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Sample records for abandoned wood-preserving plant

  1. Element concentrations in growth rings of trees near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.; Carmichael, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Multielement analysis was performed on individual annual rings of trees growing at and near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site in Jackson, Tennessee, that operated from the early 1930's until 1981. Numerous organic compounds associated with the wood-preserving process have been detected in soils, ground water, and surface water within much of the site. Tree-ring investigations were conducted prior to investigations of ground water downgradient from the site to determine if trees preserved an areal and temporal record of contaminant movement into offsite areas. Increment cores were collected from trees on the abandoned plant site, in downgradient areas west and south of the site, and at two locations presumably unaffected by contamination from the site. Multielement analysis by proton-induced X-ray emission was performed on 5 to 15 individual growth rings from each of 34 trees that ranged in age from about 5 to 50 years. Concentrations of 16 elements were evaluated by analyzing average concentrations within the 1987, 1989, and 1990 rings of all trees; analyzing element-concentration trends along entire core radii; and analyzing element correlations between and among trees. Concentrations of some nutrients and trace metals were elevated in the outermost sapwood rings of some trees that grow south and southwest of the most contaminated part of the site; small trees on the main part of the site and larger trees to the west generally contained fewer rings with elevated concentrations, particularly of trace metals. Concentrations of several elements elevated in tree rings also were elevated in water samples collected from the reach of a stream that flows near the southwestern part of the site. Multielement analysis of each ring of a willow growing along the southern boundary of the site detected extremely large concentrations of chromium, nickel, and iron in rings that formed in 1986 and thereafter. Relative increases in the concentrations of these elements also

  2. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.; Kingsbury, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.

  3. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

  4. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  5. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  7. Guides to pollution prevention: Wood preserving industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. Treatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in the guide. However, because in the United States, the majority of wood is treated with chromated copper arsenate, the guide focuses on waterborne preservatives. Process wastewater surface runoff water, and sludge are possible sources of contamination in the wood preserving industry, although in waterborne processes the majority of wastewater is reused. Process wastewater includes water from conditioning, kiln drying, treated wood washing, accumulations in doors or retort sumps, preservative formulation recovery, and rinsing.

  8. Effects of wood preservative leachates from docks

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, P.H.; Van Dolah, R.F.; Bobo, M.Y.; Mathews, T.D.

    1994-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that the wood preservative commonly used in dock pilings (chromated copper arsenate or CCA) is highly toxic to several estuarine organisms in laboratory experiments. Increasing demand for residential docks prompted a field study intended to complement these earlier laboratory investigations. Objectives of the study were to: (1) examine concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in sediments and oysters from intertidal locations in several creeks with and without high densities of docks; (2) examine the bioaccumulation of wood preservative leachates by laboratory-reared oysters transferred to field sites near and distant from newly constructed docks; and (3) investigate the acute toxicity of wood preservative leachates for several species of estuarine fishes and invertebrates exposed to these compounds in the field. Preliminary results indicate that sediment concentrations of all three metals were well below ER-L levels reported by Long and Morgan at all but one dock site. In an ancillary study, 24h LC{sub 50} bioassays were performed using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were exposed to pore water from sediments in creeks with and without docks. Toxicities of bulk sediments from the same sites were examined using Microtox which measures decreases in bioluminescence of marine bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as a function of sediment concentration. Neither the rotifer nor the Microtox bioassays showed any significant differences in toxicity between creeks with and without docks.

  9. Groundwater remediation at a wood preservatives site

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, H.K.; Damera, R.

    1994-12-31

    A wood treatment facility in Pennsylvania allegedly discharged about a million gallons of spent wood preservatives containing pentachlorophenol into a well from 1947 to 1963. Contaminated water was noticed in a creek adjacent to the site and was reported by the residents in 1972. Subsequently this site was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the EPA in 1982. Tetra Tech, Inc. has performed Remedial Investigations (RI), Feasibility Studies (FS), Remedial Designs (RD) and Remedial Action (RA) at this Superfund site, for five years. This paper presents an overview of RI, FS, RD and treatability studies related to groundwater remediation.

  10. Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, A.; Loebe, K.; Kreuchwig, L.

    2001-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the investigation of wood preservers in timber and in furniture. Both experiments in laboratory and practical applications in recycling facilities and on a building site prove the new possibilities for the fast detection of harmful agents in wood. A commercial system was developed for mobile laser-plasma-analysis as well as for industrial use in sorting plants. The universal measuring principle in combination with an Echelle optics permits real simultaneous multi-element-analysis in the range of 200-780 nm with a resolution of a few picometers. It enables the user to detect main and trace elements in wood within a few seconds, nearly independent of the matrix, knowing that different kinds of wood show an equal elemental composition. Sample preparation is not required. The quantitative analysis of inorganic wood preservers (containing, e.g. Cu, Cr, B, As, Pb, Hg) has been performed exactly using carbon as reference element. It can be shown that the detection limits for heavy metals in wood are in the ppm-range. Additional information is given concerning the quantitative analysis. Statistical data, e.g. the standard deviation (S.D.), were determined and calibration curves were used for each particular element. A comparison between ICP-AES and LIBS is given using depth profile correction factors regarding the different penetration depths with respect to the different volumes in wood analyzed by both analytical methods.

  11. APPROACHES FOR REMEDIATION OF UNCONTROLLED WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides an overview of remediation of uncontrolled wood preserving sites. It is, in part, a distillation of discussions that took place at a Forum on Wood Preserving Waste that was held in San Francisco, California, in October 1988. Information from this workshop h...

  12. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD INITIATIVE SITE PROFILE: ESCAMBIA WOOD PRESERVING SITE - BROOKHAVEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Escambia Wood Preserving Site—Brookhaven in Brookhaven, Mississippi, is a former wood preserving facility that used pentachlo- rophenol (PCP) and creosote to treat wooden poles. The site contains two pressure treatment cylinders, a wastewater treatment system, five bulk pr...

  13. THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED WATER AT REMEDIAL WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated groundwater and surface water have posed a great challenge in restoring wood preserving sites to beneficial use. Often contaminated groundwater plumes extend far beyond the legal property limits, adversely impacting drinking water supplies and crop lands. To contain,...

  14. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information that facilitates characterization of the site and selection of treatment technologies at wood preserving sites, to meet the regulations’ acceptable cleanup levels. It does not provide risk-assessment information or policy guidance related to det...

  15. Hydrogeology and flow of water in a sand and gravel aquifer contaminated by wood-preserving compounds, Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The sand and gravel aquifer in southern Escambia County, Florida , is a typical surficial aquifer composed of quartz sands and gravels interbedded locally with silts and clays. Problems of groundwater contamination from leaking surface impoundments are common in surficial aquifers and are a subject of increasing concern and attention. A potentially widespread contamination problem involves organic chemicals from wood-preserving processes. Because creosote is the most extensively used industrial preservative in the United States, an abandoned wood-treatment plant near Pensacola was chosen for investigation. This report describes the hydrogeology and groundwater flow system of the sand and gravel aquifer near the plant. A three-dimensional simulation of groundwater flow in the aquifer was evaluated under steady-state conditions. The model was calibrated on the basis of observed water levels from January 1986. Calibration criteria included reproducing all water levels within the accuracy of the data (one-half contour interval in most cases). Sensitivity analysis showed that the simulations were most sensitive to recharge and vertical leakance of the confining units between layers 1 and 2, and relatively insensitive to changes in hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity and to other changes in vertical leakance. Applications of the results of the calibrated flow model in evaluation of solute transport may require further discretization of the contaminated area, including more sublayers, than were needed for calibration of the groundwater flow system itself. (USGS)

  16. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  17. Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives: a review.

    PubMed

    Hingston, J A; Collins, C D; Murphy, R J; Lester, J N

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have generated conflicting data regarding the bioaccumulation and toxicity of leachates from preservative-treated wood. Due to the scale of the wood preserving industry, timber treated with the most common preservative, chromated copper arsenate (CCA), may form a significant source of metals in the aquatic environment. The existing literature on leaching of CCA is reviewed, and the numerous factors affecting leaching rates, including pH, salinity, treatment and leaching test protocols are discussed. It is concluded from the literature that insufficient data exists regarding these effects to allow accurate quantification of leaching rates, and also highlights the need for standardised leaching protocols. PMID:11202715

  18. In situ bioremediation strategies for organic wood preservatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Tischuk, M.D.; Brourman, M.D.; Steeg, G.E. Van De

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory biotreatability studies evaluated the use of bioventing and biosparging plus groundwater circulation (UVB technology) for their potential ability to treat soil and groundwater containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. Soils from two former wood-treatment facilities were used in these studies. These studies provided useful, site-specific data demonstrating enhanced biodegradation of all monitored organic constituents. The results suggest that the introduction and delivery of co-reagents (i.e., oxygen and nitrogen) essential to in situ biodegradation of organic wood preservatives represents an important component of effective in situ bioremediation. Full-scale implementation strategies are being considered based on the findings of these studies.

  19. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  20. 40 CFR 429.90 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-Boulton subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.90 Applicability; description of the wood preserving... introduction of process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works from wood...

  1. 40 CFR 429.90 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-Boulton subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.90 Applicability; description of the wood preserving... introduction of process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works from wood...

  2. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam... process wastewater pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from wood preserving processes that...

  3. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam... process wastewater pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from wood preserving processes that...

  4. 40 CFR 429.90 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-Boulton subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.90 Applicability; description of the wood preserving... introduction of process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works from wood...

  5. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam... process wastewater pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from wood preserving processes that...

  6. 40 CFR 429.90 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-Boulton subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.90 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—Boulton... process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works from wood preserving operations...

  7. 40 CFR 429.90 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-Boulton subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.90 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—Boulton... process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works from wood preserving operations...

  8. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE AND COST DATA FOR REMEDIATION OF WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wood preserving has been an industry in North America for more than 100 years. During this time wood preserving facilities have utilized a variety of compounds, including pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, and certain metals to extend the useful life of wood products. Past operat...

  9. Spatial variability of arsenic and chromium in the soil water at a former wood preserving site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Luisa; Peiffer, Stefan; Durner, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    Contamination of industrial sites by wood preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) may pose a serious threat to groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to characterise the spatial variability of As and Cr concentrations in the solid phase and in the soil water at a former wood impregnation plant and to reveal the fundamental transport processes. The soil was sampled down to a depth of 2 m. The soil water was extracted in situ from the vadose zone over a period of 10 months at depths of 1 and 1.5 m, using large horizontally installed suction tubes. Groundwater was sampled from a depth of 4.5 m. Results showed that arsenic and chromium had accumulated in the upper region of the profile and exhibited a high spatial variability (As: 21-621 mg kg - 1 ; Cr: 74-2872 mg kg - 1 ). Concentrations in the soil water were high (mean As 167 μg L - 1 ; Cr: 62 μg L - 1 ) and also showed a distinct spatial variability, covering concentration ranges up to three orders of magnitude. The variability was caused by the severe water-repellency of the surface soil, induced by the concurrent application of creosote wood preservatives, which leads to strong preferential flow as evident from a dye experiment. In contrast to soil water concentrations, only low As concentrations (< 12 μg L - 1 ) were detected in the groundwater. High Cr concentrations in the groundwater (approx. 300 μg L - 1 ), however, illustrated the pronounced mobility of chromium. Our study shows that at sites with a heterogeneous flow system in the vadose zone a disparity between flux-averaged and volume-averaged concentrations may occur, and sampling of soil water might not be adequate for assessing groundwater concentrations. In these cases long-term monitoring of the groundwater appears to be the best strategy for a groundwater risk assessment.

  10. Spatial variability of arsenic and chromium in the soil water at a former wood preserving site.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Luisa; Peiffer, Stefan; Durner, Wolfgang

    2006-05-30

    Contamination of industrial sites by wood preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) may pose a serious threat to groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to characterise the spatial variability of As and Cr concentrations in the solid phase and in the soil water at a former wood impregnation plant and to reveal the fundamental transport processes. The soil was sampled down to a depth of 2m. The soil water was extracted in situ from the vadose zone over a period of 10 months at depths of 1 and 1.5m, using large horizontally installed suction tubes. Groundwater was sampled from a depth of 4.5m. Results showed that arsenic and chromium had accumulated in the upper region of the profile and exhibited a high spatial variability (As: 21-621 mg kg(-1); Cr: 74-2872 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations in the soil water were high (mean As 167 microg L(-1); Cr: 62 microg L(-1)) and also showed a distinct spatial variability, covering concentration ranges up to three orders of magnitude. The variability was caused by the severe water-repellency of the surface soil, induced by the concurrent application of creosote wood preservatives, which leads to strong preferential flow as evident from a dye experiment. In contrast to soil water concentrations, only low As concentrations (<12 microg L(-1)) were detected in the groundwater. High Cr concentrations in the groundwater (approx. 300 microg L(-1)), however, illustrated the pronounced mobility of chromium. Our study shows that at sites with a heterogeneous flow system in the vadose zone a disparity between flux-averaged and volume-averaged concentrations may occur, and sampling of soil water might not be adequate for assessing groundwater concentrations. In these cases long-term monitoring of the groundwater appears to be the best strategy for a groundwater risk assessment. PMID:16530293

  11. Spatial variability of arsenic and chromium in the soil water at a former wood preserving site.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Luisa; Peiffer, Stefan; Durner, Wolfgang

    2006-05-30

    Contamination of industrial sites by wood preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) may pose a serious threat to groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to characterise the spatial variability of As and Cr concentrations in the solid phase and in the soil water at a former wood impregnation plant and to reveal the fundamental transport processes. The soil was sampled down to a depth of 2m. The soil water was extracted in situ from the vadose zone over a period of 10 months at depths of 1 and 1.5m, using large horizontally installed suction tubes. Groundwater was sampled from a depth of 4.5m. Results showed that arsenic and chromium had accumulated in the upper region of the profile and exhibited a high spatial variability (As: 21-621 mg kg(-1); Cr: 74-2872 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations in the soil water were high (mean As 167 microg L(-1); Cr: 62 microg L(-1)) and also showed a distinct spatial variability, covering concentration ranges up to three orders of magnitude. The variability was caused by the severe water-repellency of the surface soil, induced by the concurrent application of creosote wood preservatives, which leads to strong preferential flow as evident from a dye experiment. In contrast to soil water concentrations, only low As concentrations (<12 microg L(-1)) were detected in the groundwater. High Cr concentrations in the groundwater (approx. 300 microg L(-1)), however, illustrated the pronounced mobility of chromium. Our study shows that at sites with a heterogeneous flow system in the vadose zone a disparity between flux-averaged and volume-averaged concentrations may occur, and sampling of soil water might not be adequate for assessing groundwater concentrations. In these cases long-term monitoring of the groundwater appears to be the best strategy for a groundwater risk assessment.

  12. Wood preservatives. December 1985-December 1988 (Citations from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Report for December 1985-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the formulation, testing, and safety aspects of wood preservatives. Safety aspects pertain to the manufacturing of the wood preservatives, and to the use and application of wood preservatives. (This updated bibliography contains 240 citations, 94 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  14. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  15. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  16. Technology Evaluation Report: Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving Site Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving SITE Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc. BioTrol's pilot-scale, fixed-film biological treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing pentachlorophenol from groundwater. The system employs indigenous microorganisms amended wit...

  17. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  18. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from wood preserving operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in wood preserving operations may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist facilities engaged in wood preserving operations in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  19. 40 CFR 429.70 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.70 Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory. This subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 429.70 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.70 Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory. This subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 429.70 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.70 Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory. This subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 429.70 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.70 Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  3. 40 CFR 429.70 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.70 Applicability; description of the wood preserving-water borne or nonpressure subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  4. 40 CFR 268.30 - Waste specific prohibitions-wood preserving wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specific prohibitions—wood preserving wastes. (a) Effective August 11, 1997, the following wastes are prohibited from land disposal: the wastes specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste numbers F032... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste specific...

  5. 40 CFR 268.30 - Waste specific prohibitions-wood preserving wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specific prohibitions—wood preserving wastes. (a) Effective August 11, 1997, the following wastes are prohibited from land disposal: the wastes specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste numbers F032... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waste specific...

  6. 40 CFR 268.30 - Waste specific prohibitions-wood preserving wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specific prohibitions—wood preserving wastes. (a) Effective August 11, 1997, the following wastes are prohibited from land disposal: the wastes specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste numbers F032... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific...

  7. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION: A LOW COST TREATMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 curent and former wood preserving sites have been identified across the U.S. Many of these have been placed on the EPA Superfund NPL (National Priorities List). Most of these sites contain soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol, dioxins, and/or creosote. Treatability...

  8. 40 CFR 268.30 - Waste specific prohibitions-wood preserving wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specific prohibitions—wood preserving wastes. (a) Effective August 11, 1997, the following wastes are prohibited from land disposal: the wastes specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste numbers F032... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste specific...

  9. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam...

  10. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam...

  11. 40 CFR 268.30 - Waste specific prohibitions-wood preserving wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specific prohibitions—wood preserving wastes. (a) Effective August 11, 1997, the following wastes are prohibited from land disposal: the wastes specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste numbers F032... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific...

  12. ASSESSING DETOXIFICATION AND DEGRADATION OF WOOD PRESERVING AND PETROLEUM WASTES IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to evaluate in-situ soil bioremediation processes, including degradation and detoxification, for two types of wood preserving wastes and two types of petroleum refining wastes at high concentrations in an unacclimated soil. The soil solid phase, water so...

  13. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION FOR REMEDIATON OF WOOD PRESERVING SITES: TREATMENT FOR DIOXINS, PCP, CREOSOTE, AND METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses the use of solidification/stabilization (S/S) to treat soils contaminated with organic and inorganic chemicals at wood preserving sites. Solidification is defined for this article as making a material into a free standing solid. Stabilization is defined as ...

  14. LAND TREATMENT AND THE TOXICITY RESPONSE OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils contaminated with wood preserving wastes, including pentachlo-rophenol (PCP) and creosote, are treated at field-scale in an engineered prepared-bed system consisting of two one-acre land treatment units (LTUs). The concentration of selected indicator compounds of treatment ...

  15. Areas of Increasing Agricultural Abandonment Overlap the Distribution of Previously Common, Currently Threatened Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2013-01-01

    Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity. In agricultural ecosystems, abandonment of former farmlands constitutes a major land-use shift. We examined the relationships between areas in which agriculture has been abandoned and the distribution records of threatened plant species across Japan. We selected 23 plant species that are currently identified as threatened but were previously common in the country as indicators of threatened plant species. The areas of abandoned farmlands within the distribution ranges of the indicator species were significantly larger than the proportion of abandoned farmland area across the whole country. Also, abandoned farmland areas were positively correlated with the occurrence of indicator species. Therefore, sections of agricultural landscape that are increasingly becoming abandoned and the distribution ranges of indicator species overlapped. These results suggest that abandoned farmland areas contain degraded or preferred habitats of threatened plant species. We propose that areas experiencing increased abandonment of farmland can be divided into at least two categories: those that threaten the existence of threatened species and those that provide habitats for these threatened species. PMID:24260328

  16. Well Plugging and Abandonment Program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from January 1991 to September 1991. A total of nine wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. Rehabilitation was attempted unsuccessfully on two of these wells. A tenth well was successfully rehabilitated and returned to scheduled monitoring. Of the nine wells plugged and abandoned, five were coreholes which had outlived their usefulness. Deviations from plugging and abandonment procedures were sometimes required. Upon plugging and abandonment of these nine wells and borings, some minor discrepancies were discovered between reported and actual construction details. All were negligible differences except for the apparent of casing in Well 1087 below a depth of 12 ft.

  17. Well Plugging and Abandonment Program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from January 1991 to September 1991. A total of nine wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. Rehabilitation was attempted unsuccessfully on two of these wells. A tenth well was successfully rehabilitated and returned to scheduled monitoring. Of the nine wells plugged and abandoned, five were coreholes which had outlived their usefulness. Deviations from plugging and abandonment procedures were sometimes required. Upon plugging and abandonment of these nine wells and borings, some minor discrepancies were discovered between reported and actual construction details. All were negligible differences except for the apparent of casing in Well 1087 below a depth of 12 ft.

  18. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Choi, In-gyu; Han, Gyu-seong; Jeong, Han-seob; Kim, Ki-woo; Yoon, Young-ho; Yang, In

    2010-06-15

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl(2) (CC) and/or Na(2)B(4)O(7).10H(2)O (B). With the addition of NH(4)OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  19. On-plant selection and genetic analysis of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) behavioral traits: plant abandonment versus plant establishment.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Michael A; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Gassmann, Aaron J; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and abandonment traits for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalisi (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by conducting a laboratory selection experiment and quantifying patterns of gene expression. Egg masses with emerging larvae were placed on maize plants and silking individuals were collected every 15 min during a 4-h period to generate a plant abandonment (PA) colony. Plants were dissected 24-72 h later, and larvae were collected for a plant establishment colony. Selection of the PA colony showed an increased propensity to abandon the host plant by the third generation. The propensity for larvae to establish on the plants, however, did not show a significant response until the sixth generation. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine expression profiles for behavior associated genes (foraging and Onslmo). Egg samples from the two selected colonies and nonselected laboratory colony were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after egg deposition, and first instars were sampled after exposure to maize tissue. Compared with the plant establishment and nonselected laboratory colonies at the 0-h time period, foraging and Onslmo showed higher expression in the PA colony. This is the first study that has specifically selected for these traits over several generations and analyzed behavior-associated genes to elucidate genetic changes.

  20. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations.

  1. Environmental effects of supplemental wood preservative treatments of electric utility poles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.E.

    1995-12-01

    A field study and associated risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the potential ecological and human health impacts related to the standard application of five supplemental wood preservatives to 20 electric utility transmission poles. Post-application monitoring for chemical residuals and microbiological effects was conducted over a 17 month post-application period (June 6, 1990--November 7, 1991). The utility wood poles in the study were located in wetland sites of the New York State Adirondack Park. All poles were western red cedar and all had been treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) prior to installation. At the time supplemental preservatives were applied, the poles had been in service for approximately 40 years. Groundwater, surface water, and soil around each treated pole were monitored for release of active ingredients, organic carriers and subsequent degradation products of the commercial wood preservatives. The analytes were as follows: chlorpyrifos, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, creosote, 2,4-dinitrophenol, fluoride, chromium, arsenic, copper, naphthenate, sodium methyl dithiocarbamate and methyl isothiocyanate. Ecological response to chemical exposure was estimated by means of measuring soil gases (carbon dioxide and methane), soil macroinvertebrate populations and soil microbial biomass. Results from near-pole post-treatment sampling were compared to pre-treatment samples and reference plots used to establish preapplication biological conditions and background levels of wood preservative constituents.

  2. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  3. Documentation report for the 1989 monitor well plugging and abandonment program, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report documents the 1989 well plugging and abandonment activities at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Twenty-one monitoring and investigation wells were plugged and abandoned during the period from January 1989 through December 1989. ERC Environmental and Energy Services, Co. (ERCE) (formerly the EDGe Group) supervised and documented the well plugging and abandonment activities and monitored for health and safety concerns. The wells were decommissioned for several reasons. They were either no longer needed as groundwater monitoring or investigation wells or were is the way of construction or site closure and post closure activities (CAPCA). The wells were plugged and abandoned according to the procedures outlined by Haase and Gillis (1989). 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Plywood Treated with a new Wood Preservative (CEB) Chemical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Das, Himadri Sekhar

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the physical and mechanical properties of the plywood made with phenolic glue and rubber wood as core veneer with CEB as a wood preservative. The studied properties were glue shear strength in dry, wet mycological, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength in parallel to grain direction as per IS:1734 part-4, 11 and 9 (1983) respectively. Results of the above mentioned tests were compared with the prescribed values given in IS 710-2010 and results revealed that samples conformed the prescribed values.

  5. On-plant selection and genetic analysis of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) behavioral traits: plant abandonment versus plant establishment.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Michael A; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Gassmann, Aaron J; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and abandonment traits for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalisi (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by conducting a laboratory selection experiment and quantifying patterns of gene expression. Egg masses with emerging larvae were placed on maize plants and silking individuals were collected every 15 min during a 4-h period to generate a plant abandonment (PA) colony. Plants were dissected 24-72 h later, and larvae were collected for a plant establishment colony. Selection of the PA colony showed an increased propensity to abandon the host plant by the third generation. The propensity for larvae to establish on the plants, however, did not show a significant response until the sixth generation. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine expression profiles for behavior associated genes (foraging and Onslmo). Egg samples from the two selected colonies and nonselected laboratory colony were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after egg deposition, and first instars were sampled after exposure to maize tissue. Compared with the plant establishment and nonselected laboratory colonies at the 0-h time period, foraging and Onslmo showed higher expression in the PA colony. This is the first study that has specifically selected for these traits over several generations and analyzed behavior-associated genes to elucidate genetic changes. PMID:25203864

  6. Health assessment for Coast Wood Preserving, Ukiah, Mendocino County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD063015887. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-20

    The Coast Wood Preserving site is on the National Priorities List. Wood-preserving activity began at the site in 1971, and the facility has operated continuously up to the present. The wood-preserving operation at the site involves the use of a chemical mixture containing sodium dichromate, copper sulfate, and arsenic acid. Over the years, drippings from the treated wood are believed to have caused soil contamination at the site, particularly during the early years of operation when the treatment and treated-wood storage areas were not paved. Contamination of environmental media with chromium, arsenic, and copper was detected. The site is considered to be of potential health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances through the use of contaminated ground water and surface water for consumption and irrigation of agricultural crops.

  7. Treated wood preservatives linked to aquatic damage, human illness, and death--a societal problem.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    On February 12, 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a voluntary decision by industry to move consumer use of treated lumber products away from a variety of pressure-treated wood that contains arsenate (As) by December 31, 2003, in favor of new alternative wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical mixture consisting of three pesticidal compounds (As, chromium, and copper) registered for wood preservative uses. CCA is injected into wood by a process that uses high pressure to saturate wood products with the chemical. Only people who have received the proper safety training should use CCA to treat wood products. Around the home, CCA-treated wood is commonly used for decks, walkways, fences, gazebos, boat docks, and playground equipment. Other common uses of CCA-treated wood include highway noise barriers, sign posts, utility posts, and retaining walls. As of January 1, 2004, the EPA is no longer allowing CCA products to be used to treat wood intended for any of these residential uses. This decision will facilitate the voluntary transition to new alternative wood preservatives that do not contain As in both the manufacturing and retail sectors. To its credit, the EPA has developed consumer safety information sheets, hanging signs, end signs, and bin stickers that provide comprehensive information about the dangers of CCA-treated wood, use-site, and handling precautions. The EPA has not concluded that CCA-treated wood poses any unreasonable risk to the public or the environment. Nevertheless, As is a known human carcinogen and, thus, the EPA believes that any reduction in the levels of potential exposure to As is desirable. The toxicologic manifestations have been primarily related to the effects of As exposure from drinking water sources and include the following: acute poisoning incidents, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Understanding the biomethylation of As is central to elucidating its action

  8. Treated wood preservatives linked to aquatic damage, human illness, and death--a societal problem.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    On February 12, 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a voluntary decision by industry to move consumer use of treated lumber products away from a variety of pressure-treated wood that contains arsenate (As) by December 31, 2003, in favor of new alternative wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical mixture consisting of three pesticidal compounds (As, chromium, and copper) registered for wood preservative uses. CCA is injected into wood by a process that uses high pressure to saturate wood products with the chemical. Only people who have received the proper safety training should use CCA to treat wood products. Around the home, CCA-treated wood is commonly used for decks, walkways, fences, gazebos, boat docks, and playground equipment. Other common uses of CCA-treated wood include highway noise barriers, sign posts, utility posts, and retaining walls. As of January 1, 2004, the EPA is no longer allowing CCA products to be used to treat wood intended for any of these residential uses. This decision will facilitate the voluntary transition to new alternative wood preservatives that do not contain As in both the manufacturing and retail sectors. To its credit, the EPA has developed consumer safety information sheets, hanging signs, end signs, and bin stickers that provide comprehensive information about the dangers of CCA-treated wood, use-site, and handling precautions. The EPA has not concluded that CCA-treated wood poses any unreasonable risk to the public or the environment. Nevertheless, As is a known human carcinogen and, thus, the EPA believes that any reduction in the levels of potential exposure to As is desirable. The toxicologic manifestations have been primarily related to the effects of As exposure from drinking water sources and include the following: acute poisoning incidents, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Understanding the biomethylation of As is central to elucidating its action

  9. Migration of wood-preserving chemicals in contaminated groundwater in a sand aquifer at Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerlitz, D.F.; Troutman, D.E.; Godsy, E.M.; Franks, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a wood-preserving facility for nearly 80 years at Pensacola, FL, contaminated the near-surface groundwater with creosote and pentachlorophenol. The major source of aquifer contamination was unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the groundwater. Episodes of overtopping the impoundments and overland flow of treatment liquor and waste were also significant to the migration and contamination of the groundwater. Solutes contaminating the ground-water are mainly naphthalene and substituted phenols. Sorption did not influence retardation of solutes in transport in the groundwater. Phenol and the mono substituted methylphenols appear to be undergoing bio-transformation. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was not found in significant concentrations in the groundwater possibly because the solubility of PCP is approximately 5 mg/L at pH 6, near the average acidity for the groundwater.

  10. Transformation and Release of Micronized Cu used as a Wood Preservative in Treated Wood in Wetland Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized Cu (µ-Cu) is used as a wood preservative, replacing toxic Chromated Copper Arsenates. Micronized Cu is Malachite [Cu2CO3(OH)2] that has been milled to micron/submicron particles, many with diameters less than 100 nm, and then mixed with quat or azol biocides. I...

  11. Antifungal efficacy of environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper, or boron salts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Yong; Jeong, Han-Seob; Min, Byeong-Cheol; Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Yoon, Young-Ho; Choi, In-Gyu; Yang, In

    2011-06-01

    Okara, an organic waste product obtained from soy milk production, was used with copper chloride or sodium borate to formulate new wood preservatives as a substitute for expensive wood preservatives, such as copper-azole-based preservatives and ammoniacal copper quaternary. Before formulating the preservatives, okara was hydrolyzed by enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, and protease) to augment penetration and fix the biocide salts of the preservatives into wood blocks. The preservatives were injected into wood blocks by vacuum pressure to measure the treatability of the preservatives. The treated wood blocks were placed in hot water for 3 d to measure leachability. The treatability and leachability of the preservatives were affected by the type and loading amount of enzymes and the addition of sodium borate into okara-based wood preservative formulations. The treatability and leachability of the preservatives formulated with copper chloride and okara hydrolysates were 63.38 and 3.15%, and those of the preservatives with copper chloride, okara hydrolysates, and sodium borate were 61.47 and 3.32%, respectively. Despite the hot water leaching, wood blocks treated with preservatives formulated with 2% cellulase, pectinase, and protease hydrolyzed okara, CuCl(2), and sodium borate showed only 1.98% average weight loss against Fomitopsis palustris over 12 weeks. Microscopic observation revealed how okara-based preservatives work in wood blocks. Okara has potential as a raw material for cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives.

  12. Micronized copper wood preservatives: an efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm-25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact.

  13. Groundwater Fate and Transport Modeling for Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund Site, Texarkana, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, Ronald Chester

    1999-08-01

    Fate and transport model results are presented for the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company (TWPC)superfund site. The conceptual model assumes two sources of contamination, specifically, the areas around the old and new process areas. Recent data show the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in the aquifer that are also sources of dissolved contamination in the aquifer. A flow model was constructed and calibrated against measured hydraulic heads at permanent monitoring wells. Good matches were obtained between model simulated heads and most measured heads. An unexplained exception occurs at monitoring well MW-13 down gradient of the site beyond the measured contaminant plume where the model predicts heads that are more than 2 ft. lower than reported field measurements. Adjusting hydraulic parameters in the model could not account for this anomaly and still preserve the head matches at other wells. There is likely a moderate deficiency in the conceptual model or perhaps a data error. Other information such as substantial amounts of infiltrating surface water in the area or a correction in surveyed elevation would improve the flow model. A particle tracking model calculated a travel time from the new process area to the Day’s Creek discharge location on the order of 40 years. Travel times from the old process area to Day’s Creek were calculated to be on the order of 80 years. While these calculations are subject to some uncertainty, travel times of decades are indicated.

  14. Monitoring well plugging and abandonment plan for the development of energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This document is a groundwater monitoring well plugging and abandonment (P&A) plan for the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan has been prepared for the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and formalizes P&A activities that are currently implemented at the Y-12 Plant.

  15. Monitoring well plugging and abandonment plan for the development of energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This document is a groundwater monitoring well plugging and abandonment (P A) plan for the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan has been prepared for the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and formalizes P A activities that are currently implemented at the Y-12 Plant.

  16. Relationship between plant biodiversity and heavy metal bioavailability in grasslands overlying an abandoned mine.

    PubMed

    Hernández, A J; Pastor, J

    2008-04-01

    Abandoned metal mines in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid, Spain, are often located in areas of high ecological value. This is true of an abandoned barium mine situated in the heart of a bird sanctuary. Today the area sustains grasslands, interspersed with oakwood formations of Quercus ilex and heywood scrub (Retama sphaerocarpa L.), used by cattle, sheep and wild animals. Our study was designed to establish a relationship between the plant biodiversity of these grasslands and the bioavailability of heavy metals in the topsoil layer of this abandoned mine. We conducted soil chemical analyses and performed a greenhouse evaluation of the effects of different soil heavy metal concentrations on biodiversity. The greenhouse bioassays were run for 6 months using soil samples obtained from the mine polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and from a control pasture. Soil heavy metal and Na concentrations, along with the pH, had intense negative effects on plant biodiversity, as determined through changes in the Shannon index and species richness. Numbers of grasses, legumes, and composites were reduced, whilst other species (including ruderals) were affected to a lesser extent. Zinc had the greatest effect on biodiversity, followed by Cd and Cu. When we compared the sensitivity of the biodiversity indicators to the different metal content variables, pseudototal metal concentrations determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were the most sensitive, followed by available and soluble metal contents. Worse correlations between biodiversity variables and metal variables were shown by pseudototal contents obtained by plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Our results highlight the importance of using as many different indicators as possible to reliably assess the response shown by plants to heavy metal soil pollution.

  17. Plant Succession at the Edges of Two Abandoned Cultivated Fields on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Sally A.; Rickard, William H.

    2002-12-01

    How vegetation recovers from disturbances is an important question for land managers. We examined 500 m2 plots to determine the progress made by native herbaceous plant species in colonizing the edges of abandoned cultivated fields at different elevations and microclimates, but with similar soils in a big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass steppe. Alien species, especially cheatgrass and cereal rye, were the major competitors to the natives. The native species with best potential for restoring steppe habitats were sulphur lupine, hawksbeard, bottlebrush squirreltail, needle-and-thread grass, Sandberg's bluegrass, and several lomatiums.

  18. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ► The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ► The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ► PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ► The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  19. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  20. Superfund Record of Decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Coleman-Evand Wood Preserving Co., Whitehouse, FL, September 25, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This decision document represents an amendment to the selected remedial action for the Coleman-Evans Wood preserving Site (Site) in Whitehouse, Florida. This amendment is necessary because during design of the remedy that was selected in the 1990 Amended Record of Decision, dioxin was discovered at the Site as a new contaminant of concern. This document selects a new interim remedy to address an estimated 45,000 cubic yards of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and dioxin-contaminated source material (i.e., soil, sediment, and debris) and expands the scope of the groundwater remedy to permanently address PCP-, and potentially dioxin-, contaminated groundwater in the upper surficial aquifer.

  1. Monitoring well plugging and abandonment plan, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (revised)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Plugging and abandonment (P&A) of defunct groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1996). This document is the revised groundwater monitoring well P&A plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach employed by Y-12 Plant GWPP to identify wells that require P&A, the technical methods employed to perform P&A activities, and administrative requirements. Original documentation for Y-12 Plant GWPP groundwater monitoring well P&A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P&A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P&A schedule be maintained. Wells are added to this list by issuance of both a P&A request and a P&A addendum to the schedule. The current Updated Subsurface Data Base includes a single mechanism to track the status of monitoring wells. In addition, rapid growth of the groundwater monitoring network and new regulatory requirements have resulted in constant changes to the status of wells. As a result, a streamlined mechanism to identify and track monitoring wells scheduled for P&A has been developed and the plan revised to formalize the new business practices.

  2. Influence of biochars, compost and iron grit, alone and in combination, on copper solubility and phytotoxicity in a Cu-contaminated soil from a wood preservation site.

    PubMed

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Galland, William; Gabbon, Lunel; Lottier, Nathalie; Motelica, Mikael; Mench, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Two biochars, a green waste compost and iron grit were used, alone and in combination, as amendment to improve soil properties and in situ stabilize Cu in a contaminated soil (964mgCukg(-1)) from a wood preservation site. The pot experiment consisted in 9 soil treatments (% w/w): untreated Cu-contaminated soil (Unt); Unt soil amended respectively with compost (5%, C), iron grit (1%, Z), pine bark-derived biochar (1%, PB), poultry-manure-derived biochar (1%, AB), PB or AB+C (5%, PBC and ABC), and PB or AB+Z (1%, PBZ and ABZ). After a 3-month reaction period, the soil pore water (SPW) was sampled in potted soils and dwarf beans were grown for a 2-week period. In the SPW, all amendments decreased the Cu(2+) concentration, but total Cu concentration increased in all AB-amended soils due to high dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration. No treatment improved root and shoot DW yields, which even decreased in the ABC and ABZ treatments. The PBZ treatment decreased total Cu concentration in the SPW while reducing the gap with common values for root and shoot yields of dwarf bean plants. A field trial is underway before any recommendation for the PB-based treatments. PMID:27259036

  3. Abandonment of groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C.L.; Janssen, J.L.; Heffner, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Proper removal of groundwater monitoring wells reduces the possibility of the downward migration of contaminants and resulting regulatory liability. Ordinarily, abandonment begins with removal of the casing, screen, and old grout from the borehole. It is completed by filling the reamed hole with neat cement. Several techniques may be used to remove the casing and screen material. Two methods commonly used are: (1) reaming/drilling out PVC-cased wells; or (2) over-reaming and extraction of steel-cased wells. The depth of the well, type of construction materials, grout quality, and vertical deviation determine the type of abandonment method to be used. Selection of the proper equipment and drill bit configuration are essential for successful abandonment. Geological information can also be obtained during well abandonment by conducting downhole geophysical surveys. Proper abandonment is an essential, but frequently overlooked, part of a groundwater monitoring program. An abandonment program can improve cost effectiveness and reduce potential environmental liabilities.

  4. FISCAL YEAR 1997 WELL INSTALLATION, PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT, AND REDEVELOPMENT SUMMARY REPORT Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION

    1997-09-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1997 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. No new groundwater monitoring wells were installed during FY 1997. However, 13 temporary piezometers were installed around the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) in the Y-12 Plant. An additional 36 temporary piezometers, also reported in this document, were installed in FY 1996 and, subsequently, assigned GW-series identification. A total of 21 monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1997. Three existing monitoring wells underwent redevelopment during FY 1997. All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures in the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988), the {ital Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document} (EPA 19?6), and {ital Guidelines for Installation of Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 Plant} (Geraghty & Miller 1985). All wells were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991). Health and safety monitoring and field screening of drilling returns and development waters were conducted in accordance with approved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) guidelines.

  5. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  6. Health assessment for Brown Wood Preserving Site, Suwannee County, Live Oak, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD980728935. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-24

    The Brown Wood Preserving site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site located at the intersection of Saw Mill Road and Gold Kist Road, west of the city of Live Oak, Suwannee County, Florida. Surface soil and surface water at the disposal lagoon area were contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groundwater was also tested for PAHs with none found; however, analytical detection limits were greater than appropriate health-based guideline values. The site is located in an area of intermediate karst (sinkhole) development. This area of direct aquifer recharge is surrounded by residences using private potable wells. The exposures of concern for humans include dermal absorption and inhalation of dust from contaminated surface soil. Residents reside 100 feet northwest of the site and may constitute a susceptible population because of their proximity to contaminated soils.

  7. Evaluation of some reports on risks to health from exposure to coal-tar-based wood preservatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M.

    1985-11-01

    This report reviews evidence about health risks that may arise in people exposed to coal-tar-based wood preservatives. The limited information available that is relevant directly to possible effects in humans is assessed critically, from an epidemiological point of view. It is concluded that body contact with this class of materials can produce inflammatory skin conditions and benign tumors. The need for effective action to reduce the incidence of this kind of response is emphasized because there is fairly strong evidence that, under adverse conditions, such benign skin lesions may be precursors for skin cancer. There is no evidence that coal-tar distillate fractions with boiling points below 360 C (the main part of the mixtures used in timber preservation) can themselves give rise to skin cancer in man.

  8. Method development for the determination of wood preservatives in commercially treated wood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Šťávová, Jana; Sedgeman, Carl A; Smith, Zachary T; Frink, Lillian A; Hart, Jessica A; Niri, Vadoud H; Kubátová, Alena

    2011-09-30

    Fungicides and insecticides are commonly used preservatives to protect wood products against microbiological degradations. Currently, there is a lack of analytical methods addressing the quantitative determination of a wide range of wood preserving species in wood matrices. In this study, a reliable method was developed for the determination of a mixture of wood preserving agents with differing chemical structures (i.e., properties), including tebuconazole (TAZ), propiconazole (PAZ), 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), and permethrin (PER), in pine wood. The analyte recoveries obtained by Soxhlet and multiple-stage sonication extractions were compared. While both extraction methods yielded similar results (80-100%), Soxhlet extraction was found to be less labor-intensive and thus preferred providing also lower RSDs of 1-6%. In comparison to methanol, commonly used as an extraction solvent for triazoles, acetone yielded similar extraction efficiencies for all analytes while reducing the time of sample concentration. The solid phase extraction method for triazoles was adapted to allow for a separation of IPBC and PER from the wood matrix. As opposed to previous studies, three recovery standards were employed, which enabled the correction of individual analyte losses during the sample preparation. The matrix-affected limits of detection (LODs) using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection were nearly the same for triazoles 0.07 and 0.21 ng g(-1) for PAZ and TAZ in sapwood and 0.18 and 0.21 ng g(-1) in heartwood, respectively. Higher LODs were observed for IPBC and PER: 3.9 and 1.7 ng g(-1) in sapwood, and 2.0 and 6.0 ng g(-1) in heartwood, respectively. The recoveries in the wood submitted to commercial sample treatment showed gradient distribution of analytes depending on the penetration of the treatment.

  9. Mobility and phytoavailability of Cu, Cr, Zn, and As in a contaminated soil at a wood preservation site after 4 years of aided phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Nour; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Bourrat, Xavier; Mench, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The remediation of copper-contaminated soils by aided phytostabilisation in 16 field plots at a wood preservation site was investigated. The mobility and bioavailability of four potentially toxic trace elements (PTTE), i.e., Cu, Zn, Cr, and As, were investigated in these soils 4 years after the incorporation of compost (OM, 5 % w/w) and dolomite limestone (DL, 0.2 % w/w), singly and in combination (OMDL), and the transplantation of mycorrhizal poplar and willows. Topsoil samples were collected in all field plots and potted in the laboratory. Total PTTE concentrations were determined in soil pore water (SPW) collected by Rhizon soil moisture samplers. Soil exposure intensity was assessed by Chelex100-DGT (diffusive gradient in thin films) probes. The PTTE phytoavailability was characterized by growing dwarf beans on potted soils and analyzing their foliar PTTE concentrations. OM and DL, singly and in combination (OMDL), were effective to decrease foliar Cu, Cr, Zn, and As concentrations of beans, the lowest values being numerically for the OM plants. The soil treatments did not reduce the Cu and Zn mineral masses of the bean primary leaves, but those of Cr and As decreased for the OM and DL plants. The Cu concentration in SPW was increased in the OM soil and remained unchanged in the DL and OMDL soils. The available Cu measured by DGT used to assess the soil exposure intensity correlated with the foliar Cu concentration. The Zn concentrations in SPW were reduced in the DL soil. All amendments increased As in the SPW. Based on DGT data, Cu availability was reduced in both OM and OMDL soils, while DL was the most effective to decrease soil Zn availability.

  10. Electrokinetic remediation of wood preservative contaminated soil containing copper, chromium, and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Buchireddy, Prashanth R; Bricka, R Mark; Gent, David B

    2009-02-15

    As a result of wood treatment, and the recent banning of the copper, chromium, and arsenic (CCA) treated wood for residential use many CCA treatment facilities have been abandoned or being closed. Soil contamination resulting from CCA is common at these sites. In this study, the feasibility of electrokinetic technique to remove CCA from contaminated soil was investigated. To better understand the ionic mobility within the soil and to detect the generation and advancement of acid front, sampling ports were provided along the longitudinal axis of a test cell. To determine the effect of varying current, three tests were performed at different current densities of 5.9, 2.9, and 1.5mA/cm(2) for a period of 15 days. The initial concentrations of copper, chromium, and arsenic in the soil were 4800, 3100, and 5200mg/kg, respectively. Dilute nitric acid was used as an amendment to neutralize the hydroxyl ions produced at the cathode. Experiments resulted in removal efficiencies as high as 65% for copper, 72% for chromium, and 77% for arsenic. The results also indicated that the advancement of acid front favored desorption of metals from the soil and the metals were mobilized either as free cations or metal complexes. Chromium that was in its +6 valence state was transported as anion prior to its reduction. However, once the chromium was reduced to chromium(III) its transport direction reversed with transport being favored towards the cathode.

  11. Native plant communities in an abandoned Pb-Zn mining area of northern Spain: implications for phytoremediation and germplasm preservation.

    PubMed

    Barrutia, O; Artetxe, U; Hernández, A; Olano, J M; García-Plazaola, J I; Garbisu, C; Becerril, J M

    2011-03-01

    Plants growing on metalliferous soils from abandoned mines are unique because of their ability to cope with high metal levels in soil. In this study, we characterized plants and soils from an abandoned Pb-Zn mine in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Soil in this area proved to be deficient in major macronutrients and to contain toxic levels of Cd, Pb, and Zn. Spontaneously growing native plants (belonging to 31 species, 28 genera, and 15 families) were botanically identified. Plant shoots and rhizosphere soil were sampled at several sites in the mine, and analyzed for Pb, Zn and Cd concentration. Zinc showed the highest concentrations in shoots, followed by Pb and Cd. Highest Zn concentrations in shoots were found in the Zn-Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (mean = 18,254 mg Zn kg(-1) DW). Different metal tolerance and accumulation patterns were observed among the studied plant species, thus offering a wide germplasm assortment for the suitable selection of phytoremediation technologies. This study highlights the importance of preserving metalliferous environments as they shelter a unique and highly valuable metallicolous biodiversity.

  12. Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

  13. Conservation potential of abandoned military areas matches that of established reserves: plants and butterflies in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes.

  14. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  15. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta

    PubMed Central

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  16. Fiscal Year 1998 Well Installation, Plugging and Abandonment, and Redevelopment summary report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment, and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1998 at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Five new groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the Y-12 Plant under the FY 1998 drilling program. Two of the wells are located in west Bear Creek Valley, one is in the eastern Y-12 Plant area near Lake Reality, and two are located near the Oil Landfarm Waste Management Area, which were installed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (Bechtel Jacobs) as part of a site characterization activity for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Disposal Cell. Also, two existing wells were upgraded and nine temporary piezometers were installed to characterize hydrogeologic conditions at the Disposal Cell site. In addition, 40 temporary piezometers were installed in the Boneyard/Bumyard area of Bear Creek Valley by Bechtel Jacobs as part of the accelerated remedial actions conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program. Ten monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1998. Two existing monitoring wells were redeveloped during FY 1998 (of these, GW-732 was redeveloped tsvice). All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures from the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA 1992); and the Monitoring Well Installation Plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Energy Systems 1997a). Well installation and development of the non-Y-12 Plant GWPP oversight installation projects were conducted using procedures/guidance defined in the following documents: Work Plan for Support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek East End Volatile Organic Compound Plumes Well Installation Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge

  17. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process. PMID:11952176

  18. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

    2011-06-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  19. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

  20. [Health risk analysis of VOC/SVOC contaminated soil in an abandoned chemical plant].

    PubMed

    Guo, Guan-lin; Wang, Shi-jie; Shi, Lie-yan; Li, Hui-ying; Han, Chun-mei; Gu, Qing-bao; Cao, Yun-zhe; Li, Fa-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Environmental health risk of contaminated soil in a typical abandoned industry was analyzed based on the full field investigation according to the site assessment procedure of American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM). Parameters were modified with the combination of Chinese crowd character and site specifics. Results indicated that the site was mainly contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil profiles. And the contents of carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, pentachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachloroethane and hexachlorobenzene in soil samples were exceeded the national environmental standard. These contaminants ranked the carcinogenic risks and hazard quotients more than 10(-2) and 1 in some locations with the exposure by oral ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation. Contaminants in this site had resulted in the high health risks to the residents and surrounding communities. The risk should be reduced to the health acceptable level by the treatment and remediation before further development for residential and commercial utilization.

  1. Vendor Abandonment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Kevin; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three articles address the relationship between a library and the vendor of its automated system from several points of view: library-initiated vendor abandonment, vendor-initiated abandonment, nonperforming vendor and nonfunctioning system, and changing systems. Acceptance testing and financial, personnel, and legal aspects of vendor abandonment…

  2. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental risk posed by arsenic when new vegetation types are introduced, analyzing the transfer of arsenic in different plant species that grow spontaneously in mining areas of SE Spain (Sierra Minera of Cartagena), and the contribution of such plants to the environmental risk represented by their ingestion by animals living in the same ecosystems. When dealing with remediation projects in zones affected by mining activities, the risk posed by the ingestion of the plants by fauna is often forgotten. To study the transfer to the trophic chain, two mammals, sheep and vole, were selected. The risk analysis was centered in the contribution of these natural plants to the ingestion calculated. For this study, 21 vegetal species naturally growing in the soils were collected from the Sierra Minera. The vegetal material studied is clearly associated with the Mediterranean Region (S.E. of Spain) and the plant species collected are endemisms and plants characteristic of the zone. Physico-chemical properties were obtained by means of the usual procedures. To determine the arsenic content, the soil samples and plant materials were digested in a microwave system and the arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation system. A semiquantitative estimation of the mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction analysis. The soils were classified into three groups: Low (group 1) (7-35 mg/kg) medium (group 2) (35-327 mg/kg) and high (group 3) (> 327 mg/kg), according to their As content. The mineralogy and As content of the soils studied depends on the materials related with mining activity. The descriptive statistical analysis of the population of plants studied showed the As range in roots to be 0.31-150 mg/kg while leaf concentrations were lower (0.21-83.4 mg/kg). The potential risk of As entering the food chain through of the plant

  3. Heavy metal impact on bacterial biomass based on DNA analyses and uptake by wild plants in the abandoned copper mine soils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaohui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Beer, Michael; Ming, Hui; Mahmudur Rahman, Mohammad; Wu, Weihong; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-09-01

    The metals contamination in surface soils and their accumulation in wild plants from the abandoned Burra and Kapunda copper mines located in South Australia were assessed, and the predominant bacterial diversity in the contaminated surface soils from these two abandoned copper mine sites were evaluated through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. The results showed the average concentration of Cu in soils was 3821.59 mg/kg while wild plants accumulated up to 173.44 mg/kg. The concentration of Cu in shoots of spear grass (Stipa uitida) and berry saltbush (Afriplex semibaccata) was higher than that of roots. The concentration of total and extractable As, Cd, Cu and Pb in soils slightly correlated with of these elements in the corresponding wild plants. The toxicity of Cu in heavily contaminated soils impacted on the quantities of specific microbial populations and no significant change in the microbial diversity of highly contaminated soils.

  4. Chemical Interactions of Uranium in Water, Sediments, and Plants Along a Watershed Adjacent to the Abandoned Jackpile Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J.; De Vore, C. L.; Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Roldan, C.; Bowers, F.; Spilde, M.; Artyushkova, K.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical interactions, mobility, and plant uptake of uranium (U) near abandoned mine wastes was investigated along the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine, located in Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico. Elevated U concentrations in surface water adjacent to mine waste range from 30 to 710 μg/L seasonally and decrease to 5.77 to 10.0 μg/L at a wetland 4.5 kilometers downstream of the mine. Although U concentrations in stream water are elevated, aqua regia acid digestions performed on co-located stream bed and stream bank sediments reveal that there is limited U accumulation on sediments along the reach between the mine and wetland, with most sediment concentrations being near the 3 mg/kg crustal average. However, U concentrations in sediments in the wetland are 4 times the background concentrations in the area. Individual results from salt cedar roots, stems, and leaves collected along the river transect show higher U concentrations in the roots adjacent to the mine waste (20 and 55 mg/kg) and lower in the stems and leaves. Translocation values calculated below 1 are evident in many of the plant samples, suggesting that U root to shoot translocation is minimal and U is accumulating in the roots. Concentrations of U in salt cedar roots from downstream of the mine waste decrease to 15 mg/kg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis on sediment samples adjacent to the mine waste show a 75:25% ratio of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which can have an effect on adsorption properties. Electron microprobe results suggest that the ore in this area is present as a uranium-phosphate phase. Our results suggest that dilution, uptake by plants, and U sorption to wetland sediments are the dominant factors that help to decrease the U concentrations downstream of the mine.

  5. Plant establishment and invasions: an increase in a seed disperser combined with land abandonment causes an invasion of the non-native walnut in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M H; Morón, Dawid; Tworek, Stanisław; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2012-04-22

    Successful invasive species often are established for a long time period before increasing exponentially in abundance. This lag phase is one of the least understood phenomena of biological invasions. Plant invasions depend on three factors: a seed source, suitable habitat and a seed disperser. The non-native walnut, Juglans regia, has been planted for centuries in Central Europe but, until recently, has not spread beyond planted areas. However, in the past 20 years, we have observed a rapid increase in walnut abundance, specifically in abandoned agricultural fields. The dominant walnut disperser is the rook, Corvus frugilegus. During the past 50 years, rooks have increased in abundance and now commonly inhabit human settlements, where walnut trees are planted. Central Europe has, in the past few decades, experienced large-scale land abandonment. Walnut seeds dispersed into ploughed fields do not survive, but when cached into ploughed and then abandoned fields, they successfully establish. Rooks preferentially cache seeds in ploughed fields. Thus, land-use change combined with disperser changes can cause rapid increase of a non-native species, allowing it to become invasive. This may have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem. Thus, species that are non-native and not invasive can become invasive as habitats and dispersers change.

  6. Plant establishment and invasions: an increase in a seed disperser combined with land abandonment causes an invasion of the non-native walnut in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Moroń, Dawid; Tworek, Stanisław; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Successful invasive species often are established for a long time period before increasing exponentially in abundance. This lag phase is one of the least understood phenomena of biological invasions. Plant invasions depend on three factors: a seed source, suitable habitat and a seed disperser. The non-native walnut, Juglans regia, has been planted for centuries in Central Europe but, until recently, has not spread beyond planted areas. However, in the past 20 years, we have observed a rapid increase in walnut abundance, specifically in abandoned agricultural fields. The dominant walnut disperser is the rook, Corvus frugilegus. During the past 50 years, rooks have increased in abundance and now commonly inhabit human settlements, where walnut trees are planted. Central Europe has, in the past few decades, experienced large-scale land abandonment. Walnut seeds dispersed into ploughed fields do not survive, but when cached into ploughed and then abandoned fields, they successfully establish. Rooks preferentially cache seeds in ploughed fields. Thus, land-use change combined with disperser changes can cause rapid increase of a non-native species, allowing it to become invasive. This may have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem. Thus, species that are non-native and not invasive can become invasive as habitats and dispersers change. PMID:22072603

  7. Plant-soil feedbacks and the partial recovery of soil spatial patterns on abandoned well pads in a sagebrush shrubland.

    PubMed

    Minnick, Tamera J; Alward, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Shrub-dominated arid and semiarid ecosystems are characterized by spatail patterns in vegetation and bare ground (e.g., resource islands). Modern oil and gas well pad construction entails complete removal of vegetation and upper soil layers, followed by replacement of soils and attempts at revegetation; historically, many pads were merely abandoned. Feedbacks between soil and vegetation are required for the recovery of ecosystem functions in these catastrophically disturbed systems. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), employing a spatially explicit sampling protocol, on two sites in undisturbed big sagebrush communities and a chronosequence of eight recovering well pads. Sites in undisturbed communities exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation of SOC at the plot level that was absent from all of the well pad sites. Incorporating shrub presence as a covariate revealed three additional cases of SOC spatial autocorrelation on well pads. These results, along with SOC patterns between and- under plants, suggest resource island development. These findings support the hypothesis that species identity as well as functional group need to be taken into account in restoration. Restoration of ecosystem functions, including those associated with resistance and resilience to disturbance, may be enhanced when characteristic soil heterogeneity and vegetation spatial patterns recover.

  8. Plant-soil feedbacks and the partial recovery of soil spatial patterns on abandoned well pads in a sagebrush shrubland.

    PubMed

    Minnick, Tamera J; Alward, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Shrub-dominated arid and semiarid ecosystems are characterized by spatail patterns in vegetation and bare ground (e.g., resource islands). Modern oil and gas well pad construction entails complete removal of vegetation and upper soil layers, followed by replacement of soils and attempts at revegetation; historically, many pads were merely abandoned. Feedbacks between soil and vegetation are required for the recovery of ecosystem functions in these catastrophically disturbed systems. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), employing a spatially explicit sampling protocol, on two sites in undisturbed big sagebrush communities and a chronosequence of eight recovering well pads. Sites in undisturbed communities exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation of SOC at the plot level that was absent from all of the well pad sites. Incorporating shrub presence as a covariate revealed three additional cases of SOC spatial autocorrelation on well pads. These results, along with SOC patterns between and- under plants, suggest resource island development. These findings support the hypothesis that species identity as well as functional group need to be taken into account in restoration. Restoration of ecosystem functions, including those associated with resistance and resilience to disturbance, may be enhanced when characteristic soil heterogeneity and vegetation spatial patterns recover. PMID:26255353

  9. Stable isotopes of nitrogen in plants of contaminated soils and sediments by an abandoned gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, O. F.; Sanchez, A.; Marmolejo, A. J.; Magallanes, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    Mining industry is an economic activity which generates high ecological impact. In the mining district "El Triunfo", the concentration of potential toxic elements (PTE: As, Cd, Hg, Sb) have exceeded 50 times allowable limits. Nowadays, environmental pollution levels can be evaluated through the use of stable isotopes of N. For this, isotopic analysis of nitrogen and concentrations of metals and metalloids were considered in the area where plants are exposed (Prosopis spp., Parkinsonia spp. and Salicornia spp.) Polluted sediments were collected over 48 km of the Las Gallinas-El Hondo-El Carrizal arroyo. PTE concentrations, with a previous acidic digestion (HF, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were determined by ICP-MS. As and Sb were determined by NAA. For N isotopes, obtained samples were grounded to fine powder in an agate mortar with an acetone rinse between samples then analyzed by an EA-IRMS. Results showed that plants growing on the tailings decreased their δ15N proportionally to the metal concentration in the area.

  10. Screening of metal uptake by plant colonizers growing on abandoned copper mine in Kapunda, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Aryal, Rupak; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic site survey for sample collection and analysis was conducted at a derelict copper (Cu) mine at Kapunda, South Australia. Cu concentrations in the soils at this former mine ranged from 65-10107 mg kg(-1). The pH and EC varied widely in the 3.9-8.4 and 152-7311 µS ranges, respectively. Nine plant species growing over the copper mine site were selected to screen for metal uptake to determine their suitability for phytoremediation. The Australian native tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicated enrichment factor (EF) of 2.17, 1.89, and 1.30 for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, suggesting that this species of tree can accumulate these metals to some degree. The stress-resistant exotic olive, Olea europaea exhibited EF of ≤ 0.01 for Cu, Cd, and Pb, and 0.29 for Zn, which is characteristic of an excluder plant. Acacia pycnantha, the Australian pioneer legume species with EF 0.03, 0.80, 0.32, and 0.01 for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, respectively, emerged as another strong metal excluder and consequently as an ideal metal stabilizer. PMID:26552328

  11. Afforestation of abandoned farmland with conifer seedlings inoculated with three ectomycorrhizal fungi - impact on plant performance and ectomycorrhizal community.

    PubMed

    Menkis, A; Vasiliauskas, R; Taylor, A F S; Stenlid, J; Finlay, R

    2007-06-01

    The aim of a 3-year study was to investigate whether inoculation of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings with mycorrhizas of Cenococcum geophilum Fr., Piceirhiza bicolorata, and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull.) Quel. has any impact on: 1) survival and growth of outplanted seedlings on abandoned agricultural land, and 2) subsequent mycorrhizal community development. For inoculation, the root system of each plant was wrapped in a filter paper containing mycelium, overlaid with damp peat-sand mixture and wrapped in a paper towel. In total, 8,000 pine and 8,000 spruce seedlings were planted on 4-ha of poor sandy soil in randomized blocks. Already after the first year natural mycorrhizal infections prevailed in the inoculated root systems, and introduced mycorrhizas were seldom found. Yet, the seedlings that had been pre-inoculated with C. geophilum and the P. bicolorata during the whole 3-year period showed significantly higher survival and growth as compared to controls. Moreover, the independent colonization of roots by C. geophilum and the P. bicolorata from natural sources was also observed. A diverse mycorrhizal community was detected over two growing seasons in all treatments, showing low impact of inoculation on subsequent fungal community development. A total of 19 additional ectomycorrhizal morphotypes was observed, which clustered into two well-separated groups, according to host tree species (pine and spruce). In conclusion, the results showed limited ability to increase tree survival and growth, and to manipulate the mycorrhizal community even by extensive pre-inoculations, indicating that fungal community formation in root systems is governed mainly by environmental factors. PMID:17277941

  12. Ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan Aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Manufactured gas plants produced gas for heating and lighting in the United States from as early as 1816 into the 1960's. By-products including, but not limited to, oil residues and tar, were generated during the gas-manufacturing process. Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) were detected in water in the upper water-bearing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Albany, Georgia, during an earlier investigation in 1990. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected from five existing monitoring wells in 1991 verify the presence of hydrocarbons and metals in the upper water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. One well was drilled into the lower water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in 1991 for water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. Analyses of ground water sampled from this well did not show evidence of benzene, toluene, xylene, napthalene, acenaphthlene, or other related compounds detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Low concentrations of tetrachloroethane, trichloromethane, and l,2-cisdichloroethene were detected in a water sample from the deeper well; however, these compounds were not detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Inorganic constituent concentrations also were substantially lower in the deeper well. Overall, ground water sampled from the lower water-bearing zone had lower specific conductance and alkalinity; and lower concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, and manganese compared to ground water sampled from the upper water-bearing zone. Water levels for the upper and lower water-bearing zones were similar throughout the study period.

  13. Arsenic distribution in soils and rye plants of a cropland located in an abandoned mining area.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ayuso, Esther; Abad-Valle, Patricia; Murciego, Ascensión; Villar-Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-15

    A mining impacted cropland was studied in order to assess its As pollution level and the derived environmental and health risks. Profile soil samples (0-50 cm) and rye plant samples were collected at different distances (0-150 m) from the near mine dump and analyzed for their As content and distribution. These cropland soils were sandy, acidic and poor in organic matter and Fe/Al oxides. The soil total As concentrations (38-177 mg kg(-1)) and, especially, the soil soluble As concentrations (0.48-4.1 mg kg(-1)) importantly exceeded their safe limits for agricultural use of soils. Moreover, the soil As contents more prone to be mobilized could rise up to 25-69% of total As levels as determined using (NH4)2SO4, NH4H2PO4 and (NH4)2C2O4·H2O as sequential extractants. Arsenic in rye plants was primarily distributed in roots (3.4-18.8 mg kg(-1)), with restricted translocation to shoots (TF=0.05-0.26) and grains (TF=<0.02-0.14). The mechanism for this excluder behavior should be likely related to arsenate reduction to arsenite in roots, followed by its complexation with thiols, as suggested by the high arsenite level in rye roots (up to 95% of the total As content) and the negative correlation between thiol concentrations in rye roots and As concentrations in rye shoots (|R|=0.770; p<0.01). Accordingly, in spite of the high mobile and mobilizable As contents in soils, As concentrations in rye above-ground tissues comply with the European regulation on undesirable substances in animal feed. Likewise, rye grain As concentrations were below its maximum tolerable concentration in cereals established by international legislation. PMID:26519583

  14. Arsenic distribution in soils and rye plants of a cropland located in an abandoned mining area.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ayuso, Esther; Abad-Valle, Patricia; Murciego, Ascensión; Villar-Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-15

    A mining impacted cropland was studied in order to assess its As pollution level and the derived environmental and health risks. Profile soil samples (0-50 cm) and rye plant samples were collected at different distances (0-150 m) from the near mine dump and analyzed for their As content and distribution. These cropland soils were sandy, acidic and poor in organic matter and Fe/Al oxides. The soil total As concentrations (38-177 mg kg(-1)) and, especially, the soil soluble As concentrations (0.48-4.1 mg kg(-1)) importantly exceeded their safe limits for agricultural use of soils. Moreover, the soil As contents more prone to be mobilized could rise up to 25-69% of total As levels as determined using (NH4)2SO4, NH4H2PO4 and (NH4)2C2O4·H2O as sequential extractants. Arsenic in rye plants was primarily distributed in roots (3.4-18.8 mg kg(-1)), with restricted translocation to shoots (TF=0.05-0.26) and grains (TF=<0.02-0.14). The mechanism for this excluder behavior should be likely related to arsenate reduction to arsenite in roots, followed by its complexation with thiols, as suggested by the high arsenite level in rye roots (up to 95% of the total As content) and the negative correlation between thiol concentrations in rye roots and As concentrations in rye shoots (|R|=0.770; p<0.01). Accordingly, in spite of the high mobile and mobilizable As contents in soils, As concentrations in rye above-ground tissues comply with the European regulation on undesirable substances in animal feed. Likewise, rye grain As concentrations were below its maximum tolerable concentration in cereals established by international legislation.

  15. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p < 0.05). Toxicity identification results of the final effluent collected in January 2010 showed that Al and Zn were key toxicants in addition to acidic pH. Unlike the Samma effluent, both Hwangji and Hamtae effluent had pH values that were near neutrality and showed either no acute toxicity or toxicity values less than 1 TU. However, the feeding rates of D. magna and M. macrocopa were significantly reduced when compared to the control (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the Hamtae and Hwangji effluent likely have a sublethal effect on aquatic organisms in receiving water bodies. PMID:22415647

  16. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  17. A PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CCA-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE EXPOSURE SCENARIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a probabilistic exposure and dose assessment on the arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) components of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives (SHEDS-Wood...

  18. Changes of Soil-Water-Plants relationships at abandoned field hillslopes along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    The trend towards a more arid climate conditions in some areas of the Mediterranean environments will positively feedback the desertification enhancing the soil degradation processes. Several researchers have established that some soil properties can be used as indicators of desertification and of soil degradation. One of those properties is the soil water content, highly dependent of the rainfall in the Mediterranean. Soil water content is one of the main indicators to asses the recharge of water supply for the vegetation survival, and therefore affect to the organic matter and organic carbon cycle in the short time. This study presents the results of the monitoring of soil water content, some physico-quemical soil properties and the vegetal cover from three hillslopes of abandoned fields, affected by sporadic grazing, during four years (2002-06) under different climatic conditions, in order to evaluate the survival possibilities of the vegetation, which re-colonized those abandoned fields, faced to a decrease in water supplies a cause of the Climate Change in Mediterranean. The research was carried out in the South of Spain, where there is a climatic gradient from the Strait of Gibraltar (1,500 mm year-1) to Cape of Gata (150 mm year-1), and which is one of the most affected areas by the soil degradational processes in the Western Mediterranean. Three hillslopes were selected along the study area, under three different climatic conditions (sub-humid, dry-Mediterranean and semi-arid), with similar topography, geology and original landuse. The differences between them were originated by the climate, which implied changes in vegetal cover and geomorphological processes. Soil water content was measured with a TDR-Tektronix at two depths (5 and 15 cm) since Nov-2002 to Sep-2006, from bottom to top every 10 m along the hillslopes. Vegetal cover was measured by means of a detailed photo-interpretation. Rainfalls were collected in rain gauges located in each field site

  19. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    PubMed

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  20. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    PubMed

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  1. Predicting acute and chronic effects of wood preservative products in Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata based on the concept of concentration addition.

    PubMed

    Coors, Anja; Weisbrod, Barbara; Schoknecht, Ute; Sacher, Frank; Kehrer, Anja

    2014-02-01

    The current European legislation requires that combined effects of the active substances and any substance of concern contained in biocidal products are taken into account in environmental risk assessment. The hypothesis whether the consideration of active substances together with all formulation additives that are labeled as presenting an environmental hazard is sufficient for a reliable environmental risk assessment was tested in the present study by investigating 3 wood preservative products. Relevant single substances in the products, some of their generic mixtures, the biocidal products themselves, and aqueous eluates prepared from the products (representing potential environmental mixtures) were tested for effects on algal growth and Daphnia acute immobilization as well as reproduction. Predictions for the products and the eluates were based on the concept of concentration addition and were mostly found to provide reliable or at least protective estimates for the observed acute and chronic toxicity of the mixtures. The mixture toxicity considerations also indicated that the toxicity of each product was dominated by just 1 of the components, and that assessments based only on the dominating substance would be similarly protective as a full-mixture risk assessment. Yet, there remained uncertainty in some cases that could be related to the toxicity of transformation products, the impact of unidentified formulation additives, or synergistic interaction between active substances and formulation additives.

  2. Use of on-site mycorrhizal inoculum for plant establishment on abandoned mined lands. Final report, 31 May 1988-31 March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, D.J.; Carling, D.E.

    1990-04-27

    Natural vegetation succession on abandoned coal-mined lands does not provide sufficient plant cover to control soil erosion in the short term. Soil inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi from an adjacent undisturbed area was used to inoculate balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings to improve plant growth. Soil inoculum contains the species of mycorrhizal fungi indigenous to the area as well as other beneficial organisms. An initial survey of mycorrhizal fungi in soils was conducted to determine the existing levels of mycorrhizal infection on native and disturbed soils. Four experiments were implemented to determine (1) fertilizer and mycorrhizal effects, (2) effects of successional stage of inoculum source, (3) effects of nitrogen sources in conjunction with mycorrhizae, and (4) the combinations of microsites, fertilizer, and mycorrhizae needed to establish vegetation on a steep slope. Soil-borne inoculum improved the growth of balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings over the 2-yr period.

  3. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  4. Exposure assessment of heavy metals on abandoned metal mine areas by ingestion of soil, crop plant and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-S.; Chon, H.-T.

    2003-05-01

    In order to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to arsenic and heavy metals influence by past mining activities, environmental geochemical survey was undertaken in the abandoned metal mine areas (Dongil Au-Ag-Cu-Zn mine, Okdong Cu-Pb-Zn mine, Myungbong Au-Ag mine). Arsenic and other heavy metals were highly elevated in the tailings from the Dongil mine (8,720 As mg/kg, 5.9 Cd mg/kg, 3,610 Cu mg/kg, 5,850 Pb mg/kg, 630 Zn mg/kg). Heavy metals except As from the Okdong mine (53.6 Cd mg/kg, 910 Cu mg/kg, 1,590 Pb mg/kg, 5,720 Zn mg/kg) and As from the Myungbong mine (5,810 As mg/kg) were also elevated. Elevated levels of As, Cd and Zn were also found in agricultural soils from these mine areas. The H.I. (hazard index) values of As and Cd from the Dongil, the Okdong and Myungbong mine areas are higher than 1.0. Therefore, toxic risk for As and Cd exist via exposure (ingestion) of contaminated soil, groundwater and rice grain in these mine areas.

  5. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal. PMID:26972868

  6. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site.

  7. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site. PMID:21972495

  8. 90Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we determined the 90Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. 90Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6–831 mBq (g Ca)‑1 and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of 90Sr (Bq (g Sr)‑1) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high 90Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that 90Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth 90Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental 90Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of 90Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to 90Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental 90Sr pollution.

  9. (90)Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Here we determined the (90)Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. (90)Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6-831 mBq (g Ca)(-1) and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of (90)Sr (Bq (g Sr)(-1)) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high (90)Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that (90)Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth (90)Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental (90)Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of (90)Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to (90)Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental (90)Sr pollution.

  10. 90Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Here we determined the 90Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. 90Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6–831 mBq (g Ca)−1 and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of 90Sr (Bq (g Sr)−1) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high 90Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that 90Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth 90Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental 90Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of 90Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to 90Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental 90Sr pollution. PMID:27045764

  11. (90)Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Here we determined the (90)Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. (90)Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6-831 mBq (g Ca)(-1) and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of (90)Sr (Bq (g Sr)(-1)) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high (90)Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that (90)Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth (90)Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental (90)Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of (90)Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to (90)Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental (90)Sr pollution. PMID:27045764

  12. Field scale remediation of mine wastes at an abandoned gold mine, Australia II: Effects on plant growth and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddocks, Greg; Lin, Chuxia; McConchie, David

    2009-05-01

    This second paper reports the results of plant growth, plant mortality, plant leaf tissue metal and salt concentrations and leachate quality monitoring from lysimeters in four large field trial treatments established on sulfidic waste rock/soil that was used for haul road construction at a closed gold mine in Australia. The TerraB™, lime and clay treatments allowed good tree growth of four Eucalypt species, compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in tree growth between the TerraB™, lime or clay treatments over the 2 years of monitoring in this paper. However, the growth of one tree species was poor in the TerraB™ treatment. Leaf tissue metal and major ion data are also presented. Leachate pH in the control became increasingly acidic (pH 4.57-3.95). The addition of Ca(OH)2 and biosolids led to an initial increase in leachate pH, compared to the control; however, this has decreased over the duration of the study (pH 5.37-4.89) and may affect the sustainable growth of plants in the future. In the TerraB™ and biosolids treatment leachate pH increased to 6.92 after the first rainfall event and continued to increase over the duration of the study to pH 7.4 after 24 months. After 24 months average heavy metal leachate concentrations (mg/L) in the lysimeters for Al, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn were, control: 32.55, 5.67, 12.71, 39.29, 121.80, TerraB™: 0.07, 0.02, 0.07, 0.57, 0.23, and lime: 2.19, 1.19, 2.33, 3.6, 28.4. No leachate was available for collection from the clay treatment indicating that this technique was functioning in terms of minimizing the infiltration of water into the mine soil.

  13. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended. PMID:26631396

  14. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.

  15. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, Escambia Brunswick Wood (a/k/a Brunswick Wood Preserving), Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS Number GAD981024466; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-09

    Brunswick Wood Preserving (BWP) is in Brunswick, Glynn County, in eastern Georgia. Both owners of the site manufactured wooden poles and pilings, which were treated with creosote and solutions of pentachlorophenate. This activity, as well as improper storage and disposal practices, lead to the contamination of several environmental media with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), pentachlorophenol (PCP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s), and dioxin. The site is categorized as an indeterminant public health hazard based upon data reviewed and observations made by ATSDR. This conclusion category was selected because the extent and magnitude of groundwater contamination and the extent of contamination in Burnett Creek have not been fully characterized. Data reviewed for this public health assessment does not indicate that exposure to chemicals at levels of concern is occurring.

  16. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  17. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  18. 48 CFR 45.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandonment, destruction... Disposal 45.603 Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. (a) Plant clearance... donate excess personal property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not...

  19. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandonment, destruction... Disposal 45.604-2 Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property. (a) Plant clearance officers... donate surplus property to eligible donees in lieu of abandonment if the Government will not bear any...

  20. Offshore abandonment heats up

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This paper reviews the new concerns regarding the decommissioning of offshore oil platforms which are rapidly coming of age. It reviews the history of past removal operations and the public outcry which is now causing a reevaluation of this abandonment policy. It reviews the number of platforms which are rapidly approaching maturity on a global basis. It then goes on to costs involved in such removal operations. Finally, it reviews the new platform designs which should allow a much more cost effective decommissioning process for these future rigs.

  1. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  2. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 245.45 Section 245... REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.45 Abandonment. (a) Establishing abandonment. Abandonment... owners if vessel and cargo are separately owned. In all cases other than emergency, abandonment will...

  3. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  4. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment. 245.45 Section 245... REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.45 Abandonment. (a) Establishing abandonment. Abandonment... owners if vessel and cargo are separately owned. In all cases other than emergency, abandonment will...

  5. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  6. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  7. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Express abandonment. 1.138... Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned by filing a written declaration of abandonment identifying the application in the United...

  8. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment. 245.45 Section 245... REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.45 Abandonment. (a) Establishing abandonment. Abandonment... owners if vessel and cargo are separately owned. In all cases other than emergency, abandonment will...

  9. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  10. Reconnaissance of Soil, Ground Water, and Plant Contamination at an Abandoned Oilfield-Service Site near Shawnee, Oklahoma, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, began a reconnaissance study of a site in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, in 2005 by testing soil, shallow ground water, and plant material for the presence of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Chemical analysis of plant material at the site was investigated as a preliminary tool to determine the extent of contamination at the site. Thirty soil samples were collected from 15 soil cores during October 2005 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Five small-diameter, polyvinyl-chloride-cased wells were installed and ground-water samples were collected during December 2005 and May 2006 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Thirty Johnsongrass samples and 16 Coralberry samples were collected during September 2005 and analyzed for 53 constituents, including trace elements. Results of the soil, ground-water, and plant data indicate that the areas of trace element and semivolatile organic compound contamination are located in the shallow (A-horizon) soils near the threading barn. Most of the trace-element concentrations in the soils on the study site were either similar to or less than trace-element concentrations in background soils. Several trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Levels 2007 for Tap Water, Residential Soils, Industrial Indoor Soils, and Industrial Outdoor Soils. There was little or no correlation between the plant and soil sample concentrations and the plant and ground-water concentrations based on the current sample size and study design. The lack of correlation between trace-element concentrations in plants and soils, and plants and ground water indicate that plant sampling was not useful as a preliminary tool to assess contamination at the study site.

  11. Tall Grass Invasion After Grassland Abandonment Influences the Availability of Palatable Plants for Wild Herbivores: Insight into the Conservation of the Apennine Chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corazza, Marcello; Tardella, Federico Maria; Ferrari, Carlo; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Invasion of the tall grass Brachypodium genuense was observed in an area of the central Apennines (Italy) where the population size of Apennine chamois ( Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) was in strong decline. Since this dominant tall grass threatens biodiversity and forage quality, our hypothesis was that B. genuense abundance influenced that of palatable species for the chamois, depending on their functional traits and distribution patterns. Our sampling design used plots of 10 × 10 m and 1 × 1 m to investigate the plant community level and fine-scale interactions. We analyzed data using correlation, generalized linear models, and redundancy analyses. We found that B. genuense can reach high abundance values on the deepest soils. Its high cover value influences plant community composition by competitive exclusion of subordinate species and suppression of functional features because of temporal or spatial niche overlap. This leads to low cover of palatable species at a fine scale, and to poor pasture quality for chamois at a wider scale. Therefore, we postulated that B. genuense invasion, enhanced by long-term grazing cessation, may reduce the availability of palatable plants for Apennine chamois, especially below the potential timberline (1900-2000 m a.s.l.). The high abundance of B. genuense may amplify the effect of other negative factors, such as competition with red deer ( Cervus elaphus) and climate change, in restricting the suitable habitat of the Apennine chamois to the higher sectors of the central Apennines. Thus, we suggested that B. genuense spread should be monitored carefully and plans to control its invasion should be implemented.

  12. Tall Grass Invasion After Grassland Abandonment Influences the Availability of Palatable Plants for Wild Herbivores: Insight into the Conservation of the Apennine Chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Marcello; Tardella, Federico Maria; Ferrari, Carlo; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Invasion of the tall grass Brachypodium genuense was observed in an area of the central Apennines (Italy) where the population size of Apennine chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) was in strong decline. Since this dominant tall grass threatens biodiversity and forage quality, our hypothesis was that B. genuense abundance influenced that of palatable species for the chamois, depending on their functional traits and distribution patterns. Our sampling design used plots of 10 × 10 m and 1 × 1 m to investigate the plant community level and fine-scale interactions. We analyzed data using correlation, generalized linear models, and redundancy analyses. We found that B. genuense can reach high abundance values on the deepest soils. Its high cover value influences plant community composition by competitive exclusion of subordinate species and suppression of functional features because of temporal or spatial niche overlap. This leads to low cover of palatable species at a fine scale, and to poor pasture quality for chamois at a wider scale. Therefore, we postulated that B. genuense invasion, enhanced by long-term grazing cessation, may reduce the availability of palatable plants for Apennine chamois, especially below the potential timberline (1900-2000 m a.s.l.). The high abundance of B. genuense may amplify the effect of other negative factors, such as competition with red deer (Cervus elaphus) and climate change, in restricting the suitable habitat of the Apennine chamois to the higher sectors of the central Apennines. Thus, we suggested that B. genuense spread should be monitored carefully and plans to control its invasion should be implemented.

  13. Tall Grass Invasion After Grassland Abandonment Influences the Availability of Palatable Plants for Wild Herbivores: Insight into the Conservation of the Apennine Chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Marcello; Tardella, Federico Maria; Ferrari, Carlo; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Invasion of the tall grass Brachypodium genuense was observed in an area of the central Apennines (Italy) where the population size of Apennine chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) was in strong decline. Since this dominant tall grass threatens biodiversity and forage quality, our hypothesis was that B. genuense abundance influenced that of palatable species for the chamois, depending on their functional traits and distribution patterns. Our sampling design used plots of 10 × 10 m and 1 × 1 m to investigate the plant community level and fine-scale interactions. We analyzed data using correlation, generalized linear models, and redundancy analyses. We found that B. genuense can reach high abundance values on the deepest soils. Its high cover value influences plant community composition by competitive exclusion of subordinate species and suppression of functional features because of temporal or spatial niche overlap. This leads to low cover of palatable species at a fine scale, and to poor pasture quality for chamois at a wider scale. Therefore, we postulated that B. genuense invasion, enhanced by long-term grazing cessation, may reduce the availability of palatable plants for Apennine chamois, especially below the potential timberline (1900-2000 m a.s.l.). The high abundance of B. genuense may amplify the effect of other negative factors, such as competition with red deer (Cervus elaphus) and climate change, in restricting the suitable habitat of the Apennine chamois to the higher sectors of the central Apennines. Thus, we suggested that B. genuense spread should be monitored carefully and plans to control its invasion should be implemented. PMID:26899738

  14. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  15. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  16. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  17. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  18. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  19. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216... NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT... Transactions and Abandonment § 157.216 Abandonment. (a) Automatic authorization. The certificate holder...

  20. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  1. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor Government.... Abandonment as authorized herein will not be a means for dropping accountability or responsibility...

  2. Comparative analysis of plant and macroinvertebrate communities and toxic metal concentrations at an abandoned surface mine in Grant County, West Virginia. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The document reports on the sampling of vegetation, utilizing list-count quadrats along predetermined transects within 3 major areas of Allison Engineering surface mine. Quadrats, 1/4 x m, were utilized to sample the herbaceous and ground strata. Vegetation was assessed according to percent cover, using 5 classes of cover to maintain objectivity. Sampling of vegetation within the Southern Section corresponded with sample sites. Sampling of vegetation within Middle Section was conducted to add to the data regarding vegetation influencing the Southern Section and the Northern Section Sampling of vegetation of Northern Section deviated from that of other sections (sampling not as random). Vegetative data from sections were analyzed by standard methods for cover (dominance) and frequency. A floristic list of the vascular plants surveyed/collected within sections categorized (pteridophytes, angiosperms-monocots, and angiosperms-dicots).

  3. Human and crab exposure to mercury in the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia: impact from an abandoned chlor-alkali plant.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; Güette-Fernández, Jorge; Magallanes-Carreazo, Elizabeth; Vanegas-Ramírez, Lenis; Kunihiko, Nakamura

    2008-05-01

    Human hair samples from male and female people aged 6-85 years, as well as muscle of crabs (Callinectes sapidus and Callinectes bocourti) were collected from different fishing places along the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia and analyzed for total mercury (T-Hg) in order to establish the impact of mercury-polluted sediments in Cartagena bay on the ecosystem. Hair T-Hg in inhabitants varied between 0.1 and 21.8 microg/g, with average and median of 1.52 microg/g and 1.1 microg/g, respectively. Differences between sampling locations were significant (P<0.01) and median values decreased in the order: Caño del Oro (1.5 microg/g)plant. Although the T-Hg median for these people is equal to the threshold risk level recommended by U.S. EPA, this study highlights the fact that contaminated sediments are still driving the distribution of mercury through the food chain, allowing its accumulation in fishermen whose diet includes marine products as sources of protein. PMID:18155151

  4. Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

  5. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  6. Well-integrity survey (Phase II) of abandoned homestead water wells in the High Plains aquifer, former Pantex Ordance Plant and Texas Tech Research Farm near Amarillo, Texas, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivers, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    The existence of abandoned homestead sites was confirmed by remains of foundations and (or) wells at 13 of 18 locations. The existence of abandoned homestead sites was indicated by broken glass and pottery and miscellaneous debris at 3 of the 18 locations. No evidence of past homestead existence was found at 2 of the 18 locations. Eight water wells were found at seven of the abandoned homestead sites. Three of the eight wells are accessible to steel tape measurement—two are accessible to more than 297 feet below land surface and one is accessible to 277.8 feet below land surface. Of the five wells not accessible to steel tape measurement, three are closed at the surface and two are blocked by debris at 12 and 3 feet below land surface, respectively. Water levels were not detected in any well that was accessible by steel tape.

  7. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  8. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  9. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  10. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  11. 37 CFR 2.65 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment. 2.65 Section 2... Abandonment. (a) If an applicant fails to respond, or to respond completely, within six months after the date... avoids abandonment of an application. (b) When action by the applicant filed within the...

  12. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS...

  13. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS...

  14. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS...

  15. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  16. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  17. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotta, C.; Guglietta, D.; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load), a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 2001-2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  18. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    PubMed

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  19. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    PubMed

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands. PMID:27140199

  20. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods

    PubMed Central

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands. PMID:27140199

  1. [Soil anti-erodibility of abandoned lands during different succession stages of plant community in hilly-gullied region of the Loess Plateau: Take Fangta small watershed as an example].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang-chen; Jiao, Ju-ying; Cao, Bin-ting; Yu, Wei-jie; Wei, Yan-hong; Kou, Meng; Hu, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Field survey and laboratory experiment were conducted to study the soil anti-erodibility of abandoned croplands during different vegetation succession stages in hilly-gullied region of the Loess Plateau, based on the analysis of soil particle composition, size distribution and group characteristics, soil aggregate fractal dimensions and stability. The results showed that in the earlier stages of succession from annual to perennial herbs in abandoned croplands, soil size distribution changed a little bit, the fractal dimension of soil particle increased, soil structure improved, fractal dimension and damage percent of soil aggregate structure decreased, soil stability increased, thus soil anti-erodibility increased. Therefore, natural restoration of vegetation is of great significance to improve the soil structure, increase soil erosion resistance, reduce soil erosion and promote sustainable development of regional ecological environment.

  2. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  4. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems.

  5. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  6. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  7. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems. PMID:27352281

  8. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  9. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  10. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  11. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 195.59... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method...

  12. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  13. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  14. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  15. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  16. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  17. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  18. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If...

  19. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If an...

  20. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If...

  1. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If...

  2. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... jeopardy, the Agency will take the above actions prior to completing servicing actions contained in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property...

  3. 20 CFR 345.206 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Abandonment. 345.206 Section 345.206 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.206 Abandonment. If an...

  4. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  5. 36 CFR 13.122 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment. 13.122 Section 13.122 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.122 Abandonment. (a) An existing cabin...

  6. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  7. Soil characteristics and vegetation features of abandoned and artificially revegetated surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Rafaill, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Soil characteristics and vegetational features of four 15-to-20-year-old contour coal surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains were compared. Two of the mines were abandoned after mining and are located in Campbell County, Tennessee. The other two mines, located in Bell County, Kentucky, were reclaimed after mining. The soils at all four sites were found to be in early stages of soil development. Chemical and physical soil factors were not detrimental to plant growth. Total overstory density at the abandoned sites was similar to that on the reclaimed mines, but one and one-half times as many tree size stems and twice as much basal area coverage were found on the abandoned sites as compared to the reclaimed mines. Many features resulting from prelaw contour mining practices benefited the development of plant communities on the mined land. Information should be sought from the study of plant communities which develop over the years on surface mines.

  8. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  9. Plant-arthropod interaction in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) of the Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Etiene Fabbrin; Sommer, Margot Guerra

    2009-02-01

    Plant-arthropod interactions provide the first relevant data for addressing evidence of phytophagy for an assemblage of coniferous silicified woods from the pre-rift phase in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. A complex system of borings, sometimes filled with small, oval to hexagonal coprolites, allow inferences to be made about the activities of termites (Isoptera). Previous dendrological data indicated that the climate during the Early Cretaceous on the landmasses of the northern Afro-Brazilian Depression was dry and savanna like, where termite borings were common. Features of wood preservation demonstrate that the damage was probably caused by herbivores, not detritivores.

  10. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  11. Governments grapple with abandonment fiscal terms

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, A.

    1997-12-08

    Governments worldwide are grappling with ways in which to treat offshore-facility abandonment and oil and gas field abandonment in their fiscal and environmental legislation. While some governments have introduced fiscal and environmental provisions for removing offshore installations, much of the legislation remains to be tested in practice. Many other governments have yet to introduce specific terms and legislation regarding the process. The method for financing offshore facilities abandonment must be agreed upon between the operators and countries. Carryback provisions typically are the most economically efficient, otherwise all parties lose out. Overall, because every country competes for a finite amount of funds, any hindrance to project profitability will ultimately hurt the government and therefore the continuation of economic development in the country. The paper discusses abandonment issues and costs, fiscal provisions, fiscal provision effects, and company preferences.

  12. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... will be made by the District Engineer based on the degree of hazard to navigation, the difficulty and... or 30 days of public notice, abandonment is presumed. (d) Cargo. If vessel and cargo are...

  13. 33 CFR 245.45 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... will be made by the District Engineer based on the degree of hazard to navigation, the difficulty and... or 30 days of public notice, abandonment is presumed. (d) Cargo. If vessel and cargo are...

  14. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  15. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  16. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  17. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  18. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  19. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  20. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  1. 20 CFR 410.649 - Dismissal by abandonment of party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment of party. 410.649..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.649 Dismissal by abandonment of... upon its abandonment by the party or parties who filed it. A party shall be deemed to have abandoned...

  2. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  3. 20 CFR 410.649 - Dismissal by abandonment of party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment of party. 410.649..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.649 Dismissal by abandonment of... upon its abandonment by the party or parties who filed it. A party shall be deemed to have abandoned...

  4. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  5. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  6. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Express abandonment... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written document required. An applicant may expressly abandon an application by filing a written request for abandonment...

  7. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  8. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned... from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military necessity, or...

  9. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. 192.727... Abandonment or deactivation of facilities. (a) Each operator shall conduct abandonment or deactivation of... commercially navigable waterway, the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of...

  10. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  11. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    PubMed

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured. PMID:25600021

  12. Assessing degradation of abandoned farmlands for conservation of the Monte Desert biome in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Yannelli, Florencia A; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits (p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery. PMID:24091587

  13. Assessing Degradation of Abandoned Farmlands for Conservation of the Monte Desert Biome in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannelli, Florencia A.; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E.; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits ( p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery.

  14. EVALUATING ACQ AS AN ALTERNATIVE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the waste reduction/pollution prevention and economic issues involved in replacing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) with ammoniacal copper/quaternary ammonium (ACQ) as a way to preserve wood. The most obvious pollution prevention benefit gained by using A...

  15. IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory biotreatability studies evaluated the use of bioventing and biosparging plus groundwater circulation (UVB technology) for their potential abililty to treat soil and groundwater containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. Soils from two former wood-treatment facilities w...

  16. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediationis used frequently at sites contaminated with organic hazardous chemical where releases from processing vessels and the mismanagement of reagents and generated waste have contributed to significant impairment of the environment. At wood treater sites, process reagen...

  17. Is sex advantageous in adverse environments? A test of the abandon-ship hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Joshua G; Bonser, Stephen P

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction remains a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology. Stress often induces sexual reproduction in facultatively sexual species (those species capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction). The abandon-ship hypothesis predicts higher allocation to sex under stress to allow low-fitness individuals to recombine their genotype, potentially increasing offspring fitness. However, effective tests of the abandon-ship hypothesis, particularly in multicellular organisms, are lacking. Here we test the abandon-ship hypothesis, using cyanogenic and acyanogenic defense phenotypes of the short-lived perennial herb Trifolium repens. Cyanogenesis provides an effective defense against herbivores and is under relatively simple genetic control (plants dominant for cyanogenesis at two alleles express the defended phenotype). Thus, maladapted individuals can acquire adaptive defense alleles for their offspring in a single episode of sexual reproduction. Plants were grown under high- and low-herbivory treatments (plants were exposed to herbivorous snails) and a control treatment (no herbivory). Herbivores reduced growth and fitness in all treated plants, but herbivory induced higher sexual allocation only in maladapted (acyanogenic) individuals. Overall, our results support the abandon-ship hypothesis. PMID:24231534

  18. Is sex advantageous in adverse environments? A test of the abandon-ship hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Joshua G; Bonser, Stephen P

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction remains a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology. Stress often induces sexual reproduction in facultatively sexual species (those species capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction). The abandon-ship hypothesis predicts higher allocation to sex under stress to allow low-fitness individuals to recombine their genotype, potentially increasing offspring fitness. However, effective tests of the abandon-ship hypothesis, particularly in multicellular organisms, are lacking. Here we test the abandon-ship hypothesis, using cyanogenic and acyanogenic defense phenotypes of the short-lived perennial herb Trifolium repens. Cyanogenesis provides an effective defense against herbivores and is under relatively simple genetic control (plants dominant for cyanogenesis at two alleles express the defended phenotype). Thus, maladapted individuals can acquire adaptive defense alleles for their offspring in a single episode of sexual reproduction. Plants were grown under high- and low-herbivory treatments (plants were exposed to herbivorous snails) and a control treatment (no herbivory). Herbivores reduced growth and fitness in all treated plants, but herbivory induced higher sexual allocation only in maladapted (acyanogenic) individuals. Overall, our results support the abandon-ship hypothesis.

  19. Biofuels production on abandoned and marginal agriculture lands in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. E.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.

    2008-12-01

    The location of biofuels agriculture land is a critical parameter for predicting biomass feedstock yields, land use emissions, and optimal plant varieties. Using abandoned and marginal agriculture lands to grow feedstocks for second-generation biofuels could provide a sustainable alternative to conventional biofuels production. These marginal areas are in a state of flux in the Midwestern U.S. where a 2007 surge in biofuels has contributed to competing land use demands including conventional biofuels crops, food agriculture, and conservation. Here we apply land use and agriculture data to consider the extent and productivity of abandoned and marginal lands in the Midwestern U.S. for production of second-generation biofuels.

  20. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  1. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  2. The Impact of Land Abandonment on Species Richness and Abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no “one-size-fits-all” conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity. PMID:24865979

  3. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity.

  4. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity. PMID:24865979

  5. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane

    2010-12-01

    Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991

  6. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands in India

    SciTech Connect

    Aufmuth, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    An international approach to developing a conceptual environmental management plan for the reclamation of abandoned coal mined lands in India will be discussed. This plan will be aimed at reclamation of a coal field which has been mined for almost 100 years with no reclamation of any kind.

  8. Reclamation of abandoned mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reclamation of abandoned mine lands in West Virginia involves disturbed areas from both surface and deep mining activities. Reclamation of deep mine lands deal with mine waste piles and mine openings. Reclamation of surface mine lands involves shaping and grading material to obtain a stable slope and installing water management practices.

  9. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  10. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  11. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  12. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  13. 19 CFR 147.47 - Mandatory abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory abandonment. 147.47 Section 147.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.47 Mandatory...

  14. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  15. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  16. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  17. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  18. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  19. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  20. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  1. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  2. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  3. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  4. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  5. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  7. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  9. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  10. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  11. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  12. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  13. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  14. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  15. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  16. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  17. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  18. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  19. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  20. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  1. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  2. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  3. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  4. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  5. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  6. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  7. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  8. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  9. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  10. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  11. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  12. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  13. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account in a federally insured institution in lieu of the bond required...

  14. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  15. 50 CFR 27.93 - Abandonment of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment of property. 27.93 Section 27.93 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Abandonment of property. Abandoning, discarding, or otherwise leaving any personal property in any...

  16. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  17. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  18. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  19. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  20. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  1. 37 CFR 2.135 - Abandonment of application or mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment of application or... Abandonment of application or mark. After the commencement of an opposition, concurrent use, or interference proceeding, if the applicant files a written abandonment of the application or of the mark without...

  2. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  3. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner of... to NOAA. Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment under this section may be accomplished by various...

  4. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements of... with the plugging and abandonment provisions of § 147.3108 of this subpart....

  5. 42 CFR 422.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 422.1060 Section 422.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it is abandoned by...

  6. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  7. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  8. 36 CFR 14.30 - Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonconstruction, abandonment... OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.30 Nonconstruction, abandonment or nonuse. Unless... to construct within the period allowed and for abandonment or nonuse....

  9. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  11. 20 CFR 802.402 - Dismissal by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissal by abandonment. 802.402 Section 802... Completion of Board Review Dismissals § 802.402 Dismissal by abandonment. (a) Upon motion by any party or representative or upon the Board's own motion, an appeal may be dismissed upon its abandonment by the party...

  12. 42 CFR 422.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 422.1060 Section 422.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it is abandoned by...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  14. 21 CFR 1303.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1303.27 Section 1303.27 Food... Quotas § 1303.27 Abandonment of quota. Any manufacturer assigned an individual manufacturing quota for... abandonment, stating the name and Administration Controlled Substances Code Number, as set forth in part...

  15. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). 57.22223 Section 57.22223 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... abandonment (III mines). A means of ventilating faces shall be provided before workings are abandoned...

  17. 19 CFR 12.126 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of abandonment. 12.126 Section 12.126 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.126 Notice of abandonment. If the importer intends to abandon the shipment after receiving...

  18. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  19. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  20. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  1. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  9. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  10. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  12. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  13. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  14. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  15. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  16. Sealing abandoned mines with treated flyash kills two birds with one stone

    SciTech Connect

    Giacinto, J.F.; Rafalko, L.G.; Petzrick, P.

    2007-02-15

    Environmentally benign disposal of coal combustion products/by-products (CCPs) such as flyash and bottom ash has been a problem since the first coal-fired power plant went on-line. In recent years, ways have been developed to recycle CCPs into useful commercial products like bricks and roadbase. This article describes an innovative State of Maryland program that is putting CCPs to yet another use: stabilizing abandoned mines to permanently sequester acids and harmful metals. As engineering consultants to the State's Power Plant Research Project (PPRP), Environmental Resources Management (ERM) Inc. has conducted several projects to evaluate and demonstrate the beneficial use of CCPs for deep mine stabilization. These are several hundred abandoned underground mines in western Maryland and several thousand across the Mid-Atlantic Highlands and their proximity to coal-fired plants makes it cost-effective to transport CCPs via existing railroads and highways. 8 figs.

  17. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  18. Biochar and compost amendments enhance copper immobilisation and support plant growth in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah; Bardos, R Paul; Kidd, Petra S; Mench, Michel; de Leij, Frans; Hutchings, Tony; Cundy, Andrew; Joyce, Chris; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Herzig, Rolf; Menger, Pierre

    2016-04-15

    Contamination of soil with trace elements, such as Cu, is an important risk management issue. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of three biochars and compost on plant growth and the immobilisation of Cu in a contaminated soil from a site formerly used for wood preservation. To assess Cu mobility, amended soils were analysed using leaching tests pre- and post-incubation, and post-growth. Amended and unamended soils were planted with sunflower, and the resulting plant material was assessed for yield and Cu concentration. All amendments significantly reduced leachable Cu compared to the unamended soil, however, the greatest reductions in leachable Cu were associated with the higher biochar application rate. The greatest improvements in plant yields were obtained with the higher application rate of biochar in combination with compost. The results suggest joint biochar and compost amendment reduces Cu mobility and can support biomass production on Cu-contaminated soils. PMID:26850677

  19. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  20. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  1. Hydropedologic patterns of escalic soils in cultivated and abandoned vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, Elmar; Rellini, Ivano; Scopesi, Claudia; Tassistro, Martina; Märker, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The construction of vineyard terraces was conducted extensively for many centuries in the Mediterranean area. However, the use of this technique has direct influences on a hillslope environment. Both artificial topographic transformation and frequently agricultural use have a strong impact on terrace soils. Hydromechanical properties have been scarcely investigated. They can change due to several terrace construction techniques, ploughing and particularly abandonment. These changes can cause the collapse of terrace walls due to modifications in the inner drainage behaviour of the terrace and increase the susceptibility to failure of a terraced slope. To determine differencies in hydropedological water fluxes of escalic soils, infiltration and saturated hydraulic conductivity in 25cm, 50cm and 100cm were measured on defined Unique Condition Units (UCU) in the Vernazza catchment in Cinque Terre, Italy. The determination of soil texture and soil skeleton supported the information of the hydropedologic information. Moreover, shear strength of the soil in the three depths was estimated with a light torvane device and compared with the texture and the hydrological values. The results of our study indicate that escalic soils in vineyards in a Mediterranean torrential catchment show certain hydropedologic patterns under different substratum and distinct agricultural land cover conditions. The latter is defined by both species-related coverage of distinct crop plants and status of cultivation or abandonment respectively. These results depict the fundament for the application of physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling on the terraced landscape of the Vernazza catchment. The hydropedologic patterns determined in our study are expected to represent the conditions of water fluxes in the soil better and make the results of landslide susceptibility models more reliable.

  2. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  3. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils.

    PubMed

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Vaquero-Perea, Cristina; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana Nieto, Jose R; González-Huecas, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L; Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01-0.15 (Cd), 2.6-34 (Cu), 6.6-30 (Pb), and 29-92mgkg(-1) (Zn). Cadmium (11-100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and availability of metals

  4. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils.

    PubMed

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Vaquero-Perea, Cristina; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana Nieto, Jose R; González-Huecas, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L; Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01-0.15 (Cd), 2.6-34 (Cu), 6.6-30 (Pb), and 29-92mgkg(-1) (Zn). Cadmium (11-100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and availability of metals

  5. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA BNSF... Abandonments to abandon its freight rail operating easement over a 5.3-mile line of railroad owned by the Los... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad-- ] Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  6. 75 FR 40862 - Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Macomb County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Macomb County.... 1152 Subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon its line of railroad between milepost 0.00 and milepost 0... affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion...

  7. 77 FR 26602 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Walsh and Pembina Counties, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Walsh and Pembina Counties... subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon 18.12 miles of rail line located between milepost 42.08 at... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  8. 43 CFR 3263.10 - May I abandon a well without BLM's approval?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.10 May I abandon a well without BLM's approval? (a) You must have a BLM-approved Sundry Notice documenting your plugging and abandonment program before you start abandoning any well. (b) You must also notify the local BLM office before you begin abandonment activities, so that...

  9. 76 FR 31008 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Erie County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Erie County, NY CSX... Abandonments to abandon an approximately 0.56-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Buffalo... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  10. 76 FR 72241 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cass County, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cass County, ND BNSF Railway... Abandonments to abandon 7.40 miles of rail line extending between milepost 68.10 at Arthur and milepost 75.50... ] abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad-- Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  11. 76 FR 43374 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH CSX... Abandonments to abandon an approximately 0.21-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Toledo Branch Subdivision... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  12. 76 FR 51470 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In Oswego County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--In Oswego County, NY CSX... Abandonments to abandon 2 formerly connected rail lines in CSXT's Northern Region, Albany Division, Fulton... affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion...

  13. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Washington County.... 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 0.28 miles of rail line (New Meadows Industrial Lead... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  14. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  15. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-11-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  16. 42 CFR 498.69 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 498.69 Section 498.69 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.69 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss...

  17. 42 CFR 422.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 422.1060 Section 422.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 422.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it...

  18. 43 CFR 3595.2 - Abandonment of underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandonment of underground workings. 3595.2 Section 3595.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.2 Abandonment of...

  19. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104 Section 147.3104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2905 - Plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment. 147.2905 Section 147.2905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...-Class II Wells § 147.2905 Plugging and abandonment. The owner/operator shall notify the Osage UIC...

  1. 42 CFR 498.69 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 498.69 Section 498.69 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.69 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss...

  2. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104 Section 147.3104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  3. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary abandonment or destruction. 147.46 Section 147.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Voluntary abandonment or destruction. At any time before or within 3 months after the closing date of...

  4. 42 CFR 423.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 423.1060 Section 423.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Civil Money Penalties § 423.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147.3105 Section 147.3105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  6. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  7. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104 Section 147.3104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  8. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2905 - Plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment. 147.2905 Section 147.2905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...-Class II Wells § 147.2905 Plugging and abandonment. The owner/operator shall notify the Osage UIC...

  10. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  11. 12 CFR 16.19 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 16.19 Section 16.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.19 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any registration statement, amendment, or exhibit may...

  12. 12 CFR 16.19 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 16.19 Section 16.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.19 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any registration statement, amendment, or exhibit may...

  13. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  14. 43 CFR 3595.2 - Abandonment of underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandonment of underground workings. 3595.2 Section 3595.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.2 Abandonment of...

  15. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  16. 42 CFR 423.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 423.1060 Section 423.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Civil Money Penalties § 423.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request...

  17. 12 CFR 197.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 197.11 Section 197.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  18. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  19. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  20. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section 18.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event...

  1. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Voluntary abandonment or destruction. 147.46 Section 147.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Voluntary abandonment or destruction. At any time before or within 3 months after the closing date of...

  2. 42 CFR 423.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 423.1060 Section 423.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 423.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it...

  3. 42 CFR 498.69 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 498.69 Section 498.69 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.69 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss...

  4. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  5. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Voluntary abandonment or destruction. 147.46 Section 147.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Voluntary abandonment or destruction. At any time before or within 3 months after the closing date of...

  6. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  7. 42 CFR 422.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 422.1060 Section 422.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 422.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it...

  8. 12 CFR 390.420 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 390.420 Section 390.420 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be withdrawn prior to...

  9. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Voluntary abandonment or destruction. 147.46 Section 147.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Voluntary abandonment or destruction. At any time before or within 3 months after the closing date of...

  10. 12 CFR 390.420 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 390.420 Section 390.420 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be withdrawn prior to...

  11. 12 CFR 390.420 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 390.420 Section 390.420 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be withdrawn prior to...

  12. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section 18.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event...

  13. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147.3105 Section 147.3105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  14. 43 CFR 3595.2 - Abandonment of underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandonment of underground workings. 3595.2 Section 3595.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.2 Abandonment of...

  15. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104 Section 147.3104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  16. 12 CFR 197.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 197.11 Section 197.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  17. 42 CFR 498.69 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 498.69 Section 498.69 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.69 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss...

  18. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147.3105 Section 147.3105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  19. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must be payable upon demand to BOEM and pledged to meet the lessee's obligations under 30 CFR 250.1703... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56... abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific...

  20. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147.3105 Section 147.3105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  1. 12 CFR 16.19 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 16.19 Section 16.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.19 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any registration statement, amendment, or exhibit may...

  2. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  3. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section 18.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event...

  4. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  5. 42 CFR 423.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 423.1060 Section 423.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 423.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it...

  6. 12 CFR 197.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 197.11 Section 197.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  7. 42 CFR 498.69 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 498.69 Section 498.69 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.69 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss...

  8. 12 CFR 16.19 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 16.19 Section 16.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.19 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any registration statement, amendment, or exhibit may...

  9. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  10. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147.3105 Section 147.3105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  11. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must be payable upon demand to BOEM and pledged to meet the lessee's obligations under 30 CFR 250.1703... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56... abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  13. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104 Section 147.3104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  14. 40 CFR 147.2905 - Plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment. 147.2905 Section 147.2905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...-Class II Wells § 147.2905 Plugging and abandonment. The owner/operator shall notify the Osage UIC...

  15. 12 CFR 16.19 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 16.19 Section 16.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.19 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any registration statement, amendment, or exhibit may...

  16. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  17. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  18. 42 CFR 422.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 422.1060 Section 422.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 422.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request for hearing if it...

  19. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must be payable upon demand to BOEM and pledged to meet the lessee's obligations under 30 CFR 250.1703... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56... abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific...

  20. 19 CFR 147.46 - Voluntary abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Voluntary abandonment or destruction. 147.46 Section 147.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Voluntary abandonment or destruction. At any time before or within 3 months after the closing date of...

  1. 43 CFR 3595.2 - Abandonment of underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandonment of underground workings. 3595.2 Section 3595.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.2 Abandonment of...

  2. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  3. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section 18.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event...

  4. 42 CFR 423.1060 - Dismissal for abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dismissal for abandonment. 423.1060 Section 423.1060 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Civil Money Penalties § 423.1060 Dismissal for abandonment. (a) The ALJ may dismiss a request...

  5. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section 18.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  7. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  11. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  12. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Compliance with paragraph (b) or (c) of this section provides a non-exclusive safe harbor from integration...

  13. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  14. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  15. A study of abandoned ash ponds reclaimed through green cover development.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Agarwal, Palak; Singh, Reena; Adholeya, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Green capping is one of the popular methods to re-vegetate abandoned ash ponds of coal based thermal power plants thereby lowering the risk of contamination to the surrounding environment. It has innumerable advantages such as prevention of dust emission, checking soil erosion, stabilizing the surface areas of ash, preventing potential ground water contamination, and finally, adding native vegetation cover, which is very vital in the long term. During the early nineties and later, various reclamation projects were carried out on fly ash dumps, but until date, there have not been any initiatives to assess the alterations in physicochemical and biological properties of fly ash resulting from implementation of these reclamation projects. In the present study, three abandoned ash ponds, located in India, that were reclaimed during 1998-2003 are investigated. Marked alterations in nutritional status, microbial population, and microbial activities have been observed in reclaimed ash ponds.

  16. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  17. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  18. Investigation of the Abandonment Rate and Causes of Abandonment of Innovative Practices in Secondary Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArman, John W.

    The adoption of educational innovations by secondary schools, their abandonment, and the causes for abandonment are the subjects of this study. The researchers surveyed 3,271 high schools accredited by the North Central Association, including both public and private schools. School administrators were questioned about the history in their schools…

  19. Recovery of methane from the abandoned Golden Eagle Mine property

    SciTech Connect

    Hupp, K.L.; Bibler, C.; Pilcher, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    The abandoned Golden Eagle underground coal mine in Colorado contains gassy coals from which Stroud Oil Properties, Inc. (Stroud) has been recovering gas since 1996. The mine closed permanently in 1996, and during its operation drained methane from gob and ventilation boreholes. Stroud currently produces about 1.8 million cubic feet of near pipeline quality gas per day from six of these boreholes. Although the project has proven successful, gas recovery has been challenging because of low bottom hole pressure and variable borehole performance. Wellhead compressors are required to boost gas pressure for delivery to the main plant. Connecting additional boreholes to the gathering system often decreases production from existing production boreholes. Increasing gas removal has resulted in air leaks that lower gas quality. Stroud monitors the gas quality and blends any below-spec gas with its above-spec gas to ensure that the resulting product meets pipeline standards. This gas is then compressed for sale into a nearby pipeline. Overburden relaxation and finite difference modeling indicate that overlying coal seams and the coal remaining at the margins of the mined out workings contribute a significant amount of gas to the current production.

  20. Reclamation of abandoned shrimp pond soils in southern Thailand for cultivation of Mauritius grass (Brachiaria mutica).

    PubMed

    Towatana, P; Voradej, C; Leeraphante, N

    2003-09-01

    A study on soil reclamation for cultivation of Mauritius grass was conducted on soils obtained from abandoned shrimp ponds at Ranote District, Songkhla Province, southern Thailand. A glass house experiment on the reclamation of the soils included desalination by leaching soils using various amounts of deionised water, rice husk, plant nutrients and gypsum as well as an omission pot trial experiment. The result showed that Mauritius grass survived in the treatment with > or = 15 L of water, > or = 2% of rice husk with gypsum added or > or = 8% of rice husk without gypsum added. The yield of Mauritius grass increased with increases in the amounts of water for desalination and rice husk. Thus, the highest yield of grass with a height of 148.3 cm, 12.7 tillers/pot and dry weight of 46.43 g/pot was observed in the gypsum added treatment with the highest amount of water and rice husk (25 L of water and 8% by weight of rice husk). Therefore, salinity and unfavourable structure of the abandoned pond soils were major factors governing the survival ability and growth of the grass. The omission pot trial experiment revealed that growth of the grass responded to the application of P, Ca, Mg and S, though existing amounts of such plant nutrient elements in the soils were adequate for plant growth. The anomalous characteristics were probably explained by soil pH, salinity and imbalance of plant nutrient elements.

  1. Defining and distinguishing treatment abandonment in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Howard, Scott C; Lam, Catherine G

    2015-05-01

    Cancer management requires accurate identification of the causes of treatment failure followed by cause-specific interventions. One cause of treatment failure that has received too little attention is abandonment of treatment. Abandonment includes 2 key elements: (1) failing to complete therapy for a disease that could be cured or definitively controlled, and (2) missing all treatment for a sustained time period to an extent that impacts the ability to cure or definitively control the disease. In this Historical Insight paper, we analyze historic and current terminology used to describe treatment abandonment in patients and provide a framework to distinguish it from nonadherence and loss to follow-up.

  2. Abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    VanMeter, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Kentucky courts often treat abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases as synonymous, using the rule that abandonment consists of two elements: (1) a voluntary relinquishment of possession and (2) intent to repudiate ownership. A review of several court cases concludes that the difficulty of proving intention severely limits the lessor's ability to have a lease cancelled due to abandonment. The Kentucky Supreme Court has not held any coal lease to have been abadnoned since 1949. Cancellation due to forfeiture is the lessor's better means of ensuring diligent and capable development of his property, but a court will not decree a forfeiture unless the lease contains a forfeiture clause. 100 references.

  3. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G.; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Arora, Ramandeep S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment abandonment (TxA) is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC). However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data. Methods Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists), nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted. Results 602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%), practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83%) in general or children’s hospitals (79%). Results suggested, 23,854 (15%) of 155,088 children <15 years old newly diagnosed with cancer annually in the countries analyzed, abandon therapy. Importantly, 83% of new childhood cancer cases and 99% of TxA were attributable to LMC. The annual number of cases of TxA expected in LMC worldwide (26,166) was nearly equivalent to the annual number of cancer cases in children <15 years expected in HIC (26,368). Approximately two thirds of LMC had median TxA≥6%, but TxA ≥6% was reported in high- (9%), upper-middle- (41%), lower-middle- (80%), and low-income countries (90%, p<0.001). Most LMC centers reporting TxA>6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥6% (p<0.001). Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC. Conclusion Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally), confirm the suspected

  4. Declining Diversity in Abandoned Grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains: Do Dominant Species Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Csergő, Anna Mária; Demeter, László; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Traditional haymaking has created exceptionally high levels of plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), the maintenance of which is jeopardized by recent abandonment and subsequent vegetation succession. We tested the hypothesis that the different life history strategies of dominant grasses cause different patterns of diversity loss after abandonment of traditional haymaking in two types of meadow. Although diversity loss rate was not significantly different, the mechanism of loss depended on the life history of dominant species. In meadows co-dominated by competitive stress-tolerant ruderals, diversity loss occurred following the suppression of dominant grasses by tall forbs, whereas in meadows dominated by a stress-tolerant competitor, diversity loss resulted from increased abundance and biomass of the dominant grass. We conclude that management for species conservation in abandoned grasslands should manipulate the functional turnover in communities where the dominant species is a weaker competitor, and abundance and biomass of dominant species in communities where the dominant species is the stronger competitor. PMID:24014148

  5. Striped-tailed Yellow-finch nesting success in abandoned mining pits from central Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Gressler, D T; Marini, M Â

    2015-01-01

    Suitability of degraded areas as breeding habitats can be tested through assessment of nest predation rates. In this study we estimated nest success in relation to several potential predictors of nest survival in the Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch (Sicalis citrina) breeding in abandoned mining pits at Brasília National Park. We monitored 73 nests during the 2007-breeding season. Predation was the main cause of nest failure (n = 48, 66%); while six nests were abandoned (8%) and 19 nests produced young (26%). Mayfield's daily survival rates and nest success were 0.94 and 23%, respectively. Our results from nest survival models on program MARK indicated that daily survival rates increase linearly towards the end of the breeding season and decrease as nests aged. None of the nest individual covariates we tested - nest height, nest size, nest substrate, and edge effect - were important predictors of nest survival; however, nests placed on the most common plant tended to have higher survival probabilities. Also, there was no observer effect on daily survival rates. Our study suggests that abandoned mining pits may be suitable alternative breeding habitats for Striped-tailed Yellow-finches since nest survival rates were similar to other studies in the central cerrado region.

  6. Weed inhibition by sowing legume species in early succession of abandoned fields on Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Hua; Xu, Dang-Hui; Wang, Gang

    2008-01-01

    A major constraint on vegetation succession on abandoned land is dominance by early successional species. Our aim was to inhibit weeds and alter the initial vegetation succession by the introduction of legume species ( Medicago sativa, Melilotus suaveolens, and Astragalus adsurgens) into abandoned fields on the Loess Plateau, China. Results from our study showed that the addition of legume species strongly affected the dominance pattern of the abandoned-field vegetation. The number of naturally colonizing species was inhibited by the introduction of legume species in the first two growing seasons. The strongest effect on weed inhibition appeared by sowing Melilotus suaveolens. Vegetation cover and above-ground biomass increased after introduction of legume species and the number of naturally colonizing plant species showed a positive correlation with above-ground biomass. Later successional species like Stipa breviflora and Astragalus polycladus appeared three years following the introduction of Melilotus suaveolens, indicating that the course of old-field succession may be accelerated by introducing legume species such as Melilotus suaveolens, at least temporarily.

  7. Litter contribution to soil organic carbon in the processes of agriculture abandon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, A.; Rühl, J.; La Mantia, T.; Gristina, L.; La Bella, S.; Tuttolomondo, T.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of litter decomposition, translocation and stabilization into soil layers are fundamental processes in the functioning of the ecosystem, as they regulate the cycle of soil organic matter (SOM) and CO2 emission into the atmosphere. In this study the contribution of litters of different stages of Mediterranean secondary succession on carbon sequestration was investigated, analyzing the role of earthworms in the translocation of SOM into the soil profile. For this purpose the δ13C difference between meadow C4-C soil and C3-C litter was used in a field experiment. Four undisturbed litters of different stages of succession (45, 70, 100 and 120 since agriculture abandon) were collected and placed on the top of isolated C4 soil cores. The litter contribution to C stock was affected by plant species and it increased with the age of the stage of secondary succession. One year after the litter position, the soil organic carbon increased up to 40% in comparison to soils not treated with litter after 120 years of abandon. The new carbon derived from C3 litter was decomposed and transferred into soil profile thanks to earthworms and the leaching of dissolved organic carbon. After 1 year the carbon increase attributed to earthworm activity was 6 and 13% in the soils under litter of fields abandoned for 120 and 45 years, respectively.

  8. Litter contribution to soil organic carbon in the agriculture abandons processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Francaviglia, Dario; La Mantia, tommaso; Gristina, Luciano; La Bella, Salvatore; Tuttolomondo, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Mechanisms of litter decomposition, translocation and stabilization into soil layers are fundamental processes in ecosystem functioning as it regulates the cycle of soil organic matter (SOM), CO2 emission into the atmosphere, carbon sequestration into the soil. In this study, it was investigated the contribution of litters of different stages of Mediterranean secondary succession on Carbon sequestration, analyzing the role of earthworms on translocation of SOM into soil profile. For this purpose δ13C difference between meadow C4-C soil and C3-C litter were used in a field experiment. Four undisturbed litters of different stages of succession were collected (45, 70, 100 and 120 since agriculture abandon) and placed on the top of isolated soil cores. The litter contribution to C stock was affected by plant species and increased with the age of the stage of secondary succession. The soil organic carbon after 1 year since litter position increased up to 40% in comparison to no litter treatment in soil with litter of 120 years since abandon. The new carbon derived from C3-litter was decomposed and transferred into soil profile thanks to earthworms and dissolved organic carbon leaching. After 1 years the carbon increase attributed to earthworm activity ranged from 6% to 13% in soil under litter in field abandoned since 120 and 45 years, respectively.

  9. Litter contribution to soil organic carbon in the agriculture abandons processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, A.; Rühl, J.; La Mantia, T.; Gristina, L.; La Bella, S.; Tuttolomondo, T.

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms of litter decomposition, translocation and stabilization into soil layers are fundamental processes in ecosystem functioning as it regulates the cycle of soil organic matter (SOM), CO2 emission into the atmosphere, carbon sequestration into the soil. In this study, it was investigated the contribution of litters of different stages of Mediterranean secondary succession on Carbon sequestration, analyzing the role of earthworms on translocation of SOM into soil profile. For this purpose δ13C difference between meadow C4-Csoil and C3-Clitter were used in a field experiment. Four undisturbed litters of different stages of succession were collected (45, 70, 100 and 120 since agriculture abandon) and placed on the top of isolated soil cores. The litter contribution to C stock was affected by plant species and increased with the age of the stage of secondary succession. The soil organic carbon after 1 year since litter position increased up to 40% in comparison to no litter treatment in soil with litter of 120 years since abandon. The new carbon derived from C3-litter was decomposed and transferred into soil profile thanks to earthworms and dissolved organic carbon leaching. After 1 years the carbon increase attributed to earthworm activity ranged from 6 to 13% in soil under litter in field abandoned since 120 and 45 years, respectively.

  10. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  11. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  13. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  15. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has become... of such notice, the Commissioner shall publish a notice in the Official Journal that the variety...

  16. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  17. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land..., Navajo Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Department, Division of Natural Resources, Navajo......

  18. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  19. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  20. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land..., Navajo Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Department, Division of Natural Resources, Navajo......

  1. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land..., Navajo Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Department, Division of Natural Resources, Navajo......

  2. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  3. 30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's Abandoned Mine Land..., Navajo Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Department, Division of Natural Resources, Navajo......

  4. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  5. 78 FR 66801 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in St. Joseph County, Ind.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in St. Joseph County... 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a total of approximately 1.5 miles of rail line located... exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short...

  6. 7 CFR 97.23 - Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application... withdrawal and abandonment of an application. (a) An application may be voluntarily withdrawn or abandoned by submitting to the Office a written request for withdrawal or abandonment, signed by the applicant or his...

  7. 37 CFR 1.135 - Abandonment for failure to reply within time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment for failure to... Processing Provisions Time for Reply by Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.135 Abandonment for failure... action indicates otherwise. (b) Prosecution of an application to save it from abandonment pursuant...

  8. 7 CFR 97.23 - Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application... withdrawal and abandonment of an application. (a) An application may be voluntarily withdrawn or abandoned by submitting to the Office a written request for withdrawal or abandonment, signed by the applicant or his...

  9. 7 CFR 97.23 - Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application... withdrawal and abandonment of an application. (a) An application may be voluntarily withdrawn or abandoned by submitting to the Office a written request for withdrawal or abandonment, signed by the applicant or his...

  10. 78 FR 5244 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Fulton County, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Fulton County, IL...-Exempt Abandonments to abandon 14.5 miles of rail line between milepost 52.2 in Farmington and milepost... been met. As a condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall...

  11. 19 CFR 158.43 - Abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.43 Abandonment or destruction of... for abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond with the port director on Customs From...

  12. 41 CFR 109-45.902-2 - Abandonment or destruction without notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Abandonment or... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.902-2 Abandonment or destruction without notice. The head of...

  13. 75 FR 35513 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash... Abandonments to abandon a 1.45-mile line of railroad, on the Yakima Industrial Lead, from milepost 57.30 to... abandonment while the trackage rights remain in effect. As a condition to this exemption, any...

  14. 41 CFR 109-45.902 - Findings justifying abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... abandonment or destruction. 109-45.902 Section 109-45.902 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.902 Findings justifying abandonment or destruction....

  15. 7 CFR 97.23 - Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application... withdrawal and abandonment of an application. (a) An application may be voluntarily withdrawn or abandoned by submitting to the Office a written request for withdrawal or abandonment, signed by the applicant or his...

  16. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  17. 75 FR 10547 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Jefferson County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Jefferson County, NY CSX... Abandonments to abandon a 0.24-mile rail line, known as the Roe Feed Industrial Track, on its Northern Region... condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected...

  18. 75 FR 79086 - Mohall Central Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Cavalier County, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Mohall Central Railroad, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Cavalier County, ND...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 5.4-mile line of railroad extending between milepost 67.5 near Calvin, N... before MCR seeks abandonment authority here. See Mohall Cent. R.R.-- Aban. Exemption--in Nelson,...

  19. 37 CFR 1.135 - Abandonment for failure to reply within time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment for failure to... Processing Provisions Time for Reply by Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.135 Abandonment for failure... action indicates otherwise. (b) Prosecution of an application to save it from abandonment pursuant...

  20. 37 CFR 1.135 - Abandonment for failure to reply within time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandonment for failure to... Processing Provisions Time for Reply by Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.135 Abandonment for failure... action indicates otherwise. (b) Prosecution of an application to save it from abandonment pursuant...

  1. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pickens Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pickens County, SC Pickens...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 8.5 miles of rail line between approximate milepost 0.0 (at... exemption procedure is appropriate, citing Union Pacific Railroad Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Ada...

  2. 41 CFR 109-45.902 - Findings justifying abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... abandonment or destruction. 109-45.902 Section 109-45.902 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.902 Findings justifying abandonment or destruction....

  3. 37 CFR 1.135 - Abandonment for failure to reply within time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandonment for failure to... Processing Provisions Time for Reply by Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.135 Abandonment for failure... action indicates otherwise. (b) Prosecution of an application to save it from abandonment pursuant...

  4. 78 FR 48931 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Lucas County.... 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 1.0 miles of rail line extending between... employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line...

  5. 75 FR 35514 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, WA... Abandonments to abandon a 0.8-mile line of railroad, on the Yakima Industrial Lead, from milepost 62.75 to... abandonment while the trackage rights remain in effect. As a condition to this exemption, any...

  6. 37 CFR 1.135 - Abandonment for failure to reply within time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment for failure to... Processing Provisions Time for Reply by Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.135 Abandonment for failure... action indicates otherwise. (b) Prosecution of an application to save it from abandonment pursuant...

  7. 75 FR 42814 - Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis-Abandonment Exemption-in Howard County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption-- in Howard... CFR part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 2.84 miles of rail line on CERA's Tipton... employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad &...

  8. 7 CFR 97.23 - Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application... withdrawal and abandonment of an application. (a) An application may be voluntarily withdrawn or abandoned by submitting to the Office a written request for withdrawal or abandonment, signed by the applicant or his...

  9. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  10. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... written notice of abandonment with the director of the port where the entry was filed within 30 days...

  11. 78 FR 57681 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, Iowa... subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.6 miles of non-contiguous rail line segments in... condition to this exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected...

  12. 41 CFR 109-45.902 - Findings justifying abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandonment or destruction. 109-45.902 Section 109-45.902 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.902 Findings justifying abandonment or destruction....

  13. 78 FR 54512 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Hinds County, Miss.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Hinds County... part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.16 miles of rail line between... exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short...

  14. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  15. 19 CFR 158.43 - Abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.43 Abandonment or destruction of... for abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond with the port director on Customs From...

  16. 41 CFR 109-45.902-2 - Abandonment or destruction without notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abandonment or... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.902-2 Abandonment or destruction without notice. The head of...

  17. 19 CFR 158.43 - Abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.43 Abandonment or destruction of... for abandonment or destruction of merchandise in bond with the port director on Customs From...

  18. 41 CFR 109-45.902-2 - Abandonment or destruction without notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abandonment or... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.902-2 Abandonment or destruction without notice. The head of...

  19. 49 CFR 1105.12 - Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 20423, a notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F—Exempt Abandonments permitting the (abandonment... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption... OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.12 Sample newspaper notices for abandonment exemption cases. In...

  20. 41 CFR 109-45.902-2 - Abandonment or destruction without notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandonment or... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property § 109-45.902-2 Abandonment or destruction without notice. The head of...