over the range of meteorological conditions at the Hanford Site. The results indicate that occasional short duration exposures of up to several seconds to relatively undiluted headspace air can be expected in the immediate vicinity of the tank vents. Average concentrations which represent diffusion, as well as spatial averaging, fall off rapidly with distance for the passive vents and to a lesser extent for the forced-air stacks. The addition of the influence of the surface roughness elements on the tank farms will result in a faster decrease of concentrations with downwind distance.

  13. Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and glacier melt on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. Glacierized and non-glacierized areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of glacier melt, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by glaciers, accounting for glacier melt is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.

  14. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  15. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  16. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  17. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  18. Comparison of numerical models for predicting ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Kim, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering usually results in ground water rebound after closing a deep underground mine because the mind voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several numerical models have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from ground water rebound. We compared the numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW codes at different spatial and time scales. Based on the comparisons, a new strategy is established to develop a program for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems. This presentation describes the new strategy and its application to an abandoned underground mine in Korea.

  19. Changes in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen following Land Abandonment of Farmland on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lei; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Sweeney, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN). However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grassland sites were established on farmland abandoned for 1, 7, 13, 20, and 30 years. Top soil OC and TN were higher in older grassland, especially in the 0–5 cm soil depths; deeper soil OC and TN was lower in younger grasslands (<20 yr), and higher in older grasslands (30 yr). Soil OC and N storage (0–100 cm) was significantly lower in the younger grasslands (<20 yr), had increased in the older grasslands (30 yr), and at 30 years SOC had increased to pre-abandonment levels. For a thirty year period following abandonment the soil C/N value remained at 10. Our results indicate that soil C and TN were significantly and positively correlated, indicating that studies on the storage of soil OC and TN needs to focus on deeper soil and not be restricted to the uppermost (0–30 cm) soil levels. PMID:23940793

  20. Addendum to the corrective action plan for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility, Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This document represents an addendum to the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U located at Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. The site of the four underground storage tanks is commonly referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The original CAP was submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) for review in May 1992. During the time period after submission of the original CAP for the Rust Garage Facility, Y-12 Plant Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program personnel continued to evaluate improvements that would optimize resources and expedite the activities schedule presented in the original CAP. Based on these determinations, several revisions to the original corrective action process options for remediation of contaminated soils are proposed. The revised approach will involve excavation of the soils from the impacted areas, on-site thermal desorption of soil contaminants, and final disposition of the treated soils by backfilling into the subject site excavations. Based on evaluation of the corrective actions with regard to groundwater, remediation of groundwater under the Y-12 Plant CERCLA Program is proposed for the facility.

  1. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  2. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  3. The potential strategic, operating and environmental benefits of TVA's compressed air energy storage (CAES) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, D.T.; Brewer, J.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority is currently looking at compressed air energy storage (CAES), a new but mature technology, as a new capacity option. The technology is mature because all pieces/components have been in existence and use for over 50 years. The compressors are standard components for the gas industry, and the turbo expander and motor generator are standard components in the utility business. The newness of the CAES technology is due to the integration of these components and the use of underground storage of air in porous media or possibly in abandoned mines. Although the integration of these components is new to the Untied States, they have been demonstrated in Germany for over 10 years in the 290 MWe CAES unit located in a salt cavern near Huntorf, Germany. The CAES unit has been very successful, operating with a 99% start-up reliability, and has been operated remotely.

  4. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  5. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  6. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  7. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...- Hands-on training for miners in the use of self-contained self-rescue (SCSR) devices (52 FR 24373, June 30, 1987); Training and mine evacuation procedures for underground coal mines (67 FR 76658, Dec. 12... emergency evacuations (71 FR 12252, Mar. 9, 2006); and Sealing of abandoned areas (72 FR 28797, May 22,...

  8. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  9. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  10. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  11. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  12. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  13. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall...

  14. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  15. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  16. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  17. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory abandonment. Any article entered for a fair, and not disposed of under the provisions of this subpart prior to the expiration of 3 months after the close of the fair shall be regarded as abandoned to the Government,...

  18. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  19. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  20. Mapping the extent of abandoned farmland in Central and Eastern Europe using MODIS time series satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Baumann, Matthias; Bragina, Eugenia V.; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Müller, Daniel; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Sieber, Anika; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2013-09-01

    The demand for agricultural products continues to grow rapidly, but further agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental costs, making recultivating currently unused farmland an interesting alternative. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to widespread abandonment of agricultural lands, but the extent and spatial patterns of abandonment are unclear. We quantified the extent of abandoned farmland, both croplands and pastures, across the region using MODIS NDVI satellite image time series from 2004 to 2006 and support vector machine classifications. Abandoned farmland was widespread, totaling 52.5 Mha, particularly in temperate European Russia (32 Mha), northern and western Ukraine, and Belarus. Differences in abandonment rates among countries were striking, suggesting that institutional and socio-economic factors were more important in determining the amount of abandonment than biophysical conditions. Indeed, much abandoned farmland occurred in areas without major constraints for agriculture. Our map provides a basis for assessing the potential of Central and Eastern Europe’s abandoned agricultural lands to contribute to food or bioenergy production, or carbon storage, as well as the environmental trade-offs and social constraints of recultivation.

  1. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  2. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  3. Conservation with underground power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Graneau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of underground power transmission lines are discussed: their contribution to area beautification; line losses and their causes; the energy conservation potential of large-conductor underground cables; reliability and outage advantages as compared with overhead lines; the history of underground systems; problems with polyethylene insulation; and the development and performance of sodium conductors for underground cables. (LCL)

  4. Science Goes Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart; Keogh, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Cartoons illustrating scientific concepts were used in the London Underground and informal learning sites to raise adult awareness of science and promote lifelong learning. They are also being used in formal learning situations such as adult-literacy classes. (SK)

  5. Science Center Goes Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A unique underground science center at Bluffton College, designed to save energy and preserve trees, rolling landscape, and other environmental features of the campus, is under construction in Bluffton, Ohio. (Author)

  6. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  7. Weyl's Abandonment of Unified Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieroka, Norman

    2015-01-01

    In 1918, Hermann Weyl proposed a generalisation of Riemannian geometry, in order to unify general relativity and electrodynamics. This paper investigates the physical, mathematical and philosophical reasons for his subsequent abandonment of any such attempt towards a unified field theory.

  8. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property...

  9. Underground nuclear energy complexes - technical and economic advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Carl W; Kunze, Jay F; Giraud, Kellen M; Mahar, James M

    2010-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plant parks have been projected to be economically feasible compared to above ground instalIations. This paper includes a thorough cost analysis of the savings, compared to above ground facilities, resulting from in-place entombment (decommissioning) of facilities at the end of their life. reduced costs of security for the lifetime of the various facilities in the underground park. reduced transportation costs. and reduced costs in the operation of the waste storage complex (also underground). compared to the fair share of the costs of operating a national waste repository.

  10. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  14. Sealing abandoned mines with treated flyash kills two birds with one stone

    SciTech Connect

    Giacinto, J.F.; Rafalko, L.G.; Petzrick, P.

    2007-02-15

    Environmentally benign disposal of coal combustion products/by-products (CCPs) such as flyash and bottom ash has been a problem since the first coal-fired power plant went on-line. In recent years, ways have been developed to recycle CCPs into useful commercial products like bricks and roadbase. This article describes an innovative State of Maryland program that is putting CCPs to yet another use: stabilizing abandoned mines to permanently sequester acids and harmful metals. As engineering consultants to the State's Power Plant Research Project (PPRP), Environmental Resources Management (ERM) Inc. has conducted several projects to evaluate and demonstrate the beneficial use of CCPs for deep mine stabilization. These are several hundred abandoned underground mines in western Maryland and several thousand across the Mid-Atlantic Highlands and their proximity to coal-fired plants makes it cost-effective to transport CCPs via existing railroads and highways. 8 figs.

  15. Prediction of groundwater rebound at an abandoned coal mine in Korea using GRAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Shin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering generally results in groundwater rebound after closing an abandoned underground coal mine since the mine voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from groundwater rebound. This study developed a GRAM model-based program was developed for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems after mine closure. An application of the program to the Dongwon coal mine in Korea showed that the groundwater level modeled at the shaft of Dongwon coal mine is similar to the observed one in the field. The GRAM model-based program is transferable to other mining areas in both industrialized and less-developed countries. Therefore, the program could reduce the time and effort for predicting mine groundwater rebound and to support mine reclamation planning.

  16. Analysis and application of coal-seam seismic waves for detecting abandoned mines

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, D.J.; Irnhof, M.G.; Feddock, J.E.; Gresham, T.

    2007-09-15

    Two in-seam reflection surveys and one transmission survey were acquired at an abandoned underground mine near Hurley, Virginia, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting abandoned-mine voids utilizing coal-seam seismic waves. Standard, commonly available tools for seismic reflection processing were used. The mine was detected and located by using trapped coal-seam seismic waves observed in both the transmission and reflection data. Detecting the void, however, was not good enough to replace drilling entirely. We conclude that in-seam seismic methods can be used for detection; but if a potential void is detected, focused drilling should be applied for accurate mapping and to circumvent potentially hazardous areas.

  17. Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1984-04-01

    One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts. A total of 138 abandoned oil fields having individual cumulative production greater than 500,000 bbl are located in the Texas Gulf Coast (railroad Commission of Texas Districts 2, 3, and 4). These 138 onshore fields produced 276 million barrels of oil before being abandoned. Nongiant fields in the Texas Gulf Coast average about 40% ultimate recovery, so these fields probably originally contained about 700 million bbl of oil in place. Therefore, about 424 million bbl of oil remain unrecovered. Reservoirs in these abandoned fields are Tertiary sandstones. The 44 abandoned fields in the upper Texas Gulf Coast (District 3) produced from a wide range of plays; those plays with the largest number of abandoned fields are Yegua and Frio deep-seated domes, Eocene deltaic sandstone, and Frio barrier/strand-plain sandstone. The 19 abandoned fields in the middle Texas Gulf Coast (District 2) produced mainly from Wilcox and Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and from Frio and Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones. The lower Texas Gulf Coast (District 4) contains 75 abandoned fields that produced from Frio fluvial/deltaic and barrier/strand-plain sandstones and from Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones.

  18. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  19. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    SciTech Connect

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South`s 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government`s transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960`s. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail.

  20. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  2. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  3. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  4. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  5. Underground physics with DUNE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  6. Underground physics with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  7. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  8. Seismic performance of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I W

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981 to review and assess the state-of-the-art for determining and predicting earthquake damage to underground facilities. The papers presented related to data collection and analysis, modeling, and repository design. Discussion groups addressed seismology, rock mechanics and hydrology, modeling, design, and licensing, siting, and tectonics. Most scientists in attendance believed that enough was known to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. However, there was recognition of several items of research that would enhance understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity. In general, the subsurface effects of earthquakes are substantially less than their surface effects. This conclusion is supported by both observation and by modeling studies. The absence of wave reflections, the absence of high flexural stresses, and the absence of poor soil conditions contribute to the improved seismic performance of subsurface facilities. Seismic considerations for geologic disposal of nuclear waste vary with the phase of operation. During construction and waste loading, the primary concern is for the safety of onsite personnel. However, during long-term waste storage, the principal interest is in the migration of contaminants due to seismic cracking and enhancement of permeability. Backfilling the storage facility will mitigate this effect.

  9. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  10. Underground radial pipe network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    The network, useful in conducting fluids to underground sites, is an assembly of flexible pipes or tubes, suspended from and connected to a drill pipe. The flexible pipes, assembled in a bundle, are spring biased to flare outwardly in an arcuate manner when a releasable cap on the distal end of the bundle is removed. The assembled bundle is inserted into and lowered down a bore hole. When the cap is released, the pipes flare radially and outwardly. Fluid, pumped into and through the assembly, can be directed into the underground formation for various purposes.

  11. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  12. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Ten years Underground. Rover roundup (International Conference on Mobile Planetary Robots and Rover Roundup, Santa Monica, CA (USA), 29 Jan - 4 Feb 1997). Reaching the Red. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of April 1, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  13. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  14. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves to escape…

  15. Remediation of abandoned mine discharges in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, C.L.; Fish, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    Abandoned deep mine discharges were responsible for high iron loadings into several streams in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed. A total of seven discharges with flow rates from 20 to 1240 gal/min were flowing into Four Mile Run near Latrobe, PA. The iron concentrations in these discharges averaged near 80 ppm. The pH, however, was near neutral due to contact with underground limestone deposits. The high iron concentrations had severely degraded the habitat of the streams including 22 miles of Loyalhanna Creek. Benthic macroinvertebrates are especially vulnerable to the deposition of iron in these streams. In 1993, the Loyalhanna Mine Drainage Coalition was formed to oversee the remediation of the AMD discharges affecting Loyalhanna Creek. During this time monthly monitoring of the discharges began. Then using the chemistry and flow data, passive wetland treatment systems were designed to remediate the mine drainage. The remediation process precipitates and collects the iron oxide in the wetlands, thus eliminating the iron precipitation from the stream. In 1997 and 1998 three wetland treatment systems were constructed. The three wetlands capture the flow from the seven discharges and during low flow periods remove 95--100% of the iron from these discharges. The affected streams have shown a significant decrease in the iron concentrations and a subsequent improvement in the habitat quality of the streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates have been found in the most polluted stream which was void of life before the treatment systems were in operation.

  16. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  17. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than the... who can be held responsible for compliance with applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 280 or... program pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 6991c and 40 CFR part 281. (2) If another operator does not exist,...

  18. Some Positive and Negative Aspects of Mine Abandonment and Their Implications on Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Laurance; Bell, Fred; Culshaw, Martin

    Many urban and greenfield environments throughout the United Kingdom are located in regions where mining has occurred. Mining dates back to pre-Roman times and includes metalliferous minerals (such as gold, copper, lead & zinc), bulk minerals (such as sand-stone, limestone, gypsum & halite) and coal, the latter being the most important mineral mined both quantitatively and in terms of value. Due to this long mining history, this had resulted in a legacy of mining relics and hazards (such as mine entries, abandoned workings and contaminated land), with presumably many of these sites remaining, as yet, unknown. However, the mechanisms of failure and ground deformation, in general, are appreciated. Over the past few decades the British coal mining industry has experienced a gradual decline. However, individual closed and abandoned mines, as well as entire coalfields can, under appropriate investigations and a favourable economic climate, offer alternative energy resources. These include for instance, for coal bed methane (CBM), coal mine methane (CMM), underground coal gasification (UCG). The objectives of this paper are to draw attention to some less well-documented positive aspects of mine closures and coalfield abandonment.

  19. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  20. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...