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Sample records for abandonment accurate reservoir

  1. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  2. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  3. Hydrogeological definition and applicability of abandoned coal mines as water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, A; Jardón, S; Álvarez, R; Andrés, C; Pendás, F

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogeologically, the Central Coal Basin (Asturias, Spain) is characterized by predominantly low-permeability materials that make up a multilayer aquifer with very low porosity and permeability values, where the sandstones act as limited aquifers, and wackes, mudstones, shales and coal seams act as confining levels. Preferential groundwater flow paths are open fractures and zones of decompression associated with them, so the hydraulic behaviour of the system is more associated with fracturing than lithology. Thus, abandoned and flooded mines in the area acquire an important role in the management of water resources, setting up an artificial "pseudo-karst" aquifer. This paper evaluates the potential application of the abandoned mines as underground reservoirs, both for water supply and energetic use, mainly through heat pumps and small hydropower plants. In particular, the groundwater reservoir shaped by the connected shafts Barredo and Figaredo has been chosen, and a detailed and multifaceted study has been undertaken in the area. The exposed applications fit with an integrated management of water resources and contribute to improve economic and social conditions of a traditional mining area in gradual decline due to the cessation of such activity.

  4. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request

  5. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and his thesis was reported on in the last semi-annual report. We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, we requested and received an extension of the project to September 30, 2005. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project by the end of the extension data. We strongly believe that the results of

  6. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    McCreedy, C.D.; Glickman, L.T.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs was investigated in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir, Pond B, Savannah River Site, Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The authors collected fish by trap-netting, and determined ages from pectoral spines. Muscle and other tissues were assayed for {sup 137}Cs by NaI-scintillation. Music {sup 137}Cs was unrelated to sex or mass of fish, but was related to age. Examination of least-squares means suggested that {sup 137}Cs in muscle increased up to about age 3, but did not increase with greater age. A modified Richards model showed equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration in muscle was acquired in approximately 2.4 years. Growth differed between sexes and the time to asymptotic body mass was longer than the time to attain equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration. Males attained an asymptotic mass of 577 g in approximately 6.3 years; females attained an asymptotic mass of 438 g in approximately 5.9 years. The cumulative {sup 137}Cs burden of the population was 4.9 {times} 10{sup 6} Bq, representing <0.001% of the {sup 137}Cs inventory of the reservoir. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs varied among tissues with gill and muscle the lowest and highest. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in ovaries declined with increasing ovary mass. Until equilibrium is attained in these fish, {sup 137}Cs concentration is directly related to increasing age rather than size.

  7. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2006-02-01

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  8. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2016-12-01

    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  9. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2016-01-01

    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. PMID:27916970

  10. Reservoir evaluation of thin-bedded turbidites and hydrocarbon pore thickness estimation for an accurate quantification of resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omoniyi, Bayonle; Stow, Dorrik

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the assessment of and production from turbidite reservoirs is to take full account of thin and medium-bedded turbidites (<10cm and <30cm respectively). Although such thinner, low-pay sands may comprise a significant proportion of the reservoir succession, they can go unnoticed by conventional analysis and so negatively impact on reserve estimation, particularly in fields producing from prolific thick-bedded turbidite reservoirs. Field development plans often take little note of such thin beds, which are therefore bypassed by mainstream production. In fact, the trapped and bypassed fluids can be vital where maximising field value and optimising production are key business drivers. We have studied in detail, a succession of thin-bedded turbidites associated with thicker-bedded reservoir facies in the North Brae Field, UKCS, using a combination of conventional logs and cores to assess the significance of thin-bedded turbidites in computing hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT). This quantity, being an indirect measure of thickness, is critical for an accurate estimation of original-oil-in-place (OOIP). By using a combination of conventional and unconventional logging analysis techniques, we obtain three different results for the reservoir intervals studied. These results include estimated net sand thickness, average sand thickness, and their distribution trend within a 3D structural grid. The net sand thickness varies from 205 to 380 ft, and HPT ranges from 21.53 to 39.90 ft. We observe that an integrated approach (neutron-density cross plots conditioned to cores) to HPT quantification reduces the associated uncertainties significantly, resulting in estimation of 96% of actual HPT. Further work will focus on assessing the 3D dynamic connectivity of the low-pay sands with the surrounding thick-bedded turbidite facies.

  11. Coupling geostatistics to detailed reservoir description allows better visualization and more accurate characterization/simulation of turbidite reservoirs: Elk Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.E.; Wilson, M.L.; Wightman, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Elk Hills giant oilfield, located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California, has produced 1.1 billion barrels of oil from Miocene and shallow Pliocene reservoirs. 65% of the current 64,000 BOPD production is from the pressure-supported, deeper Miocene turbidite sands. In the turbidite sands of the 31 S structure, large porosity permeability variations in the Main Body B and Western 31 S sands cause problems with the efficiency of the waterflooding. These variations have now been quantified and visualized using geostatistics. The end result is a more detailed reservoir characterization for simulation. Traditional reservoir descriptions based on marker correlations, cross-sections and mapping do not provide enough detail to capture the short-scale stratigraphic heterogeneity needed for adequate reservoir simulation. These deterministic descriptions are inadequate to tie with production data as the thinly bedded sand/shale sequences blur into a falsely homogenous picture. By studying the variability of the geologic petrophysical data vertically within each wellbore and spatially from well to well, a geostatistical reservoir description has been developed. It captures the natural variability of the sands and shales that was lacking from earlier work. These geostatistical studies allow the geologic and petrophysical characteristics to be considered in a probabilistic model. The end-product is a reservoir description that captures the variability of the reservoir sequences and can be used as a more realistic starting point for history matching and reservoir simulation.

  12. Coupling geostatistics to detailed reservoir description allows better visualization and more accurate characterization/simulation of turbidite reservoirs: Elk Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.E.; Wilson, M.L.; Wightman, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Elk Hills giant oilfield, located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California, has produced 1.1 billion barrels of oil from Miocene and shallow Pliocene reservoirs. 65% of the current 64,000 BOPD production is from the pressure-supported, deeper Miocene turbidite sands. In the turbidite sands of the 31 S structure, large porosity & permeability variations in the Main Body B and Western 31 S sands cause problems with the efficiency of the waterflooding. These variations have now been quantified and visualized using geostatistics. The end result is a more detailed reservoir characterization for simulation. Traditional reservoir descriptions based on marker correlations, cross-sections and mapping do not provide enough detail to capture the short-scale stratigraphic heterogeneity needed for adequate reservoir simulation. These deterministic descriptions are inadequate to tie with production data as the thinly bedded sand/shale sequences blur into a falsely homogenous picture. By studying the variability of the geologic & petrophysical data vertically within each wellbore and spatially from well to well, a geostatistical reservoir description has been developed. It captures the natural variability of the sands and shales that was lacking from earlier work. These geostatistical studies allow the geologic and petrophysical characteristics to be considered in a probabilistic model. The end-product is a reservoir description that captures the variability of the reservoir sequences and can be used as a more realistic starting point for history matching and reservoir simulation.

  13. Reducing the Need for Accurate Stream Flow Forecasting for Water Supply Planning by Augmenting Reservoir Operations with Seawater Desalination and Wastewater Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate stream flow forecasts are critical for reservoir operations for water supply planning. As the world urban population increases, the demand for water in cities is also increasing, making accurate forecasts even more important. However, accurate forecasting of stream flows is difficult owing to short- and long-term weather variations. We propose to reduce this need for accurate stream flow forecasts by augmenting reservoir operations with seawater desalination and wastewater recycling. We develop a robust operating policy for the joint operation of the three sources. With the joint model, we tap into the unlimited reserve of seawater through desalination, and make use of local supplies of wastewater through recycling. However, both seawater desalination and recycling are energy intensive and relatively expensive. Reservoir water on the other hand, is generally cheaper but is limited and variable in its availability, increasing the risk of water shortage during extreme climate events. We operate the joint system by optimizing it using a genetic algorithm to maximize water supply reliability and resilience while minimizing vulnerability subject to a budget constraint and for a given stream flow forecast. To compute the total cost of the system, we take into account the pumping cost of transporting reservoir water to its final destination, and the capital and operating costs of desalinating seawater and recycling wastewater. We produce results for different hydro climatic regions based on artificial stream flows we generate using a simple hydrological model and an autoregressive time series model. The artificial flows are generated from precipitation and temperature data from the Canadian Regional Climate model for present and future scenarios. We observe that the joint operation is able to effectively minimize the negative effects of stream flow forecast uncertainty on system performance at an overall cost that is not significantly greater than the cost of a

  14. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SANANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-15

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; (7) Mobility control agents.

  15. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, E.; Batsch, F.; Muggli, P.

    2016-09-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE) (Assmann et al., 2014 [1]) project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook (Marlow, 1967 [2]) method and has been described in great detail in the work by Hill et al. (1986) [3]. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of 1% for the vapor density-length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach-Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prototype 8 cm long novel Rb vapor cell.

  16. Use of Loran-C navigation system to accurately determine sampling site location in an above ground cooling reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, R.E.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental monitoring programs often require accurate determination of sampling site locations in aquatic environments. This is especially true when a {open_quotes}picture{close_quotes} of high resolution is needed for observing a changing variable in a given area and location is assumed to be important to the distribution of that variable. Sample site location can be difficult if few visible land marks are available for reference on a large body of water. The use of navigational systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and its predecessor, Loran-C, provide an excellent method for sample site location. McFarland (1992) discusses the practicality of GPS for location determination. This article discusses the use of Loran-C in a sampling scheme implemented at the South Texas Project Electrical Generating Station (STPEGS), Wadsworth, Texas.

  17. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2000-04-27

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  18. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-12-11

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  19. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman

    2003-01-17

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  20. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-08-10

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  1. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  2. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  3. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  4. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  5. Spatial Risk Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing near Abandoned and Converted Oil and Gas Wells.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Joshua W; Yelderman, Joe C; James, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Interaction between hydraulically generated fractures and existing wells (frac hits) could represent a potential risk to groundwater. In particular, frac hits on abandoned oil and gas wells could lead to upward leakage into overlying aquifers, provided migration pathways are present along the abandoned well. However, potential risk to groundwater is relatively unknown because few studies have investigated the probability of frac hits on abandoned wells. In this study, actual numbers of frac hits were not determined. Rather, the probability for abandoned wells to intersect hypothetical stimulated reservoir sizes of horizontal wells was investigated. Well data were compiled and analyzed for location and reservoir information, and sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumed sizes of stimulated reservoirs. This study used public and industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas, with specific attention paid to abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells (converted wells). In counties with Eagle Ford Shale activity, well-data analysis identified 55,720 abandoned wells with a median age of 1983, and 2400 converted wells with a median age of 1954. The most aggressive scenario resulted in 823 abandoned wells and 184 converted wells intersecting the largest assumed stimulated reservoir size. Analysis showed abandoned wells have the potential to be intersected by multiple stimulated reservoirs, and risks for intersection would increase if currently permitted horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford Shale are actually completed. Results underscore the need to evaluate historical oil and gas activities in areas with modern unconventional oil and gas activities.

  6. Abandoning the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Barton, R

    1975-12-01

    Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.

  7. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  8. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone reservoirs of South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, P.R.; Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E.

    1996-09-01

    Domestic fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs contain more than 30 Billion barrels (Bbbl) of remaining oil, more than any other type of reservoir, approximately one-third of which is in danger of permanent loss through premature field abandonments. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed its highest priority on increasing near-term recovery from FDD reservoirs in order to prevent abandonment of this important strategic resource. To aid in this effort, the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, began a 46-month project in October, 1992, to develop and demonstrate advanced methods of reservoir characterization that would more accurately locate remaining volumes of mobile oil that could then be recovered by recompleting existing wells or drilling geologically targeted infill. wells. Reservoirs in two fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas, a mature play which still contains 1.6 Bbbl of mobile oil after producing 1 Bbbl over four decades, were selected as laboratories for developing and testing reservoir characterization techniques. Advanced methods in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, and engineering were integrated to (1) identify probable reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, (2) determine past fluid-flow history, (3) integrate fluid-flow history with reservoir architecture to identify untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool compartments, and (4) identify specific opportunities for near-term reserve growth. To facilitate the success of operators in applying these methods in the Frio play, geologic and reservoir engineering characteristics of all major reservoirs in the play were documented and statistically analyzed. A quantitative quick-look methodology was developed to prioritize reservoirs in terms of reserve-growth potential.

  9. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  10. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  11. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  12. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  13. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  14. Influence of Hydraulic Fracturing on Overlying Aquifers in the Presence of Leaky Abandoned Wells.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Joshua W; James, Scott C; Yelderman, Joe C

    2016-11-01

    The association between hydrocarbon-rich reservoirs and organic-rich source rocks means unconventional oil and gas plays usually occur in mature sedimentary basins-where large-scale conventional development has already taken place. Abandoned wells in proximity to hydraulic fracturing could be affected by increased fluid pressures and corresponding newly generated fractures that directly connect (frac hit) to an abandoned well or to existing fractures intersecting an abandoned well. If contaminants migrate to a pathway hydraulically connected to an abandoned well, upward leakage may occur. Potential effects of hydraulic fracturing on upward flow through a particular type of leaky abandoned well-abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells were investigated using numerical modeling. Several factors that affect flow to leaky wells were considered including proximity of a leaky well to hydraulic fracturing, flowback, production, and leaky well abandonment methods. The numerical model used historical records and available industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas. Numerical simulations indicate that upward contaminant migration could occur through leaky converted wells if certain spatial and hydraulic conditions exist. Upward flow through leaky converted wells increased with proximity to hydraulic fracturing, but decreased when flowback and production occurred. Volumetric flow rates ranged between 0 and 0.086 m(3) /d for hydraulic-fracturing scenarios. Potential groundwater impacts should be paired with plausible transport mechanisms, and upward flow through leaky abandoned wells could be unrelated to hydraulic fracturing. The results also underscore the need to evaluate historical activities.

  15. Inactive and abandoned noncoal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Volume 1 outlines the environmental, health and safety problems at IAMS (Inactive, Abandoned Mine Sites), remediation technologies, remediation costs, the methodology states used in preparing state reports, and state summary tables. It also describes the broad range of policy options for remediation of problems associated with IAMS. Volume 2 gives state reports for inactive and abandoned noncoal mines for the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming. Volume 3 lists the State reports for the inactive and abandoned noncoal mines for the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia. A separate abstract is included for each of the 3 volumes of this set.

  16. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  17. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  18. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  19. 32 CFR 644.496 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandonment. 644.496 Section 644.496 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.496 Abandonment. Abandonment, as used herein, has reference to cases where the lessor or a permittor...

  20. Characterizing Methane Emissions and Sources from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, T.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Lamb, B. K.; Fries, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work indicates that methane (CH4) inventories for the United States are underestimated. We made direct measurements of CH4 emissions from 144 abandoned oil and gas wells, a source currently missing from inventories. Most abandoned wells do not emit CH4, but about 2% of wells surveyed contributed 95% of the observed emissions, particularly unplugged wells. Isotopic analyses indicate that wells emit CH4 from natural gas and/or coal bed CH4. Using emission factors developed from these measurements we provide basin wide estimates of CH4 emissions from abandoned wells in the Uintah and Denver-Julesburg basins. Extrapolated nationally, leakage from abandoned wells may contribute significantly to the current CH4 inventory for oil and gas activities. Additional data on emissions and activity factors are needed to accurately determine the contribution of abandoned wells to CH4 budgets, particularly a better characterization of the distribution of high emitters.

  1. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres reservoir. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hickman, T.S.; Justice, J.J.

    1997-07-30

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: advanced petrophysics; three-dimensional seismic; cross-well bore tomography; advanced reservoir simulation; CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments; hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and mobility control agents. During the quarter, cross well seismic work continued, using the revised processing software. The validity of the seismic-guided mapping was confirmed by the drilling of a well. Revised CO{sub 2} performance projects were run using the enhanced geologic model in which the seismic data had been incorporated. Facilities for supplying and distributing CO{sub 2} to the area were designed and bids solicited for the materials and construction.

  2. Accurate reservoir evaluation from borehole imaging techniques and thin bed log analysis: Case studies in shaly sands and complex lithologies in Lower Eocene Sands, Block III, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Coll, C.; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Computer-aided signal processing in combination with different types of quantitative log evaluation techniques is very useful for predicting reservoir quality in complex lithologies and will help to increase the confidence level to complete and produce a reservoir. The Lower Eocene Sands in Block III are one of the largest reservoirs in Block III and it has produced light oil since 1960. Analysis of Borehole Images shows the reservoir heterogeneity by the presence of massive sands with very few shale laminations and thinnly bedded sands with a lot of laminations. The effect of these shales is a low resistivity that has been interpreted in most of the cases as water bearing sands. A reduction of the porosity due to diagenetic processes has produced a high-resistivity behaviour. The presence of bed boundaries and shales is detected by the microconductivity curves of the Borehole Imaging Tools allowing the estimation of the percentage of shale on these sands. Interactive computer-aided analysis and various image processing techniques are used to aid in log interpretation for estimating formation properties. Integration between these results, core information and production data was used for evaluating producibility of the reservoirs and to predict reservoir quality. A new estimation of the net pay thickness using this new technique is presented with the consequent improvement on the expectation of additional recovery. This methodology was successfully applied in a case by case study showing consistency in the area.

  3. Artesian Well Abandonment at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Johansen, Deda

    2015-01-01

    The artesian well tasked for abandonment was located on the LOX side (northwest area) of the launch complex. The exact date of well installation is unknown. The well was no longer in use at the time of the abandonment request, but was previously utilized under St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) consumptive use permit (No. 50054) for the Floridian Aquifer. The exact construction details of the LOX artesian well were also unknown; however, a similar-type artesian well was previously located on the LH2 side of the site, which was abandoned in 2012. Based on discussions with the NASA RPM and review of the LH2 artesian well abandonment completion report, the LH2 artesian well was reported to be an 8-inch diameter, 330-foot deep well. The NASA RPM communicated that the LOX artesian well was likely to be an 8-inch diameter, 380-foot deep well. This information was used for scoping, and was subsequently confirmed to be substantially accurate. No additional information could be found for the LOX artesian well using the NASA Remediation Information System (RIS).

  4. Assist in the recovery of bypassed oil from reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico. Quarterly status report (final), July 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schenewerk, P.A.

    1994-11-30

    The objective of this research is to assist the recovery of non contacted oil from known reservoirs on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Mature offshore reservoirs, declining oil reserves, declining production, and other natural forces are accelerating the abandonment of offshore oil resources and production platforms. As these offshore wells are plugged and the platforms are abandoned, an enormous volume of remaining oil will be permanently abandoned. Significant quantities of this oil could be recovered using advanced technologies now available if the resource can be identified. This project will proceed under three broad phases: (1) Analysis -- TORIS level data will be collected on the major fields located in the piercement salt dome province of the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf. Representative reservoirs will be studied in detail in order to evaluate undeveloped and attic oil reserve potential. These detailed investigations will be used to calibrate the TORIS level predictive models. The recovery potential of advanced secondary and enhanced oil recovery processes and the exploitation of undeveloped and attic oil zones for salt dome reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico will be assessed. (2) Supporting Research -- Supporting research will focus on the modification of public domain reservoir simulation models to accurately simulate the conditions encountered in the piercement salt dome province of the Gulf of Mexico. Laboratory research will focus on the development of fluid relationships that will be used in the simulation of miscible and immiscible processes in the project area. (3) Technology Transfer -- A significant effort is planned to transfer the results of this project to potential users of the technology. Technology transfer activities will also provide feedback channels that will help keep the analysis and supporting research focused on the most important problems associated with this project.

  5. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems.

  6. Meandering stream reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Braided stream deposits, described in a previous article in this series, and meandering stream deposits commonly are excellent reservoirs. Meandering high-sinuousity channels are found on flat alluvial plains with slopes less than 1 1/2/sup 0/ (0.026 rad). These rivers have wide ranges of discharges from low-water flow to flood stage. Two main processes are responsible for development of sand bodies. These are point-bar deposits left by channel migration, and oxbow-lake deposits left in loops of the river course abandoned when the stream cuts a new course during flooding. Extremely high floods spill over the banks and deposit sheets of very fine sand, silt, and clay onto the flood plain.

  7. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  8. Incidence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection in abandoned citrus occurring in proximity to commercially managed groves.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2010-12-01

    Huanglongbing is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (Citrus spp.). One management tactic against huanglongbing is aggressive management of the vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), with insecticide applications. However, D. citri in abandoned groves are not controlled and therefore pose a risk of reinfestation for nearby commercial citrus. These abandoned groves could serve as a reservoir for the vector, as well as a source of the presumed causal agent for huanglongbing in Florida, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). The current study was conducted to determine the degree to which Las is present in abandoned Florida citrus groves and to compare relative inoculum levels in nearby managed and abandoned groves during times of the year when D. citri are abundant (June, July, and August). In addition, the movement of Las by dispersing D. citri adults from inner and edge rows of abandoned grove plots to the corresponding rows of managed plots was quantified during the same 3 mo. The results of the current study confirmed the presence of Las in both D. citri and plant tissue in abandoned groves at statistically equivalent levels to those in nearby managed groves. The mean number of D. citri adults dispersing from abandoned to managed grove plots ranged from 7.25 +/- 1.70 to 70.25 +/- 21.25 per 4-d intervals. Of those, the mean number of dispersing D. citri adults that were carrying the Las pathogen ranged from 1.00 +/- 0.58 to 1.50 +/- 0.50. Our results indicate that abandoned citrus groves are a significant source of Ca. Las and that dispersing D. citri move this pathogen into nearby managed groves.

  9. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

  10. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  11. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  12. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  13. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  14. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  15. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  16. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The δ13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and

  17. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  18. Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the progress of EPA's cleanup of abandoned uranium mines on Navajo and Hopi lands and in other areas of Arizona and New Mexico, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  19. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property on behalf of the borrower when such action is in the Agency's financial interest. If the security is...

  20. Asymptomatic bowel perforation by abandoned ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A; Williams, Todd R; Spizarny, David L

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management.

  1. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  2. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inventory impacts of abandoned wells for the U.S. . Available methane emission rate data for abandoned wells is reviewed and some of the ongoing research to better characterize emissions is discussed. Efforts to compile a database of well drilling activities since the 1870’s for each state and each state’s establishment of well plugging standards for abandoned wells is described. Progress towards an estimate of national methane emissions from abandoned wells and major sources of uncertainty are presented. These emissions are put in to context by comparing to other sources of methane emissions from oil and gas production activities. This is an abstract for a presentation at the Natural GasSTAR Annual Implementation Workshop on November 16-18, 2015 in Pittsburgh, PA. The subject is methane emissions fro abandoned wells. This is a report on interim progress on a effort we have with ERG. OAP is involved in the project and will review slides.

  3. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application abandoned because the applicant did not timely respond to an Office action or notice of allowance... abandonment, if the applicant did not receive the notice of abandonment, and the applicant was diligent in... for filing a petition to revive an application abandoned because the applicant did not timely...

  4. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres reservoir. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hickman, T.S.; Justice, J.J.

    1998-01-31

    West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field in the northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4,800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill-drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982--86 pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. Recent installation of a CO{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO{sub 2} injection project at the South Welch Unit. The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: advanced petrophysics; three-dimensional seismic; cross-well bore tomography; advanced reservoir simulation; CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments; hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and mobility control agents. During the quarter, development of the project`s south expansion area was undertaken, work was continued on interpreting the crosswell seismic data and CO{sub 2} injection into 11 wells was initiated.

  5. Which accesses should be abandoned or revised?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the factors in deciding whether to abandon a functioning access. Strong indications for ligation or excision of an access are infection or severe early-onset steal. Access ligation may also be required for central vein occlusion or high-output cardiac failure. In general, a failing or thrombosed access should be restored to function unless it is no longer required. For failing or thrombosed distal arteriovenous fistulas, it may be easiest to abandon it and create a new fistula a few centimetres proximally rather than perform angioplasty, which is likely to require repeating. Other accesses may be abandoned after repeated treatment of the same stenosis over a short period provided other options exist.

  6. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields.

    PubMed

    Elhottová, D; Szili-Kovács, T; Tríska, J

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological evaluation of sandy grassland soils from two different stages of secondary succession on abandoned fields (4 and 8 years old fallow) was carried out as a part of research focused on restoration of semi-natural vegetation communities in Kiskunság National Park in Hungary. There was an apparent total N and organic C enrichment, stimulation of microbial growth and microbial community structure change on fields abandoned by agricultural practice (small family farm) in comparison with native undisturbed grassland. A successional trend of the microbial community was found after 4 and 8 years of fallow-lying soil. It consisted in a shift of r-survival strategy to more efficient C economy, in a decrease of specific respiration and metabolic activity, forced accumulation of storage bacterial compounds and increased fungal distribution. The composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids mixture of soils abandoned at various times was significantly different.

  7. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexationmore » model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.« less

  8. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexation model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.

  9. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  10. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  11. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  12. Towards Understanding Methane Emissions from Abandoned Wells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reconciliation of large-scale top-down methane measurements and bottom-up inventories requires complete accounting of source types. Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells is an area of uncertainty. This presentation reviews progress to characterize the potential inv...

  13. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  14. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  15. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain... abandon: (1) Any receipt or delivery point if all of the existing customers of the pipeline served through...) showing the location of the proposed facilities and a concise analysis discussing the relevant...

  16. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  17. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  18. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  20. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  1. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  2. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  3. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...

  4. 19 CFR 18.44 - Abandonment of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.44 Abandonment of exportation. In the event that exportation is abandoned at any time after merchandise has been placed under cover of a TIR carnet, the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of exportation. 18.44 Section...

  5. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  6. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  7. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  8. 30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  19. Uncertainty analysis for water supply reservoir yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Faith; Vogel, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the variability of water supply reservoir yields is central for planning purposes. The basis of this study is an empirical global relationship between reservoir storage capacity, water supply yield and reliability based on a global database of 729 rivers. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the coefficient of variation of estimates of water supply reservoir yields depend only on the length of streamflows record and the coefficient of variation of the streamflows used to estimate the yield. We compare the results of those Monte Carlo experiments with an analytical uncertainty method First Order Variance Approximation (FOVA). FOVA is shown to produce a general, accurate and useful expression for estimating the coefficient of variation of water supply reservoir yield estimates. We also document how the FOVA analytical model can be used to determine the minimum length of streamflow record required during the design of water supply reservoirs so as to ensure that the yield delivered from reservoir falls within a prespecified margin of error.

  20. 76 FR 31008 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Erie County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Abandonments to abandon an approximately 0.56-mile rail line on its Northern Region, Albany Division, Buffalo... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  1. A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Space Abandoned Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaohua, Zhang

    Abstract: Influenced by the limited space resources and the increased space debris, it is very exigent to clean the orbital abandoned satellite. The thermal characteristic of the abandoned satellite is a key parameter for the infrared radiation study, and it is also an important gist to estimate whether or not the satellite can be worked correctly. And this paper researched on the thermal analysis of the LEO and GEO abandoned satellite, and has been acquired the temperature variety law for the the space abandoned target, which is very significant for apperceiving the space situation and cleaning the space abandoned satellites and other debris initiatively.    

  2. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  3. Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bétournay, Marc C

    2009-10-01

    The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk.

  4. Why are pharmaceutical companies gradually abandoning vaccines?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    During the past fifty years, the number of pharmaceutical companies making vaccines has decreased dramatically, and those that still make vaccines have reduced resources to make new ones. Pharmaceutical companies are gradually abandoning vaccines because the research, development, testing, and manufacture of vaccines are expensive and because the market to sell vaccines is much smaller than the market for other drug products. Congressional action could assure both a steady supply of existing vaccines and the promise of vaccines for the future.

  5. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  6. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  7. Adaptation of Bird Communities to Farmland Abandonment in a Mountain Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, João Lopes; Miguel Pereira, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR) to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat) models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD) at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest) at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain areas. PMID

  8. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, João Lopes; Miguel Pereira, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR) to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat) models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD) at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest) at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain areas.

  9. Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Toomarian, N.B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Aminzadeh, F.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  10. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  11. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR FLOW MEASUREMENTS FROM MARIOTTE RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, Jim; Murphy, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The mariotte reservoir supplies water at a constant hydraulic pressure by self-regulation of its internal gas pressure. Automated outflow measurements from mariotte reservoirs are generally difficult because of the reservoir's self-regulation mechanism. This paper describes an automated flow meter specifically designed for use with mariotte reservoirs. The flow meter monitors changes in the mariotte reservoir's gas pressure during outflow to determine changes in the reservoir's water level. The flow measurement is performed by attaching a pressure transducer to the top of a mariotte reservoir and monitoring gas pressure changes during outflow with a programmable data logger. The advantages of the new automated flow measurement techniques include: (i) the ability to rapidly record a large range of fluxes without restricting outflow, and (ii) the ability to accurately average the pulsing flow, which commonly occurs during outflow from the mariotte reservoir.

  12. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M.; Reid, Matthew C.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Celia, Michael A.; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Abandoned oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Little is known about methane fluxes from the millions of abandoned wells that exist in the United States. Here, we report direct measurements of methane fluxes from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, using static flux chambers. A total of 42 and 52 direct measurements were made at wells and at locations near the wells (“controls”) in forested, wetland, grassland, and river areas in July, August, October 2013 and January 2014, respectively. The mean methane flow rates at these well locations were 0.27 kg/d/well, and the mean methane flow rate at the control locations was 4.5 × 10−6 kg/d/location. Three out of the 19 measured wells were high emitters that had methane flow rates that were three orders of magnitude larger than the median flow rate of 1.3 × 10−3 kg/d/well. Assuming the mean flow rate found here is representative of all abandoned wells in Pennsylvania, we scaled the methane emissions to be 4–7% of estimated total anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. The presence of ethane, propane, and n-butane, along with the methane isotopic composition, indicate that the emitted methane is predominantly of thermogenic origin. These measurements show that methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells can be significant. The research required to quantify these emissions nationally should be undertaken so they can be accurately described and included in greenhouse gas emissions inventories. PMID:25489074

  13. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M; Reid, Matthew C; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Celia, Michael A; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-12-23

    Abandoned oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Little is known about methane fluxes from the millions of abandoned wells that exist in the United States. Here, we report direct measurements of methane fluxes from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, using static flux chambers. A total of 42 and 52 direct measurements were made at wells and at locations near the wells ("controls") in forested, wetland, grassland, and river areas in July, August, October 2013 and January 2014, respectively. The mean methane flow rates at these well locations were 0.27 kg/d/well, and the mean methane flow rate at the control locations was 4.5 × 10(-6) kg/d/location. Three out of the 19 measured wells were high emitters that had methane flow rates that were three orders of magnitude larger than the median flow rate of 1.3 × 10(-3) kg/d/well. Assuming the mean flow rate found here is representative of all abandoned wells in Pennsylvania, we scaled the methane emissions to be 4-7% of estimated total anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. The presence of ethane, propane, and n-butane, along with the methane isotopic composition, indicate that the emitted methane is predominantly of thermogenic origin. These measurements show that methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells can be significant. The research required to quantify these emissions nationally should be undertaken so they can be accurately described and included in greenhouse gas emissions inventories.

  14. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report P. R. Girouard Well No. 1, Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. Volume II. Well test data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The following data from the reopening of an abandoned well are presented: reservoir pressure drawdown and buildup data, Institute of Gas Technology test data, Insitute of Gas Technology sample log, reservoir fluid analysis, produced gas/water ratio, chemical analysis procedures, surface flow data, third party sampling and reports, sand detectors charts, and Horner-type buildup data. (MHR)

  15. Assessing the potential of Landsat images to detect and map agricultural land abandonment in Kyzyl-Orda (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliemann, Elisabeth; Löw, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and agricultural land abandonment in the irrigated areas of Central Asia became widespread, in particular after the collapse of the former Soviet Union. It has strong socio-economic and ecological consequences, but unfortunately data and methods to map and monitor abandoned agriculture accurately over many regions in CA, e.g. Kyzyl-Orda in Kazakhstan, are still lacking. Remote sensing (RS) can potentially fill this gap, yet RS detection of agricultural land abandonment, most often characterized by shrub encroachment, is difficult and requires the availability of multiple images during the growing season. Also, sufficient reference data must be available for accurate classifier algorithm training. Hence the major aims of this study were to elaborate the effect of the number of Landsat-5 TM images on the accuracy of classification of land abandonment, and further how the choice of classifier algorithm (Random Forest and Support Vector Machine) and amount of training data affect the accuracy of the results. Multi-seasonal time series of Landsat-5 TM images were classified in pre-abandonment-time (1988) and post-abandonment-times (2000, 2009, 2010, 2011). Five images per year were used as classification input. Generally both algorithms performed equally well, and classification accuracies ranged from 84% to 91%. Classifications with fewer than five image dates resulted in a substantial decreases of overall classification accuracies (from 91% to 66%). Next to the number of images the seasons captured also had an impact. In general, the best image combination contained at least one image in late summer, plus another image in spring. In general, the choice of images (number and season) had a much stronger impact on the results than the choice of the classifier algorithm. The five multi-annual classifications resulted in a temporal sequence of five land uses for each agricultural field, which allowed to back-trace land use change between 1988 and 2011

  16. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  17. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The Band Must Not Be Abandoned.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy A; O'Brien, Paul E

    2017-03-06

    The use of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is on the decline around the world despite the evidence base suggesting that it is a safe, effective and durable short-stay procedure which can be safely revised and is well tolerated by patients when they are appropriately supported. Currently, less than 1% of eligible obese persons are choosing to undergo bariatric surgery. If we are to improve uptake of bariatric surgery we need a raft of therapeutic options, including the LAGB, which sit between the relative impotence of medical therapies and the aggression of stapling procedures. This brief communication discusses what some of the drivers may be that are leading surgeons to abandon the band.

  19. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  20. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  1. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  2. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  3. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section 2.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written...

  4. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  5. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. 904.508 Section 904.508 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner...

  6. 15 CFR 904.508 - Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. 904.508 Section 904.508 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.508 Voluntary forfeiture by abandonment. (a) The owner...

  7. 40 CFR 147.3102 - Plugging and abandonment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment plans. 147... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3102 Plugging and abandonment plans. In lieu of the requirements...

  8. 40 CFR 147.3104 - Notice of abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of abandonment. 147.3104... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3104 Notice of abandonment. (a) In addition to the notice required by §...

  9. 40 CFR 147.3105 - Plugging and abandonment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment report. 147... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3105 Plugging and abandonment report. (a) In lieu of the time...

  10. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  11. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  12. 28 CFR 104.35 - Claims deemed abandoned by claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims deemed abandoned by claimants. 104.35 Section 104.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Claim Intake, Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.35 Claims deemed abandoned...

  13. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  14. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  16. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  18. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  2. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE... prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

  3. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  4. Response surfaces for CO2 leakage from geologic storage along abandoned wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Carey, J. W.; Pawar, R. J.; Stauffer, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic reservoirs that have previously been drilled for oil and gas exploration is under investigation worldwide as an option for reducing the amount of anthropogenic carbon introduced to the atmosphere. Reservoirs that have already been tapped for hydrocarbon production have several benefits over development of new sites: they tend to be geologically well-understood, with existing wellbore data to help further characterize the local geologic framework; are known to be conducive to trapping buoyant or pressurized fluids; may have infrastructure in place; and are likely to be already impacted ecologically as compared to pristine sites. One downside to using depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is the potential for CO2 leakage along pre-existing wellbores that were either not designed for CO2 sequestration or have been improperly plugged and abandoned. The primary goal of this study is to develop estimates of possible wellbore leakage rates of CO2 from storage reservoirs to the surface and/or into overlaying aquifers, as a function of wellbore properties and the surrounding geologic framework. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of multiphase flow along wellbores across a wide range of geologic and wellbore parameters. Several wellbore scenarios were studied, including a simple wellbore between the CO2 storage reservoir and the surface; a wellbore intersecting a saline aquifer ("thief zone"); and a wellbore intersecting both a thief zone and a freshwater aquifer. The Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE) software was used to analyze results and produce response surfaces for the estimation of wellbore flow rate as a function of the primary factors that influence leakage. These results will be used to develop abstractions for leakage rates to be incorporated in performance assessments of geologic CO2 storage, which will help

  5. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-03-31

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus is confident that funds can be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it will be necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study.

  6. Determining water reservoir characteristics with global elevation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmelen, C. W. T.; Mann, M.; Ridder, M. P.; Rutten, M. M.; Giesen, N. C.

    2016-11-01

    Quantification of human impact on water, sediment, and nutrient fluxes at the global scale demands characterization of reservoirs with an accuracy that is presently unavailable. This letter presents a new method, based on virtual dam placement, to make accurate estimations of area-volume relationships of large reservoirs, using solely readily available elevation data. The new method is based on regional similarity of area-volume relationships. The essence of the method is that virtual reservoirs are created in the vicinity of an existing reservoir to derive area-volume relationships for the existing reservoir. The derived area-volume relationships reproduced in situ bathymetric data well. An intercomparison for twelve reservoirs resulted in an average R2 = 0.93. This is a significant improvement on estimates using the best existing global regression model, which gives R2 = 0.54 for the same set of reservoirs.

  7. Sequence stratigraphy, facies architecture and reservoir distribution, Cretaceous lowstand fan reservoirs, Southern Basin, onshore Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, A.R.; Larue, D.K.; Faulkner, B.L.

    1996-08-01

    Thick Albian-Campanian mass-flow sandstones in the Southern Basin Trinidad were deposited within submarine canyons incised into the northern continental slope of South America and as associated down-dip basin-floor lowstand fans. The contemporaneous slope to basin-floor break lay across the Southern Basin area with turbidity current paleoflow being to the northwest. North of this paleo-slope break graded to massive, channelized, high-density turbidite sandstones occur interstratified with shaly overbank and channel abandonment deposits. A progression of depositional sub-environments from proximal through distal lowstand fan can be recognized. All fine and thin upward but can be discriminated by the occurrence of slumps, debris flows and conglomerates, the grain-size and bedding scale of sandstones and the characteristics of low-density turbidites and mudrocks. South of the paleo-slope break mass-flow deposits comprise muddy slumps and debris flows rich in granules and pebbles deposited in slope canyons. During periods of turbidity current by-pass or fan abandonment hemipelagic settling processes predominated. Reservoir distribution maps of these lowstand fans have been constructed utilizing geometric constraints, analogs and paleoslope determinations from oriented core. The interpreted canyon locations and orientations are key to the understanding of reservoir distribution on the basin-floor tract to the north: a vital component in the exploration of the basin.

  8. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  11. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  12. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  13. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  14. Reservoir management strategy for East Randolph Field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Safley, L.E.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.; Fowler, M.L.; Wing, J.L.; Thomas, J.B.; Mills, J.; Wood, D.

    1998-07-01

    The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Field Demonstration Program is to demonstrate that multidisciplinary reservoir management teams using appropriate software and methodologies with efforts scaled to the size of the resource are a cost-effective method for: Increasing current profitability of field operations; Forestalling abandonment of the reservoir; and Improving long-term economic recovery for the company. The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Demonstration Project with Belden and Blake Corporation is to develop a comprehensive reservoir management strategy to improve the operational economics and optimize oil production from East Randolph field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio. This strategy identifies the viable improved recovery process options and defines related operational and facility requirements. In addition, strategies are addressed for field operation problems, such as paraffin buildup, hydraulic fracture stimulation, pumping system optimization, and production treatment requirements, with the goal of reducing operating costs and improving oil recovery.

  15. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  16. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... 1992: This bill revised the AML program in areas of coal remining, and abandoned coal refuse sites, as... Disposal; Reclamation on Private Land; Rights of Entry; Public Participation Policies; Organization... include landslide hazards, highwalls, flooding, erosion, sedimentation, acid drainage, coal...

  18. Community Involvement Plan: Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Factsheets related to the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region, generally located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, and are in the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters.

  19. Working with Communities on Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the EPA's work to inform and include communities in the cleanup of abandoned mines, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  20. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  1. 67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. View of old, abandoned vehicular bridge near entrance to Lake Trapps. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  3. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WINGWALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WINGWALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD ABANDONED WATERPUMP FACILITY FOR A SUGAR PROCESSING PLANT SOUTH OF THE BRIDGE. - Winnebago River Bridge, Spanning Winnebago River at U.S. Highway 65, Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, IA

  4. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1996-06-03

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history.

  5. Abandoned floodplain plant communities along a regulated dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers and their floodplains worldwide have changed dramatically over the last century because of regulation by dams, flow diversions and channel stabilization. Floodplains no longer inundated by river flows following dam-induced flood reduction comprise large areas of bottomland habitat, but the effects of abandonment on plant communities are not well understood. Using a hydraulic flow model, geomorphic mapping and field surveys, we addressed the following questions along the Bill Williams River, Arizona: (i) What per cent of the bottomland do abandoned floodplains comprise? and (ii) Are abandoned floodplains quantitatively different from adjacent xeric and riparian surfaces in terms of vegetation composition and surface sediment? We found that nearly 70% of active channel and floodplain area was abandoned following dam installation. Abandoned floodplains along the Bill Williams River tend to be similar to each other yet distinct from neighbouring habitats: they have been altered physically from their historic state, leading to distinct combinations of surface sediments, hydrology and plant communities. Abandoned floodplains may transition to xeric communities over time but are likely to retain some riparian qualities as long as there is access to relatively shallow ground water. With expected increases in water demand and drying climatic conditions in many regions, these surfaces and associated vegetation will continue to be extensive in riparian landscapes worldwide

  6. Nanominerals and potentially hazardous elements from coal cleaning rejects of abandoned mines: Environmental impact and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; da Boit, Kátia; Teixeira, Elba C; Sampaio, Carlos H; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-02-01

    Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected. Nanominerals and ultra-fine minerals from mining-contaminated areas were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), providing new information on the mineralogy and nano-mineralogy of these coal residues. The total contents of 57 elements (HEs, alkali metals, and rare earth elements) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The calculation of NWACs (Normalized Average Weighted Concentration), together with the chemometric analysis by Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the variability of the samples regarding their city and their mine of origin. Moreover, the results confirmed the existence of hotspots in mines near urban areas.

  7. Reservoir monitoring of enhanced oil recovery using marine CSEM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Effective reservoir management requires time-lapse reservoir information throughout the interwell volume. The use of seismic data for monitoring is very challenging because of the small variation of seismic velocities over time, and of the difficulty of survey repeatability. At the same time, significant differences in the resistivities of oil and the water filling the reservoir during production allows for the possibility to monitor the flooding front by electromagnetic (EM) methods. In this paper, we perform a recoverability analysis of reservoir properties using marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) methods. We compute the EM fields for models of partially depleted reservoirs representing different positions of the oil-water contact over time. The oil-water contact can be clearly seen in several field components, even with the presence of bathymetry. Our analysis demonstrates that MCSEM data can provide an accurate position of the oil-water contact inside the reservoir over time.

  8. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  9. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  10. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  11. Integrated management of multiple reservoir field developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, S.L.; Chan, H.M.; Harper, J.L.; Boyett, B.A.; Dowson, P.R.; Bette, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper consists of two sections. The authors first describe the coupling of a pipeline network model to a reservoir simulator and then the application of this new simulator to optimize the production strategy of two Mobil field developments. Mobil`s PEGASUS simulator is an integrated all purpose reservoir simulator that handles black-oil, compositional, faulted and naturally fractured reservoirs. The authors have extended the simulator to simultaneously model multiple reservoirs coupled with surface pipeline networks and processes. This allows them to account for the effects of geology, well placement, and surface production facilities on well deliverability in a fully integrated fashion. They have also developed a gas contract allocation system that takes the user-specified constraints, target rates and swing factors and automatically assigns rates to the individual wells of each reservoir. This algorithm calculates the overall deliverability and automatically reduces the user-specified target rates to meet the deliverability constraints. The algorithm and solution technique are described. This enhanced simulator has been applied to model a Mobil field development in the Southern Gas Basin, offshore United Kingdom, which consists of three separate gas reservoirs connected via a pipeline network. The simulator allowed the authors to accurately determine the impact on individual reservoir and total field performance by varying the development timing of these reservoirs. Several development scenarios are shown to illustrate the capabilities of PEGASUS. Another application of this technology is in the field developments in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Here the objective is to economically optimize the development of multiple fields to feed the PT Arun LNG facility. Consideration of a range of gas compositions, well productivity`s, and facilities constraints in an integrated fashion results in improved management of these assets. Model specifics are discussed.

  12. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  13. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  14. How accurate are sphygmomanometers?

    PubMed

    Mion, D; Pierin, A M

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers. Measurement of accuracy of calibration and evaluation of physical conditions were carried out in 524 sphygmomanometers, 351 from a hospital setting, and 173 from private medical offices. Mercury sphygmomanometers were considered inaccurate if the meniscus was not '0' at rest. Aneroid sphygmomanometers were tested against a properly calibrated mercury manometer, and were considered calibrated when the error was < or =3 mm Hg. Both types of sphygmomanometers were evaluated for conditions of cuff/bladder, bulb, pump and valve. Of the mercury sphygmomanometers tested 21 % were found to be inaccurate. Of this group, unreliability was noted due to: excessive bouncing (14%), illegibility of the gauge (7%), blockage of the filter (6%), and lack of mercury in the reservoir (3%). Bladder damage was noted in 10% of the hospital devices and in 6% of private medical practices. Rubber aging occurred in 34% and 25%, leaks/holes in 19% and 18%, and leaks in the pump bulb in 16% and 30% of hospital devices and private practice devices, respectively. Of the aneroid sphygmomanometers tested, 44% in the hospital setting and 61% in private medical practices were found to be inaccurate. Of these, the magnitude of inaccuracy was 4-6 mm Hg in 32%, 7-12 mm Hg in 19% and > 13 mm Hg in 7%. In summary, most of the mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers showed inaccuracy (21% vs 58%) and unreliability (64% vs 70%).

  15. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Spatio-temporal relation between landslide occurrence and abandoned or not maintained agricultural terraces in the Moldavian Plateau, NE Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Santangelo, Michele; Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Terraced landscapes are one of the most obvious human-shaped landscapes, mainly used to reduce the negative impact of soil erosion due to uncontrolled runoff and shallow landslides occurrence. Nevertheless, as the recent literature emphasizes, these old best practices can transform into a potential hazard for soil degradation, if not appropriately maintained. In Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania), agricultural terraces were built after the 1960s for landslide, soil erosion and runoff control, mainly in connection with construction of reservoirs, for increasing their operation time. Usually, the slope reduction was obtained by construction of cut-off ditches, hillside ditches, intermittent terraces, bench terraces, broad-based terraces, vineyardand orchard terraces. Due to the dry climatic setting, to the lack of hard rocks for construction, and to the generally light earth moving machinery available for construction, terraces are generally characterized by a small escarpment (0.5m to 1m), and a relatively short lateral extension (5 to 40 m). When the terraces were maintained, the backslope was typically covered with grass. When, after the 1990s, the lands were returned to the initial owners, the vegetation cover of the terraces was no more maintained, and the terraces themselves were progressively abandoned, due to lack of funds. Accurate landslide mapping on high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images, allowed to produce geomorphological inventories in 5 test cases, representative of the whole study area. In each inventory, landslides were classified based on type and relative age based on published classification schemes. We investigate the spatial and temporal relation between landslides occurrence and terraces, based on the spatial interactions of landslides of different ages and terraces. Results reveal that terraces were built, both on landslide-free and landslide-bearing slopes, and that frequently landslides and gullies develop on terraced slopes. Reactivations of

  17. Environmental geochemistry of abandoned flotation tailing reservior from the Tonglvshan Fe-Cu sulfide mine in Daye, Central China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Bao, Z Y; Deng, Y M; Ma, Z Z; Yan, S

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated metals of tailings from Tonglvshan mine in Daye and assessed the effect of metal contamination in water and sediment near the tailing reservoir. The concentration of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium and nickel was measured in deposit samples taken from a profile in an abandoned flotation tailing reservoir, as well as in water and sediment samples near the reservoir. The results of this study indicate that copper concentration ranges from 780 to 4390 mg/kg, 2-10 times higher than the limit values in soil, while the contents of other metals are below the limit values. Metal levels in water and sediments are high and varied widely in different sampling sites. The mean concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium and nickel in waters are 27.76, 2.28, 8.20, 0.12, 5.30 and 3.04 mg/L, while those in sediments are 557.65, 96.95, 285.20, 0.92, 94.30 and 4.75 mg/kg, respectively. All of the results indicate that the environment near the tailing reservoir is polluted to some extent by some kinds of metals, especially by copper, lead, zinc and cadmium, which may be caused not only by some discharge sources of metals, but also by life garbage and sewage.

  18. Reservoir Inflation Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Ponden, Raymond F.

    1991-11-22

    Inflation of the reservoir is to begin on Friday afternoon, November 22 and continue through mid day on Monday, November 25. Inflation of the reservoir shall be accomplished by using only injection pump, HP-2. NOTE: Under no circumstances should injection pump, HP-1 be operated.

  19. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  20. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  1. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  2. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  3. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  4. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  5. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  6. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  7. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens.

  8. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  9. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  10. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Carl D.

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of the weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.

  11. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  12. Prediction of the flooding of a mining reservoir in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Ordóñez, A; De Miguel, E; Loredo, C

    2016-12-15

    Abandoned and flooded mines constitute underground reservoirs which must be managed. When pumping is stopped in a closed mine, the process of flooding should be anticipated in order to avoid environmentally undesirable or unexpected mine water discharges at the surface, particularly in populated areas. The Candín-Fondón mining reservoir in Asturias (NW Spain) has an estimated void volume of 8 million m(3) and some urban areas are susceptible to be flooded if the water is freely released from the lowest mine adit/pithead. A conceptual model of this reservoir was undertaken and the flooding process was numerically modelled in order to estimate the time that the flooding would take. Additionally, the maximum safe height for the filling of the reservoir is discussed.

  13. Offshore Adriatic marginal gas fields: An approach to the technique of reservoir development

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, A.; Bolelli, V.; Piccoli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The application of accelerated gas blowdown and wire line techniques in reservoir development and exploitation is presented for an off-shore Adriatic marginal gas field. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes selective completion, very low reserves/production ratio, sequential production, Through Tubing Bridge Plug and Through Tubing Perforation techniques to avoid the use of costly workover rigs and to allow economically convenient exploitation of a structure which otherwise would have been abandoned.

  14. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  15. C02 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kovar; Scott Wehner

    1998-01-31

    The principal objective of this CO2 Huf-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO2 H-n-P process, coupled with reservoir characterization components are to be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan of increasing oil production and deferring abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs.

  16. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  17. Geysers reservoir studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Pruess, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is conducting several research projects related to issues of interest to The Geysers operators, including those that deal with understanding the nature of vapor-dominated systems, measuring or inferring reservoir processes and parameters, and studying the effects of liquid injection. All of these topics are directly or indirectly relevant to the development of reservoir strategies aimed at stabilizing or increasing production rates of non-corrosive steam, low in non-condensable gases. Three reservoir engineering studies are described in some detail, that is: (a) Modeling studies of heat transfer and phase distribution in two-phase geothermal reservoirs; (b) Numerical modeling studies of Geysers injection experiments; and (c) Development of a dual-porosity model to calculate mass flow between rock matrix blocks and neighboring fractures.

  18. Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Johnson, Karl M.

    2004-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are maintained in unknown reservoir species; spillover into human populations results in occasional human cases or epidemics. We attempted to narrow the list of possibilities regarding the identity of those reservoir species. We made a series of explicit assumptions about the reservoir: it is a mammal; it supports persistent, largely asymptomatic filovirus infections; its range subsumes that of its associated filovirus; it has coevolved with the virus; it is of small body size; and it is not a species that is commensal with humans. Under these assumptions, we developed priority lists of mammal clades that coincide distributionally with filovirus outbreak distributions and compared these lists with those mammal taxa that have been tested for filovirus infection in previous epidemiologic studies. Studying the remainder of these taxa may be a fruitful avenue for pursuing the identity of natural reservoirs of filoviruses. PMID:15663841

  19. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  20. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  1. Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.; Seigel, Ben H.

    1994-03-13

    For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.

  2. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  3. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  4. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  5. Reservoir-induced decoherence of resonantly excited confined polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet-Plamondon, C.; Sallen, G.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Oberli, D. Y.; Portella-Oberli, M. T.; Deveaud, B.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the effect of decoherence on polariton bistability. The polariton hysteresis loop is shown to collapse in a similar way when increasing the temperature or under nonresonant excitation power. The hysteresis upward threshold is pulled to lower excitation power, whereas the downward threshold remains almost constant. This effect is explained by the population of an incoherent reservoir that induces dephasing and repulsive interaction that saturates at large densities. All experimental findings are accurately simulated with the excitonic Bloch equations and indicate that reservoir-induced dephasing can be dominant over the reservoir-induced energy blueshift.

  6. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. 90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of east facade of powerhouse, and abandoned lightning arrester houses on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  8. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property... access the contents. Storing property in a manner that wildlife can access contents is prohibited. (4..., or both. (d) In the event unattended property interferes with the safe and orderly management of...

  9. 36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property... access the contents. Storing property in a manner that wildlife can access contents is prohibited. (4..., or both. (d) In the event unattended property interferes with the safe and orderly management of...

  10. 37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applications. 2.66 Section 2.66 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... date of issuance of the notice of abandonment; or (2) Within two months of actual knowledge of the... with firsthand knowledge of the facts, that the delay in filing the response on or before the due...

  11. Predicting Abandonment of School-Wide Behavior Support Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Rhonda N. T.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Ghemraoui, Adam; Bloom, Jerry; Johnson, Nanci W.; Phillips, Danielle; Richter, Mary F.; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictors of abandonment of evidence-based practices through descriptive analyses of extant state-level training data, fidelity of implementation data, and nationally reported school demographic data across 915 schools in 3 states implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). Schools…

  12. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System (NPMS) in accordance with the NPMS “Standards for Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operator... in accordance with applicable laws. Refer to the NPMS Standards for details in preparing your data... abandoned in accordance with all applicable laws. (b) [Reserved] [Amdt. 195-69, 65 FR 54444, Sept. 8,...

  13. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  14. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. Deradicalization or Disengagement : A Framework for Encouraging Jihad Abandonment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    included law enforcement, the military, and intelligence services. Only recently have soft power elements been brought to bear to encourage jihad...intelligence services. Only recently have soft power elements been brought to bear to encourage jihad abandonment. Several nations implement a variety of de

  16. The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen's Bureau), which was established by the Congress on March 3, 1865, to assist former slaves in acquiring land, securing employment, legalizing marriages, and pursuing education. After the bureau's abolition through an act of Congress approved on June 10, 1872,…

  17. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... bill revised the AML program in areas of coal re-mining, abandoned coal refuse sites, as well as... Selection; Coordination with Other Programs; Land Acquisition, Management and Disposal; Reclamation on... of OSM, Tennessee revised its proposed amendment to read, ``Land Acquisition, Management and...

  18. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO...

  19. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  1. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  2. 30 CFR 556.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 556.56 Section 556.56 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... the current Treasury Circular No. 154 from the Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management...

  3. Eastern Agency Navajo Abandoned Uranium Mine Open House

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Contaminated Structures Program in the greater Eastern Agency with representatives from EPA, DOE, and Navajo Abandoned Mine Lands Program with updates on activities at NE Church Rock, Kerr-McGee/Quivira, and United Nuclear Co. Mill site.

  4. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  5. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  6. Why We Should Abandon the Idea of the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieves, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the idea of the learning organization should be abandoned on the grounds that it was an imaginative idea that has now run its course. The paper seeks to explore the roots of the definition and provoke debate about the wisdom of retaining the concept. The argument is a challenge to readers to…

  7. 36 CFR 331.22 - Abandonment of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandonment of personal property. 331.22 Section 331.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO...

  8. 7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. NOTE CANTILEVERED DECKING. SOUTH FORK OF EEL RIVER AT LEFT. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  9. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

    1994-10-12

    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

  10. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  11. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  12. 36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  13. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been removed (note the steel frame structure that supported the traveling crane); looking south - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  15. Magnetic ranging tool accurately guides replacement well

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.B.; Wesson, J.P. )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on magnetic ranging surveys and directional drilling technology which accurately guided a replacement well bore to intersect a leaking gas storage well with casing damage. The second well bore was then used to pump cement into the original leaking casing shoe. The repair well bore kicked off from the surface hole, bypassed casing damage in the middle of the well, and intersected the damaged well near the casing shoe. The repair well was subsequently completed in the gas storage zone near the original well bore, salvaging the valuable bottom hole location in the reservoir. This method would prevent the loss of storage gas, and it would prevent a potential underground blowout that could permanently damage the integrity of the storage field.

  16. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers' social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother's negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  17. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  18. 76 FR 51470 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In Oswego County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Abandonments to abandon 2 formerly connected rail lines in CSXT's Northern Region, Albany Division, Fulton... Road 57, and the end of the track between Ontario and Erie Streets; and (2) 5,938 feet between...

  19. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  20. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  1. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  2. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal - Appendix)

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    The main objective of the Port Neches Project was to determine the feasibility and producibility of CO2 miscible flooding techniques enhanced with horizontal drilling applied to a Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoir. The second was to disseminate the knowledge gained through established Technology Transfer mechanisms to support DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing domestic oil production and reducing abandonment of oil fields.

  3. Assist in the recovery of bypassed oil from reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schenewerk, P.A.

    1995-07-30

    Objective is to assist the recovery of remaining noncontacted oil from known reservoirs/abandoned offshore wells on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Progress continues for reducing the data to fit a simplified model and redescribing the resource to accommodate known production behavior and geologic assumptions. Final reports are currently being prepared.

  4. Transit losses and traveltimes of reservoir releases along the Arkansas River from Pueblo Reservoir to John Martin Reservoir, southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, Russell K.

    1978-01-01

    The volumes of reservoir releases are decreased or delayed during transit by bank storage, channel storage, and evaporation. Results from a computer model, calibrated by a controlled test release from Pueblo Reservoir, Colo., indicate that transit losses are greatest for small releases of a short duration when made during periods of low Antecedent streamflow. For equivalent releases, transit losses during the winter are about 7 percent less than losses during the summer. Based on available streamflow records, the velocity of reservoir releases ranges from about 0.6 miles per hour at the downstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 10 cubic feet per second, to about 6.8 miles per hour at the upstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 3,000 cubic feet per second. Consequently, the traveltime of a release increases as antecedent streamflow diminishes. Management practices that may be used to benefit water users in the study area include selection of the optimum time, rate, and duration of a reservoir release to minimize the transit losses, determination of an accurate traveltime, and diversion at several incremental rates. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  6. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  7. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  8. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  9. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  10. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  11. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  12. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  13. 30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... § 904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on July 7, 1982, effective May 2, 1983. Copies of...

  14. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land... STATE ARKANSAS § 904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  15. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  16. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned... and Abandoned Merchandise Vesting in Government § 127.41 Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. (a) Vesting of title in Government. At the end of the 6-month period noted in § 127.11 of...

  17. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185... overboard drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient drills and give sufficient... necessitate abandoning ship or the recovery of persons who have fallen overboard. (b) Each abandon ship...

  18. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  19. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OHIO § 935.20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land...

  20. 30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OHIO § 935.20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land...

  1. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  2. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  3. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  4. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  5. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  6. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  7. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  8. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  9. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells. 226.28...) Prior to permanent abandonment of any well, the oil lessee or the gas lessee, as the case may be,...

  10. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  11. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  12. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  13. 30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.20 Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan. The New Mexico Abandoned...

  14. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  15. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  16. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  17. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  18. 30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land... STATE MISSISSIPPI § 924.20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as submitted on April 5, 2006, and June 11, 2007, and...

  19. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In geological underground utilisation, operating and abandoned wells have been identified as a main potential leakage pathways for reservoir fluids. In the scope of the well abandonment procedure currently carried out at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Germany, a hydro-mechanical model was built to carry out a coupled analysis of the integrity in the entire wellbore system. The main aim of the present study was to assess the impacts of stress changes associated with CO2 injection as well as the cement backfill undertaken in the scope of well abandonment. A numerical model comprising cement sheaths, steel casings, tubing, multiple packers and wellbore annuli was implemented to enable a detailed representation of the entire wellbore system. The numerical model grid has a horizontal discretisation of 5 m x 5 m to focus on near wellbore effects, whereby element sizes increase with increasing distance from the wellbore. Vertical grid discretisation uses a tartan grid type over the entire model thickness of 1,500 m to ensure a sufficient discretisation of all wellbore system elements as well as of the reservoir unit. The total number of elements amounts to 210,672. Mechanical model parameters were taken from geological, drilling, logging and laboratory test data based on Ketzin pilot site-specific information as well as related literature (Kempka et al., 2014). The coupled calculations were performed using an elasto-plastic constitutive law, whereby an initial simulation run ensured a static mechanical equilibrium to represent the initial state before the start of CO2 injection. Thereto, gravitational load of the overburden rocks and pore pressure distribution following available well logs were integrated for initial model parameterisation including a normal faulting stress regime defined by a horizontal to vertical total stress ratio of 0.85. A correction accounting for the temperature and pressure dependent CO2 density was carried out in advance of each

  20. Small reservoir distribution, rate of construction, and uses in the upper and middle Chattahoochee basins of the Georgia Piedmont, USA, 1950-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ignatius, Amber R.; Jones, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Construction of small reservoirs affects ecosystem processes in numerous ways including fragmenting stream habitat, altering hydrology, and modifying water chemistry. While the upper and middle Chattahoochee River basins within the Southeastern United States Piedmont contain few natural lakes, they have a high density of small reservoirs (more than 7500 small reservoirs in the nearly 12,000 km2 basin). Policymakers and water managers in the region have little information about small reservoir distribution, uses, or the cumulative inundation of land cover caused by small reservoir construction. Examination of aerial photography reveals the spatiotemporal patterns and extent of small reservoir construction from 1950 to 2010. Over that 60 year timeframe, the area inundated by water increased nearly six fold (from 19 reservoirs covering 0.16% of the study area in 1950 to 329 reservoirs covering 0.95% of the study area in 2010). While agricultural practices were associated with reservoir creation from 1950 to 1970, the highest rates of reservoir construction occurred during subsequent suburban development between 1980 and 1990. Land cover adjacent to individual reservoirs transitioned over time through agricultural abandonment, land reforestation, and conversion to development during suburban expansion. The prolific rate of ongoing small reservoir creation, particularly in newly urbanizing regions and developing counties, necessitates additional attention from watershed managers and continued scientific research into cumulative environmental impacts at the watershed scale.

  1. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  2. Optoelectronic Reservoir Computing

    PubMed Central

    Paquot, Y.; Duport, F.; Smerieri, A.; Dambre, J.; Schrauwen, B.; Haelterman, M.; Massar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced, highly efficient bio-inspired approach for processing time dependent data. The basic scheme of reservoir computing consists of a non linear recurrent dynamical system coupled to a single input layer and a single output layer. Within these constraints many implementations are possible. Here we report an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing based on a recently proposed architecture consisting of a single non linear node and a delay line. Our implementation is sufficiently fast for real time information processing. We illustrate its performance on tasks of practical importance such as nonlinear channel equalization and speech recognition, and obtain results comparable to state of the art digital implementations. PMID:22371825

  3. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  4. Design and life-cycle considerations for unconventional-reservoir wells

    SciTech Connect

    Miskimins, J.L.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides an overview of design and life-cycle considerations for certain unconventional-reservoir wells. An overview of unconventional-reservoir definitions is provided. Well design and life-cycle considerations are addressed from three aspects: upfront reservoir development, initial well completion, and well-life and long-term considerations. Upfront-reservoir-development issues discussed include well spacing, well orientation, reservoir stress orientations, and tubular metallurgy. Initial-well-completion issues include maximum treatment pressures and rates, treatment diversion, treatment staging, flowback and cleanup, and dewatering needs. Well-life and long-term discussions include liquid loading, corrosion, refracturing and associated fracture reorientation, and the cost of abandonment. These design considerations are evaluated with case studies for five unconventional-reservoir types: shale gas (Barnett shale), tight gas (Jonah feld), tight oil (Bakken play), coalbed methane (CBM) (San Juan basin), and tight heavy oil (Lost Hills field). In evaluating the life cycle and design of unconventional-reservoir wells, 'one size' does not fit all and valuable knowledge and a shortening of the learning curve can be achieved for new developments by studying similar, more-mature fields.

  5. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-03-20

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts.

  6. A methodology to evaluate regional hydraulic controls on flow from hydrocarbon reservoirs into overlying aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Fryar, A.E.; Kreitler, C.W.; Akhter, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Because drilling, completion, and abandonment practices for oil and gas wells have improved over the past century, some older abandoned wells may be mechanically deficient or inadequately plugged, thus posing a risk of contamination to underground sources of drinking water. The risk of saltwater contamination of freshwater aquifers through inadequately plugged, abandoned wells increases if the hydraulic potential of the oil- and-gas-bearing brine formations is higher than that in the overlying freshwater aquifers. First, average regional potentiometric surfaces of aquifers and reservoirs are generated from aquifer water-level measurements and the conversion of bottom-hole pressure measurements from oil and gas reservoirs to hydraulic heads. Next, differences in hydraulic heads between aquifers and reservoirs are calculated to delineate regional residual areas of upward (positive) or downward (negative) hydraulic gradients. Third, locations of abandoned wells and class II injection wells are plotted relative to residuals to examine where water flooding, pressure maintenance, and saltwater disposal may cause or exacerbate the potential for upward flow. Three areas were used as case studies for testing the method. Positive residuals in the South Texas basin (informally defined to include the Val Verde basin, Maverick basin, part of the Rio Grande Salt basin, and the Austin Chalk trend) result from natural geopressuring in formations deeper than 6000 ft, which are negligibly affected by class II injection wells. Positive residuals in the greater Permian basin (including the northwestern shelf, Delaware basin, part of the Palo Duro basin, Central Basin platform, Midland basin, southern shelf, and Fort Worth basin) may reflect injection for enhanced recovery in the west and natural hydrologic processes in the eastern shelf region. Residual surfaces for the San Juan basin indicate several areas with a natural potential for upward migration of brine.

  7. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  8. Commentary on Baddeley and Larsen (2007). The phonological store abandoned.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dylan M; Hughes, Robert W; Macken, William J

    2007-04-01

    Baddeley and Larsen (2007) argue that a number of key findings reported by Jones, Macken, and Nicholls (2004) and Jones, Hughes, and Macken (2006) pointing to shortcomings of the phonological store construct arise from the store being abandoned with long lists. In our rejoinder we point out that Baddeley and Larsen use a procedure in which retrieval from the supposed phonological storage would not--according to their own theory--have been possible, and we present theoretical, empirical, and logical problems with their "store abandonment" argument and highlight a number of difficulties associated with the interpretation of suffix and prefix effects. We conclude that our data are still problematic for the phonological store construct and suggest that a reformulation of short-term memory theory needs to embody (or indeed focus exclusively upon) perceptual and effector systems rather than bespoke storage modules.

  9. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  10. What's new about old fields? Land abandonment and ecosystem assembly.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Viki A; Hobbs, Richard J; Standish, Rachel J

    2008-02-01

    Environmental and socio-economic changes are leading to increased levels of land abandonment worldwide. The assembly of plant communities on old fields has informed much ecological theory, which in turn has facilitated efforts at ecological restoration. The interaction of the cultivation legacy with inherent soil and vegetation characteristics will determine the dynamics of plant community assembly on old fields and indicate the level of effort required to restore historical vegetation states. The abandonment of traditional agricultural lands in some areas will create old fields that require limited or no restoration. Yet intensification of agriculture and rapid environmental change will lead to increasing numbers of old fields that show little recovery towards an historic vegetation state. The restoration of these old fields will pose significant scientific and policy challenges.

  11. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, I M; Almond, S; Qassim, S M; Worrall, F; Davies, R J

    2016-03-15

    This study considered the fugitive emissions of methane (CH4) from former oil and gas exploration and production wells drilled to exploit conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs onshore in the UK. This study selected from the 66% of all onshore wells in the UK which appeared to be properly decommissioned (abandoned) that came from 4 different basins and were between 8 and 79 years old. The soil gas above each well was analysed and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells considered 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of it being drilled. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/year with a 27% chance that the well would have a negative flux to the atmosphere independent of well age. This flux is low relative to the activity commonly used on decommissioned well sites (e.g. sheep grazing), however, fluxes from wells that have not been appropriately decommissioned would be expected to be higher.

  12. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  13. Setting priorities for abandoned-mine land research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In FY 1987, Congress transferred the abandoned mine land (AML) research program and $1.9 million in funding from the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) to the Bureau of Mines (BOM). Subsequently the BOM asked National Research Council (NRC) to recommend research priorities and criteria for evaluating AML reclamation research proposals. The committee identified the highest-priority research problems which are: water quality; subsidence; mine waste; and revegetation, are ranked as the top four research priorities in all regions.

  14. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  15. Reservoir stability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-07-01

    The objective of the reservoir stability studies project is to develop stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock caverns, and porous rock structures for air storage in utility applications. Because reservoir stability was deemed crucial to commercialization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems this project has received major emphasis in the early phases of the overall CAES program. A long term plan, including state-of-the-art assessment, numerical model development and experimental studies culminating in field research, as necessary, was formulated. This plan, initiated in 1977, has been completed during FY-1981 to the stage of specific experimental studies and field research. Activities within this project during FY-1981 have included completion of site specific geotechnical design evaluations using methodologies developed to assess hard rock cavern stability, implementation of in-mine research to evaluate numerical and laboratory study conclusions on the response of domal salt, and preparation of integrated laboratory and field study facilities to assess developed predictive methods and determine in situ response of a porous media reservoir to air injection. The major activity in the project has been the field study component of the porous media studies. Accomplishments there have included completion of exploration, permitting and leasing, operation contractor selection and negotiation, and initiation of procurement and construction for an FY-1982 test initiation. A major program milestone, drilling of the injection withdrawal well for this test, was completed ahead of schedule.

  16. Applying reservoir characterization technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.

    1994-12-31

    While reservoir characterization is an old discipline, only within the last 10 years have engineers and scientists been able to make quantitative descriptions, due mostly to improvements in high-resolution computational power, sophisticated graphics, and geostatistics. This paper summarizes what has been learned during the past decade by using these technologies.

  17. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  18. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support.

  19. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  20. Wind Power Potential at Abandoned Mines in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jang, M.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Go, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study performed an assessment of wind power potential at abandoned mines in the Kangwon province by analyzing gross energy production, greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic effects estimated from a 600 kW wind turbine. Wind resources maps collected from the renewable energy data center in Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) were used to determine the average wind speed, temperature and atmospheric pressure at hub height(50 m) for each abandoned mine. RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC) was utilized for the energy, emission and financial analyses of wind power systems. Based on the results from 5 representative mining sites, we could know that the average wind speed at hub height is the most critical factor for assessing the wind power potential. Finally, 47 abandoned mines that have the average wind speed faster than 6.5 m/s were analyzed, and top 10 mines were suggested as relatively favorable sites with high wind power potential in the Kangwon province.

  1. Predicting interwell heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs: Outcrop observations and applications of progressive facies variation through a depositional cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, P.R.; Barton, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    Nearly 11 billion barrels of mobile oil remain in known domestic fluvial-deltaic reservoirs despite their mature status. A large percentage of this strategic resource is in danger of permanent loss through premature abandonment. Detailed reservoir characterization studies that integrate advanced technologies in geology, geophysics, and engineering are needed to identify remaining resources that can be targeted by near-term recovery methods, resulting in increased production and the postponement of abandonment. The first and most critical step of advanced characterization studies is the identification of reservoir architecture. However, existing subsurface information, primarily well logs, provides insufficient lateral resolution to identify low-permeability boundaries that exist between wells and compartmentalize the reservoir. Methods to predict lateral variability in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs have been developed on the basis of outcrop studies and incorporate identification of depositional setting and position within a depositional cycle. The position of a reservoir within the framework of a depositional cycle is critical. Outcrop studies of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of Utah have demonstrated that the architecture and internal heterogeneity of sandstones deposited within a given depositional setting (for example, delta front) vary greatly depending upon whether they were deposited in the early, progradational part of a cycle or the late, retrogradational part of a cycle. The application of techniques similar to those used by this study in other fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will help to estimate the amount and style of remaining potential in mature reservoirs through a quicklook evaluation, allowing operators to focus characterization efforts on reservoirs that have the greatest potential to yield additional resources.

  2. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2000-08-28

    This project targets the development of (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling non-conventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and well index (for use in simulation models), including the effects of wellbore flow; and (3) accurate approaches to account for heterogeneity in the near-well region.

  3. Application of artifical intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Annual report, October 1993--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-07-01

    This basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs.

  4. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  5. Development of luminescent bacteria as tracers for geological reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    This research project resulted from recognizing the problem of being unable to accurately distinguish communication between wells in producing oil zones which may or may not be continuous. Bioluminescent bacteria are being developed for use as tracers in reservoir characterization. A pure culture of Photobacterium phosphoreum is being studied in the laboratory for accurate monitoring schemes. A search of the literature and communications with marine microbiologists indicate that bioluminescent bacteria can be easily studied in vitro.

  6. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic reservoirs of south Texas. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Levey, R.A.

    1996-07-11

    Advanced reservoir characterization techniques have been applied to selected reservoirs in the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) trend of South Texas in order to maximize the economic producibility of resources in this mature oil play. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have already been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced unless advanced characterization techniques are applied to define untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool reservoirs as suitable targets for near-term recovery methods. This project has developed interwell-scale geological facies models and has assessed engineering attributes of Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoirs in selected fields in order to characterize reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Results of these studies led to the identification of specific opportunities to exploit these heterogeneous reservoirs for incremental recovery by recompletion and strategic infill drilling.

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.1035 - Are there any restrictions on Federal agencies concerning the abandonment or destruction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions on Federal agencies concerning the abandonment or destruction of improvements on land or related... improvements on land or related personal property? Yes, GSA must concur in an agency's abandonment or... PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction §...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.1040 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property before...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property before public notice is given of such proposed abandonment or destruction? 102-75.1040 Section 102-75.1040 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment...

  9. The siting of a prison complex above an abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the State of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. The original plan for construction consisted of one phase. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. One masonry building, however, was located within the potential draw zone of mine works which still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was accordingly designed to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase two prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the Phase I complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. The first stage of design was to minimize subsidence potential by positioning the exposure of significant structures to the subjacent mining assuming the mine map was sufficiently accurate. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was then undertaken to: (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future; and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical data base of subsidence events in the Illinois Coal Basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations.

  10. Ferron sandstone - stratigraphy and reservoir analogs, East-Central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.B.; Ryer, T.A.; Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Ferron Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous) crops out along the west flank of the San Rafael Swell of east-central Utah. Exposures were described on photomosaics to better define the stratigraphy, to enhance facies prediction, and establish rules for reservoir modeling within fluvial-deltaic rocks. Major regressive cycles are recognized as parasequence sets composed of several to many parasequences. Each of the seaward-stepping parasequence sets recognized in the Ferron begins with a rapidly thickening and stratigraphically climbing, wave-modified shoreface. In later stages of progradation, deposition is dominated by river influences. Continued regression of the seaway is recorded in outcrop and shows a complex history of delta lobe progradation, switching, and abandonment. Onlapping and stacking of parasequences creates a collage of potential reservoir sweet spots, baffles, and barriers within a parasequence set. Shoreface and delta-front deposits of the older parasequences are commonly eroded by younger distributary and meanderbelt systems that fed younger parasequences of the parasequence sets. The result is numerous and locally thick channel sandstone bodies incised into shoreface and delta-front deposits. Published studies and recently completed work show that upper shoreface, stream mouth-bar, and channel sandstones constitute the best potential reservoir rocks within the Ferron Sandstone.

  11. Assessment of radiation contamination at an abandoned tin smelter facility in Galveston County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelius, J.M.; Laiche, T.P.; Zehner, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Region 6 US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Technical Assistant Team (TAT) contractor, Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), conducted a site assessment to determine the nature and extent of radiation contamination at an abandoned tin smelter facility in Texas City, Galveston County, Texas. Rapid, field-screening, radiation surveys were conducted, and four slag storage areas were located with gamma radiation levels above background levels. Comprehensive radiation surveys were performed at these locations with Global Positioning System (GPS) assistance for accurate location determination. Approximately 1,500 data points were collected from 10 acres. Accurate contour maps of gamma radiation levels were developed using geostatistical modeling and kriging. Radiation exposure levels ranged from background [< 10 microroentgen per hour ({micro}R/hour)] to more than 500 {micro}R/hour. Gamma spectroscopic analysis was performed on soil and slag samples using a field-portable, multichannel analyzer (MCA) system. Equilibrium activities of bismuth-214 and thallium-208 were measured as high as 100 picocuries per gram. Ten percent of all samples were sent to an independent radiochemistry laboratory for confirmation analysis. Laboratory and field screening results corresponded closely. In-situ radon emanation rates were measured with large area charcoal collectors (LACCs). Measured rates were less than one picocurie per square meter per second.

  12. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Interactive reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Regtien, J.M.M. Por, G.J.A.; Stiphout, M.T. van; Vlugt, F.F. van der

    1995-12-31

    Shell`s new Modular Reservoir Simulator (MoReS) has been equipped with a comprehensive and versatile user interface called FrontEnd. Apart from providing a user-friendly environment for interactive reservoir simulation, FrontEnd serves a software platform for other dynamic simulation and reservoir-engineering applications. It offers to all supported applications a common user interface, enables the re-use of code and reduces overall maintenance and support costs associated with the embedded applications. Because of its features, FrontEnd facilitates the transfer of research results in the form of operational software to end users. When coupled with MoReS, FrontEnd can be used for pre- and post-processing and interactive simulation. The pre-processing options allow data to be inputted by means of various OSF/Motif widgets containing a spreadsheet, text editors, dialogues and graphical input. The display of the input data as well as the post-processing of all simulation results is made possible by a variety of user-defined plot of tabular (e.g. timestep summary) and array (simulation grid) data. During a simulation user-defined plots can be displayed and edited, allowing a close inspection of the results as they are being calculated. FrontEnd has been equipped with a powerful input command language, which gives the batch user as much flexibility and control over the input as the interactive user.

  14. Search for reservoirs suitable for enhanced gas recovery through co-production in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrell, W.C.; David, B.D.; McCulloh, R.P.; Wrighton, F.M.

    1985-12-01

    The co-production enhanced gas recovery technique is a means of enhancing the ultimate recovery of gas in water-driven reservoirs. The technique prescribes production of water from watered-out wells downdip simultaneously with the production of gas updip, in order to lower the abandonment pressure, retard water influx, and increase production during the primary life of the reservoir. Lower pressure results in increased production due to the expansion in the updip areas as well as remobilization of the dispersed gas from watered-out areas downdip. By treating the reservoir as a system instead of regarding single wells as individual profit centers, the operator can manage some reservoirs more efficiently and profitably. The Gas Research Institute is funding the Louisiana Geological Survey/Louisiana State University to evaluate south Louisiana reservoirs based on site geology and operator interest for suitability for co-production. To date, the Louisiana Geological Survey has identified five reservoirs which appear, after preliminary screens, to be excellent candidates for the co-production technique. Computer simulations show approximate, but representative, predictions of substantial increases in production through utilization of co-production.

  15. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  16. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  17. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  18. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  19. Nitrate Leaching from Intensive Fiber Production on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantation treatments were much higher than the old field.

  20. 'Over-servicing 'underservicing' and 'abandonment': What is the law?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, D J

    2015-03-01

    The Ethical Rules and Policy Document of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) do not define 'over-servicing', 'underservicing' and 'abandonment. The HPCSA Guidelines on Over-servicing, Perverse Incentives and Related Matters define 'over-service' only. The converse of this definition can be used to define 'underservicing'. The courts do not refer to these concepts, but apply general rules regarding professional negligence and malpractice based on what a reasonably competent doctor in the same position would do. In deciding the standard to be adopted, the courts may consult the ethical rules of the medical profession, but are not bound to take them into account.

  1. [Dynamic distribution characters of herbaceous vegetation root systems in abandoned grasslands of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Li, Zhanbin; Tantai, Zhan

    2005-05-01

    The investigation on the vertical distribution characters of herbaceous vegetation root systems in abandoned and natural grasslands of Loess Plateau by the method of soil auger showed that there were no significant differences in root system distribution patterns between different sampling points, and the related root indexes could be used to indicate the vertical distribution characters of vegetation roots. The main root indexes including root biomass and root length were decreased with increasing soil depth, but increased with increasing abandoned years. After abandoned for more than 20 years, the root distribution characters of abandoned grassland were approached to that of natural grassland. The root extinction coefficient decreased with increasing abandoned years, indicating that more and more roots were concentrated in surface soil layer with the increase of abandoned time, which was helpful to the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and beneficial to the new species intrusion and vegetation succession.

  2. A Method to Recover Useful Geothermal-Reservoir Parameters from Production Characteristic Curves (1) Steam Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Garfias, A.; Miranda, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    1983-12-15

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reservoir pressure and a productivity index for vertical steam wells, from its production characteristic (also called output) curves. In addition, the method allows to estimate the radius of influence of the well, provided that a value of the reservoir transmisivity is available. The basic structure of the present method is: first, the measured well head mass flowrates and pressures are transformed to downhole conditions by means of a numerical simulator; then, the computed downhole variables are fitted to a simple radial model that predicts the sandface flowrate in terms of the flowing pressure. For demonstration, the method was applied to several steam wells from the Los Azufres Geothermal field. We found excellent agreement of the model with this ample set of field data. As a bonus, the processed data allowed several inferences about the steam producing zone of the reservoir: that the wells considered produce from relatively isolated pockets of steam, which are probably fed by near-by inmobile water; and that these feed zones are in poor hydraulic communication with the field surface waters. our method are that it provides a way to retrieve important reservoir information from usually available production characteristic curves, and that the method works from easily and accurately taken wellhead measurements.

  3. Robust stochastic optimization for reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Limeng; Housh, Mashor; Liu, Pan; Cai, Ximing; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Optimal reservoir operation under uncertainty is a challenging engineering problem. Application of classic stochastic optimization methods to large-scale problems is limited due to computational difficulty. Moreover, classic stochastic methods assume that the estimated distribution function or the sample inflow data accurately represents the true probability distribution, which may be invalid and the performance of the algorithms may be undermined. In this study, we introduce a robust optimization (RO) approach, Iterative Linear Decision Rule (ILDR), so as to provide a tractable approximation for a multiperiod hydropower generation problem. The proposed approach extends the existing LDR method by accommodating nonlinear objective functions. It also provides users with the flexibility of choosing the accuracy of ILDR approximations by assigning a desired number of piecewise linear segments to each uncertainty. The performance of the ILDR is compared with benchmark policies including the sampling stochastic dynamic programming (SSDP) policy derived from historical data. The ILDR solves both the single and multireservoir systems efficiently. The single reservoir case study results show that the RO method is as good as SSDP when implemented on the original historical inflows and it outperforms SSDP policy when tested on generated inflows with the same mean and covariance matrix as those in history. For the multireservoir case study, which considers water supply in addition to power generation, numerical results show that the proposed approach performs as well as in the single reservoir case study in terms of optimal value and distributional robustness.

  4. The time-lapse AVO difference inversion for changes in reservoir parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longxiao, Zhi; Hanming, Gu; Yan, Li

    2016-12-01

    The result of conventional time-lapse seismic processing is the difference between the amplitude and the post-stack seismic data. Although stack processing can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of seismic data, it also causes a considerable loss of important information about the amplitude changes and only gives the qualitative interpretation. To predict the changes in reservoir fluid more precisely and accurately, we also need the quantitative information of the reservoir. To achieve this aim, we develop the method of time-lapse AVO (amplitude versus offset) difference inversion. For the inversion of reservoir changes in elastic parameters, we apply the Gardner equation as the constraint and convert the three-parameter inversion of elastic parameter changes into a two-parameter inversion to make the inversion more stable. For the inversion of variations in the reservoir parameters, we infer the relation between the difference of the reflection coefficient and variations in the reservoir parameters, and then invert reservoir parameter changes directly. The results of the theoretical modeling computation and practical application show that our method can estimate the relative variations in reservoir density, P-wave and S-wave velocity, calculate reservoir changes in water saturation and effective pressure accurately, and then provide reference for the rational exploitation of the reservoir.

  5. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  6. 43 CFR 3484.2 - Completion of operations and permanent abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Before permanent abandonment of exploration operations, all openings and excavations shall be... and according to the approved exploration plan. Drill holes, trenches, and other excavations...

  7. 43 CFR 3484.2 - Completion of operations and permanent abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Before permanent abandonment of exploration operations, all openings and excavations shall be... and according to the approved exploration plan. Drill holes, trenches, and other excavations...

  8. 43 CFR 3484.2 - Completion of operations and permanent abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Before permanent abandonment of exploration operations, all openings and excavations shall be... and according to the approved exploration plan. Drill holes, trenches, and other excavations...

  9. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation.

  10. Significance testing - are we ready yet to abandon its use?

    PubMed

    The, Bertram

    2011-11-01

    Understanding of the damaging effects of significance testing has steadily grown. Reporting p values without dichotomizing the result to be significant or not, is not the solution. Confidence intervals are better, but are troubled by a non-intuitive interpretation, and are often misused just to see whether the null value lies within the interval. Bayesian statistics provide an alternative which solves most of these problems. Although criticized for relying on subjective models, the interpretation of a Bayesian posterior probability is more intuitive than the interpretation of a p value, and seems to be closest to intuitive patterns of human decision making. Another alternative could be using confidence interval functions (or p value functions) to display a continuum of intervals at different levels of confidence around a point estimate. Thus, better alternatives to significance testing exist. The reluctance to abandon this practice might be both preference of clinging to old habits as well as the unfamiliarity with better methods. Authors might question if using less commonly exercised, though superior, techniques will be well received by the editors, reviewers and the readership. A joint effort will be needed to abandon significance testing in clinical research in the future.

  11. Fires in abandoned coal mines and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.; Chaiken, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Fires that occur in abandoned coal mines, waste banks, and in coal outcrops constitute a serious health, safety, and environmental hazard. Toxic fumes, the deterioration of air quality, and subsidence constitute the greatest hazards from these fires. Although fires on abandoned mined land (AML) occur in every coal-producing state, the severity of the problem varies. Methods to extinguish or control AML fires, including excavation, fire barriers, and sealing, are generally expensive and have a relatively low probability of success. This US Bureau of Mines report includes information from a variety of sources, i.e., agencies of the Federal Government, State agencies, research reports, conference proceedings, product information, and technical literature. This information has been collated into a comprehensive discussion of AML fire problems. Data on past fire control projects and on the estimated extent of the current problem have been compiled. Factors affecting the occurrence, propagation, and extinguishment of AML fires are discussed. Conventional fire control methods are described, and their probable effectiveness is evaluated. Information on the hazards of AML fires and safety considerations is included. The status of current technology, recent improvements in fire control methods, and areas of current research are discussed.

  12. Recuperation of nitrogen cycling in Amazonian forests following agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Carvalho, Cláudio J Reis; Figueira, Adelaine Michela; Ishida, Françoise Yoko; Ometto, Jean Pierre H B; Nardoto, Gabriela B; Sabá, Renata Tuma; Hayashi, Sanae N; Leal, Eliane C; Vieira, Ima Célia G; Martinelli, Luiz A

    2007-06-21

    Phosphorus (P) is generally considered the most common limiting nutrient for productivity of mature tropical lowland forests growing on highly weathered soils. It is often assumed that P limitation also applies to young tropical forests, but nitrogen (N) losses during land-use change may alter the stoichiometric balance of nutrient cycling processes. In the Amazon basin, about 16% of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 30-50% of cleared land is estimated now to be in some stage of secondary forest succession following agricultural abandonment. Here we use forest age chronosequences to demonstrate that young successional forests growing after agricultural abandonment on highly weathered lowland tropical soils exhibit conservative N-cycling properties much like those of N-limited forests on younger soils in temperate latitudes. As secondary succession progresses, N-cycling properties recover and the dominance of a conservative P cycle typical of mature lowland tropical forests re-emerges. These successional shifts in N:P cycling ratios with forest age provide a mechanistic explanation for initially lower and then gradually increasing soil emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O). The patterns of N and P cycling during secondary forest succession, demonstrated here over decadal timescales, are similar to N- and P-cycling patterns during primary succession as soils age over thousands and millions of years, thus revealing that N availability in terrestrial ecosystems is ephemeral and can be disrupted by either natural or anthropogenic disturbances at several timescales.

  13. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants.

    PubMed

    Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (<1 year), B (1-2 years) and C (>2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age.

  14. Microgravity method for detection of abandoned mines in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatge, S.L. )

    1993-03-01

    The microgravity method has been used to detect two shallow, subsurface abandoned mines in northern New Jersey. Synthetic models simulated the expected gravity anomalies in the two areas. The first site, Lawrence Iron Mine, tested the applicability of microgravity for abandoned-mine detection. Two profile lines were laid out at right angles to the strike of the magnetite deposit in an amphibolite host rock. The broad gravity lows (magnitude 0.04 and 0.07 mGals) on the gravity profiles were modeled to show mine workings about 10 ft square and 5 ft deep that were filled with loose soil. Trenching confirmed the location of the buried mine. At the Schuyler Copper Mine, located in an urban area, data were collected along four parallel profile lines spaced 10 ft apart. An anomalous low (magnitude 0.03 mGals) on the gravity map was modeled and interpreted to be due to an empty vertical shaft. The shaft is more than 60 ft deep, about 12 ft long and 8 to 10 ft wide. It is capped by about 10 ft of unconsolidated material overlying sandstone bedrock. Drilling confirmed the results of the gravity model. The success of the method depended on the depth and size of the mine instrument accuracy, station spacing, station location and elevation control. Minimizing errors due to the instrument drift, station location and station elevation maximized the resolution of the technique.

  15. Fractured petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.; Chang, E.; Tang, G.Q.

    2000-01-10

    Total compressibility in a fractured reservoir is estimated using the pressure response due to gravitational potential variations. Both the moon and the sun gravitational potentials are accounted for using the full expression by inclusion of longer-period components. The semi-diurnal and diurnal pressure data show substantial long-term variations. The gravitational potential also contains the same variation trend; the ratio between the potential and pressure has a fairly uniform value over successive cycles. The computed total compressibility is also fairly constant and independent of the cycle. Results show the effects of the time interval over which the pressure measurements are performed as well as the location.

  16. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  17. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  18. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  19. A dual-porosity reservoir model with a nonlinear coupling term

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Chen, G.; Hadgu, T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1992-09-01

    Since their introduction by Barenblatt et al. (1960), double-porosity models have been widely used for simulating flow in fractured reservoirs, such as geothermal reservoirs. In a dual-porosity system, the matrix blocks provide most of the storage of the reservoir, whereas the fractures provide the global transmissivity. Initially, most work on dual-porosity models emphasized the development of analytical solutions to idealized reservoir problems. Increasingly, the dual-porosity approach is being implemented by numerical reservoir simulators. Accurate numerical simulation of a dual-porosity problem often requires a prohibitively large number of computational cells in order to resolve the transient pressure gradients in the matrix blocks. We discuss a new dual-porosity model that utilizes a nonlinear differential equation to approximate the fracture/matrix interactions, When implemented into a numerical simulator, it eliminates the need to discretize the matrix blocks, and thereby allows more efficient simulation of reservoir problems.

  20. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-09-30

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (3) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (4) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (5) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative

  1. All-optical reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  2. Towards an HIV-1 cure: measuring the latent reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Katherine M; Hosmane, Nina N; Siliciano, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    The latent reservoir (LR) of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4(+) T cells serves as a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. While many PCR- and culture-based assays have been used to measure the size of the LR, correlation between results of different assays is poor and recent studies indicate that no available assay provides an accurate measurement of reservoir size. The discrepancies between assays are a hurdle to clinical trials that aim to measure the efficacy of HIV-1 eradication strategies. Here we describe the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to measuring the LR.

  3. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic reservoirs of South Texas. Annual report, October 1992--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 Bbbl of oil, yet still contains about 1.6 Bbbl of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced unless advanced characterization techniques are applied to define untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool reservoirs as suitable targets for near-term recovery. Interwell-scale geological fades models of Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will be combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to characterize Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoir architecture and flow unit boundaries and to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. These results will help identify specific opportunities to exploit these heterogeneous reservoirs for incremental recovery by recompletion and strategic infill drilling. Preliminary syntheses of reservoir log, core, and production data were undertaken to identify individual reservoirs with the greatest additional resource potential to target for detailed reservoir characterization studies. Representative logs for each field were selected to characterize overall depositional style and illustrate reservoir zones and associated production. Core analysis data from both fields were tabulated, summarized, and evaluated by reservoir to Identify and assess reservoir variability within the field. Production histories for individual reservoirs were reconstructed using available completion data. On the basis of these preliminary investigations and a general assessment of reserve growth potential of reservoirs within each field area, reservoir Intervals from Rincon and T-C-B fields have been targeted for detailed characterization studies.

  4. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  5. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  6. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  7. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected

  8. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  9. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf San Andres Reservoir.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hickman, T.S.; Justice, J.J.

    1997-07-30

    The Oxy West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The research and development phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advance and reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) will implement the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period I officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and optimum flood design has continued into the first part of Budget Period 2. Specifically, the geologic model was enhanced by integration of the 3-D seismic interpretations. This resulted in improved history match by the simulator and more accurate predictions of flood performance on which to base the project design. The majority of the project design work has been completed, material specifications provided and bids solicited. Preparation of the demonstration area is well underway.

  10. Volume 3: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- South Marsh Island 73, B35K and B65G Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.A.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Sawyer, W.K.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the results of a detailed study of two Gulf of Mexico salt dome related reservoirs and the application of a publicly available PC-based black oil simulator to model the performances of gas injection processes to recover attic oil. The overall objective of the research project is to assess the oil reserve potential that could result from the application of proven technologies to recover bypassed oil from reservoirs surrounding piercement salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico. The specific study objective was to simulate the primary recovery and attic gas injection performance of the two subject reservoirs to: (1) validate the BOAST model; (2) quantify the attic volume; and (3) predict the attic oil recovery potential that could result from additional updip gas injection. The simulation studies were performed on the B-35K Reservoir and the B-65G Reservoir in the South Marsh Island Block 73 Field using data provided by one of the field operators. A modified PC-version of the BOAST II model was used to match the production and injection performances of these reservoirs in which numerous gas injection cycles had been conducted to recover attic oil. The historical performances of the gas injection cycles performed on both the B-35K Reservoir and B-65G Reservoir were accurately matched, and numerous predictive runs were made to define additional potential for attic oil recovery using gas injection. Predictive sensitivities were conducted to examine the impact of gas injection rate, injection volume, post-injection shut-in time, and the staging of gas injection cycles on oil recovery.

  11. Reservoir Modeling for Production Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.

    1989-03-21

    For both petroleum and geothermal resources, many of the reservoirs are fracture dominated--rather than matrix-permeability controlled. For such reservoirs, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (i.e., pre-existing fractures) is critical to the efficient exploitation of the resource through proper pressure management. Our experience and that reported by others indicates that a reduction in the reservoir pressure sometimes leads to an overall reduction in production rate due to the ''pinching off'' of the joint network, rather than the anticipated increase in production rate. This effect occurs not just in the vicinity of the wellbore, where proppants are sometimes employed, but throughout much of the reservoir region. This follows from the fact that under certain circumstances, the decline in fracture permeability (or conductivity) with decreasing reservoir pressure exceeds the far-field reservoir ''drainage'' flow rate increase due to the increased pressure gradient. Further, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs or reinjection procedures for geothermal reservoirs.

  12. HEC Activities in Reservoir Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    June 1979. Now, HEC-5, "Simulation of Flood Con- trol and Conservation Systems," (9) is our primary reservoir simulation program. Since its June release...are being incorporated into the reservoir simulation model HEC-5. The objective is to provide a computer program and methodology for total water

  13. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia`s initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-12-31

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative.

  14. Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund - a view from the West

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Congress created the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund (AML) in 1977 as part of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. The AML is funded by a special tax on coal mining. About one-third of AML fees will be paid by coal operators in the western states. The author examines the disbursement of AML funds under the Reagan Administration. He describes how the western state governments expected a generous portion of the AML funds for coal and non-coal reclamation, as well as community impact assistance projects in their states. Finally, the author shows how the Office of Surface Mining has largely frustrated the western expectations through its interpretation of the AML disbursement priorities.

  15. Filling abandoned mines with fluidized bed combustion ash grout

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.D.; Reddy, T.P.; Black, D.C.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1998-10-01

    The hydraulic backfilling of abandoned room and pillar coal mines with ash-based grout holds promise as an environmentally beneficial method of ash disposal, capable of preventing acid mine drainage and subsidence. For this scheme to be economically viable, the grout must be sufficiently flowable so that mines can be filled from a small number of boreholes. This paper describes the development and testing of a water-ash-bentonite grout using ash from a coal and gob burning atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor. Bentonite was needed to prevent settling which would limit the ability of the grout to spread. Laboratory techniques were devised to measure the rheological parameters of the grout. A static model was developed to predict the maximum distance of spread due to gravity. A field injection of 765 m{sup 3} of grout into an inactive mine panel showed that the grout flows well enough to make hydraulic backfilling feasible.

  16. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  17. Mobilisation and bioaccessibility of lead in paint from abandoned boats.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew

    2014-12-15

    Fragments of leaded paint sampled from abandoned boats have been ground as a composite and added in different quantities to aliquots of clean estuarine sediment in order to examine the mobility and bioaccessibility of Pb. Concentrations of Pb mobilised by sea water increased with increasing quantity of paint present, but the percentage of total Pb mobilised was greatest from paint-free sediment. Lead mobilisation was enhanced in the presence of the protein, bovine serum albumin, a surrogate for the digestive fluids of deposit-feeding invertebrates, but, likewise, the percentage of Pb mobilised was greatest from paint-free sediment. Lower percentage mobility and bioaccessibility in contaminated sediment than in paint-free sediment is attributed to the relatively low solubility and amenability of Pb compounds in the paint matrix. Despite the low mobility of Pb, however, sediment contaminated by as little as 0.2% paint is predicted to result in dissolved concentrations that exceed available water quality standards.

  18. 'Moral distress'--time to abandon a flawed nursing construct?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains.

  19. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  20. 78 FR 23551 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment Take notice that on April 4, 2013, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, TX 77002-2761, filed in... Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended. ANR seeks authority to abandon by sale...

  1. 78 FR 59424 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... only one shipper on the line, United Cooperative. According to WCL, upon a grant of abandonment authority and with the State of Wisconsin's cooperation, WCL plans to convey the line to United Cooperative... Cooperative after the proposed abandonment. WCL states that, based on information in its possession, the...

  2. 46 CFR 122.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 122... OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 122.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient drills and give sufficient instructions to make sure that all...

  3. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the...

  4. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1... days after a change in the amount of the current plugging and abandonment cost estimate covered by the... current plugging and abandonment cost estimate, except as provided in § 144.70(g), divided by the...

  5. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  6. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  7. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  8. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  9. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  10. 18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits. 157.18 Section 157.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL..., Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  11. 77 FR 29456 - Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis-Abandonment Exemption-in Howard County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption-- in Howard... Industrial Lead, between mileposts 55.66 and 58.5 in Howard County, Ind.\\1\\ The line traverses United States...--Abandonment Exemption--in Howard County, Ind., AB 511 (Sub-No. 5X) (STB served July 22, 2010)....

  12. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  13. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  14. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  15. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  16. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  17. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  18. 43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  19. 43 CFR 3252.15 - When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.15 Section 3252.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Conducting Exploration Operations § 3252.15 When must I abandon a temperature gradient well?...

  20. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a..., 1986 August 17, 1987 Ohio AMLR Plan 3.7.4, 3.9.1; RAMP Committee role; AMLR program staff...

  1. 30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land... STATE OHIO § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a..., 1986 August 17, 1987 Ohio AMLR Plan 3.7.4, 3.9.1; RAMP Committee role; AMLR program staff...

  2. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  3. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.63 Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment. An owner or operator...

  4. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.63 Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment. An owner or operator...

  5. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  6. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.63 Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment. An owner or operator...

  7. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  8. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  9. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  10. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  11. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  12. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  13. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  14. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  15. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  16. 30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa...

  17. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  18. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  19. 30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land... STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is a... Plan sections I. through IV., V.B. and C.; Iowa Code (IC) 207.21 subsection 2.a.(2) through 2.b....

  20. 48 CFR 45.604-2 - Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., or donation of surplus property. 45.604-2 Section 45.604-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Disposal 45.604-2 Abandonment, destruction, or donation of surplus property. (a) Plant clearance officers... the costs incident to donation. (d) Before abandoning, destroying, or donating surplus property,...

  1. 48 CFR 45.603 - Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or donation of excess personal property. 45.603 Section 45.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Disposal 45.603 Abandonment, destruction or donation of excess personal property. (a) Plant clearance... any of the costs incident to a donation. (d)(1) Before abandoning, destroying, or donating...

  2. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  3. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  4. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  5. 46 CFR 185.520 - Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. 185.520 Section 185.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.520 Abandon ship and man overboard drills and training. (a) The...

  6. 75 FR 27383 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marion County, IN.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marion County, IN. On... for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 10903 to abandon a 0.82-mile line of railroad in its... milepost QSZ 4.42, known as the Speedway Running Track, in Indianapolis, Marion County, Ind. The...

  7. 76 FR 21425 - Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Aroostook County, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption-- in... regulations at 49 CFR 1152.29. In support, MMA states that, upon receipt of abandonment authority, it plans to..., to construct a new land port of entry facility for the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency....

  8. Areas of increasing agricultural abandonment overlap the distribution of previously common, currently threatened plant species.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2013-01-01

    Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity. In agricultural ecosystems, abandonment of former farmlands constitutes a major land-use shift. We examined the relationships between areas in which agriculture has been abandoned and the distribution records of threatened plant species across Japan. We selected 23 plant species that are currently identified as threatened but were previously common in the country as indicators of threatened plant species. The areas of abandoned farmlands within the distribution ranges of the indicator species were significantly larger than the proportion of abandoned farmland area across the whole country. Also, abandoned farmland areas were positively correlated with the occurrence of indicator species. Therefore, sections of agricultural landscape that are increasingly becoming abandoned and the distribution ranges of indicator species overlapped. These results suggest that abandoned farmland areas contain degraded or preferred habitats of threatened plant species. We propose that areas experiencing increased abandonment of farmland can be divided into at least two categories: those that threaten the existence of threatened species and those that provide habitats for these threatened species.

  9. Family Foster Care, Kinship Networks, and Residential Care of Abandoned Infants in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megahead, Hamido A.; Cesario, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    While infant abandonment has occurred in all segments of society, on all continents, and across all generations, the motivations for this practice are varied and depend upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Western approaches addressing the care of abandoned infants focus on terminating parental rights and…

  10. 30 CFR 918.20 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land... Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on February 3, 1986, effective December 10, 1986. Copies of the approved plan are available at: (a) Louisiana Department of Natural...

  11. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Determining a PCB Concentration for Purposes of Abandonment or Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing... station downstream of the former gas flow, at a minimum, sample all ends of the abandoned pipe. (2) If...

  12. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Determining a PCB Concentration for Purposes of Abandonment or Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing... station downstream of the former gas flow, at a minimum, sample all ends of the abandoned pipe. (2) If...

  13. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  14. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  15. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  16. 30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section 931.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

  17. 30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920.20 Section 920.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MARYLAND § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine...

  18. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  19. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  20. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  1. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  2. 27 CFR 40.384 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers and tubes. 40.384 Section 40.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.384 Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned cigarette papers...

  3. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  4. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  5. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine... PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's.... Copies of the approved Plan are available at the following locations: (a) Crow Tribal Council,...

  6. Reservoir shore development in long range terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using long range terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial long range laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of

  7. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1995-07-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

  8. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  9. Hydropedologic patterns of escalic soils in cultivated and abandoned vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, Elmar; Rellini, Ivano; Scopesi, Claudia; Tassistro, Martina; Märker, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The construction of vineyard terraces was conducted extensively for many centuries in the Mediterranean area. However, the use of this technique has direct influences on a hillslope environment. Both artificial topographic transformation and frequently agricultural use have a strong impact on terrace soils. Hydromechanical properties have been scarcely investigated. They can change due to several terrace construction techniques, ploughing and particularly abandonment. These changes can cause the collapse of terrace walls due to modifications in the inner drainage behaviour of the terrace and increase the susceptibility to failure of a terraced slope. To determine differencies in hydropedological water fluxes of escalic soils, infiltration and saturated hydraulic conductivity in 25cm, 50cm and 100cm were measured on defined Unique Condition Units (UCU) in the Vernazza catchment in Cinque Terre, Italy. The determination of soil texture and soil skeleton supported the information of the hydropedologic information. Moreover, shear strength of the soil in the three depths was estimated with a light torvane device and compared with the texture and the hydrological values. The results of our study indicate that escalic soils in vineyards in a Mediterranean torrential catchment show certain hydropedologic patterns under different substratum and distinct agricultural land cover conditions. The latter is defined by both species-related coverage of distinct crop plants and status of cultivation or abandonment respectively. These results depict the fundament for the application of physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling on the terraced landscape of the Vernazza catchment. The hydropedologic patterns determined in our study are expected to represent the conditions of water fluxes in the soil better and make the results of landslide susceptibility models more reliable.

  10. Siting of prison complex above abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the state of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. However, one masonry building was located within the potential draw zone of mine works that still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was designed accordingly to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase 2 prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the phase 1 complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was undertaken to (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical database of subsidence events in the Illinois coal basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations. However, for others that could be affected potentially by future subsidence movement preliminary subsidence resistant designs were completed using the expected level of potential subsidence movement.

  11. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  12. Stochastic thermodynamics with information reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2014-10-01

    We generalize stochastic thermodynamics to include information reservoirs. Such information reservoirs, which can be modeled as a sequence of bits, modify the second law. For example, work extraction from a system in contact with a single heat bath becomes possible if the system also interacts with an information reservoir. We obtain an inequality, and the corresponding fluctuation theorem, generalizing the standard entropy production of stochastic thermodynamics. From this inequality we can derive an information processing entropy production, which gives the second law in the presence of information reservoirs. We also develop a systematic linear response theory for information processing machines. For a unicyclic machine powered by an information reservoir, the efficiency at maximum power can deviate from the standard value of 1 /2 . For the case where energy is consumed to erase the tape, the efficiency at maximum erasure rate is found to be 1 /2 .

  13. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  14. Hybrid-CVFE method for flexible-grid reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, L.S.K.; Buchanan, L.; Sharma, R. )

    1994-08-01

    Well flows and pressures are the most important boundary conditions in reservoir simulation. In a typical simulation, rapid changes and large pressure, temperature, saturation, and composition gradients occur in near-well regions. Treatment of these near-well phenomena significantly affects the accuracy of reservoir simulation results; therefore, extensive efforts have been devoted to the numerical treatment of wells and near-well flows. The flexible control-volume finite-element (CVFE) method is used to construct hybrid grids. The method involves use of a local cylindrical or elliptical grid to represent near-well flow accurately while honoring complex reservoir boundaries. The grid transition is smooth without any special discretization approximation, which eliminates the grid transition problem experienced with Cartesian local grid refinement and hybrid Cartesian gridding techniques.

  15. Pennsylvanian carbonate buildups, Paradox basin: Increasing reserves in heterogeneous, shallow-shelf reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Chidsey, T.C.; Eby, D.E.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer

  16. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  17. Fear of abandonment and binge eating. A subliminal psychodynamic activation investigation.

    PubMed

    Patton, C J

    1992-08-01

    Dependency and fear of abandonment by significant others have been theoretically linked to eating disorders, particularly bulimia. This research investigates the hypothesis that unconscious fear of abandonment is one variable underlying binge eating episodes in bulimia. An analogue population of 40 "high eating disorder" undergraduate women and 40 undergraduate women with normal eating patterns viewed either an abandonment or a control stimulus presented at either subliminal (4 msec) or supraliminal (200 msec) exposure durations. Following exposure to an abandonment stimulus, the high eating disorder group ate significantly more crackers in a bogus cracker rating task (p less than .001) than did subjects in any other condition. Contrary to predictions, a subliminal stimulus did not lead to a significant change in self-reported mood. Results provide preliminary support for the psychoanalytic hypothesis that binge eating is a defense against unconscious fear of abandonment.

  18. Testing the temporal nature of social disorder through abandoned buildings and interstitial spaces.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Danielle; Schalliol, David

    2015-11-01

    With the recent housing crisis, studying abandoned buildings has once again become important. However, it has been some time since abandoned buildings were the subject of direct study, leaving scholars with scant knowledge about the characteristics of abandoned buildings, how they change, and their relationship to neighborhood processes. To fill this gap, we employed longitudinal photographic and SSO evaluations of 36 abandoned buildings and their immediate surroundings in Chicago for one year (n=587). Results demonstrate the presence and severity of social disorder cues vary across time points and the time of day of observation. There is a relationship between abandoned buildings and social disorder, though the relationship is not a trend. Also, social disorder is diminished around extremely decayed buildings. Lastly, we find that our results are driven by the measurement of places ignored by most SSO studies, including alleys and the rear side of buildings.

  19. Well Abandonment at Various Sites, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damphousse, Sarah Joan

    2016-01-01

    Between January 29 and March 9, 2016, a total of 23 monitoring wells were properly abandoned-in-place at five KSC sites (OPF-1&2, OPF-3, RDG, SRB, and HSB). The total abandonment encompassed 489.06 linear feet. The wells abandoned were constructed of PVC with diameters ranging from 1-inch to 2-inches. The shallowest well abandoned was measured to be 11.6 ft bls (OPF) and the deepest well abandoned was documented to be 51.45 feet bls (HSB). All aboveground completions were removed and each area was re-graded and/or grouted to surface to match existing surroundings. All materials (concrete pads, well casings, etc.) were disposed of accordingly.

  20. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  1. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOEpatents

    Mark, Graham A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  2. Reservoir class field demonstration. Publication and presentation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Reservoir Class Field Demonstration Program was initiated in FY92 in response to rapidly declining domestic production and the realization that huge volumes of oil are being abandoned in reservoirs because of uneconomic production techniques. This program is just one of the critical elements of the National Oil Program necessary to move Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) technology from the conceptual stage through research, pilot scale field experiments, and full-scale field demonstrations to industry acceptance and commercialization. Both the successful results and failures of the field demonstrations will provide focus to concurrent research programs. Elements of the field demonstrations that are suitable for broad industry application are being communicated to the industry through the oil program`s technology transfer effort. As part of the technology transfer effort, this listing of publications and presentations by the project operators has been compiled by the US Department of energy`s (DOE) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO). The bibliography contains 240 citations for publications and a similar number of citations for presentations.

  3. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-09-01

    Objective is to apply artificial intelligence and expert systems to capturing, integrating, and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. Goal is to develop a single expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs.

  4. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  5. Geophysics and Texas History: Teachers Utilize GPS and GPR Technology to Help Restore an Abandoned Cemetery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Wallace, D.; Kahera, A.

    2009-12-01

    In July 2009, a group of twenty-six K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface and handheld global positioning system (GPS) units and a total station to record surface positions. The teachers were participants in a summer course at Rice University, ESCI 515: Geophysical Field Work for Educators. The course met for 8 full days over a two week period. During this time, the group acquired and interpreted 53 GPR profiles and over 700 GPS positions. The results of the study were presented to the Prairie View community at the end of the two weeks, and our data will be used in their effort to obtain a historical site designation for the cemetery. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850’s. There are very few markers remaining, but a previous ESCI 515 course (in summer 2007) discovered multiple unmarked burials using GPR, which were confirmed by subsequent excavations. This past summer, ESCI 515 participants acquired GPR profiles in previously unexplored areas, used a total station to accurately record the positions of surface features such as headstones, and used handheld GPS units to map the location of a nearby stream bed. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used science for community service (i.e. restoring an abandoned cemetery). Through background research, they derived a rich

  6. Geomechanically Coupled Simulation of Flow in Fractured Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C.; Moos, D.; Hartley, L.; Baxter, S.; Foulquier, L.; Holl, H.; Hogarth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Capturing the necessary and sufficient detail of reservoir hydraulics to accurately evaluate reservoir behavior remains a significant challenge to the exploitation and management of fracture-dominated geothermal reservoirs. In these low matrix permeability reservoirs, stimulation response is controlled largely by the properties of natural and induced fracture networks, which are in turn controlled by the in situ stresses, the fracture distribution and connectivity and the hydraulic behavior of the fractures. This complex interaction of fracture flow systems with the present-day stress field compounds the problem of developing an effective and efficient simulation to characterize, model and predict fractured reservoir performance. We discuss here a case study of the integration of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, and reservoir engineering data to characterize the in situ stresses, the natural fracture network and the controls on fracture permeability in geothermal reservoirs. A 3D geomechanical reservoir model includes constraints on stress magnitudes and orientations, and constraints on mechanical rock properties and the fractures themselves. Such a model is essential to understanding reservoir response to stimulation and production in low matrix permeability, fracture-dominated reservoirs. The geomechanical model for this study was developed using petrophysical, drilling, and wellbore image data along with direct well test measurements and was mapped to a 3D structural grid to facilitate coupled simulation of the fractured reservoir. Wellbore image and stimulation test data were used along with microseismic data acquired during the test to determine the reservoir fracture architecture and to provide control points for a realistic inter-connected discrete fracture network. As most fractures are stress-sensitive, their hydraulic conductivities will change with changes in bottomhole flowing and reservoir pressures, causing variations in production profiles

  7. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product 'Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  8. Imaging and characterization of a carbonate hydrocarbon reservoir analogue using GPR attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, E.; Pipan, M.; Casabianca, D.; Di Cuia, R.; Riva, A.

    2012-06-01

    We adapt and test seismic attributes techniques on a 2-D and 3-D multi-frequency GPR dataset recorded in an abandoned limestone quarry, analogous to a specific set of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Our main objective was to image the vertical and lateral lithological variations, the network of stratigraphic joints and fractures and to characterize the rock mass based on the radar response. We apply semi-automatic horizon mapping techniques using manually picked seeds (control points) on selected attributes, and automatic extrapolation both on in-line and cross-line, starting from seed positions. We also apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis on group data with similar multi-attribute response to reduce the total number of calculated attributes by minimizing the interpreter's bias. We compare and validate the results with direct outcrop measures, imaging a hydrocarbon reservoir analogue in 3-D to over 10 m beneath the topographic surface.

  9. C02 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Kovar, Mark; Wehner, Scott

    1997-06-30

    The principal objective of this CO2 Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO2 H-n-P process, coupled with the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) reservoir characterization components will be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.

  10. A New Data Fusion Algorithm for Reservoir Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Gao, H.

    2015-12-01

    Near realtime reservoir storage information is essential for accurate flood monitoring and prediction, especially over data sparse regions and international river basins. Although the combined use of elevation values from radar altimetry instruments and water area values from optical bands offers promise for estimating reservoir storage variations from space, the altimeter's long return period and the optical sensor's constrains to cloud-free conditions has inhibited applications which require high temporal resolution data. In this study, a new algorithm is developed to estimate reservoir surface area by fusing passive microwave and optical observations. The daily horizontal brightness temperatures at 36.5 GHz and 0.25° resolution are collected from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E on NASA's Aqua satellite). By calibrating against area estimations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2003 to 2007, a set of weighting parameters are identified for each AMSR-E grid cell over the reservoir and in its vicinity. These parameters are then applied to the AMSR-E data to calculate surface area from 2008 to 2010. Storage variations are then inferred from the area and a pre-determined area-elevation relationship. For validation, the derived reservoir storage time series are compared with gauge observations over four reservoirs in South Asia. It is found that the storage results are highly correlated with observations (with R2 values ranging from 0.62 to 0.83 for the 16-day results, and from 0.52 to 0.66 for the 4-day results). This suggests that the data fusion algorithm developed in this study can be used for deriving reliable reservoir storage estimations under all weather conditions.

  11. Evaluation of small diameter coreholes for reservoir information

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, Susan; Adair, Richard G.; Livesay, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal exploration has been highly successful to date in locating targets for drilling. However, the requirements for an economically successful geothermal well are both high flow rate and high temperature. Most geophysical and geochemical exploration methods have not been highly accurate in predicting the depth and actual temperature of a reservoir, nor have they been able to locate high permeability zones. The result is that most geothermal exploration is conducted by drilling core holes to better understand the heat flow in an area followed by drilling of production diameter exploration wells which can be flow tested to ascertain the permeability. The goal of any exploration program is to determine reservoir economics. The cost of wells makes up between one quarter and one half the total cost of producing geothermal power. The number, design, depth of wells and placement of injectors are important to the optimal exploitation of the reservoir. Although early efforts at development have focused on rapid plant construction to begin cash flow, the history of producing fields emphasizes that understanding reservoirs can reduce the risk of rapid temperature or pressure declines and increase the success of step out drilling following initial exploitation. The high cost of large diameter production wells makes the collecting of exploration data on the reservoir through some less expensive method desirable. Geothermal developers are still drilling resources with surface expression, hot springs and surface mappable fractures and faults. As these obvious resources are developed and as the obvious targets in productive fields are exhausted, new exploration tools are needed. One possibility is the use of deep core holes drilled for temperature gradient data to provide more reservoir information. Two methods not previously applied to geothermal reservoir assessment are suggested to augment other data obtained from coreholes.

  12. A Lower Rhine flood chronology based on the sedimentary record of an abandoned channel fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, W. H. J.; Winkels, T. G.; Prins, M. A.; de Groot, L. V.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cohen, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bienener Altrhein is an abandoned channel of the Lower Rhine (Germany). Following a late 16th century abandonment event, the channel was disconnected from the main stream and the oxbow lake gradually filled with 8 meters of flood deposits. This process still continues today. During annual floods, a limited proportion of overbank discharge is routed across the oxbow lake. Large floods produce individual flood layers, which are visually recognized in the sedimentary sequence. Based on the sedimentary characteristics of these event layers, we created a ~450-year flood chronology for the Lower Rhine. Laser-diffraction grain size measurements were used to assess relative flood magnitudes for individual flood event layers. Continuous sampling at a ~2 cm interval provided a high-resolution record, resolving the record at an annual scale. Standard descriptive techniques (e.g., mean grain size, 95th percentile, % sand) and the more advanced 'end member modelling' were applied to zoom in on the coarse particle bins in the grain size distributions, which are indicative of higher flow velocities. The most recent part of the record was equated to modern discharge measurements. This allows to establish relations between deposited grain size characteristics in the abandoned channel and flood magnitudes in the main river. This relation can also be applied on flood event layers from previous centuries, for which only water level measurements and historical descriptions exist. This makes this method relevant to expand data series used in flood frequency analysis from 100 years to more than 400 years. To date event-layers in the rapidly accumulated sequence, we created an age-depth model that uses organic content variations to tune sedimentation rates between the known basal and top ages. No suitable identifiable organic material for radiocarbon dating was found in the cores. Instead, palynological results (introduction of agricultural species) and palaeomagnetic secular

  13. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  14. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  15. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  16. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  17. 41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195 Section... ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Firearms § 102-41.195 How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained...

  18. Spatial probability of soil water repellency in an abandoned agricultural field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a natural soil property with implications on infiltration, erosion and plant growth. It depends on soil texture, type and amount of organic matter, fungi, microorganisms, and vegetation cover (Doerr et al., 2000). Human activities as agriculture can have implications on soil water repellency (SWR) due tillage and addition of organic compounds and fertilizers (Blanco-Canqui and Lal, 2009; Gonzalez-Penaloza et al., 2012). It is also assumed that SWR has a high small-scale variability (Doerr et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to study the spatial probability of SWR in an abandoned field testing several geostatistical methods, Organic Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area it is located near Vilnius urban area at (54 49' N, 25 22', 104 masl) in Lithuania (Pereira and Oliva, 2013). It was designed a experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m). Inside this area it was measured SWR was measured every 50 cm using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). A total of 105 points were measured. The probability of SWR was classified in 0 (No probability) to 1 (High probability). The methods accuracy was assessed with the cross validation method. The best interpolation method was the one with the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the most accurate probability method was SK (RMSE=0.436), followed by DK (RMSE=0.437), IK (RMSE=0.448), PK (RMSE=0.452) and OK (RMSE=0.537). Significant differences were identified among probability tests (Kruskal-Wallis test =199.7597 p<0.001). On average the probability of SWR was high with the OK (0.58±0.08) followed by PK (0.49±0.18), SK (0.32±0.16), DK (0.32±0.15) and IK (0.31±0.16). The most accurate probability methods predicted a lower probability of SWR in the studied plot. The spatial distribution of SWR was different according to the tested technique. Simple Kriging, DK, IK and PK methods

  19. A Parallel Stochastic Framework for Reservoir Characterization and History Matching

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas, Sunil G.; Klie, Hector M.; Rodriguez, Adolfo A.; ...

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of parameters that characterize the subsurface is never known to any reasonable level of accuracy required to solve the governing PDEs of multiphase flow or species transport through porous media. This paper presents a numerically cheap, yet efficient, accurate and parallel framework to estimate reservoir parameters, for example, medium permeability, using sensor information from measurements of the solution variables such as phase pressures, phase concentrations, fluxes, and seismic and well log data. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the method.

  20. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods

    PubMed Central

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands. PMID:27140199

  1. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  2. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Gao, Jing; Zou, Jinlin

    2015-01-01

    A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR) algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D) information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance. PMID:25806869

  3. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    PubMed

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  4. Managing Abandoned Farmland: The Need to Link Biological and Sociological Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Karyne; Bouchard, André; Domon, Gérald

    2008-10-01

    The lack of a particular use associated with abandoned farmland provides real opportunities with respect to the various land-use pressures occurring in productive territories. These environments remain generally poorly known and, because of this, require in-depth studies on the feasibility of management options, on biological as well as social grounds. This study, based on research on the biophysical potential and the perceptions by the owners of abandoned farmlands, analyzes the feasibility of silvicultural management options to improve forestry potential. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed abandoned farmland owners on different aspects of the status of their abandoned farmland in order to determine their willingness toward the management of these private lands. The land owners were also asked to express their interests and their constraints toward various types of interventions, with an emphasis on silvicultural work. The data were analyzed using multivariate methods to establish relationships between the questionnaire data and the characteristics of the land owners (socioeconomic profile and value system toward the environment). The results show that, in general, abandoned farmland is an unwanted space, is generally little used, is poorly known, and has little importance in the plans of its owners. We have found three types of owner profiles; the owners with a farmer’s profile are those who are the most interested in managing their abandoned farmland, whether for agriculture or silviculture. The desire to improve abandoned farmland seems less important to owners with an ecocentric profile (high awareness of the environment) and to older owners. Finally, by associating the type of abandoned farmland owned and the characteristics of the owners, it is possible to propose different management options that reconcile the wishes of the owners as well as the biophysical potential of their abandoned farmland.

  5. Strategies for reservoir characterization and identification of incremental recovery opportunities in mature reservoirs in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic sandstones, south Texas: An example from Rincon Field, Starr County. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.; Holtz, M.; Hentz, T.

    1995-11-01

    Fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the United States are being abandoned at high rates, yet they still contain more than 34 billion barrels of unrecovered oil. The mature Oligocene-age fluvial-deltaic reservoirs of the Frio Formation along the Vicksburg Fault Zone in South Texas are typical of this class in that, after more than three decades of production, they still contain 61 percent of the original mobile oil in place, or 1.6 billion barrels. This resource represents a tremendous target for advanced reservoir characterization studies that integrate geological and engineering analysis to locate untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments isolated by stratigraphic heterogeneities. The D and E reservoir intervals of Rincon field, Starr County, South Texas, were selected for detailed study to demonstrate the ability of advanced characterization techniques to identify reservoir compartmentalization and locate specific infield reserve-growth opportunities. Reservoir architecture, determined through high-frequency genetic stratigraphy and facies analysis, was integrated with production history and facies-based petrophysical analysis of individual flow units to identify recompletion and geologically targeted infill drilling opportunities. Estimates of original oil in place versus cumulative production in D and E reservoirs suggest that potential reserve growth exceeds 4.5 million barrels. Comparison of reservoir architecture and the distribution of completions in each flow unit indicates a large number of reserve-growth opportunities. Potential reserves can be assigned to each opportunity by constructing an Sooh map of remaining mobile oil, which is the difference between original oil in place and the volumes drained by past completions.

  6. How well will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission observe global reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solander, Kurt C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate observations of global reservoir storage are critical to understand the availability of managed water resources. By enabling estimates of surface water area and height for reservoir sizes exceeding 250 m2 at a maximum repeat orbit of up to 21 days, the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (anticipated launch date 2020) is expected to greatly improve upon existing reservoir monitoring capabilities. It is thus essential that spatial and temporal measurement uncertainty for water bodies is known a priori to maximize the utility of SWOT observations as the data are acquired. In this study, we evaluate SWOT reservoir observations using a three-pronged approach that assesses temporal aliasing, errors due to specific reservoir spatial properties, and SWOT performance over actual reservoirs using a combination of in situ and simulated reservoir observations from the SWOTsim instrument simulator. Results indicate temporal errors to be less than 5% for the smallest reservoir sizes (< 10 km2) with errors less than 0.1% for larger sizes (>100 km2). Surface area and height errors were found to be minimal (area <5%, height <15 cm) above 1 km2 unless the reservoir exhibited a strong elliptical shape with high aspect ratio oriented parallel to orbit, was set in mountainous terrain, or swath coverage fell below 30%. Experiments from six real reservoir test cases generally support these results. By providing a comprehensive blueprint on the observability of reservoirs from SWOT, this study will be have important implications for future applications of SWOT reservoir measurements in global monitoring systems and models.

  7. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  8. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  9. Reservoir evaporation in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Ayala, Rolando A.

    2014-03-01

    The role of reservoir surface evaporation in river/reservoir water budgets and water management is explored using a modeling system that combines historical natural hydrology with current conditions of water resources development and management. The long-term mean evaporation from the 3415 reservoirs in the Texas water rights permit system is estimated to be 7.53 billion m3/year, which is equivalent to 61% of total agricultural or 126% of total municipal water use in the state during the year 2010. Evaporation varies with the hydrologic conditions governing reservoir surface areas and evaporation rates. Annual statewide total evaporation volumes associated with exceedance probabilities of 75%, 50%, and 25% are 7.07, 7.47, and 7.95 billion m3/year, respectively. Impacts of evaporation are greatest during extended severe droughts that govern water supply capabilities.

  10. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  11. Representation of wells in numerical reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Renard, G.; Weill, L.

    1995-12-31

    In reservoir simulation, linear approximations are generally used for well modeling. However, this type of approximations can be inaccurate for fluid flow calculation in the vicinity of wells leading to incorrect well performance predictions. To overcome such problems, a new well representation has been proposed that uses a ``logarithmic`` type of approximation for vertical wells. In this paper, it is shown how the new well model can be easily implemented in existing simulator through the conventional PI. The relationship between wellbore pressure, wellblock pressure and flow rate is discussed in more detail, especially for the definition of wellblock pressure. Extension of the new approach to off-center wells and to flexible grids are both presented. Through this extension, the equivalence of various gridding techniques for the well model is emphasized. The key element is the accurate calculation of flow components in the vicinity of wells.

  12. Diagnostic parameters of soil formation in gray forest soils of abandoned fields overgrowing with pine forests in the middle reaches of the Angara River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, O. A.

    2010-08-01

    The content, differentiation in the profile, and dynamics of the mobile iron compounds can serve as adequate diagnostic parameters of the direction of the pedogenesis upon the overgrowing of abandoned fields with pine forests in the middle reaches of the Angara River Region in the area affected by the Bratsk water reservoir. The bulk chemical composition of the soil remains relatively stable in the entire profile against the background of the eluvial-illuvial redistribution of the finest particle-size fractions and mobile iron compounds under the impact of the long-term seasonal freezing, the percolative soil water regime, and the alternating redox conditions. The development of accumulative processes in the soil is accompanied by the weak manifestation of eluvial and pulsating gley processes as the initial stages of podzolization under the influence of the growing pine forests.

  13. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas -- Near-term. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; McCune, D.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1998-04-15

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. The Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. Progress is described for the Stewart field on the following tasks: design/construct waterflood plant; design/construct injection system; design/construct battery consolidation and gathering system; waterflood operations and reservoir management; and technology transfer. Progress for the Savonburg Field includes: water plant development; profile modification treatments; pattern changes and wellbore cleanup; reservoir development (polymer flooding); field operations; and technology transfer.

  14. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  15. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  17. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  18. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  19. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  20. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoirs required. 393.50 Section 393.50... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.50 Reservoirs required. (a) Reservoir capacity for air-braked... trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975, must meet the reservoir requirements of FMVSS No....

  1. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  2. Understanding satellite-based monthly-to-seasonal reservoir outflow estimation as a function of hydrologic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, Matthew; Sikder, Safat; Miao, Yabin; Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal; Ara Pervin, Ismat; Mahbubur Rahman, S. M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2016-05-01

    Growing population and increased demand for water is causing an increase in dam and reservoir construction in developing nations. When rivers cross international boundaries, the downstream stakeholders often have little knowledge of upstream reservoir operation practices. Satellite remote sensing in the form of radar altimetry and multisensor precipitation products can be used as a practical way to provide downstream stakeholders with the fundamentally elusive upstream information on reservoir outflow needed to make important and proactive water management decisions. This study uses a mass balance approach of three hydrologic controls to estimate reservoir outflow from satellite data at monthly and annual time scales: precipitation-induced inflow, evaporation, and reservoir storage change. Furthermore, this study explores the importance of each of these hydrologic controls to the accuracy of outflow estimation. The hydrologic controls found to be unimportant could potentially be neglected from similar future studies. Two reservoirs were examined in contrasting regions of the world, the Hungry Horse Reservoir in a mountainous region in northwest U.S. and the Kaptai Reservoir in a low-lying, forested region of Bangladesh. It was found that this mass balance method estimated the annual outflow of both reservoirs with reasonable skill. The estimation of monthly outflow from both reservoirs was however less accurate. The Kaptai basin exhibited a shift in basin behavior resulting in variable accuracy across the 9 year study period. Monthly outflow estimation from Hungry Horse Reservoir was compounded by snow accumulation and melt processes, reflected by relatively low accuracy in summer and fall, when snow processes control runoff. Furthermore, it was found that the important hydrologic controls for reservoir outflow estimation at the monthly time scale differs between the two reservoirs, with precipitation-induced inflow being the most important control for the Kaptai

  3. SMALL, GEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX RESERVOIRS CAN BENEFIT FROM RESERVOIR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Bennett

    2002-06-24

    The Cascade Sand zone of the Mission-Visco Lease in the Cascade Oil field of Los Angeles County, California, has been under water flood since 1970. Increasing water injection to increase oil production rates was being considered as an opportunity to improve oil recovery. However, a secondary gas cap had formed in the up-dip portion of the reservoir with very low gas cap pressures, creating concern that oil could be displaced into the gas cap resulting in the loss of recoverable oil. Therefore, injecting gas into the gas cap to keep the gas cap pressurized and restrict the influx of oil during water injection was also being considered. Further, it was recognized that the reservoir geology in the gas cap area is very complex with numerous folding and faulting and thus there are potential pressure barriers in several locations throughout the reservoir. With these conditions in mind, there were concerns regarding well to well continuity in the gas cap, which could interfere with the intended repressurization impact. Concerns about the pattern of gas flow from well to well, the possibilities of cycling gas without the desired increased pressure, and the possible loss of oil displaced into the gas cap resulted in the decision to conduct a gas tracer survey in an attempt to better define inter-well communication. Following the gas tracer survey, a reservoir model would be developed to integrate the findings of the gas tracer survey, known geologic and reservoir data, and historic production data. The reservoir model would be used to better define the reservoir characteristics and provide information that could help optimize the waterflood-gas injection project under consideration for efficient water and gas injection management to increase oil production. However, due to inadequate gas sampling procedures in the field and insufficiently developed laboratory analytical techniques, the laboratory was unable to detect the tracer in the gas samples taken. At that point, focus

  4. Isotopic insights into smoothening of abandoned fan surfaces, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Nichols, K.; Finkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations measured on abandoned fan surfaces along the Mojave section of the San Andreas Fault suggest that sediment is generated, transported, and removed from the fans on the order of 30-40??kyr. We measured in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, and in some cases 26Al, in boulders (n??=??15), surface sediment (n??=??15), and one depth profile (n??=??9). Nuclide concentrations in surface sediments and boulders underestimate fan ages, suggesting that 10Be accumulation is largely controlled by the geomorphic processes that operate on the surfaces of the fans and not by their ages. Field observations, grain-size distribution, and cosmogenic nuclide data suggest that over time, boulders weather into grus and the bar sediments diffuse into the adjacent swales. As fans grow older the relief between bars and swales decreases, the sediment transport rate from bars to swales decreases, and the surface processes that erode the fan become uniform over the entire fan surface. The nuclide data therefore suggest that, over time, the difference in 10Be concentration between bars and swales increases to a maximum until the topographic relief between bars and swales is minimized, resulting in a common surface lowering rate and common 10Be concentrations across the fan. During this phase, the entire fan is lowered homogeneously at a rate of 10-15??mm??kyr-1. ?? 2006 University of Washington.

  5. Treatment abandonment in feline sporotrichosis - study of 147 cases.

    PubMed

    Chaves, A R; de Campos, M P; Barros, M B L; do Carmo, C N; Gremião, I D F; Pereira, S A; Schubach, T M P

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the epidemiological, clinical and mycological aspects of feline sporotrichosis cases attending the Laboratory of Clinical Research on Dermatozoonosis in Domestic Animals - Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (LAPCLIN-DERMZOO/IPEC/FIOCRUZ), from 1998 to 2005. It was possible to get in contact with 147 (19.2%) cat owners. One hundred and thirteen (76.9%) cats were male, 117 (79.6%) had no defined race and 87 (59.2%) were sexually intact. The age ranged from 72 to 216 months (median = 108 months). Nineteen cats were reassessed: eleven (57.8%) were male, thirteen (36.8%) were breed and fifteen (47.3%) castrated. Fourteen (52.6%) animals lived at home and did not roamed the streets. Seven (36.8%) had normal clinical findings and negative mycological examination. Twelve (63.1%) cats had skin lesions compatible with sporotrichosis. Thirty-one (21%, n = 147) cats disappeared after abandoning treatment, 36 (24.5%, n = 147) were alive and 80 (54.4%, n = 147) had died. Causes of death informed by the owners were: sporotrichosis in 35 (43.7%, n = 80), accidental death in 27 (33.7%, n = 80) and other diseases in 18 (22.5%, n = 80). Withdrawal of treatment occurred mainly at the time of clinical improvement and may represent a serious obstacle to the control of sporotrichosis.

  6. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-05-19

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out.

  7. Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, Isabel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2002-08-01

    In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes. O. maxima had more seedlings recruited beneath olive trees and beneath Opuntia adults than expected. Most O. stricta seedlings were also located beneath Opuntia adult plants. However, although most seedlings were recruited beneath Opuntia, some (10-30%) were found away from putative parental plants. This may be due to seed dispersal by birds and wild boars. Seeds dispersed by wild boars were not significantly more viable than seeds from intact fruits. Seedlings grow very slowly but have a high survival rate. In conclusion, Opuntia seedling recruitment is very successful and ensures the persistence of these species within old olive groves. Consequently, it prevents restoration from an agricultural land-use back to the native community.

  8. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  9. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  10. Investigation of subsidence damages above abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Po-Ming.

    1988-01-01

    Abandoned mine lands (AML) subsidence is one of the most hazardous problems for personal property and community development. In order to improve the technique for subsidence diagnosis and the effectiveness of remedial measures, several methods and techniques have been developed in this research. A subsidence site investigation checklist is developed to guide the investigators with or without hands-on experience to collect a complete and necessary information for subsidence analysis during site investigation. A subsidence cause identification system is developed to streamline the process of analysis and for subsidence cause differentiation and identification over AML. A damage severity system is developed to evaluate the intensity of the damage to structures. A subsidence deduction model is developed based on the probability function integration method to reconstruct subsidence profile and subsurface failure zone for AML subsidence. The study is based on the case studies which include site investigation, surface subsidence survey, subsurface instrumentation, damage severity evaluation, subsidence deduction and statistical analysis. The results show that geologic conditions such as seam depth, seam height, ratios of strong and weak rocks do affect the subsidence damage area, subsidence factor, and damage severity. The relationship between above parameters can be expressed by a second order polynomial with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  11. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  12. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out. PMID:19416813

  13. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    PubMed Central

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain’s resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state’ spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as “psychological structure.” Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes. PMID:22485098

  14. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  15. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  16. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  17. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  18. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  19. Grazing and abandonment determine different tree dynamics in wood-pastures.

    PubMed

    Oldén, Anna; Komonen, Atte; Tervonen, Kaisa; Halme, Panu

    2017-03-01

    Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing. In abandoned sites, deciduous trees and spruces regenerated abundantly. In the long term, both grazing and abandonment lead to changes in tree species compositions and low diversity wood-pastures. Landscape scale planning and disturbance dynamics are needed for the creation of new wood-pastures and the maintenance of all pasture types within the landscape.

  20. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.